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CALIBRAT'ION
. A TECHNICIAN'S GUIDE

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CALIBRA TION,
A TECHNICIAN'S. GUIDE

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MikeCable

ISA TECHNICIANSERIES

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Copyright 2005 by

ISA
67 Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 12277

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709


All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
10 9

August 2011 Printing


ISBN-10: 1-55617-912-X
ISBN-I3: 978-1-55617-912-9

No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Notice
The information presented in this publication is for the general education of the
reader. Because neither the author nor the publisher has "anycontrol over the use of the
information by the reader, both the author and the publisher disclaim any and all liability
of any kind arising out of such use. The reader is expected to exercise sound professional
judgment in using any of the information presented in a particular application.
Additionally, neither the author nor the publisher have investigated or considered the
effect of any patents on the ability of the reader to use any of the information in a particular
application. The reader is responsible for reviewing any possible patents that may affect
any particular use of the information presented.
Any references to commercial products in the work are cited as examples only.
Neither the author nor the publisher endorses any referenced commercial product. Any
trademarks or tradenames referenced belong to the respective owner of the mark or name.
Neither the author nor the publisher makes any representation regarding the availability of
any referenced commercial product at any time. The manufacturer's instructions on use of
any commercial product must be followed at all times, even if inconflict with the
information in this publication.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data inprocess.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..' . . . , , , , , , , , , . . . ix
Acknowledgements, . , . , .. : , .. , .. , ....
Introduction ...
Chapter 1

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Calibration Principles .. ,.:

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1.1 - What Is Calibration?

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1.2

What Are the


.. Characteristics of a Calibrationli
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1.3

Why lsCalibration Required?" ,., .. "

1.4

Who Performs Calibrations? - The Control


System Technician

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1.5

Characteristics of a Control System Technlclan-. 9

1.6

Loop Calibration vs. Individual Instrument


Calibration .. ' .....
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Bench Calibration vs. Field Calibration

1.8

Classiflcatlon of Instruments

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Chapter ?ummary
Review.Questions
Chapter 2

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Documentation . . . , , . . . . . . , , . , . . , , , . . . , .,

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2,1

Calibration Procedure'Content, ....

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2.2

Calibration Data Sheets


(See Examples in .Appendix A-4)

2.3

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P&IDs (See Example in Appendix A-1 l ' .. . . . 23

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2.4 . Loop Diagrams (See Examples.in


Appendix A-2l
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Table of Contents

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2.5

Instrument Specification Forms


(See Examples in Appendix A-3) . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.6

Project Specifications

27

2.7

Manufacturer's Specifications

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2.8

Calibration Intervals

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2.9

Safety Considerations

29

2.10 Calibration Status Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter 3

Temperature Instrument Calibration

33

3.1

What is Temperature?

33

3.2

Temperature Sensors

34

3.3

Signal Conversion

35

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Pressure Instrument Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


4.1

What is Pressure'? ................................

49

4.2

Challenges When Calibrating Pressure ..........

50

4.3

Calibrating Pressure Gauges

4.4

Calibrating Pressure Transmitters ..........

55

4.5

Calibrating Pressure Switches ............

55

........

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52

Review Questions

56

level Instrument Calibration

61

5.1

Types of Level Instruments ..............

61

5.2

Special Considerations with Level Calibration

64

5.3

Calibrating a Differential Pressure Level


Transmitter .........................

67

5.4

Calibrating a Capacitance Level Instrument ...

71

5.5

Ca1ibratingan Ultrasonic Level Instrument. ...

72

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Chapter 6

Flow Instrument Calibration


6.1

Types of Flow Instruments

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Calibration

6.2

Calibration of Flowmeters

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6.3

DIP Transmitter Calibration

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6.4

Example: Magnetic Flowmeter Calibration

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6.5

Flowmeter Calibration Using a Master


Meter (Prover). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

6.6

Gravimetric Method for Flowmeter


Calibration (Measurement by Weight) . . . . . . . 87

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Chapter 7

Final Control Devices Calibration . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . 89


7.1' Calibration of an l/P Transducer
7.2

Calibration of a ValvePositioner

7.3

Calibration of a Control Valve ~

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Review Questions
Chapter 8,

ProcessAnalytical Instrument Calibration. . . . . ..


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pH Calibration Procedure

8.2

Diagnostic Test for pH Electrodes

8.3

Measuring Conductivity

8.4

Calibration Procedurewith Explanations. . ..

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Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

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, Appendix A-1. Piping & Instrument Diagrams(P~IDs) . . . . . . ..

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,Appendix A-2. loop Diagrams.....

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Bibliography .......................

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Appendix A-3. Instrument Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

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Appendix A-4. Calibration Procedures

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Appendix A-5. Test Equipment ....................

227

Appendix A-G. RTD and Thermocouple Tables

229

Appendix A-7. ConversionTables ....................


Appendix B. Answers to Chapter Review Questions...
Index .....

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'. . . . 249
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Michael Cable is a Level 3 Certified Control System Technician. He is
currently the Validation Manager at Argos Therapeutics illDurham, NC
where his responsibilities include managing the Calibration Progr~.
Michael started his career as an Electronics Technician in the Navy
Nuclear Power Program, serving as a Reactor Operator ~d" Engineering""' ""
Watch Supervisor aboard the USSLos Angeles submarine"and then at .the
AIW prototype in Idaho Falls. After leaving the Navy, he started his ". ,
civilian career at Performance Solutions performing technical services for
the pharmaceutical industry. His 11 years there was highlighted by an, '",
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assignment to Eli Lilly Corporate Process Automation managing .'
Instrument Qualification projects and-then starting up a Calibration
Services division within Performance Solutions. His practical expertise in
instrumentation and, controls led him to his current career path ill
Validation, which has been his main focus'for the last 7 years.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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I'd like to thank Tom Stevens for running a company where people are
allowed to pursue their interests, but more importantly because of the
support and encouragement he has given me over the years. I'd also like
to thank those professionals that I have worked with over the years who
have contributed in so many ways to my development and the
development of those throughout industry. I need to thank those that
helped me early on with performing calibrations in an industrial '
environment: Billand Randy at the Eli Lilly (Greenfield) Instrument Shop.
Also to my last supervisor in the Navy, Master Chief Lane Phillips, who
taught me many things technically; but most importantly, character. I alsO" .
appreciate Chip Lee and the staff at ISAwho have been very patient,
gently nudging me along, as I struggled through this project. .

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INTRODUCTION

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ISA's Certified Control System Technician (CCST)program


requirements were developed based on a Job Analysis Report initiated by
ISA- The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society and
. Instrument Technicians Labor-Management Cooperation Fund, Response
to the survey used to validate the Job Analysis Report indicated that
calibration was the most important, most critical, and most frequently
performed of all seven domains for each of the three levels of certification:
This is'not to minimize the importance of the other six domains, because
each is important to'alltechnicians:.How.ever;itis:ob.vious,that;calibIatiorF~::: ..
is what most of us do eyery day. The purpose 'ofthis book is to serve as a:'
Study guide for the Calibrationdomain in CCSTcertification.

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Reference for technicians who perform process instrument


calibrations,

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Reference in the classroom for students pursuing studies related to


,instrumentation.
This text is applicable for control system technicians performing
maintenance and calibrations within the process industry. Although most
of the principles would apply, this is not meant for metrologists
performing calibrations of lest standards in a standards laboratory.
Mike Cable

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CALIBRATION

PRINCIPLES

,After completing this chapter, you should be able to:


Define key terms 'relating to calibration and interpret the
meaning of each.
Understand traceability requirements and how they are

.meimsined.
Describe characteristics of a good control system technician.
Describe differences between bench calibration and field
calibration. List the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Describe the differences between Ioop calibration .end-r-:
individual instrument calibration. List the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
List the advantages and disadvantages of classifying
instruments according to process.importance -"-for example, ,
'critical, non-crittoel, reference only, OSHA, EPA, etc.

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WHAT IS CALIBRATION?

There are as many definitions of calibration as there are methods,


According to ISA's The Automation, Systems, and Instrumentation Dictionary,
'the word calibration is defined as "a test during which known values of ,
measurand are applied to the transducer and corresponding output
readings are recorded under specified conditions." The definition includes
the capability to adjust the instrument to zero and toset the desired span.
An interpretation of the definition would say that a calibration is a
comparison of measuring equipment against a standard instrument of
_ higher accuracy to detect, correlate, adjust, rectifyand document the
accuracy of the instrument being compared.
Typically, calibration of an instrument is checked at several points
thr~ughout the calibration range of the instrument. The calibration range is,
defined as "t~eregion between the limits within which a quantity is
measured, received or transmitted, expressed by stating the lower and
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Calibration Principles

upper range values. The limits are defined by the zero and span values.
The zero value is the lower end of the range. Span is defined as the
algebraic difference between the upper and lower range values. The
calibration range may differ from the instrument range, which refers to the
capability of the instrument. For example, an electronic pressure
transmitter may have a nameplate instrument range of 0-750 pounds per
square inch, gauge (psig) and output of 4-to-20 milliamps (rnA). However,
the engineer has determined the instrument will be calibrated for 0-to-300
psig = 4-to-20 rnA. Therefore, the calibration range would be specified as
O-to-300 psig 4-to-20 rnA. In this example, the zero input value is 0 psig
~nd zero output value is 4 rnA. The input span is 300 psig and the output
span is 16 mAo
Different terms may be used at your facility. Just be careful not to
confuse the range the instrument is capable of with the range for which
the instrument has been calibrated.
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1.2 WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A


CALI BRATION?
Calibration Tolerance: Every calibration should be performed to a specified
tolerance. The terms tolerance and accuracy are often used incorrectly. In
ISA's The Automation, Systems, and Instrumentation Dictionary, the
definitions for each are as follows:

Accuracu: The ratio of the error to the full scale output or the ratio of the
error to the output, expressed in percent span or percent reading,
respectively.

Tolerance: Permissible deviation from a specified value; may be expressed


in measurement

units, percent of span, or percent of reading.

As you can see from the definitions, there are subtle differences
between the terms. It is recommended that the tolerance, specified in
measurement units, is used for the calibration requirements performed at
your facility. By specifying an actual value, mistakes caused by calculating
percentages of span or reading are eliminated. Also; tolerances should be
specified in the units measured for the calibration.

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Calibration

For example, you are assigned to perform the calibration of the


previously mentioned O-to-300psig pressure transmitter with a specified
calibration tolerance of 2 psig. The output tolerance would be:
2 psig
+ 300 psig
X 16mA
0.1067 rnAThe calculated tolerance is rounded down to 0.10 mA, because
rounding to 0.11rnA would exceed the calculated tolerance. It is
recommended that both 2 psig and O.10 rnA tolerances appear on the
calibration data sheet if the remote indications and output milliamp signal
are recorded.
.
Note.the manufacturer's specified accuracy for this instrument may
be 0.25%full scale (FS).Calibration tolerances should not be assigned
based on the manufacturer's specification only. Calibration tolerances
should be determined from a combination of factors. These factors
include:

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- Requirements of the process

Capabilityof available test equipment

Consistency with similar instruments at your facility


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Manufacturer's specified tolerance.


, Example: The process requires soC; available test equipment is capable

of O.25Ci and manufacturer's stated accuracy is O:25C. The specified


calibration tolerance must be between the process requirement and
manufacturer's specified tole:rance.Additionally the test equipment must
be capable of the tolerance needed. A calibration tolerance of i C might
be assigned for consistency with similar instruments and to meet the
recommended accuracy ratio of 4:1.
.
AccuraCY Ratio: This term was used in the past to describe the relationship
between the accuracy of the test.standard and the accuracy of the
instrument under test. The term is still used by those that do not
understand uncertainty calculations (uncertainty is described below). A .
good rule of thumb is to ensure 'an accuracy ratio of 4:1when performing
calibrations. This means the instrument or standard used should be four
times more .accuratethan the instrument being checked. Therefore, the test

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Calibration Principles

equipment (such as a field standard) used to calibrate the process


instrument should be four times more accurate than the process
instrument, the laboratory standard used to calibrate the field standard
should be four times more accurate than the field standard, and so on.
With today's technology, an accuracy ratio of 4:1is becoming more
difficult to achieve. Why is a 4:1ratio recommended? Ensuring a 4:1 ratio
will minimize the effect of the accuracy of the standard on the overall
calibration accuracy. If a higher level standard is found to be out of
tolerance by a factor of two, for example, the calibrations performed using
that standard are less likely to be compromised.
Suppose we use our previous example of the test equipment with a
tolerance of O.2SCand it is found to be O.soCout of tolerance during a
scheduled calibration. Since we took into consideration an accuracy ratio .
of 4:1 and assigned a calibration tolerance of 1DCto the process
instrument, it is less likely that our calibration performed using that
standard is compromised.
The out-of-tolerance standard still needs to be investigated by reverse
traceability of all calibrations performed using the test standard.
However, our assurance is high that the process instrument is within
tolerance. Ifwe had arbitrarily assigned a calibration tolerance of O.2SDC
to the process instrument, or used test equipment with a calibration
tolerance of 1DC,we would not have the assurance that our process
instrument is within calibration tolerance. This leads us to traceability.
Traceability: All calibrations should be performed traceable to a nationally
or internationally recognized standard. For example, in the United States,
the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),formerly
National Bureau of Standards (NBS),maintains the nationally recognized
. standards. Traceability is defined by ANSI/NCSL 2540-1-1994(which
replaced MIL-STD-4S662A)as lithe property of a result of a measurement
whereby it can be related to appropriate standards, generally national or
international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons."
Note this does not mean a calibration shop needs to have its standards
calibrated with a primary standard. It means that the calibrations
performed are traceable to NIST through all the standards used to
calibrate the standards, no matter how many levels exist between the shop
andNIST.
Traceability is accomplished by ensuring the test standards we use
are routinely calibrated by "higher level" reference standards. Typically
the standards we use from the shop are sent out periodically to a
standards lab which has more accurate test equipment. The standards

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Calibration'

from the calibration lab.are periodically checked for cali~ration by "higher


level" standards, and so on until.eventually the standards are tested
against Primary Standards maintained by NIST or another internationally
recognized standard. .
The calibration technician's ~olein maintaining traceability is to
ensure the test standard is within its calibration interval and the unique
identifier is recorded on the applicable calibration data sheet when the
instrument calibration is performed. Additionally, when test standards .
are calibrated, .the calibration documentation must be reviewed for
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accuracy and to ensure it was performed using NIST traceable equipment.
FIGURE 1-1.
Traceability Pyramid

National
Measurement
Standard
(e.g, NIST)

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Primary Standards
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Secondary Standards

Working Standards
("norma'" shop instruments)

Process Instrument

Uncertaintu: Parameter, associated with the result of a measurement that


characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be
attributed to the measurand. Uncertainty analysis is required for
calibration labs conforming to ISO 17025requirements. Uncertainty
analysis is performed to evaluate and identify factors associated with the
calibration equipment and process instrument that affect the calibration
accuracy. Calibration technicians should be aware of basic uncertainty
analysis factors, such as environmental effects and how to combine

Calibration

Principles

multiple calibration equipment accuracies to arrive at a single calibration


equipment accuracy. Combining multiple calibration equipment or
process instrument accuracies is done by calculating the square root of the
sum of the squares, illustrated below:
Calibration equipment combined accuracy

J(calibrator 1 errol)

+ (calibrator2 erroj

+ (etc. erroj 2

Process instrument combined accuracy


(sensor erroj 2 + (transmitter erroj 2 + (indicator errol) 2 + (etc. errol) 2

1.3

WHY IS CALIBRATION REQUIRED?

It makes sense that calibration is required for a new instrument. We


want to make sure the instrument is providing accurate indication or
output signal when it is installed. But why can't we just leave it alone as
long as the instrument is operating properly and continues to provide the
indication we expect?
Instrument error can occur due to a variety of factors: drift,
environment, electrical supply, addition of components to the output
loop, process changes, etc. Since a calibration is performed by comparing
or applying a known signal to the instrument under test, errors are
detected by performing a calibration. An error is the algebraic difference
between the indication and the actual value of the measured variable.
Typical errors that occur include:
FIGURE 1"2.
Span Error
100%

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SPAN ERRORS

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"/0 INPUT

Calibration

FIGURE 1-3.

Zero Error

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% INPUT

FIGURE 1-4.
Combined Zero and Span Error

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100%

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{~OMBINED ZERO AND


SPAN ERRORS

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Calibration Principles

FIGURE 1-5.
Linearization Error
100%

f-

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0..
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% INPUT
Zero and span errors are corrected by performing a calibration. Most
instruments are provided with a means of adjusting the zero and span of
the instrument along with instructions for performing this adjustment.
The zero adjustment is used to produce a parallel shift of the input-output
curve. The span adjustment is used to change the slope of the input-output
curve. Linearization error may be corrected if the instrument has a
linearization adjustment. If the magnitude of the nonlinear error is
unacceptable and it cannot be adjusted, the instrument must be replaced.
To detect and correct instrument error, periodic calibrations are
performed. Even if a periodic calibration reveals the instrument is perfect
and no adjustment is required, we would not have known that unless we
performed the calibration. And even if adjustments are not required for
several consecutive calibrations, we will still perform the calibration check
at the next scheduled due date. Periodic calibrations to specified
tolerances using approved procedures are an important element of any
quality system.

1.4 WHO PERFORMS CALIBRATIONS? - THE


CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNICIAN
A control system technician (CST)is a skilled craftsperson who
knows pneumatic, mechanical, and electrical instrumentation. He or she
understands process control loops and process control systems, including

Calibration

those that are computer-based. Typically, he or she has received training


in such specialized subjects as theory of control, analog and/ or digital
electronics, microprocessors and/ or comput~rs, and the operation and
maintenance of particular lines of field instrumentatio~.
.
A CSTperforms calibration, documentation, loop checks,
troubleshooting, and repair or replacement of instrumentation. These
tasks relate to systems that measure and control level, temperature,
. pressure, flow, force, power, position, motion, physical properties,
chemical composition and other process variables.

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1.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONTROL SYSTEM
TECHNICIAN ..
Honesty and Integrity: A CSTmust possess honesty and integrity above all
else. Most technicians work independently much of the time. Calibrations. __ :,
must be performed in accordance with procedures and must be properly
documented. Additionally, the calibr~tion department may-be
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understaffed and production schedules.may demand unrealistic
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completion requirements. These factors can have a real impact on proper' ..
performance and documentation of calibrations: Remember: Nobody-can
take away your integrity; only you can give it away.
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.' . Attention to Detail: Calibrations should be performed ~ accordance with
detailed instructions. Each different make/model instrument is adjusted
differently. Each instrument is installed in a different physical and loop
configuration. Because of these and many other differences, attention to
detail is very important. The minute a technician is not paying attention to
detail, safety and proper performance are jeopardized ..
Excellent Documentation Practices: In many facilities, the impression of
quality is, determined by the 'content and appearance of documentation.
,Many technicians complain the paperwork is 90% of the work. In today's
world of 1509000, cGMPs,A2LA and other quality standards,
documentation is essential. If it isn't documented; it wasn't done.
Calibration Data Sheets must be neat, complete, signed and, if required,
~eviewed in a timely manner. When changes occur, all related
.
documentation, such as drawings, manuals, specifications and databases
_must also be updated.

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Calibration

Principles

Understanding of Processes: One thing that sets technicians apart is an


understanding of the' process, particularly how the instruments monitor
and control the process. There is a difference between calibrating an
individual component and calibrating an instrument as part of the bigger
process control loop. For example, knowing when a controller can be
placed in manual without affecting the process and what to do while that
controller is in manual, requires an understanding of the process.
Additionally, when an operator says there is a problem with his
indication, a technician who knows the instrument loop and process will
be more capable of identifying the cause of the problem.
Some basic concepts on how calibrations should be performed need
to be discussed before we go on. Some of these may be new concepts not
used in your facility, but you should be familiar with them. Some of these
practices are industry dependent. Although calibrations are generally
performed the same, some different practices have developed. These
practices are:
Loop Calibration vs. Individual Instrument Calibration
Bench Calibration vs. Field Calibration

Classification of Instruments as Critical, Non-Critical, For


Reference Only, etc.

1.6 LOOP CALIBRATION VS. INDIVIDUAL


INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION
An individual instrument calibration is a calibration performed only on
one instrument. The input and output are disconnected. A known source
is applied to the input, and the output is measured at various data points
throughout the calibration range. The instrument is adjusted, if necessary,
and calibration is checked.
DISADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL
CALIBRATION

ADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL
CALIBRATION

1. Entire loop is not verified within


1. Correct instrument will be adjusted
tolerance
2. More compatible with multifunction
2. Mistakes on re-connect
calibrators
3. Less efficient use of time to do.one
calibration for each loop instrument as
opposed to one calibration for the
loop
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Calibration

A loop calibration is performed from the sensor to ali loop indications


with all the loop componentsconnected, FOf example, a temperature
sensor connected to a temperature transmitter would be inserted in a .
temperature bath/block. (Note: Either the bath/block would be calibrated
0; a temperature standard ~ould be used in the bath/block for '
traceability.) The temperature of the bath/block would be adjusted to each
data point required to perform the calibration. All local and remote
indications would be recorded. It is also recommended to record the
transmitter output, If all indications and transmitter output are within
tolerance, the loop is within tolerance. If any loop component is not within "
tolerance, then a calibration is performed on that instrument. Do not
adjust a transmitter to correct a remote indication.
ADVANTAGE;S OF LOOP
CALIBRATION
1. Entire loop, including sensor, is
verified within tolerance
2. Mistakes on re-connectmlnlmlzed
3. More efficient use of time to do one
calibration for, loop as-opposed to one
calibration for each loop,instrument,

DISADVANTAGES OF LOOP
CALIBRATION

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1. Wrong instrument may be adjusted to


bring the loop within calibration, ,_
2. Not as cornpatiblewith multifunction
calibrators used-for "paperless" d~~a,
collection-

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1.7

BENCH CALIBRATION VS. FIELD


CALIBRATION
A bench calibration is performed in the shop on the bench with power
, supplied from an external source, if required. Bench calibrations may be
performed upon receipt of new instruments prior to installation. This
provides assurance the instrument is received undamaged. This also
allows configuration and calibration in a more favorable environment.
Some companies perform-the periodic calibrations on the bench. In this
case the process instrument is removed from service, disconnected and
taken to the shop for calibration. In some instances, a spare is installed in
its place so the process downtime is minimized. For example, critical flow
sensors might be sent out to a certified flow calibration facility. To prevent
shutting the process down for several weeks, a replacement flow sensor
would be installed.
Field calibrations are performed "in-situ," or in place, as installed. The
instrument being calibrated is not removed from the installed location.
Field calibrations may be performed after installation to ensl!re proper

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Calibration

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Principles

connections and configuration. Periodic calibrations are more likely to be


performed in the field. Field calibrations are performed in the
envirorunent in which the instrument operates. If the instrument is
installed in a harsh environment it is calibrated for that envirorunent. If
the instrument is removed for a bench calibration and then returned, some
error may be introduced due to the ambient conditions and orientation.
ADVANTAGES OF BENCH
CALIBRATION
1. Removed, cleaned, inspected
2. Better work environment
3. Fixed calibration setup and utilities
(electrical, air, vacuum) available

1 .8

ADVANTAGES OF FIELD
CALIBRATION
1. May save time
2. May identify and allow troubleshooting of installation problems
3. Performed in actual ambient
environment

CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS

In some industries or even within individual companies it may be


advantageous to classify your instruments in a way that indicates the
instruments' "importance." There are two schools of thought here. Some
say that no instrument is more important than any other instrument.
However, in some processes, the undetected error in an instrument may
result in product rejections or even product recalls. Additionally, some
instruments have calibration requirements specified by outside agencies.
For these reasons, it is recommended that each instrument is assigned a
classification. ISA-TR91.00.02-2003,Criticality Classification Guideline for
Instrumentation, is an excellent resource to assist with establishing
classification of instrumentation. One example used for classifying
instruments is outlined below.
Critical: An instrument which, if notconforming to specification, could
potentially compromise product or process quality.
Non-critical: An instrument whose function is not critical to product or
process quality, but whose function is more of an operational significance.
Example: An instrument that is not classified as critical, but the reading
obtained from the instrument is recorded in operating logs.
Reference Only: An instrument whose function is not critical to product
quality, not significant to equipment operation, and not used for making

Calibration

13

quality decisions. Routine calibration may be less frequent and


verification of proper operation will be performed if suspect of error.
O~HA; Calibration of the instrument is mandated by the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration. . '
EPA: Calibration of the instrument is mandated by the EPA. Example:

Calibration of the flow totalizer for the wastewater treatment system may
be required by EPA.

ij

. The above classifications may be helpful in assigning calibration


frequencies. For example,' you might assign a calibration frequency of six
months to a "Critical" pressure transmitter. The same pressure transmitter
assigned as "Non-critical" might be calibrated every 12 months.
Another advantage to assigning classifications is to inves~gate out.of-tolerance' calibrations 'more' efficiently:'In-many-industries) -out-bf= '.'tolerance calibrations are formally reported to.the Quality Department. If
classification of instruments is not used, all out-of-tolerance calibrations
must be investigated for the effect-on product. Ifthe instruments are 'i~:
cIassified~and classifications are approved-by the Quality Departmentcthe. ..
investigation is performed only for Critical instruments. Of course, the
Calibration Department should investigate all out-of-tolerance conditions,
but the release
would not be held up due
to an unnecessary
, . of product
.
.
investigation.
, ,

CHAPTER SUMMARY
In this chapter we covered the What, Why, Who, and How as an

introduction to Calibration. We've covered some definitions and concepts


. that calibration technicians need to be familiar with. It should be
emphasized that not all of these concepts are applicable to your facility.
Although it would be convenient if we all ran our calibration programs
exactly the same way, it just isn't so. Most of what will be presented in this
book are examples that do not fit every situation.

Ii

"'I!

I'

Calibration Principles

14

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

Match the term on the left with the definition on the right.
Calibration

value
upper and lower values specified for
facility
algebraic difference between the upper
and lower range value
adjustment used to produce a parallel
shift of the input-output curve
comparison of instrument to a known
value
percent error

Instrument Range B.

Calibration Range C.

Accuracy

D.

Tolerance

E.

Traceability

F.

Zero

G. characterizes the dispersion of the


values that could reasonably be
attributed to the measurand
H. upper and lower values specified by
manufacturer
1. measurement related to standards
through an unbroken chain of
comparisons

_Span
_

2.

A. permissible deviation from specified

Uncertainty

Which of the following errors is typically not correctable?


Zero
B. Span
C. Linearity
D. Zero, span, and linearity errors are always correctable
A.

3.

Why should a calibration technician have:


A. Honesty and Integrity?

B. Attention to detail?
C. Excellent documentation practices?
D. Understanding of processes?

15

Calibration

4.

What are the advantages of performing a field calibration?


Disadvantages?

5.

What are the advantages of performing a bench calibration?


Disadvantages?

6.

What are the advantages of performing a loop calibration?


Disadvantages?

7.

What are the advantages of performing an .individual instrument


calibration?Disadvantages?

I
i

8.
J.

Wha:tare the advantages of classifyinginstruments by their


. "importance I criticality".to .aprocess? ,.

~
'J

9.

Arrange the traceability hierarchy below, beginning with lowest


level and ending with the highest, ~ __,
-J

......-J _

IJ

".

A. Priinary Standards
B. Working'Standards

C. Process Instrument
D. NIST (or recognized national standard)
E. Secondary Standards

I
I

I
-e-

,[

. i

2
DOCUMENT ATION
.

After complet/ng this chapter, you should be able to:


List the fundamental elements of a calibration procedure.

List the fundamental elements of a calibration data sheet.


Define the relevant calibration information contained in the
following resource documents: P&ID, Loop Diagram;
Instrument Specification Sheet, Project Specifications, and
.
Manufacturer's Specifications.

I)

I
i

Identify safety considerations relating to cslibrstion.

,I

Describe the use of calibration status labels and What


information is required on each.

.!

1I

I
!

Because of quality system requirements throughout industry, .


documentation has become as important as the actual performance of
calibration. This chapter will summarize documentation that all
calibration technicians should be familiar with. Another ISA text,
Instrumentation and Control Systems Documentation, details the
documentation mentioned in this chapter, and more.
The accuracy and reliability of instrumentation in a facility is .
maintained through the development and implementation of a quality
..calibration program. Iri addition to inventorying instruments, determining
calibration parameters and intervals, and purchasing appropriate .test
standard's, a calibration program includes written procedures for
performing calibrations. The level of detail contained in calibration.
procedures can vary considerably-from a generic procedure used to
calibrate an instrument type to a very specific procedure used to calibrate
one particular instrument. Different types of calibration procedures are
discussed below and examples of each are included in Appendix A-4.

...

List the resources for determination of initial calibration


frequency.for an instrument.

.j

17

18

Documentation

Technical Manual procedure: Typically, a manufacturer's technical manual is


provided for each similar model of instrument. Calibration instructions
for the instrument are usually given in the technical manual. These
instructions can be adopted or adapted as the calibration procedure for the
applicable instruments. Most often, the manufacturer's calibration
procedure is used to develop a comp,my calibration procedure approved
by management and the quality department. However, the actual
technical manual procedure may be used or referenced as the calibration
procedure if this practice is approved.
TABLE 2-1.
Using Calibration Procedures from a Technical Manual
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Very little time/resources required to


develop procedures

Does not contain all necessary elements


of a calibration procedure

Technically accurate and detailed


instructions for the specific instrument

Applies to instrument only, not taking


into account application/process

Generic procedure: Generic calibration procedures can be developed for


each instrument type. For example, one procedure could be developed for
Electronic Pressure/Vacuum Transmitters and another procedure for
Pneumatic Temperature Controllers. You could even go more generic and
develop a procedure for Pressure Instrument Calibration, which would
include gauges, transmitters, etc. for pressure, differential pressure, and
vacUl~m.Generic procedures should recommend using the
manufacturer's technical manual to perform any necessary adjustments.
TABLE 2-2.
Generic Calibration Procedures
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

limits number of procedures to a


manageable level

Inconsistent methods by different


technicians using same procedure

Can be a good first step for new facility


start-up until more effort can be devoted
to procedure development

Inexperienced technicians need more


detail

Specific procedure for an instrument or a manufacturer/model: In most facilities,


some calibration procedures will have to be very specific to particular
instruments. In some cases, specific detailed procedures are required for
each instrument. Analytical instruments for such parameters as

Calibration

, !

: r

19

conductivity (resistivity), oxygen, and lab instrumentation typically


require specific procedures for each type due to the unique differences in
the way each is calibrated. Also, if your generic procedure for a particular
pressure instrument does not adequately address the proper method, a
specific procedure should be developed. Obviously, if safety could be
compromised by using an inadequate generic procedure, a new procedure
addressing the specific safety issues must be developed.

TABLE 2-3.
Specific Calibration Procedures
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Calibrations are performed the same way


by all technicians

~.

i
I

Increases resources required to develop,


maintain, and track procedures

May take into account the effect on


process

Technicaliy accurate and detailed


lnstructions for the specific instrument

Some "old school" technicians initially dislike theuse of calibration


procedures. They say, "We've always done it this way and neverhad any
problems. Now we've got all this paperwork, it's a wonder We can get any
actual work done." Well, in today's regulated environment,you'll be out
of business if you don't have a documented' calibration program in place,
Your customers must be assured of a certain quality product based on
parameters you said you could maintain. Most of those assurances are
provided from.accurate process instrumentation. It h~s been
demonstrated that instrument accuracy deteriorates during use. The only
way to keep track of accuracy at any given time is to verify, adjust, and
document the calibration data.

'I

2. 1
.,

.-.~-

CALIBRATION PROCEDURE CONTENT

What information should be included in a calibration procedure?


First, the format should follow the f6~mat required by yOUI'company
procedures. Als~ any governing documents, such as the Calibration
Policy, and any applicable procedures subordinate to'the Calibration
Policy must be followed.

.J

20

Documentation

The calibration procedure typically includes most or all of the


following sections:
Purpose: Clearly states the reason for the procedure such as: "The
purpose of this procedure is to provide standardized instructions
for the calibration of temperature instruments."
Scope: Clearly states to what and to whom the procedure applies
such as "This procedure applies to the calibration of all analog
pressure gauges at the ABC Company calibrated by employee and
contract teclmicians."
Note: The purpose and scope can be combined into one section of
the procedure. The information in these sections is typically
obvious to those of us who perform calibrations, but the managers
need this so they know what they're approving.
Definitions: Contains brief descriptions of key terms, as applicable,
for clarity. Acronyms and abbreviations used in the procedure are
noted in this section to document their meaning throughout the
text.
References/Attachments: Identifies other documents, including
attachments, that are required to be used in conjunction with the
procedure, or allow the user to gain further information regarding
the procedural content.
Test Equipment/Materials Required: Identifies the test equipment and
materials required to perform the procedure. Listing specific test
equipment in this section helps to ensure uncertainty requirements
are met and/ or the desired accuracy ratio is achieved, particularly
if the minimum tolerance achievable is specified in the Scope or
Title of the procedure. Note that if the specified test equipment is
not available, the technician must notify the supervisor prior to
performing the calibration.
Safety: Provide information on potential human health hazards
and po~ential hazards to the facility, equipment, or process. All
Safety Work Permit requirements and Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS)references are included in this section.
Prerequisites/Initial Conditions (optional): Provides any conditions
that should be met prior to performing the calibration, such as tank
drained, controller in manual, or system shutdown. Alternatively,

21

Calibration

these conditions can be included in the test procedure and/or


notes printed on the calibration data sheet.
Test Procedure: This is the meat of the procedure which outlines the
procedure in-a clear, concise,step-by-step manner. If any steps of
the calibration procedure cannot be performed as specified, the
technician must return the instrument to a 'safe condition and
..notify the supervisor.

"

Acceptance Criteria: The pass/fail criteria may be included in the


Test Procedure section or as a separate step at completion,
evaluating the results obtained against the tolerances specified.

Approvals: The author and approval Signatures or approval


authority should be included on ea0 calibration procedure.

11

As you can see there is a lot of flexibility in what information is


included in the calibration procedure and where the.information is lou'ated'.
in the procedure. Much of this depends on the culture at your facility-and
experience level of the technicians. Personally, Ilike to develop good:":
generic procedures with the instrument specifics printed on the
calibration data sheet used to record calibration data. There are some;~:
. example procedures in the reference section, Some comply with whathas
been described above, some do not.
:~:~.

2.2

CALIBRATION DATA SHEETS

(See Examples in Appendix

A-4)

You may refer to this as something else, put.what we're talking about
here is the form where the as-found and as-left calibration data is recorded
when a calibration is performed. As of now, most calibration data sheets
.are still hardcopy, usually printed out from a calibration software
package ..Some are still totally manual with no pre-pri.l;ted information,
and that's OK, it works.Weare seeing increased use of paperless
calibrations where the datais either automatically collected by a
documenting calibrator or manually entered into a handheld device as an
electronic record, In any case, the following information should be
included as part of a calibration data sheet:

I
i

Instrument Tag Number/Instrument Identification Number: This is a


unique identifier or unique combination used as the main tracking
number for each instrument. In most cases the tag number is the

I
f

22

Documentation

P&ID tag number if applicable (P&IDs are discussed later in this


chapter). If the instrument is not associated with a P&ID, there
should be some consistent tag number system at your facility that
utilizes the ISA-S.I-I984-(Rl992)standard.

Several facilities use an additional identification number which is


sequentially assigned as an additional tracking number. The tag
number references the instrument location within a system, and
the instrument identification number stays with the instrument.
This way the history of any instrument installed in the instrument
location (Tag Number) is traceable and the history of any
instrument is traceable. Many instruments stay in the same
location for the life of the equipment, in which case this is not as
important. But, failures occur and instruments need to be replaced.
In other instances, spares are installed temporarily to keep a
process running when an instrument is removed for calibration.
This traceability is important, for example, in a pharmaceutical
facility that produces penicillin. Any instrument removed from a
penicillin manufacturing area cannot be used in any other
manufacturing area. The instrument identification number used to
track where an instrument has been is a useful tool in ensuring that
instrument is not installed where it shouldn't be. Even if you don't
have similar needs, it's good practice to use both types of
identification numbers.
Nameplate Data: The manufacturer, model number, and serial number
should be listed on the Calibration Data Sheet.
Calibration Range and Calibration Tolerance: This defines the upper
and lower limit used for calibration. Ideally, this is the input and
output range, if applicable. For example, a good format for the
calibration range of a temperah.1rtransmitter would be O-to-IOOC
= 4-to-20 rnA with a calibration tolerance of l.OCjO.I6 mAo As
we saw in Chapter I, the calibration range is not always the same
as the instrument range or capability of the instrument.
Location: Be as specific as possible about location of the instrument.
You don't want your new technician wasting hours searching.
Calibration Procedure Number: This is the calibration procedure that
is used to perform the calibration. In some facilities, the entire
calibration procedure is printed on the calibration data sheet.

23

Calibration

Last Calibration Date, Calibration Due Date, and Calibration Interval:


This information should be included to ensure the calibration is
being performed periodically as required. .

.[

As-found data and As-left data: Relates the test points specified with
the corresponding test standard value. If all as-found data is
. within tolerance and no adjustments are made, the as-left data
would be N / A or the same as the as-found data. Note: Everyeffort
should be made to record as-found data for failed instruments
prior to making any adjustments, in order to provide the most data
for evaluation.
Test Standards: Record the unique identification of any test
standards used to perform the calibration and, if required by . '..
procedure, record the calibration due' date of the standardfsj.It .
would be best to record this prior to beginning the calibration to
ensure each standard is within its calibration
periodicity (butt.of..':.
.
.:;,..g.. ~:..
. course you checked this when you obtained the standard froru'the- .
shop). The most important reason for documenting the test. '~.
standards is for reverse traceability in.case a 'standard is foundito
, be out of tolerance. If a test standard is found out of tolerance on its
next calibration, it is critical that any calibration performed using
that standard since its last calibration is known and evaluated-to
determine a course of action.
"t,

II

. I!,

Comments: The technician needs someplace to record any


comments or observations.
Technician Signature and Date of Calibration
Supervisor or Reviewer Signature and Date .
. Example Calibration Data Sheets are included in Appendix A-4. In
, addition, some example calibration procedures include a data sheet as an
attachment.
;'.

2.3

P&IDs

(See Example in Appendix' A-1)

Process/Piping and Instrument Diagrams/Drawings (p&lDs) are


drawings that provide a detailed overview of a process system They'
include major components, utilities, flowpaths, supporting equipment,
and instrumentation. Although P&IDs are' commonly used throughout
industry, there is not yet a "standard'" P&ID. Process Industry Practices

I
I

24

Documentation

(www.pip.org) has developed a P&ID practice; however PIP is not a


developer of standards. Draft-Standard-for-Trial-Use, JSA-DSTU-S.07.01,
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria, was issued
in May 2002. ISA-DSTU-S.07.01is the result of a cooperative effort
between ISA (SPS.7)and Process Industries Practices (PIP) by which ISA
will develop an American National Standard covering the requirements,
design, and graphic elements of that class of engineering drawings called
a P&ID, or Piping & Instrumentation Diagram. ISA-DSTU-S.07.01is based
on existing PIP Practice PICOOL
ISA standards ISA-S.l-1984-(R1992),Instrumentation Symbols and
Identification, and ISA-S.3-I983,Graphic Symbols for Distributed Control
Shared Display Instrumentation, Logic, and Computer Systems, are the most
generally accepted guides for developing symbolism for instrumentation
and control systems.
From the P&ID of a particular system, a technician can determine
pertinent information about the instrumentation and controls applicable
to performing calibrations and understanding the system operation. The
most important of these include:
Components of an instrument loop
Functional identification
Methods of signal transmission (pneumatic, electronic, hydraulic,
software link, etc.)
Controller input(s) and output(s)
Control valve characteristics (fail position, direct! reverse acting)
Flow sensor types
P&IDs are also used to organize project documentation. Using P&IDs
as the base for all information in a large project provides a single reference
point for data provided on other documents. This makes sense since
P&IDs are used to define system boundaries. It is very important that
P&IDs are controlled and maintained up to date. During start-ups the
"master" P&IDs are marked up and highlighted to reflect the state of a
system at any time. If the technician discovers any discrepancy at any
time, the technician must take the responsibility to ensure the controlled
drawing is properly revised.
An example of a P&ID is in Appendix A-I. Let's look at the P&ID and
see what we can determine about the temperature loop for this process.
We can see from the P&ID that the temperature loop i{lcludesTE-300,
TI-300, TIC-300,TY-300,and TV-300.Using ISA-S.l as a reference, we

Calibration

25

know that the TE is a temperature sensor. We do not know if the


temperature sensor is an RTD or thermocouple. That would be
determined from the specification or physical inspection. The TT is a
temperature transmitter that provides the only input to TIC-300. The TIC
is a shared display, shared control temperature-indicating
controller, The
TY is not as obvious if you're not familiar with the use of this symbol. If
you think about it though, you see that the TY is between the electronic
output of the TIC and the pneumatic input of the valve, TV. Since the "Y"
in TY refers to relay, compute, or convert, according. to Table 1 of ISA-5.1,
the TY must be a conversion device in the temperature loop. Most likely
the device is an l /P transducer which converts a 4-to-20 rnA signal from
the TIC to a 3-to-15 psig signal for the valve. The TW inthe loop is a
temperature well, or thermowell, that provides a physical boundary
.between the temperature sensor and the process.

'I

Ii'

Side note: The thermowell is not a necessary component in the signal


conversion of the temperature signal or control. However, because th~
--"
thermowell consists of a specified thickness of metal it wip slow do~: the
response time of the temperature signal. Itis also very important to eri.'Sure
the temperature sensor is the correct length to make contact with the end
of the well. Otherwise the air gap will cause an inaccurate reading oJthe
actual process temperature.

2.4

LOOP DIAGRAMS (See Examples in Appendix A2)

A loop is a combination of interc~nnected instruni..ents that measures


and/ or controls a process variable. An instrument loop diagram is a ..
composite representation of instrument loop information containing all
associated electrical and piping connections. Instrument loop diagrams
are developed in accordance with standard ISA~5.4-1991, Instrument Loop
Diagrams. Example loop diagrams are included in the Reference Section,
Appendix A-2_The minimum content requirements include:
Identification: of the loop and loop components
Point -to-point interconnections with identifying numbers or colors
of electrical and/ or pneumatic wires and tubing, including
junction boxes, terminals, bulkheads, ports, and grounding
connections
General location of devices such as field, panel, I/O cabinet,
control room, etc ..

26

Documentation

Energy sources of devices


Control action or fail-safe conditions
Additional content requirements, format, and examples are included
in ISA-S.4-1991.
A formalized loop check should be documented prior to placing any
loop in service. Tl..is formalized program should include verification of
installation against the loop diagram and simulation of signals to verify
output responses andindications throughout the range. Why is this
important? A significant percentage of instrument loops have some
problem, which may result in hidden failures. For example, a temperature
transmitter output wired to a programmable logic controller (PLC) analog
input provides a temperature display on an operator interface. The
transmitter is calibrated from O-lOOCto provide a proportional 4-20 rnA
output. If the PLC programmer writes the code for this input as 0-lS0C
for a 4-20 rnA input and a loop check is not performed, an inaccurate
displayed value will go undetected. Other typical problems found and
corrected by performing loop checks include wiring connected to the
wrong points, ground loops, and broken wires. Loop checking is another
of the CCST domains and is covered in more detail in another ISA
Technician Guide.

2.5

INSTRUMENT SPECIFICATION FORMS

(See Examples in Appendix

A-3)

Instrument specification forms contain the information necessary to


obtain vendor quotes and purchase instrument devices. ISA-TR20
Specification Forms include device specifications for many temperature,
pressure, level, flow instruments in Microsoft Word format. The
information included on each form is specific to the instrument type but
typically includes dimensions, materials of construction, design
temperature/pressure, connection sizes, ambient conditions, indicator
detail, instrument ranges/tolerances, etc. Examples of instrument
specifications are included in the reference section, Appendix A-3. When
instruments are received from the vendor, each should be verified against
the specification to the maximum extent practicable. This should be
documented using a formalized receipt verification process.
For facilities that do not have instrument specification forms from the
system design, these forms can be developed using ISA-T~O or in
accordance with company procedure. Some calibration departments

27

Calibration

develop 'their own forms to specify the information needed to perform


calibrations. These specifications should be approved by users and the
Quality Department to ensure process and quality requirements are
considered. An example of this form is included at the end of
Appendix A-3.

2.6

PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS

Any new manufacturing facility or large expansion project willhave


a set of project specifications. They include architectural, plumbing,
mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation specifications, etc. For
instrumentation, the project specifications are usually general, but include
content the technician should be aware of, such as:
Instrument tagging requirements
Size and type of pneumatic tubing .
Approved methods of mounting instruments

:'~~.

.~.

Wire labeling conventions

)1

Intrinsic safety standards


For some facilities, the project
instrument specification forms and
Although the calibration technician
any discrepancies observed should
supervisor ..

2.7

".1

specifications may include detailed


an original master instrument list:
is not usually installing the devices,
be brought to the attention of a

MANUFACTURER'S S'PECIFICATIONS

illthe manufacturer's technical manual or product literature, there is


almost always a specification section. Although most manufacturers
provide very good specifications, they can vary from inadequate to overly
complex. Understanding
what the manufacturer's specifications
mean is
.,
.
.
important to purchasing an instrument acceptable for the process
requirements and the technician maintaining the instrument. The most
.important specification for the calibration technician is the instrument
range and accuracy. The range capability of the instrument is usually
understandable; accuracy is another matter. For example, accuracy may be
specified as 0.25%. What does this mean? Is it{).25% of the range or the
reading?For the calibration ofa 0-100 psig pressure transmitter at 20 psig,

Documentation

28

this can mean the difference between 0.25 psig and 0.05 psig. In addition,
the specified accuracy is usually different at different ranges of the
instrument, varying ambient conditions, and may not even be referred to
as accuracy. The lesson is, if you're not sure, ask a technical resource from
the manufacturer what the specification means.

2.8

CALIBRATION INTERVALS

Probably the #1 question asked at calibration seminars is "How do I


determine the initial calibration intervals?" The answer to this question is
difficult at first for someone new to developing a calibration program. It
ends up being pretty simple. Initially we try to use a variety of resources
which include:
Manufacturer recommendation
National Conference of Standards Laboratories Recommended
Practice RP-l
Past experience
Intervals of similar existing instruments

In reality, it is a combination of all the above, but mostly past


experience. As an example, in my experience, electronic transmitters have
a calibration interval of 6 months and analog gauges have an interval of a
year. Many manufacturers' specifications contain a 6-month stability
specification. This stability specification, in effect, only guarantees the
accuracy specification for 6 months. Also, electronic transmitters are
typically installed in applications that are "more important" to the
process. Even though these instruments are more reliable than analog
gauges and fail calibration less often, we check the calibration on a more
frequent basis. This means we set our calibration intervals based on how
much risk we are willing to take. If we wanted an almost 100% assurance
that our instruments were within calibration tolerance, we'd have to check
the calibration almost every day. Obviously, that would be impracticable.
So we assume some risk that every once in a while a calibration is not
going to pass. Of course our managers and quality department don't want
to hear that, but it happens and we need to educate other disciplines that it
does happen.
Don't be alarmed if you calibrate more or less often than described
above. It simply means you're willing to take more or less risk based on
the process and quality standards at your facility or you have more history

~!

29

Calibration

, i

to base your calibration intervals on. Of course not all instruments fit into
the same category. Some instruments, particularly analytical
instrumentation, are calibrated more frequently, even to the point that the
user performs a calibration check prior toeach use. On the other hand,
some instruments may have an interval of two years or more.
Calibration intervals may be adjusted over time. Once several
calibrations have been performed, the calibration history of the device
may be used to adjust the calibration interval, If the as-found calibration
data of a particular instrument does not meet the calibration tolerance, the ,
calibration interval may be shortened. If several instruments with a
particular manufacturer / model number are always well within the
calibration tolerance, the interval is increased.

2.9
.r

./

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

Obviously, performing calibrations safely is very important. One


lapse on safety could cost you or your co-worker your lives. Even if itis not
a life lost, minor injuries caused by unsafe work practices are preventable.
Safety of the product is also of concern when performing calibrationsin a
manufacturing environment. There are.many resources available frd~ ISA
on the topic of safety, including Chapter 1 of Troubleshooting: A
ri':
Technician's Guide, by William L. Mostia. Here are a few things' we, ai
calibration technicians, can do to i,mprove safety in our day-to-day work
activities.
Jnclude specific safety considerations. in each calibration
procedure. For example, if we know there is a tank that does not
have a thermowell installed for the resistance temperature detector
(RID), highlight this fact. Better yet, ifpossible, get a thermowell
installed,
Keep the shop arid work areas clean and free of trip hazards .:
I

Work with a partner or at least make sure someone knows where


you are working at all times.
Some instruments are always installed at difficult places to reach ..
If it's possible to install some permanent platform, have it done.
Otherwise use safety harnesses, ladders, and lifts properly.
Technicians may be exposed to lethal electrical voltages. Know
what the high voltage areas are, de-energize electrical circuits that
. are not required.and use proper electrical safety practices

.. j
:~~
',:1

":':
; ..,

ij

~.;
;.' -,.1...j
'.; I
";

.-':..........

30

Documentation

(insulated floor mat, rubber electrical safety gloves, roped off area,
safety man outside the area with a rope tied around you).
Ensure electrical power cords are properly insulated. Ensure
equipment is properly grounded.

2.10

CALIBRATION STATUS LABELS

Calibration status labels are used to provide a visual indication of the


calibration status of an instrument. Many different label styles are in use
throughout industry. The main information that must be displayed
showing the calibration status are the Instrument Identification (such as
Tag Number, Instrument 10 number, or serial number), date of
calibration, next calibration due date, and the technician who performed
the calibration (initials, employee ID, etc.). An example is illustrated
below.
ABC Company - Calibration Status
ID:
Cal Date:
_

--------------------

Cal Due: ---------------Technician: -------------Other amplifying information may be included on the label or a
separate label. Examples include:
Customized labels with company name and color coded for
classification as described in Chapter l.
Limited Calibration Label for instruments that are not calibrated
throughout the range of the indication. An example of this would
be a compound gauge that is not calibrated for the vacuum range
because the process does not operate under a vacuum at any time.
Another example would be an instrument that does not meet
tolerance requirements at the extremes, but the process would
never operate at these extremes.
Other labels such as "Do Not Use" or "Calibration Not Required"
can be used, if applicable.
Sometimes tamper-proof seals are used to cover e:;_<posed
adjustments so that any unauthorized adjustments are detected.

~I

31

Calibration

This chapter has summarized the most common documentation


required or utilized by the calibration technician. These subjects were not.
discussed in excruciating detail, because other resources are available.
However, it is important to expose technicians to the concepts and
provide some examples to help put the big picture together before we start
with the actual performance of the calibrations.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

List the advantages of each procedure development method below.


A. Straight from technical manual

B.

Generic procedure for an instrument type


i
._.....~
:;;

C. Procedure developed for a specific manufacturer/model


specific instrument in the plant

or

..

.<:

:~

"'I1
2.

If test equipment with the specified. accuracy is not available to ":.


perform the calibration, wha~ should you do?

3.

If a step of a calibration proced11!e cannot be followed as specified or


a procedure does not exist, w~at actions would you take?

II

4.

5.

What elements of a calibration data sheet reflect that the calibration is


NIST-traceable?

F~r an established facility, what is the most likely resource for


determining the calibration frequency of a new instrument?

I
I

I
I

32

Documentation

6.

For a new facility,what is the most likely resource for determining


initial calibrationfrequency?

7.

What justificationcan be used to increase the calibration interval


(performing calibration less often) of all instruments of the same
type?

8.

What event(s)can lead to decreasing the calibration interval


(performing calibration more often)?

9.

Match the resources on the left with content on the right.


P&ID
_

_
_

A. Includes general instrument

specificationsfor the facility


Instrument Specification B. Includes instrument range
Sheet
capability and instrument
accuracy
Loop diagram
C. Detailed overview of a process
system
Projectspecifications
D. Detailed device requirements
Manufacturer's
Specifications

E. Includes all associated electrical


and piping connections

10. What is the purpose of a calibration seal?

11. What is the minimum information required on a calibration status


label?

12. When should a Limited Calibration status label be used?

13. What criteria must be met for test equipment to be used for
calibration?

!I

.:

lEMPERATURE INSTRU'MENT
CALIBRATION
After completing this chapter, you should be eble to:
Describe the different types' of temperature sensors, including
important advantages and disar;!vantagesof each. '
Calibrate the following temperature-instrument types (to ISA
standards, where applicable) and determine acceptability:
Glass and Dial Thermometers
Temperaturesensors.(RTDs,thermocouples, and.
thermistors)
Temperaturetransmitters
Digital temperature indicators and controllers
. Temperatureswitches

:
I

;
I
I

:, I

t -

Select proper calibration procedure and calibration data sheet

Select appropriate certified test equipment.


Properly setup/connect test equipment to the Device Under
Test (DUT) for calibration.
Properly isolate temperature devices and/or remove from
service for field calibration.
Return equipment to service follo.wing calibration.
Complete and properly maintain calibration documentetlon.

3.1

WHAT IS TEMPERATURE?

I-

I
/'

Anything that moves.has kinetic energy, the energy of motion. Atoms


and molecules have kinetic energy because they are always moving. The
faster a molecule moves, the greater its'kinetic energy. Heat is the measure
of the total quantity of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of
matter. Temperature measures the intensity of heat due to the average
kinetic energy of the molecules. .
.

33

34

3.2

Temperature Instrument Calibration

lEMPERATURE SENSORS

There are several different types of sensors used to measure


temperature. Some of the more common sensor types are summarized in
this section.
Thermocouples

Thermocouples are very common due to the ruggedness, low cost,


response time, and relatively good accuracy, but mostly because of the
versatility. Thermocouples can be used over a wide range of temperatures,
whereas RTDs are useful only over a certain temperature range.
Thermocouples are based on the principle that joining two dissimilar
metals will produce a voltage signal proportional to temperature.
Although very commonly used, thermocouples are least understood due
to the complexity of different metals used, reference junction, and
methods of compensation. The Reference Section of the Omega Temperature
Handbook provides a very good explanation of the details.
There are several types of thermocouples, based on the types of
metals that make up the thermocouple. For example, a Type T
thermocouple is made from copper and constantan wires, whereas
Type K is made from chrome! and alumel. Each type is color coded and,
per U.S. standards, the red lead is always negative. Due to the many
thermocouple types, a technician must verify the thermocouple type used
and ensure the correct reference table and/ or test equipment setup is used
for that thermocouple type. (For examples, see the reference tables in
Appendix A-6.)
Resistance Temperature

Detectors

(RTDs)

RTDs are most commonly made from platinum, due to its stability
and linearity throughout the range of use. However, RTDs exhibit a
slower response time to temperature changes than thermocouples. All
RTDs have a positive temperature coefficient, which means the resistance
increases as temperature increases. The most widely accepted type of RTD
conforms to DIN 43760.This RTD has a resistance of 100 ohms at OCwith
a temperature coefficient (n) of 0.00385(spoken as three-eighty-five
alpha).
The alpha coefficient is determined from the slope of the line between
o degrees C and 100degrees C and also the resistance of the RID at 0
degrees C. The alpha is expressed in units of ohms per ohm per degree C
where the second "ohms" refers to the resistance at 0 degrees C. For the
DIN 43760RTD, the ohms for a degrees C is 100 and the ohms for 100

Calibration

35

degrees C is 138.50.The change-in ohms for 100 degrees is 38.50. The


change for i degree is 0.385ohms. The alpha is 0.385ohms per degree C
divided by the resistance at 0 degrees (100 ohms) which equals 0.003850
ohms per ohm per degree C. The resistance output for an RID is not
perfectly linear, and the ohms for a given temperature cannot be
determined from the alpha coefficient alone. The complete equation for
the RTD output also includes other coefficients that define the nonlinearity.
.
, RTDs are connected electrically in a bridge configuration to offset the
effects of lead length resistance. RTDs are purchased as 2-wire, 3-wire, or
4-wire RTDs.Again, the Omega, Handbook provides a good explanation of
the details. The most important thing for a technician to understand is the
RIDs must be connected correctly during initial installation and upon ,
completion of calibration. Also the technician must be careful to use 'the
correct RTD table as a reference whenperforming calibrations.
Thermistors

Thermistors are based on'a resistance change in a ceramic


semiconductor. Thermistors are much more temperature sensitive that
thermocouples or RIDs. This allows thermistors to detect very small
changes in temperature which would not be detected by RIDs or
thermocouples. Most thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient,
which means the resistance decreases as the temperature increases.
However, thermistors are very non-linear and therefore must be used over
a small range to provide a linear response. Thermistors are also
susceptible to drift and are very fragile.
Filled Bulb
Filled-bulb sensors are a closed system filled with a liquid that,
expands as the temperature increases and contracts when temperature
decreases, producing a proportional changein temperature indication or a
control valve response.

'3.3

SIGNAL CONVERSION'

Signal conversion is used to convert the voltage of a thermocouple or


resistance of an RTD/thermistor to a Signal usable.by an instrument
system. For exampl~ a temperature transmitter may convert the RID
resistance to a 4-20mA signal for a PLe input or a recording device (or
both). A separate signal conversion device is not 'always used since many

_I

lI
j
i

I
'1

36

Temperature Instrument Calibration

devices (controllers, indicators, PLC inputs) can be configured for direct


sensor input.
Now that we have some idea of how temperature is sensed, let's look
at some examples.
Example Temperature Calibration
Thermometer

#1 - Calibration

of a Dial

A dial thermometer consists of a sensing probe connected to a dial


indicator. The temperature sensed causes movement of the dial pointer
across a graduated scale. The graduated scale provides an indication over
a range of temperatures. The goal of the calibration is to verify that the
pointer "points" to the correct value over the range of the instrument, Our
example thermometer has a range of 0 to 100C,and we'll be checking the
calibration at 5 points: DoC,25C, 50C, 75C, and ioo-c,
The test equipment we'll use is a refrigerated temperature bath and a
temperature standard. An ice bath could be used to check the DOCpoint if
a refrigerated bath is not available. An ice bath is prepared by using
crushed ice made from distilled water and adding distilled water to make
a "slush." It is best to make the ice bath in an insulated container. The ice
bath should be adequately mixed just prior to placing the sensor in the ice
bath and, if possible, while the sensor is in the ice bath.
Insome cases, the temperature bath may have a temperature
indication which could be used as the temperature standard. The
temperature indication on the temperature bath can only be used as a
standard if it has been calibrated itself. It is still not the best practice to use
the bath temperature indication as a reference since the location of the
sensor is not the same as the device being calibrated. Inmost cases, a
separate temperature standard must be used to obtain the required
accuracy ratio (accuracy ratio is discussed in Chapter 1).
To perform the calibration, the thermometer is removed from the
system and placed in the temperature bath (or ice bath) at the minimum
test point of Doe.Our temperature standard is also placed in the
temperature bath (or ice bath) at the same depth such that the tips of the
thermometer and standard are as close together as possible. Once the
readings have stabilized, the "as-found" readings are recorded for the
temperature standard and the unit under test. No adjustments are made
until all "as-found" readings are recorded for all test points. Now we
change the temperature bath setpoint to 25C. (If an ice bath was used at
aoc, move the thermometer and standard to the bath.) Once readings have
stabilized, record the "as-found" values for the thermometer and standard
on the calibration form. Note that we do not need to record the bath

37

Calibration

temperature indication, if provided, since this is not our standard and has
no bearing on the calibration; Obtain the "as-found" readings for the
thermometer and the standard at 50Cbath setpoint; then 75C setpoint
and finally 100Csetpoint.
Now that the "as-found data has been collected, let's evaluate the
data. The table below shows our as-found results.
AS-FOUND DATA
TEST POINT

TEST
STANDARD
READING

UNIT UNDER'
TEST READING

DOC
25C
50C
75"C
100C

0.12C
25.08"C
50. 17C
74.99"C
100.02C

1C
26C
51.5C
76.5C
102C

.I

ERROR

+ 0.88
t.
+ 0.92
+ 1.33
+ 1.51
+ . 1.98. '''::'.ii~~~
." _,.

,. i

is

II

. Let's say our calibration tolerance 2C and we find the thermometer


is adjustable. Some are not adjustable, in which case the thermometer=
would need to be replaced if the "as-found" data was not within the ,2
acceptable tolerance. Since this thermometer has one adjustment using'an .
external screw( how much should we adjust the thermometer? If the ;'::
process, monitored by the thermometer, normally operates at a specific
setpoint, it. is recommended to adjust the thermometer to read correctly
at
.
that value. If the process operates over the r!ffigeof the instrument, adjust
the thermometer based on the average error such that all readings are as
.. close as possible, In any case, the thermometer should be adjusted such
that when you've completed the adjustments all r'as-left" data is within
the specified tolerance.
We find the process operates at 50C.Therefore, adjust the .
temperature bath setpoint to 50C. Once readings have stabilized, adjust
the thermometer to read the same as the temperature standard. Once the
adjustment is complete, record the stabilized thermometer and standard
reading' at each test point as the "as-left" readings. Verify all values are
within tolerance and the desired results were achieved. Below is a table of
our results.

..~

'

'I

. '. ~'I'
' ....
,'..1::

I
I
I

Temperature Instrument Calibration

38

AS-LEFT DATA

AS-FOUND DATA
lEST POINT

OC
26e

so-c
76C
100C

TEST
STANDARD
READING

UNIT UNDER
TEST
READING

ERROR

TEST
STANDARD
READING

UNIT UNDER
lEST
READING

ERROR

1C
26C

+ 0.88

zs.os-c
OO.17C
74.SSoC
100.02C

76.5C
102C

O.10C
25.05e
50. 13C
74.91C
99.97e

- 0.5C
24.5 C
50C
75C
100.5C

-0.60
- 0.55
- 0.13
+ 0.09
+ 0.53

O.12C

si.s-c

0.92
+ 1.33
+ 1.51
+ 1.98

Note: A Calibration Seal should be affixed to the external adjustment to


detect any unauthorized adjustment to the thermometer.
Once you actually perform a calibration as described above, you'll see
it can be very time consuming to wait for the temperature bath to stabilize
at each of the five points (depending on the type of bath used). It may take
all day to perform this one calibration. There are several things you can do
to increase productivity.
1.

Have several thermometers scheduled for calibration at the same


time. It is typically the supervisor's job to properly schedule the
work, but you can look to see if there are other thermometers due the
same month and obtain authorization to calibrate them.

2.

If there are other temperature baths available, set up the baths at


different temperature setpoints, It is recommended to use the same
temperature standard for all test points, but it does not take as long
for the standard to stabilize as it does for the baths.

3.

Use your spare time waiting during setpoint changes to perform


other work.

Example Temperature Calibration #2 - RTD Calibration Check


Although temperature sensors are usually checked as part of a
calibration of the connected device, it may be necessary to check a suspect
temperature sensor or to verify the accuracy of a new RTD. The principles
of this RID calibration check would apply to any sensor type. The only
exception would be a thermocouple calibration check if the test equipment
used to read the thermocouple does not have automatic reference junction
temperature compensation. All modern test equipment performs the
temperature compensation, but it is important to verify. If you perform a
thermocouple calibration check and do not have temperature
compensation, you'll need a second temperature standard to measure the
reference junction ambient temperature and compensate manually.

39

Calibration

Por this example,let's say we need to check the RTD at five points,
from soap to 250 P. Just like the thermometer in example #1, we'll need a
temperature bath capable of achieving the desired range of soep to 250oP, a
temperature standard, and a test instrument capable of reading resistance
(such as a multimeter or multi-function calibrator). Will we need a
refrigerated "bath(or an ice bath) like we needed for the thermometer
calibration in example #1? Yes,since the' minimum test point of Soop is
below normal ambient temperature, we will need a refrigerated bath.
We'll also need the correct RTD table to determine our expected
resistance at 50oP, 100F,150oP,200oP, and 250F.Typically, we would use
the applicable RID table. However it is not unusual for the manufacturer
to provide an RTD table specific to an individual RTO; If the manufacturer
provides a specific RID table, it should be added to the documentation file
for this device, used for the calibration check of this RTD, and used for the
: calibration of any device connected to this RID. Par our example, we will
use the standard RID table for our RTD, whlchis a 100 ohm, platinum, :
385 alpha RTD. (Refer to the correct RTD table in Appendix A-6.) .
To perform the calibration check, place the temperature standard-and .
RTDin the temperature bath. Adjust the bath temperature to each of
test points. Record the temperature standard reading and RID resistance ..
at each ~estpoint. Fill in the expected resistance readings for the five-point .
calibration check from the applicable table in Appendix A-6. If you h'i_ve
difficulty, an explanation follows the table.
."
0

.i

. i

.i
j

.:I
I

the .

II

(OF)

TEMPERATURE
STANDARD
READING (OF)

50

50.0

103.88

100

100.0

114.70

lEST
POINT

,.

CONVERSION
TO C

~XPECTED RTD
RESISTANCE
(OHMS)

ACTUAL ATD
RESISTANCE
(OHMS)

ERROR
(OHMS)

150

150.0

125.40

200

200.0

136.00

I'!

250

250.0

'146.50

First of all, we base our expected resistance yalues on the actual


temperature standard reading obtained, not-the test point. We made this
easier by using nice even temperature standard readings, which will not
be the case in reality. However, since the RID tablesreference
temperature in degrees Celsius, we did add a degree of difficulty
specifying the test points in degrees Fahrenheit. For the.first data point of
50.0Fwe must first convert to C using the conversion C = (OP - 32) X 5/9,

40

Temperature Instrument Calibration

which results in an answer of 10.0C.The remaining conversions are


37.78C, 65.56C,93.33C,and 121.11C, respectively.
For the expected resistances, we can obtain the value for lOoCdirectly
from the RTDtable. You should have 103.90ohms for the expected
resistance at 50F(10C).The remaining test points are not as simple. They
require interpolation. For the 37.78Cdata point you must first find the
resistances for 37Cand 38C, which are 114.38ohms and 114.77ohms,
respectively. Next, find the difference between these resistance values,
which is'0.39ohms in this case. To perform this interpolation, understand
that we are basically finding the resistance value, which is 78/100ths of
the way between 114.38and 114.77.This is simply done by multiplying
0.78 x 0.39,and adding the result to 114.38.The expected resistance for
37.78C is 114.68ohms,
To find the expected resistance for 6S.56C(100.0F),multiply 0.56 x
0.38 and add the result to 125.17ohms. The value for the expected
resistance at the lOOFis 125.38ohms. For 93.33C,multiply 0.33x 0.38and
add the result to 135.85ohms for an expected resistance of 135.98ohms.
For 121.11"C,multiply 0.11x 0.37 and add the result to 146.45ohms, for an
expected resistance of 146.49ohms.
.
Complete the table. Assuming our allowable tolerance is 0.1% of
reading, did our calibration check pass? At the expected resistance of
103.90,the allowable tolerance is 103.90x 0.001,or 0.1 ohms. The
remaining acceptable tolerances are calculated by multiplying 0.001by
expected resistance.
Example 'Iemperature Calibration #3 - TemperatureTransmitter
There are two basic methods to calibrate a temperature transmitter insitu. The first is to calibrate the sensor and transmitter together by placing
the sensor in a temperature bath/block and measuring the transmitter
output. TI1esecond basic method is to disconnect the sensor from the
transmitter and use a simulator in place of the sensor. If the sensor is an
RTD, a decade box or RTD simulator would be connected to the
transmitter input in place of the RTD. If the sensor is a thermocouple, a
thermocouple simulator of the correct type would be connected to the
transmitter input. Any local or remote indications connected to the
transmitter output could be calibrated along with the transmitter as a
loop.
It is recommended that, if a loop calibration is performed, the
transmitter output should still be measured and recorded. The reason for
measuring the transmitter output for a loop calibration is-to determine
which device, transmitter or indicator, would require adjustment if an

Calibration

41

. adjustment were necessary. Either method, individual instrument


calibration or loop.calibration, is acceptable depending on your industry
practices and procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of each
method are discussed in Chapter 1.
FIGURE 3-1.
Temperature Transmitter Calibration Setup (Courtesy Rosemount, Inc.) .

DMM
TRANSMITTER
POWER
SUPPLY

READOUT RESISTOR

..

:",.-.

..
:~~.
~-.
'

CALTERNATE READOUT)

-,.::

"---

II

LEAD'~/MULAT/ON RESISTORS' .

For our example let's perform a calibration of TT-300 using a d~~ade


box per the' calibration procedure SOP-CAL-08,Method B in Appendix A4. The specification for TI-300 is included in Appendix A-3. Use the
information from procedure SOP-CAL-08,TI-300 specification; and RTD
Table in Appendix A-6 f?r 385-alpha to complete the tables below.
TABLE3-1.
Preliminary Operating Point Check .
TEST
POINT

. TEMPERATURE
STANDARD

ACTUAL
lRANSMITTER
OUTPUT

CONVERTED
TEMPERATURE

70C

70. 12C

11.35 mA

68.90C

TEST
POINT
10%

EXPECTED
SIMULATED
INPUT
TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE lRANSMITTER
(OC)
(OHMS)
OUTPUT (mA)
15.0

'.

105.85

5.60

ERROR

-1.22C

ACTUAL
"TRANSMITTER
OUTPUT (rnA)

ERROR

5.50

-0.10 mA

50%

75.0

128.98

12.00

11.88

-0.12 rnA

90%

135.0

157.31

18.40

18.27

-0.13 rnA

.. I

42

Temperature Instrument Calibration

Given the actual transmitter output above, does the transmitter


require calibration? If the manufacturer's specification of 0.2% is used, the
transmitter requires calibration. If the calibration tolerance is 1%, which
would equate to 1.5Cand 0.16 mA, the instrument is within tolerance,
but should be adjusted since it is close. A good rule of thumb is to adjust if
the instrument is> Ihthe specified tolerance. You should not get in the
practice of always performing adjustments to get the instrument
calibration "right on," because even performing adjustments can lead to
deteriorated performance.
You maybe asking yourself why the procedure requires test points of
10%,50%, and 90%.Zero percent, 50%,and 100%may be the normal test
points that you are used to and that is fine. For loops that include an
operator interface, the reading may not go below the minimum or above
the maximum. Therefore, if the 0% and 100%test points were used, you
would not know if the reading was actually below the 0% reading or
above the 100%reading.
Example Temperature Calibration

#4 - Temperature Controller

loop
A temperature controller can be a stand-alone device or a function of
the computer control system, such as a programmable logic controller
(PLC) or distributed control system (DeS). Ifthe temperature controller is
a function of a computer control system, it is typically not calibrated
because it is not really a device subject to going out of calibration. A standalone controller usually has many capabilities such as multi-function
configuration, alarm setpoints, analog and on/ off outputs. For our
example, we'll assume we have a Moore 352controller configured for
4-20 rnA input with a corresponding display do to 100C.The controller
is also configured for a low alarm of 30Cand a high alarm of 40C. The
4-20 rnA output is supplied to an l/P (current-to-pneumatic) transducer
for control of a steam valve.
For our calibration we only need to concern ourselves with the
controller itself. The temperature transmitter that supplies the rnA input is
calibrated separately. The I/P transducer is also calibrated separately. It's
a good idea to have the calibration of all loop components scheduled
together. You could also perform a calibration for the entire loop as
previously discussed, if desired. However, to start with it is very
important that the control system technician understands how the
controller interfaces with the process. First of all, the system must be in a
state which will allow the safe performance of the calibration. The system
controlled by this controller should be shut down and the controller

'I
'I

43

Calibration

placed in manual operation. If the controller remained in automatic


during the calibration, the simulated signals would cause output
responses which could be detrimental to equipment and process.
FIGURE3~2.
Control Loop on P&I Drawings

STEAM

J
J

..".j

. II

~J

FROM REACTOR
FEED PREp
E -107

CONDENSATE,.

Once the system is in a safe condition and the controller is placed' in


manual,.we can disconnect the controller input leads and connect a .
milliamp simulator to the input. To perform the calibration, adjust the
milliamp simulator to the desired setpoints and record the controller
display. Ifthe display requires calibration, follow the manufacturer's
procedures for calibration. For rnicropro~essor based instruments, the
calibration is usually not performed by turning a potentioineter, but rather
adjusting the input to a pre-determined value and pushing buttons so the
microprocessor can make the adjustments.
Once the display is properly calibrated, it's a good idea to verify
. alarm setpoints and control output action. This is not required and many
calibration procedures would not include it. To perform the alarm checks,
the milliamp simulator is adjusted as necessary to determine the
temperature at which the low and high alarms trip and reset. To check the
controller output for proper operation; adjust the milliamp simulator
. above and below the setpoint safely to verify the proper output action is
occurring.

',i

"II:
~-:.
...?

<

...,

.,

"'i

I
i

Temperature Instrument Calibration

44

#5 - Temperature Switch
A temperature switch is a device that senses temperature and
changes state at the programmed or adjusted setpoint. A temperature
switch usually has at least one set of normally open (NO) and one set of
normally closed (NC) contacts, but may have only a NC contact, a NO
contact, or more than one set of each. NO and NC refer to the state of that
contact with the switch de-energized. The tricky part of calibrating a
temperature switch is to know whether the switch should "trip" with
increasing or decreasing temperature. Typically, a high temperature
switch would "trip" with increasing temperature, and vice versa.
Basically the calibration of the switch is checked by placing the sensor
in a bath and measuring across the applicable contact with a multimeter.
The bath temperature is increased/decreased to the setpoint. The
multimeter will read the change of voltage or resistance when the switch
changes stqte. In other words, the multimeter will read 0 volts with the
switch closed and supply voltage with the switch open. If the contact is a
"dry" contact (no voltage), the multimeter will read close to 0 ohms with
the contact closed and infinite ohms with the switch open. (Hint: You may
want to disconnect and electrically insulate the leads to check the switch
by itself. This removes any parallel resistances and external circuits from
interfering. As an alternative, use the remote indication as confirmation of
proper switch operation. Be cautious of circuit and display time delays.)
Example Temperature Calibration

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Situation for Questions 1-10:TT-300is installed in a process tank, which
is currently in production. This is the first calibration after initial startup.
Use the references in Appendix-A to answer the following questions.
1.

What is the correct calibration range and manufacturer's specified


accuracy for TT-300?(Appendix A-3)

2.

Select the correct procedure(s) that could be used for this calibration
of TT-300?(Appendix A-4)

3.

What local! remote indications should be recorded during calibration


of TT-300?(Appendix A-l)

45

Calibration

4.

What must be done prior to removing RTDfor calibration of TT-300?


(initial conditions of standard op~ratfug procedure, SOP)

5.

what are the correct resistance values to input for 10%,50%, and
90%? (refer to the correct RTD table in Appendix A-6)

6.

What are the expected transmitter output values for the resistance
inputs from step 5? '

7,

Indicate the correct test equipment ho,?kup for calibration of TT-300.

Meter (mA)
Decade Box.

oilier
Resistance
Simulator

'
ill

",

6"J~

(if

Temperalure--Transmitter
IT-300

.j~'

8.

.'1:.

,
'iI

. I

_',I

Assume a calibration tolerance of O.soC/O,OS m.A. With the results


indicated, what instrument(s) in the loop require(s) adjustment?
% INPUT

rnA OUTPUT

TIC-300 INDICA nON

10%

5.70

15.9

50%

12.10

75.9

90%

18.50

.. 135'.9

46

9,

Temperature Instrument Calibration

What type of error is indicated by the results of question 8?


Zero error
B. Span error
C. Zero and Span error
D. Linearity error
A.

10. Following adjustment, all r'as-Ieft" data is within tolerance. What


must be performed to place the instrument loop back in service?

Situation for questions 11-15: You will be performing an initial


calibration of TI-200 on the bench, prior to installation. Use the references
in Appendix A to answer the following questions.
11. What are the correct reference temperatures and corresponding
millivolt values to input for a calibration check at the following test
points?
% INPUT

lEMPERATURE

MILLIVOLTS

0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

12. What are the expected transmitter outputs for the following
simulated inputs?
% INPUT
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

OUTPUT (rnA)

47

Calibration

13. Indicate the correct test equipment hookup for calibration of TI-200.

Meter (mA)

Thermocouple
Simullltof

Temperature Transmitter

moo

24VDC

Power
Supply

!.

14. Assume a calibration tolerance' ofe l.oop10.08 mAo Withthe results


indicated, what must be done to bring the instrument to within
tolerance?
% INPUT

OUTPUT (rnA)

0%

4.00

25%'

7.98

I
....

50%

11.96

75%

15.94

100%

19.92

JI

..

I
15. Following adjustment(all"as-Ieft" data is within tolerance. What
steps remain to complete the bench calibration?

Situation for questions 16 - 20:The operator suspects that TI-302is not


. reading the correct temperature of Reactor 300. You will be performing a
calibration of TI-302.Use the references in Appendix A to answer the
following questions .'
16. What test equipment will be used for calibration of TI-302?

Temperature Instrument Calibration

48

17. What must be performed to safely remove TI-302from the process?

18. What important consideration must be taken into account for a


proper calibration using a temperature block?

19. The thermometer has one external adjustment. With the results
indicated, what must be done to bring the instrument to within
tolerance?
% INPUT

THERMOMETER INDICATION
(OF)

0%

25%

34

50%

66

75%

99

100%

>130

:1

20. What would you do if the thermometer was out of tolerance and the
thermometer does not have an adjustment available?

For questions 21- 23you will be performing a bench calibration of a


temperature switch, TSH-20S.
21. What is the specified trip point and reset point of TS-20S?
Trip

Reset

22. What type of sensor does TS-20Suse?

23. When performing an initial calibration on the bench, is it important


to know what function TS-20Swill perform once installed? Why or
why not?

PRESSURE .INSTR.UMENT

CALIBRATION

After completing this chapter, you should be eble to:

Calibrate the fol/owing pressure instrument types (to ISA


standards, where applicable) and determine ecceptebititv:
Gauges
'Transmitters
Switches
Select proper calibration procedure and calibration d_atasheet.
Select appropriate certified test equipment.
Properly set up/connect test equipment to DUT for celibratton.
/1

Properly isolate pressure devices and/or remove from service


for field calibration.

"

Return equipment to service foljowing calibration.


Complete and properly maintain calibration documentation.

4. 1

WHAT IS PRESSURE?

Air pressure is the force exerted on you by the weight of tiny particles
of air (air molecules). Although air molecules are invisible, they still have
weight and. take up space. Atmospheric presstITeis approximately 14.7
pounds per square inch (psi) at sea leveL This means that if we could put .
one square inch of air from the ground to the 1.1pperatmosphere on a scale,
it would weigh 14.7pounds. We do not feel this pressure because it also
acts internally and is thus balanc~d. Since there's a lot of "empty" space
between air molecules, air can be compressed to fit in a smaller volume.
When it's compressed, air is said to be "under high pressure."
There are two ways to look at pressure: (1) the small-scale action of .
Individualair molecules, or (2)the large-scale action of a large number of

'I

50

Pressure Instrument Calibration

molecules. Starting with the small-scale action, a gas is composed of a


large number of molecules that are very small relative to the distance
between molecules. The molecules are in constant, random motion and
frequently collide with each other and with the walls of any container. The
molecules possess the physical properties of mass, momentum, and
energy. As the gas molecules collide with the walls of a container, the
molecules impart momentum to the walls, producing a force
perpendicular to the wall. The sum of the forces of all the molecules
striking the wall divided by the area of the wall is defined to be the
pressure. The pressure of a gas is then a measure of the linear momentum
of the molecules of a gas.

4.2 CHALLENGES WHEN CALIBRATING


PRESSURE
The first thing we have to deal with when calibrating a pressure
instrument is the unit of measure we're dealing with. There seems to be
dozens of units. In the U.S. we usually deal with pounds per square inch
(psi), but even with that we need to know if it's absolute or gauge pressure
(psia or psig). And although we usually deal with psig, we'll routinely
deal with inches of water (H20 or "w.c.") for low pressure applications.
Other units of measure we will be exposed to are: bars (1 bar = 1
atmosphere), inches of mercury (Hg), millimeters of mercury (mm of Hg),
millimeters of water (mm of H20), microns, ton', pascals (Pa), and
dynes/ cm2. Some conversion factors for pressure units are included in
Appendix A-7.
Many of the modern pressure calibrators allow us to select the
desired units of measure, but we still need to understand the relative
pressure we're dealing with to ensure the correct test equipment, pressure
module, and tubing/fittings rated for the maximum test pressure are
used.
When I first started calibrating, I had a pressure gauge that read
about 15 psi high at all test points. I went through a tremendous amount
of effort to drain the glycerin from the gauge, remove the cover, and
attempt to adjust the gauge needle. When I couldn't get the gauge to
calibrate properly, I took it to my supervisor to order a new replacement
gauge. My supervisor informed-me that the gauge read in psia, my "asfound" data was acceptable, and I ruined a perfectly good gauge. The
gauge was ruined because the vacuum that had existed in the gauge case
was eliminated when the gauge was opened. This vacuum was present to

51

Calibration

II

provide the gauge with a reference to absolute zero pressure. So, if you
calibrate a gauge and it reads about 15psi with no pressure applied, take it
from me, the gauge reading is probably in psia, not psig. Know the unit of
measure for the device you are calibrating!
Another challenge with pressure calibrations is having the correct
fittings to connect the pressure source, pressure standard, and the unit
under test. Even with a few drawers full of fittings in the shop and access
to more adapters in the mechanical shop and spare parts stock, we never
seem to have the right fittings. To minimize this problem, enter the fittings
needed in the calibration notes that print out with the calibration data
sheet or work order. The important thing is to minimize the number of
connections in the test setup in order to minimize the potential for
leakage.
Leakage is another problem we have to deal with.when performing
pressure calibrations. This problem is amplified when Weuse a hand
pump as our pressure/vacuum source. Small leaks in the test setup can be
compensated for by using a constant pressure source such as a N2 bottle, a
spare plan~air connection, or vacuum pump. However, leakage should be
eliminated or minimized for allpressure calibrations even when using a
constant pressure source. Even the smallest leak is frustrating when using
a hand pump, so those connections have to be minimized and tight.
Hysteresis is the measure of the difference in response of a device as
the input signal increases from minimum value to a maximum value, and,
subsequently decreases from maximum to minimum over the same range.
Hysteresis is expressed in percent of full scale (% FS).)nstruments with
mechanical movements such as pressure gauges and current-topneumatic (l/P) transducers develop hysteresis error. Often this is caused
by friction and wear of the mechanical components.There is no way to
adjust for hysteresis error during calibration. Hysteresis can be evaluated
. by-obtaining calibration data with the input applied in both the increasing
and decreasing direction as illustrated below. '

i
I
I

I
II
1
. I

l
i

r
. APPLIED INPUT
[PSIG)

AS-FOUND
VALUES (1)

AS-FOUNQ

VALUES

(il

HYSTERESIS
(%FS)

10

10

1%

25

24

25

1%

50

49

51

2%

75

74

76

2%

90

90

91

1%

I
I
I

52

Pressure Instrument

Calibration

When evaluating hysteresis, it is important to approach the target


value without overshooting the applied input. If the input value exceeds
the increasing target value, decrease the applied input to the previous test
point and retry. If the input value exceeds the decreasing target value,
increase the applied input above the previous test point and retry.
Special sajeh) considerations must be considered when calibrating
pressure instruments. First of all, ensure the system pressure has been
released prior to attempting to remove any pressure devices. Also, you
must know what potential hazards exist with the process material Some
process material may be toxic or may cause harm to the environment if
exposed. Verify with the supervisor of the area before removing any
device for calibration.
FIGURE 4-1.
Typical Pressure Calibration Test Setup

Power
Supply
(if needed)

Input
Standard

Pressure/
Vacuum
Source*

Unit
Under
Test

Output
Standard
(if needed)

Including regulator and vent, if necessary

4.3

CALIBRATING PRESSURE GAUGES

Pressure gauges are often used as local indicators of process pressure.


An analog pressure gauge, because of its links, levers, and elastic pressure
sensing element, requires periodic calibration checks. Pressure changes
applied to the gauge cause the elastic element to expand and contract. The
movement of the element is translated into movement of the pointer
through links, levers, and gears. The measurement values of the gauge are
read directly on the gauge scale from the position of the pointer.

Calibration

53

FIGURE 4-2.
Bourdon Pressure Gauge

I,

i
!

:'1"1

~,

Calibrating a pressure gauge includes 'adjustment of these components


until the gauge accurately represents the input. The power supply ami
output standard illustrated above are not used for calibrating a pressure
gauge.
<
The instrument under test determines the calibration standards. First,
you n~ed a source 'of pressure such as a hand pump or regula ted pressure
source (vacuum hand pump or regulated vacuum source if calibrating a
vacuum gauge). A regulator with the smallest'range available that exceeds
the gauge's range is most appropriate. 'Urisallows the gauge's full range
to be tested as accurately as possible as well as precise adjustment of the '
pressure input. Select the proper input standard for the pressure range
tested. The pressure standard may be a precision gauge or digital test
standard with the correct pressure module, manometer, or dead weight
tester.
Use a tee to connect the input test standard to the pressure source and
the gauge und~r test. Besure the gauge under test is mounted in the same
orientation as in the process. Positioning a gauge vertically for calibration
and then reinstalling the gauge in its horizontal configuration in the
pr~cess will introduce error.
Determine the five test points used for the upscale and downscale
checks of the gauge under test. As discussed earlier in this chapter, with

I
I

I
I
j

Pressure Instrument Calibration

54

any mechanical instrument, it is important to accurately determine


whether hysteresis is present in the instrument. This means that you will
begin your upscale check from 0% and approach the first test point, 10%,
from below. Approach each increasing test point from below and do not
overshoot. If you overshoot, reduce pressure to the previous test point and
repeat. Similarly, start the downscale check by increasing the input to
100%,then approach 90%from above. Now that the "as-found" data for
our 0-200psig gauge has been collected, let's evaluate the data. The table
below shows our lias-found" results.
AS-FOUND DATA
TEST
POINT

TEST
UNIT
STANDARD UNDER
READING
lEST
(PSIG)
READING
Ii PSIG)

ERROR
{il
(PSIG)

UNIT UNDER
lEST
READING (!)
(PSIG)

ERROR HYSTERESIS
(!I
ERROR
(PSIG)
(Ll

10%

20.0

19

-1.

19

-1

0%

25%

50.0

49

-1

50

0.5%

50%

100.0

99

-1

100

0.5%

75%

150.0

149

-1

151

+1

1%

90%

180.0

179

-1

180

0.5%

The test results are then checked against the allowable tolerance. If
the results are outside the allowable tolerance, determine the type of
errors present (linearity, zero, span, and hysteresis), and adjust per the
manufacturer's instructions or use the general instructions, as applicable,
that follow.
On most motion balance instruments, adjust linearity first. The
movement of the elastic element in a pressure gauge causes a proportional
movement in the linkage. On a properly calibrated gauge, the linkage
angle will be exactly 90 when the input to the gauge is at 50% of total
range. Therefore, apply 50%input and use a template to check the 90
angle.
With linearity adjusted, position the pointer so the gauge reads midscale. You may need to remove the pointer and reposition it on the shaft. If
removing the pointer is necessary, be sure to use the proper tool. Now
lower the input to 10%and adjust the zero so the gauge reading equals the
applied input.
0,

Calibration

55

Now correct the span error. Increase the-input pressure to 90% and
adjust the gauge to read the input value. For span adjustments, loosen the
screws and rotate the entire adjustment mechanism.
Repeat the zero and span adjustment until the readings at 10% and
90% are accurate. Zero and span interact in the mechanical device, so
rechecking them is necessary. When zero and span require no further
adjustments, rech~ck the linearity to make sure it is still properly adjusted.
There are no adjustments for hysteresis. After adjusting linearity, zero and
span, perform another full scale check and record.as-Ieft calibration data.

,.

.j jl.

4.4

CALIBRATING PRESSURE lRANSMITTERS

Calibrating a pressure transmitter-is similar to calibrating a pressure


gauge, except we must measure the-output signal using an appropriate
measuring standard. For example, we would use a milliammeter to .;..:__
.... ,
measure a 4-to-20 rnA transmitter output Signal. If necessary, we ma~'also
have to provide the transmitter output power source, such as 24 volts-.
direct current (VDC). Most modern calibration standards provide the~:
ability to supply the transmitter power so a separate power source is not
required.
.
Adjust the input values to the required test points arid record "a~~.
found'; values for' the milliamp output If the transmitter includes a local
readout, record the display. Typically,
it is not necessary to check a
,
transmitter in both the upscale and downscale directions (follow your
company procedures). Once the lias-found" data has been recorded,
evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if
adjustment is' required. If adjustment is required, perform the zero and
span adjustments per the manufacturer's procedures. Sometimes this is
adjustment of a zero and span potentiometer, sometimes it's a pushbutton
adjustment, while other transmitters require th~ use of a handheld
interface., Because some zero and span adjustments interact, it is important
to recheck the zero and span until no further adjustment is required.
Once no further adjustments are required, repeat the five point check
and record lias-left" values.

4.5'

CALIBRATING PRESSURE SWITCHES

A pressure switch is a device that senses _pressure and changes state


at the programmed or adjusted setpoint. A Single pole double throw

.~:~;1

.,.;oj

.~I

..:.l

I
I

I
J

r
J

I
t

Pressure Instrument Calibration

56

(SPOT)pressure switch has one set of normally open (NO) and one set of
normally dosed (NC) contacts. A double pole double throw pressure
switch is furnished with two SPDT switches. NO and NC refer to the state
of that contact with the switch de-energized. The tricky part of calibrating
a pressure switch is to know whether the switch should "trip" with
increasing or decreasing pressure and which contact is used for the circuit.
Typically a high pressure switch would "trip" with increasing pressure,
and would use the NO contact. This means at normal pressure the switch
would be dosed and would open when the high pressure setpoint is
reached. Using the NO contact provides a fail-safe condition if the circuit
failed (power failure or broken wire). However the requirements of the
alarm circuit must be considered.
The calibration setup of a pressure switch is similar to a pressure
gauge and pressure transmitter, except a multimeter set to measure
voltage or resistance, as applicable, is connected to the applicable set of
contacts (such as the common and NO terminals). The applied input
pressure is increased to the setpoint. The multimeter will read the change
of voltage or resistance when the switch changes state. In other words, the
multimeter will read 0 volts with the switch closed and supply voltage
with the switch open. If the contact is a "dry" contact (no voltage), the
multimeter will read close to 0 ohms with the contact closed and infinite
ohms with the switch open. (Hint: You may want to disconnect and
electrically insulate the leads to check the switch by itself. This removes
any parallel resistances and external circuits from interfering. As an
alternative, use the remote indication as confirmation of proper switch
operation. Be cautious of circuit and display time delays.)

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Use the information in Chapter 4 and the references in Appendix A to
answer the following questions.
1.

Arrange the following in order from lowest to highest pressure:


---' _,

A.

B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

---'-I

_,_

14.7psia
14,7psig
500 millitorr
30 "Hg
500 "H20
500mmHG

57

Calibration

2.

What is the correct calibration range and manufacturer's


accuracy for PIT-303?

3.

Select the correct procedure to be used for this calibration of PIT -303.

4.

What local! remote indications should be recorded during calibration


ofPIT-303?

specified

I
i

I
5.

What must be done prior to removing pressure sensor for calib~~tion


ofPIT-303?

.~1~

.;l~
~i

~
:;.:

:["

6.

What pressure values will be applied to perform calibration of PIT-

OO~

.,~
'-::J

~~~,

~~
.~~
'.~.,~

.1

.~.,

'-1

7.

,What are the expected transmitter output values for the pressures
applied in the previous step?

58

8.

PressureInstrument Calibration

Indicate the correct test equipment hookup for calibration ofPIT-303


by inserting the correct item from the list below into the appropriate
box:
Power supply
Referencestandard pressure indicator
Milliammeter
Pressure source

9.

Unit
Under
Test

What safety considerations must be taken into account when


performing a pressure instrument calibration?

10. Assume a calibration tolerance of 0.3psig/0.l0 rnA. With the


results indicated, what instrurnent(s) in the loop requires
adjustment?
% INPUT

rnA OUTPUT

PIC-303 INDICATION

10%

5.50

5.0

50%

11.90

25.0

90%

18.30

45.0

11. How would the calibration required in the previous step be


performed?

,I

Calibration

59

12. Following adjustment, all "as-left" data is within tolerance. What


must be performed to place the instrument loop back in service?

13. What is the importance of checking the calibration of a pressure


gauge while increasing and decreasing pressure applied?

14. PI-304 is a compound pressure gauge which measures /Indicates


both vacuum and positive pressure. What test equipment will be
required to perform this calibration?

15.

What safety considerations must be taken into account when


removing a pressure gauge for calibration?

16. PI-304 is out of tolerance on the vacuum portion andwithin tolerance


on the pressure portion. With no available replacements, under-what
. conditions could this gauge be used?

17. What are the specified trip points of PDIS-405? Is the output of the
switch connected to the normally open or-normally closed contacts?

I
.1

I
I

5
LEVEL INSTRUMENT
CALIBRATION.
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
Calibrate the following levelinstrument types (to ISA
standards, where applicable)and determine acceptability:
Differential pressure
Capacitanceprobe
Ultrasonic
. Select the proper calibration procedure and calibration.dets .
sheet.
Select appropriatecertified test equipment.
Properly set up/connect test equipment to device under test
(DUT) for calibration.
Properly isolate level devices and/or remove from service for
field calibration.

Return equipment to service following calibration.


.
Complete and properly maintain calibration documentation.

5.1

lYPES"OF LEVEL INSTRUMENTS

There are numerous types of level sensors and instrumentation. The


sensor type used in a particular application depends on many factors
including the process fluid measured, density, vented/pressurized, direct
or indirect detection, agitated, continuous or point measurement,
accessibility, maintenance requirements, etc. We will briefly overview a
few of the major sensor types:
Differential

Pressure

Differential pressure sensors have a high pressure side and a low


pressure side with a sensing element, such as a bellows, separating the
two sides. The high pressure side of the sensor is usually connected to the
61

62

Level Instrument Calibration

FIGURE 5-1.
Differential Pressure Sensor

HIGH PRESSURE

LOW PRESSURE

II
bottom portion of the vessel and, therefore, senses the pressure exerted by
the weight of the process fluid in the vessel plus the tank pressure (if
pressurized). The low pressure side is usually connected to the vapor
space at the top of a pressurized vessel or is open to atmosphere if the
vessel is vented or open to atmosphere. The low pressure side only senses
the vessel pressure (or atmospheric pressure) and not the weight of the
process fluid. Differential pressure (dip) measurement is based on the
principle that the difference between the two pressures is equal to the
height of liquid, multiplied by the specific gravity of the fluid.
Capacitance/Radio Frequency (RF)

A capacitor consists of two plates electrically isolated from each other


by a dielectric (nonconductor). The plates have an area (A) and are
separated by a distance (D).Different mediums have a specific dielectric
constant (K). Capacitance (C) :;:KA/D. Therefore, if the plate area and gap
distance remain constant, capacitance varies as a function of the dielectric
constant of the substance filling the gap.
For capacitance level measurement, a capacitor is formed when a
level-sensing electrode is installed in a vessel. The metal rod of the
electrode acts as one plate of the capacitor, and the tank wall acts as the

63

Calibration.

other plate. If the tank wall is not metallic, a reference electrode is used.
Referring to Figure 5-2,you can see that, as the liquid level rises; the air or
gas around the electrode is displaced by the process material, which has a
different dielectric constant. Therefore, there is a corresponding change in
capacitance between the probe and the vessel wall. The measured
capacitance is proportional to liquid level. The unit of capacitance is the .
farad. Capacitance level probes typically measure in the pico-farad range
(10-12farads).
FIGURE 5-2.
Capacitance Probe

r----

PROBE:
ONE PLATE
OF CAPACITOR

METAl.: WALL:
OTHER PLATE
OF CAPACITOR

II

I
I

I
'I

Ultrasonic

Level is measured using the ultrasonic method by transmitting a


sound pulse from the instrument to the surface of a material. The sound ..
pulse is reflected off the surface, and the echo returns to the instrument
where it is detected. A shorter time for the transmitted signal to return
means the level is closer to the Sensor and, therefore, the level is higher in
.the tank. The amount of time for the return signal is inversely proportional
to the level.

64

Level Instrument Calibration

FIGURE 5~3.
Ultrasonic Measurement

GENERATOR AND
TRANSMITIER ~---I

TIMING
GENERATOR

1-----.1

lOGIC AND
DISPLAY

'------.----'

n
\.U

I I I 10
WAVE
SHAPING

__fI

TRANSMITTED BURST
RECEIVED BURST (ECHO)
ELAPSED TIME PROPORTIONAL
TO DISTANCE

5.2 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH LEVEL


CALIBRATION
Suppressed/Elevated

Zero

If the dip cell is not located at an elevation that corresponds to 0%


level in the tank, it must be calibrated to account for the difference in
elevation. This calibration adjustment is called zero elevation when the
cell is located above the lower tap; it is called zero suppression when the
cell is located below the lower tap.
To calculate the amount of elevation or suppression, the distance
between the zero reference level and the high pressure port of the dip
cell must be accurately measured. Taking into account that 27.72:' H20 =
1 psig, calibrate the transmitter for the distance measured in direction
necessary to result in an accurate output.
Specific Gravity
Specific gravity is ratio of density of a process material to the density
of water or air. It is particularly important to consider the specific gravity
of the process material when performing calibrations of differential
pressure level devices. If specific gravity is assumed to be 1.0, or not

Calibration

65

considered at all.signlficant error will be introduced if the process


material is not water or specific gravity of 1.0.Water has a density of
62.4Ibs/cu. ft.'

FIGURE 5-4.
Liquid Head Measurement

WEIGHS.62.4 LBS.
DENS)TY'" 62.4 LBS.lCU.

FT.i

-~

1 SO. INCH

PRESSUREAT BOTTOM
'.

=m
=
AREA

62.4tes.
144SQ. INCH

= 0433
PSI PER 12' WATERCOLUMN
.

;-'
.:

OR 0433 PSI = 0.03609 PSI PER INCHWATER COLUMN


12'

,H

~.

..

'

-,

FIGURE 5-5.
Effect of Specific Gravity on Liquid Head Measurement

As specific gravity changes (& density changes) "h", or


head must be multiplied by the specific gravity of the
.liquid to convert to inches H20
This gives the pressure at the bottom of the tank-in inches Hp

"

-.-SPECIFIC
GRAVITY =?

-_

.--r
"h" (INCHES)

_l

,-

Level Instrument Calibration

66

To determine the specific gravity of a process material, simply divide


the density of the process material by the density of water. For example,
the density of petroleum is 54.81bsl cu. ft. Therefore the specific gravity of
petroleum is 54.8 -;.62.4, or 0.88. To properly calibrate a dip transmitter
for a sensor monitoring the level of petroleum, the nominal test points for
input pressure must be multiplied by 0.88. Specifically, if the transmitter is
calibrated for a to 100" = 4-to-20 rnA output, you would use the following
to properly adjust the transmitter for the process fluid specific gravity of
0.88:

NOMINAL
(IN. H2O)

ACTUAL lEST
PRESSURE
(IN. H2O)
NOM. x 0.88

EXPECTED
OUTPUT
(MA)

10

8.8

5.60

25

22.0

8.00

50

44.0

12.00

75

66.0

16.00

100

88.0

20.00

I!
Dry and Wet Legs
For differential pressure measurements, the pressure of the vapor
space in pressurized vessels is connected to the low pressure side of the
dip cell. When process vapors are non-condensing, non-corrosive, and
non-plugging, the leg external to the vessel that is connected to the dip
cell is a dry leg. If any condensate accumulates in this leg, significant error
would result in the level indication. Can you see why? If there is
condensate in the dry leg, the weight of the condensate adds pressure to
the low pressure side of the dip cell. This would reduce the dip sensed
and result in a level indication or output that is lower than the actual level.
On the other hand, if the process vapors condense, the reference leg
can be filled to form a wet leg. The specific gravity and height of the
reference column must be accurately determined and accounted for in any
calibration of the dip cell.
Interface
For purposes of level instrumentation, "interface" typically refers to
the point at which two non-mixable fluids meet, such as oil and water.
Special considerations must be made to accurately measure the level of
each fluid and/or the level of the interface.

.!

67

Calibration

5.3 CALIBRATING A DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE


LEVEL lRANSMITTER
FIGURE 5-6.

Shop Calibration - DP Transmitter.


AUXILIARY Ct:JRRENT
READOUT
:1:0.1%

B.
PROCESS.
SIMULATOR
INCHESH20
>0.1% ACCURACY

OR BElTER

O'.250" Hp

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
TRANSMllTER

mAREADOUT
:I: 0.1% ACCURACY

OR BElTER

SERIES RESISTANCE
REQUIREDWITH
SOME TRANSMITTERS

r----l~..:.:.....J......::_j

24VDC
POWERSUPPLY

VENT TO
ATMOSPHERE
>20 PSIG
AIRS!JPPLY

JI

120VAC

The illustration above indicates a typical test setup for performing a


bench calibration of a differential pressure transmitter. Calibrating a dip
transmitter is similar to calibrating a pressure transmitter discussed in
Chapter 4. Measured pressure is applied to the high pressure port of the
.dip cell, and the low pressure side is vented to atmosphere, Be sure to
remove,any caps, cleanliness plugs, or obstructions from the low pressure
port, (This is sometimes overlooked, partic~arly for new instruments.),
.
The calibrator and transmitter must be at the same elevation to prevent
inducing head which would introduce error. A milliammeter is connected ..
in series to measure a 4-to-20 rnA transmitter output Signal. If necessary,
we may also have to provide the transmitter output power source.euchas
24 volts direct current"(VOC).Again, most modern calibration standards ..:
. provide the ability to supply the transmitter power so a separate power
source is not required
'The dip transmitter in Figure 5-6 is calibrated for a 0-250"H20 input
;;;::
4-to-20 rnA output. On the bench, with no remote displays to over range,
we can perform the five-point check at 0%, 25%,50%, 75%,and 100%.The
calibration data table is illustrated below.

j~

68

Level Instrument Calibration

TABLE 5-1.
Calibration Data Table for 0-250 in. H20 DIP Transmitter
% SPAN

ACTUAL
INPUT
("H2O)

IDEAL
OUTPUT
(rnA)

0%

0.0

4.00

25%

62.5

8.00

50%

125.0

12.00

75%

187.5

16.00

100%

250.0

20.00

AS
FOUND
OUTPUT
(rnA)

%
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

AS-LEFT
OUTPUT
(rnA)

%
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

Once the test setup is established, adjust the input values to the
required test points and record lias-found values for the milliamp output.
Typically, it is not necessary to check a transmitter in both the upscale and
downscale directions. Once the lias-found" data has been recorded,
evaluate the error against the acceptable tolerance to determine if
adjustment is required. The following "as-found" values were obtained.
The error is calculated by [(Actual Output-Ideal Output) ..;.(Ideal Output)]
II

x 100%.

11
TABLE 5-2.
Calibration Data Table for 0-250 in. H20 = 4-20 mA DIP Transmitter
(Note: The % error is calculated based on the reading and not % span
in this case)
% SPAN

ACTUAL
INPUT
(NH2O)

IDEAL
OUTPUT
(MA)

ASFOUND
OUTPUT
(MA)

% RDG
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

0%

0.0

4.00

4.01

0.25%

25%

62.5

8.00

8.02

0.25%

50%

125.0

12.00

12.03

0.25%

75%

187.5

16.00

16.05

0.3125%

100%

250.0

20.00

20.08

0.40%

AS-LE'FT
OUTPUT
(MA)

% RDG
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

If adjustment is required, perform the zero and span adjustments per


the manufacturer's procedures. Sometimes this is adjustment of a zero and
span potentiometer, sometimes it's a pushbutton adjustment, while other
transmitters req.uirethe use of a handheld interface. Because some zero
and span adjustments interact, it is important to recheck the zero and span
until no further adjustment is required.

69

Calibration

vyith the "as-found" readings obtained above, what adjustments will


likely berequired? The zero is adjusted to achieve a 4.00 rnA output with
the input vented to atmospheric pressure. The span is adjusted to achieve
an output of 20.00 rnA with 250.0"H20 applied to the input. The zero and
span adjustments are repeated until no further adjustments are required.
Once no further adjustments are required, repeat the five-point check and
record "as-left" values. The "as-left" values obtained are recorded below.
TABLE 5-3.
Calibration Data Table for 0-250
Data
% SPAN

ACTUAL
INPUT
("H2O)

0%

0.0

25%

62.5

50%

. 125.0

IDEAL
OUTPUT
(rnA)

in. H20 DIP Transmitter wi As-Left


AS~LEFT
%
OUTPUT DEVIATION
(rnA)
(ERROR)

ASFOUND
OUTPUT
(rnA)

%
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

4.00

4.01

0.25%

4.00

8.00

8.02

0.25%

8.01

12.00

12.03

0.25%

12.00

0.0%

0.06%

75%

187.5 .

16.00

16.05

0.31%

16.01

100%

250.0

20.00

20.08

0.40%

20.00

0.0%
0.13:%;:

....

.0.0%

.:
How would this calibration change if the process material has a
. specific gravity of 1.17If we installed the above dip transmitter to .,"
measure the tank level of a material with specific gravity of 1.1,what
would the indicated level be at an actual level of 100"7Since the process
material is denser than water by a factor of 1.1~it will exert a pressure of
1.1times water at the same height. Therefore the indicated level would be
110"at an actual level of 100".
.' For an accurate level indication, the input press:ure must be adjusted
to compensate for the specific gravity of the process material. This
compensation is calculated by multiplying the input pressure in inches of
H20 times the specific gravity. This calculated input pressure is then
applied at the corresponding % span using the same ideal output rnA
values as before..The Calibration Data Table compensated .fora specific
gravity of 1,.1is illustrated below.

... j

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Level Instrument Calibration

70

TABLE 5-4.
Calibration Data Table for 0-250 in. DIP Transmitter @ Specific
Gravity = 1. 1
% SPAN

ACTUAL
INPUT
("H2O)

IDEAL
OUTPUT
(rnA)

0%

0.0

4.00

25%

68.75

8.00

50%

137.5

12.00

75%

206.25

16.00

100%

275.0

20.00

ASFOUND
OUTPUT
(rnA)

%
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

AS LEFT
OUTPUT
(rnA)

%
DEVIATION
(ERROR)

How would this calibration change if it were done in the field? There
is no change in the calibration principles. However, some of the
considerations that must be made are listed below:
Before doing anything, the process conditions must be evaluated.
This is also true if the instrument is removed from service for a
bench calibration. Is the system shutdown with the tank drained?
Is the process operating in automatic level control? If so, the
system must be placed in manual control and an alternate means
of manual level control employed.
Can the dip cell be isolated from the system? If not, the system
must be shutdown and drained. If so, isolate the dip cell properly
before making test connections. If equipped, the bypass valve is
always opened first and closed last to prevent damage to the dip
cell.
Is the process material hazardous? If so, take appropriate
precautions.
The test pressure input is connected to the high pressure side, and
the low pressure side is disconnected, if necessary, and vented to
atmosphere.
Most likely, the rnA output will only need to be measured, without
the need for providing a power source. The output signal circuit
usually provides the power source.
Record the remote display(s) if required by procedure for a loop
calibration. If the remote indication(s) does not go below the 0"

II

71

Calibration

value or above the 100% value, check the instrument at 10% and
. 90% instead of 0% and 100%. All other test points remain the same.

5.4 CAL1SRATING A CAPACITANCE LEVEL


INSTRUMENT
The initial calibration of a capacitance level instrument following .
installation "isvery vendor-specific. It usually involves adjusting the actual
tank level to one point, accurately measuring that level, and entering the
. actual level in the calibration setup (or pushing a button at the zero level).
The tank level is then adjusted to a second point, accurately measuring
.that level, and entering the actual level in the calibration setup (or pushing
a button at the 100% level. The calibration points must be accurately_ 'yo
determined and should be as far apart as.possible. There may also be
linearization values to enter and other factors, depending on the tankrl,v,
shape and probe installation.
.To perform a periodic calibration check of the capacitance level, it~is
best to establish an independent.means of determining the level. This ~;:
could be by:
.
;1:
/1

Installing a temporary sight glass by connecting some tubing t9 a:


tank ,bottom connection and running up the side of the tank :'.:;,
(externally);
Measuring the actual level using a measuring stick;
Using a calibrated flowmeter to meter the amountof fluid added
to the tank; or
,

Weighing out a specified amount and transferring the entire


amount to the tank,
You'll have to use your imagination and existing resources to
determine a method that works.for your application, Once a method has
been determined, check the level at a minimum of two different points in
addition to the zero level. If the level instrument requires calibration,
perform in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions in the
instrument technical manual.
Here's what does not work, based on my experience. I've tried to
measure the probe capacitance at various levels during initial setup, I
thou:ght I could then use these values to simulate a capacitance to the
instrument. It just doesn't work out. However, some manufacturers do

.j

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~~
",

'~~:I
r,'

-c-'
. ,~,

Level Instrument Calibration

72

provide a calibrator specific to their capacitance level meters. For example,


Drexelbrook provides a PC interface to configure and calibrate the
electronics. Smart transmitters can be configured and calibrated with
smart interface devices such as Rosemount 275. To verify the accurate
level measurement, some method indicated above would still be required.

5.5 CALIBRATING AN ULTRASONIC LEVEL


INSTRUMENT
There are two methods for calibrating an ultrasonic level transmitter.
Ideally the instrument can be removed and the cabling has enough slack
to move to an open area with an unobstructed path to a smooth surface
(such as a wall or floor). If this is the case, follow Method 1. If this is not
the case, follow Method 2.
Method 1:
1.

Determine the distance from the face of the ultrasonic transducer to


the 100%level. This should already be documented as part of the
instrument setup. For this example, we are going to assume the
distance is 12~'

2.

Determine the test point distances. Realize the distance from the test
surface is simulating the distance from the top of the liquid level and
take into account the distance determined in step 1 above. For
example, if the distance from the transducer face to the 100%level is
12 inches and the tank level indication is 0-100inches, the following
test points would be used.

3.

% SPAN

DESIREDLEVEL
INDICATION

DISTANCE FROM
lEST SURFACE

0%

0"

112"

25%

25"

87"

50%

50"

62"

75%

75"

37"

100%

100"

12"

Tum off the transducer.

Calibration

73

4.

Use appropriate safety precautions; remove the instrument from the


top of the tank.
'

5.

Use a tape measure to mark off the distances from the test surface at
each desired test point determined in step 2 above.

6.

.Place the instrument at a distance equal to the first test point from the
wall or floor that will be used to bounce the signal back (the test
surface simulates the top of the liquid level).

7.

Tum the transducer ~mand record the level reading.

8.

Move to the next distance and record the level reading. Repeat until .
all "as..-found" readings have been obtained.
..

.j

9.

If necessary, adjust the instrument in accordance with the


manufacturer's instructions in the instrumenttechnicalinanuaL

10. If adjustments were made, repeat steps 6 to 8 above to obtain II~;..", ;{


left" readings.

11. -Return the instrument to operational condition.

.):J
'~i

Method 2:

1.

Establish an independent method for determining the actual liquid


level in the tank (such as hooking up a temporary sight glass using
tubing from a bottom connection and running external to the top of
.. ,
the tank).

2.

Adjust the level in the tank to each of the desired setpoints


throughout the range of the instrument and record the reading from
the ultrasonic instrument at each test point.
.

.,.'

"

.)

I'

3.

If necessary, adjust the instrument in accordance with the


manufacturer's instructions in the instrument technicalmanual,

iI

4.

If adjustments were made, repeat step 2 above to obtain "as-left"


. readings.

5.

Return the system to operational condition.

74

Level Instrument Calibration

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Use the information in Chapter 5 and the references in Appendix A to
answer the following questions.
1.

What is the correct calibration range and the specified accuracy for
LIT-202?

2.

Select the correct procedure(s) that could be used for this calibration
ofLIT-202.

3.

The process monitored by UT-2D2is at a specific gravity of 1.0.What


are the correct input pressure values for 0%, 25%,50%, 75%,and
100%?(include units)

4.

What are the expected transmitter output values for the pressure
inputs of step 3?

5.

Indicate the correct test equipment hookup for calibration of LIT-202.

Pressure
Standard

HP
LP

Level Indienting Transmitter


LIT-202

Meier (mA)

~
HP

LP
pressure
Source

6.

24VDC
Power
Supply

If the specific gravity of the process being monitored is 0.8, what


would the pressure inputs be in step 3?

1i

75

Calibration

7.

If-a tank located on the roof has a DIP level transmitter installed
100feet below the zero reference level, what would the applied
pressures be in step S? (s.g. = 1.0)

8.

What type of level instrument is LT-3~5?

I
9.

What is the principle of operation for the level instrument type in


step 8?

I
10. Describe the basic method fpr initial calibration of LT-305.

I
I

11. How is the capacitance probe checked for proper calibration?

II

i
:"t'

.,.I

12. What two basic methods can be used to perform a calibration ohm
ultrasonic type level sensor?

6
FLOW INSTRUMENT
CALIBRA TION
After completing this chapter- you should be able to:
Explain the principles of operation for the fol/owing tlowmeter
types:
Differentia! pressJire
Magnetic
Vortex-shedding
Turbine"
Coriolis
.Calibrate the following flow instrument types (toISA
standards, where eppticeblel and determine acceptability:
Flow rate meters
. Flow totalizers
Select proper calibration procedure and calibration data sheet.:
Select appropriate certified test equipment.
Properly set up and connect test equipment to device under
.
test (DUT) for calibration ..
Properly isolate flow devices and/or remove from service for
field calibration.
Return equipment to service following calibration.
Complete and properly maintain calibration documentation .

.. v

6.1.

lYPES OF FLOW INSTRUMENTS

There are numerous sertsor technologies for flow instrumentation,


The sensor type used in a particular application depends on many factors,
induding the process fluid measured, pressure, temperature, allowable
pressure drop, density, conductivity, viscosity, pipe size and orientation,
flow rate and/or flow total required, accuracy.requirements, control
77

!
I

78

Flow Instrument Calibration

system interface, accessibility, maintenance requirements, etc. We will


consider briefly a few of the major sensor types:
Differential

Pressure

FIGURE 6-1.
Differential Pressure Flowmeters

'-------'~

Upstream tap
High pressure

------l~-----.J

Downstream tap
Low pressure

8 pipe diameters
upstream

5 pipe diameters
downstream

Restriction-type flow instruments are based on the principle that flow


rate is p~oportional to the square root of the differential pressure across
the restriction. An orifice plate or venturi is installed inline with the
process flow to restrict the liquid flow. This restriction creates a pxessure
drop that can be converted to flow rate. 111eupstream pressure is
connected to the high pressure port of a dip (differential-pressure) cell.
The downstream side is connected to the low pressure port of the dip celL

Calibration

79

(The dip cell was described in Chapter 5.) The square root is accounted
Jar in the transmitter signal processing or by the use of square root
'extractor springs of the dip cell. However, some older models utilize a
.separate square root extractor installed in the output signal loop. In this
case the installed square root extractor must also be calibrated for the loop
to perform within specification.
Magnetic

Flowmeter

FIGURE 6-2.
Magnetic Flowmeter

I
f

EICTRIC FIELD. E
FIELD
COILS

.[

_. j

MAGNETIC FIELD

The magnetic flowmeter is based on Faraday's Law of


electromagnetic induction. When a liquid conductor:moves in a pipe
having diameter D and travels with an average velocity V through a
magnetic field of B intensity, it will induce a voltage (E)according to the
relationship E = BVDC,where C is the constant for units conversion.
Because the magnetic field, pipe diameter, and conversion constant are_
fixed values, they can be combined into a calibration factor and the
equation reduces to ;E = KV. Magnetic flowmeters can only be used to
measure flow of conductive liquids. As conductive liquid passes through
the magnetic field, an electrical potential is induced. The change in
. potential varies directly with the liquid velocity. This voltage is sensed by
electrodes in the walls of the flowmeter .

.'

80

Flow Instrument Calibration

Vortex-shedding

Flowmeter

FIGURE 6-3.
Vortex Shedding Phenomenon

/"

High Velocity Fluid

..
Alternate ~
Vortices

Meter
Bore

Shear
Layer

When a flowing medium strikes an obstruction, it separates and


moves around the object. At the point of contact with the object, vortex
swirls separate from the object on separate sides. This shedding causes a
local increase in pressure and decrease in velocity on one side of the
object. A local decrease in pressure with corresponding increase in
velocity occurs on the other side of the object. After shedding from one
side, the process is reversed. The frequency of shedding reversal is
proportional to the velocity of the fluid passing the obstruction.
A vortex-shedding flowmeter has three basic parts: a bluff body (or
shedder bar), a sensor, and a transmitter. In the process line, flowing
liquid strikes the bluff body and vortices are shed alternately on each side
of the bluff body. The velocity of the flow determines the frequency at
which the vortices are shed. The shedding of the vortices on alternate
sides of the bluff body is detected by sensors built into the bluff body.
These sensors can be force sensors or temperature sensors (thermistors).
The sensor then converts the energy created by the vortices into electrical
pulses. These pulses are conditioned and sent to the transmitter, which
generates the output signal proportional to the flow rate. The volumetric
flow rate (Q) :::vortex-shedding frequency (f) x meter coefficient (1<).

11

81

Calibration

Turbine Flowmeter
FIGURE 6-4.
Turbine Flowmeter
PICK-UP COIL

I
" I

,I
ROTOR

The turbine flowmeter is a mechanical flowmeter that measures flow


by means of a spinning turbine or rotor using an arrangement of moving
parts. The multi-bladed rotor is mounted at right angles to the flow,:"
suspended in the process fluid stream on a free-running bearing. The
speed of rotation is proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Turbine
rotation is detected by solid state devices or mechanical sensors. As shown
in Figure 6-4, a pickup coil is used to detect the rotary speed for signal ,
processing. As each blade passes the coil, a voltage pulse is generated.
Each pulse represents a discrete volume. The number of pulses per unit
volume is the meter's K-factor. The output is a continuous sine wave with
the frequency proportional to the flow rate.
"

I!

Corio lis Mass Flowmeter

...".

A mass flowmeter measures flow rate in weight per unit time rather
than volume. This measurement compensates for temperature and,
pressure changes. Fluid moving through a vibrating tube is force? to
accelerate as it moves toward the point of peak amplitude of vibration.
The fluid decelerates as it moves away from the point of peakamplitude .
The acceleration and deceleration cause twisting forces on the flowtube
which are proportional to the ~ass flow.

Flow Instrument Calibration

82

FIGURE 6-5.
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
FLUID

FORCE

,
FLOW

FLUID

FORCE
VIBRATING FLOW TUBE

FLUID FORCES REACTING TO


VIBRATION OF FLOW TUBE

~l...,-0~~i~

TWIST \
ANGLE ~

6.2

CALIBRATION OF FlOWMETERS

All meters with moving parts require periodic testing because wear
over time will reduce the flowmeter performance. Calibration can be
performed either in the lab or in situ (in its original place) using a prover,
also called a master meter, or by weighing the flow output. There are
several methodologies for flowmeter calibration. Anyone of them, and
.others, may be acceptable depending on the process system configuration,
compatibility, availability of test standards, and accuracy requirements.
It is sometimes difficult or impossible to remove a flowmeter from
service for calibration. Therefore, field-mounted and inline provers have
been developed. Depending on the application and system configuration,
other methods can also be developed to check the accuracy of flowmeters.
Weighing the flowmeter output collected over a specified time is a
common alternative .
. The calibration of the signal-processing portion for most flowmeter
instruments can be checked by simulating the Signal from the flowmeter.
These me~hods do not check the sensor itself. No one generic method
works for all flowmeters. Tests must be performed in accordance with the
specific manufacturer's instructions. However a few of these methods are
discussed below.

Calibration

GENERAL METHODOLOGY

.i

.'

WHEN TO USE

Caiibrate only the electronics (or signal


processing) using a test instrument to
simulate the sensor.

If it is impossible to perform an in-situ


check of the- flowmeter sensor using a
. prover or other methods discussed below
and the sensor cannot be removed from
the system.

Check the calibration of the flowmeter,


sensor and signal processing together,
using a prover or some other standard.

If the flowmeter sensor can be checked


in situ but test standards are not
available for simulating test signal input.

Calibrate the electronics first, and then


check the calibration of the flowmeter,
including the sensor.

If the required test instruments are


available to simulate the flowmeter input
signal and the flowmeter sensor can be
checked in situ.

Remove the flowmeter and send to a


flow calibration lab (intemal,
manufacturer, or a 3rd party flow
calibration lab).

If the system is not compatible with insitu 'flowmeter calibration. It may be .


necessary to install a calibrated spare. to
keep the process downtime to a
minimum..

6.3

;.

83

DIP lRANSMITTER

CALIBRATION

The principles and methods discussed in Chapter 5 for the level dip
transmitter also apply here. The only difference is that you mU:stknow
how the square root is obtained. Remember that flow rate is proportional
to the square root of the differential pressure. As mentioned earlier in this
chapter, the square root is usually accounted for in the transmitter signal
processing or by the use' of a separate square root extractor installed in the
output signal loop. Sometimes, but rarely, some models utilize square root
extractor springs as partof the dip cell.
To calibrate the square root extractor in a 4-20 rnA transmitter output
loop, a milliamp source is '~onnected to the input. A milliammeter is
connected in series tothe output with a power supply, if necessary. The
manufacturer's instructions specify the input values and expected
outputs.'
Note that this does not check the actual flow sensor. It may be desired.
or required to check the flow sensor.for wear, damage, or obstruction.
Later in this chapter we will discuss methods for calibrating the flow
sensor in situ .

I
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84

Flow Instrument Calibration

6.4 EXAMPLE: MAGNETIC FLOWMETER


CALIBRATION
You must refer to the manufacturer's instructions for calibration of
each specific model of magnetic flowmeter. The manufacturer may also
supply specific calibrators for its flowmeters. Here is a typical procedure
using a magnetic flowmeter calibrator as an input standard that varies the
millivolt signal to simulate the Signal from the flowtube electrodes. We'll
assume the output is 4 to 20 mAo Therefore, a milliammeter will be used as
the output standard.
1.

Determine the maximum flow rate that will be checked. This is the
100%value.

2.

Obtain the mV calibration factor and the phase band factor from the
instrument data plate.

3.

Calculate the upper range value (URV)as follows:


URV = (Max Flow Rate) x (mV Calibration Factor)

4.

Calculate the ,maximum input signal value as follows:


Max Input Signal Value = (URV) x (Phase Band Factor)

5.

Disconnect the flowtube from the transmitter and connect the


magnetic flowmeter calibrator to the transmitter input.

Magnetic Callbralor
Percent-Output
Swllch

Input Powor
Indloa\ol1

Input Power
80leolor 8'W11oh

6.

Connect the milliammeter in series with the transmitter output


signal.

85

Callbration

.,I

(
I'
I

7.

Set the calibrator range knob to select the maximum output signal.
For example, with a calculated maximum input signal of 8.32mV, the
range knob would be set to 10mV.

8.

Set the maximum input signai value on the dial. For this example, the
dial would be set to 8.32(outer dial set at 8, inner dial set at 0.32).

9.

Use the percent output switch to perform a 5-point check at 0,25,50,


75,and 100%.At each position, record the transmitter rnA output on
, the calibration data sheet.

10. At this.point youneed to evaluate whether to adjust the flowmeter. If


,you are going to check the flowmeter sensor, it JIlaybe prudent to ,cljJ
that prior to making any adjustments. Adjustments may have been, ,
made during the.last calibration to compensate for slight flow sen~or
inaccuracy. If you make adjustments prior to checking the flow"
sensor, you may be "undoing" the correction. If a check of the
:
flowmeter will be performed, use one of the methods describedslateri
inthis chapter and then proceed with step 11,below.
,';,' '
11. If necessary, calibrate the transmitter by adjusting zero' at the 0%,.
input for a 4.00 rnA output. Then adjust span at ~e 100%input for a
20.00 rnA output, Since zero and span often interact, recheck andadjust the zero and span until no further adjustment is necessary'.:
12. If adjustments were made, repeat step 9 above to obtain as-left ':'"
readings.
.

'.

Note that this does not check'the actual flow sensor. It may be desired
or required to check the flow sensor for wear or damage, The next section
of this chapter will discuss methods for calibrating the flow sensor in situ.
The calibration of a vortex-shedding or turbine flowmeter would use
the same principles as the magnetic flowmeter above. However, the input '
standard would be a frequency generator. Again, you must use the
specific dllibration instructions provided by the manufacturer. '
Once the calibration of the signal-processing portion of the flowmeter
has been checked, a check of the flowmeter in situ is performed. Note that
some industries require that all as-found readings be obtained prior to any
adjustments. Therefore you may need to evaluate whether you would
adjust the electronics prior to checking the actual flowmeter in situ. So far
we have only mentioned flow rate meters. Some flowmeters are used as
flow totalizers. Some flowmeters are used to obtain both flow rate and
flow total. We will have to consider how the flowmeter is used when

,i

:~j
.~~
I

Flow Instrument Calibration

86

performing calibrations. The two methods for in-situ flowmeter


calibrations are described below.

6.5 FLOWMETER CALIBRATION USING A


MASTER METER (PROVER)
A master meter, or prover, is a calibrated flowmeter used as a
calibration standard. The master meter is installed in series with the
flowmeter under test, and the readings are compared at various flow rates
or flow totals. It is advisable to perform this comparison for at least two
different flow rates (or flow totals). Ideally, the process was designed to
incorporate a master meter in series with the installed flowmeter. In my
experience, this is not usually the case. So you have to get creative about
how to install the master meter. It may, for example, involve
disconnecting the outlet of the installed flowmeter, adapting the master
meter to the output, connecting a discharge hose with a valve at the end of
the hose, and directing the hose to a drain or back to the process vessel for
proper waste disposal. A discharge valve is important to keep the piping
full and maintain some backpressure. Without a discharge valve you may
find error in your readings, particularly at low flow conditions.
Once the test setup is made, flow the process material (or water)
through the flowmeters and close the discharge valve in order to fill the
piping completely. With the piping and flowmeters completely filled and
no flow, the flowmeters should read zero flow. If this is a desired test
point, record the readings. Sometimes zero flow is difficult to check due to
environmental factors, vibration, air pockets, etc. Next, open the discharge
valve and establish flow at the desired test point and allow the readings to
stabilize. Record the readings and repeat for all desired test points. If
adjustment is required, perform it in accordance with manufacturer's
instructions and repeat the above procedure to obtain as-left readings.
If the master meter and the installed flowmeter are not capable of
reading in the same units, conversion of the results may be required. Some
corrunon conversion factors are listed below. Additional conversion
factors are included in Appendix A-7.
1 liter == 0.2642 gallons; 1 gallon

= 3.785 liters

= 8.35 lbs at 25C


(measure water temperature used for calibration if Significantly
different and calculate density for calibration data analysis)
1 gallon water

Llb

= 0.45 kg; 1 kg = 2.21b

Calibration

87

6.6 GRAVIMETRIC METHOD FOR FLOWMETER


CALIBRATION (MEASUREMENT BY WEIGHT)
This method involves weighing the amount of fluid that actually
flows through the meter into (or out of) a container, For a flow rate meter,
the fluid is collected in the container for a specified amount of time, such
as one minute. Although it may require as much creativity, the test setup
is the same as the prover method, except there is not a master meter in
series with the installed flowmeter. The hard part is figuring out how
you're going to weigh the amount of fluid. You must use a container that
is large enough for the amount of flow to be tested. Likewise, a calibrated
weigh scale with adequate capacity must be used. The container will
either sit on the weigh scale in close proximity to the flowmeter or the'
container will need to be transported to the weigh scale. Obviously you
don't wantto get your container full and then discover that you can't get
the container on the scale. S6 think through the logistics before startinJHh~
calibration.'
.
Once- the logistics are figured out and the test setup is made,
plac~Jhe
..
empty container on the scale and TARE (zero) the scale reading. It is. _oS'
important to TAREthe scale with anything that will be on the scale when
weighing the contents of the container. Next, flow the process materic.(or
water) throughthe flowmeter to a waste container or drain and closafhe
discharge valve in order to fill the piping completely. If zero is a desit;~d
test point, read and record the flowmeter reading. Then open the
discharge valve and flow to the diain or waste container to establish the
desired flow rate. Once the desired flow rate is stabilized, simultaneously
start the stopwatch and switch the discharge to the weighing container.
Ensure there is no spillage out of the container and verify that the
flowmeter reading is maintained at the desired test point. Recordthe
flowmeter reading. Continue discharging the entire output of-the
flowmeter into the container for the specified time period, such as one
minute. It may be desirable to use more time to obtain a measurable
amount of fluid (at least % of the container). Once the specified time
period has elapsed, Simultaneously stop the stopwatch and switch the
discharge to the drain or the waste container. Close the discharge valve.
Record the stopwatch reading and the weight. Convert the weight to the
desired units and divide by the time to obtain-the actual flow rate.
Compare the flow rate obtained with the flowmeter reading recorded.
Empty the weighing container, if necessary, and TARE the scale. Repeat
the procedure above for additional test points. If adjustment is required,
--:.-

I'
.~

II
I

I.,
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Flow Instrument Calibration

88

perform in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and repeat the


above procedure to obtain as-left readings.
If the flowmeter is used as a flow totalizer, the procedure is
essentially the same. Some totalizers can be set to stop the flow when the
desired flow total is achieved. Also, instead of using a stopwatch, the
totalizer is reset to zero at the same time discharge is switched to the
weighing container. If the totalizer cannot be zeroed, record the initial
totalizer reading, at the moment the discharge is switched, and the final
totalizer reading.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Use the information from this chapter and the references in Appendix
A to answer the following questions:
1.

How is a flowmeter calibration performed when accuracy to


manufacturer specifications is required and the process system is
incompatible with performing an in-situ calibration?

2.

How can most flow calibrations be categorized as flow rate or flow


totalizer when there are so many different types of flowmeters?

3.

What are the two basic calibration methods for checking flowmeters?

4.

What methods are used for incorporating the square root of the dip
for venturi-type flow devices?

5.

Select the correct procedure to be used for this calibration of FT-301.


(Appendix A-4)

6.

What local and remote indications must be recorded during


calibration of FT-301?(Appendix A-I)

7.

What test equipment is required for calibration of FT-301?

7
FINAL CONTROL DEVICES
CALI.BRATION
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
Celibrete the following instrument types (to ISA standards,
where applicable) and determine acceptability:
r

-I

Current-to-pressure transducers (I/P)


Valvepositioners
.- Control valves

I
_/
, I

, J

''[ I
; j

J
'

Select proper-cshbrstion procedure and calibration data sbeet:


,

, ' I

Select appropriate certified test equip/nent:

, 1

:..,1, ~

::::

Properly set up and connect test equipment 'to DU;r:for


,
,
. calibration.

'.~

Properly isolate flow devices and/or remove from service for


.
field calibration .
.....:.t:.

Return equipment to service following calibrl!Jion.


Complete and pr(?perlymaintain calibration d_ocumentation.

The temperature, pressure, level, and flow instruments covered inthe


previous chapters all sense a process parameter and produce a signal for
indication or controller input, If we want to control a process parameter,
the controller output must be converted to a signal that may be used to
drive a control valve. The control valve is a final control element. A final
control element is any device or element that changes the value of a
manipulated variable. Valves and heaters are common examples of final
control elements. In this chapter, we will discuss control valves and the
devices that process the signal supplied to the control valve.

89 ,

'!j'l
,

-,"

90

Final Control Devices Calibration

FIGURE 7-1.
Current Practice - Field Devices
3-15 PSI (70.7 -103.4 kPa)
TRANSMIITER

LOOP

4-20 rnA

PROCESS INPUT
INSTRUMENT
AIR 20 PSI
(137.9 kPa)
SET POINT

In the illustration above, the controller output sends an electronic


signal to the current-to-pressure transducer (I/P), which sends a
pneumatic signal to the control valve. The control valve position changes
in response to the signal to adjust flow to the setpoint. As the flow
changes, it is sensed by the flow transmitter. When the flow sensed is
equal to setpoint, the valve position is maintained. Any time there is a
disturbance to the system or a change in setpoint, the flow control loop
automatically responds to achieve the programmed setpoint. A block
diagram of this concept is illustrated below.

Calibration

91

FIGURE 7-2.
Final Control Element
Disturbances
Controller

1
J

""'___ I

Process
Measurement

-~.~;;., .'~
..

The final control element can be proportional control; as descrlbJd ....


above, or ON-OFF control. For ON~OFF control, a controller outputrelay
changes the state of the relay contact which completes the circuit for a
solenoid valve to energize. The solenoid valve opens to allow air to open
"d!I

(or dose) a control valve.


.
The first component in the final control subsystem is the signal
conditioner. The signal conditioner amplifies and, if necessary, converts
the signal for compatibility with the actuator. Typical devices used as
Signalconditioners include current-to-pneumatic transducers, current-tovoltage (liE) transducers, amplifiers (electronic or pneumatic), relays,
digital-to-analog converters, or analog-to-digital converters. The most
common signal conditioner in a proportional control loop is an L/P
transducer.
A typical IIP transducer is a force balance device in which a coil is .:
suspended in the field.of a magnet. Current flowing through the coil
generates axial movement of the coil which causes movement of the beam.
The beam controls the backpressure against the nozzle by controlling the
restriction of air flow through the nozzle. This backpressure acts as a pilot
pressure to control the outlet pressure. The zero adjustment causes the
. beam to move relative to the nozzle. The span adjustmentis a
potentiometer that limits the currerit through the coil. The liP transducer
must be supplied with instrument air within the range specified by the
manufacturer, usually at least 20 psig. The typical L/P transducer is
.calibrated for a 4-20 rnA input = 3-15psig output. Most liP transducers
can be configured for direct action (output pressure increases as input

..;--,

:'..!

':

. .:~

Rnal Control Devices Calibration

92

FIGURE 7-3.
IfP Transducer

Used to convert current signal to pressure


signal
- Mechanical or Electronic?
Nozzle
Pressure

Oulpul- ..
GAS

Input

"~~I~~~~

Rebalanclnp _ ..
Bellows

Nozzle

Beam

signal increases) or reverse action (output pressure decreases as input


signal increases).
The next component in the final control subsystem, if applicable, is
the actuator. The actuator receives the conditioned signal and changes it to
some form of mechanical energy or motion. Typical devices used as
actuators include solenoids, pneumatic valve positioners, AC and DC
motors, stepper motors, hydraulic motors, and hydraulic pistons. Many
control valves include a pneumatic valve positioner.
A valve positioner is a device used to increase or decrease the air
pressure (from the L/P) operating the control valve actuator. Positioners
are generally mounted to the control valve actuator and connected
mechanically to the valve stem for position indication. A positioner is a
type of air relay which acts to overcome hysteresis, packing box friction,
and effects of pressure drop across the valve. It assures exact positioning
of the valve stem and provides finer control.
There are many types of positioners. The basic principles of operation
are similar for all types. The instrument pressure (from an liP, for
example) acts on the input module, which controls the flapper-nozzle
system of the relay. Supply pressure is applied to the relay, and the output
pressure of the relay is supplied to the control valve actuator. Most
positioners can be configured for direct or reverse action. For a directacting positioner, increasing the instrument pressure causes the input
module to pivot the beam. The beam pivots the flapper a~d restricts the

93

Calibration

FIGURE 7-4.
Typical Motion-Balance Positioner

LINKAGE

I.I

nozzle. The nozzle pressure increases and causes the relay assembly.to
increase output pressure to the actuator. With direct-acting actuator, the
increased pressure moves the actuator stem downward. The positioner is
mechanically connected to the stern of the valve. Stem movement is,fed
back to the beam by means ot"a f~edback lever and range spring, which
causes the flapper to pivot slightly away from the nozzle to prevent
further increase in relay output pressure. Note that some positioners
accept a milliamp input and include' an integral liP transducer.
The last component in the final control subsystem is the final control
element. We are only going to discuss control valves. (Other final control,
elements include servo valves, heaters, conveyors, auger feeds, and
hopper gates.) There are many different types, sizes, and applications for
control valves. Selecting the correct control valve for a specific application
is crucial to 'proper system performance. Und-ersizingand oversizing are
common problems. Valve selection is not within the scope of this book,
but many valuable resources are available to assist with proper selection,
for example,
a good control valve sales engineer.
Let's look at a typical
control valve.

:-;'1

-~--;;~.,

~I
I

94

Final Control Devices Calibration

FIGURE7-S.
Control Valve with Actllato1'
SIGNAL FROM
CONTROLLER
DIAPHRAGM
ACTUATOR _..
,
.... ....

-,

" -,
The pneumatic signal from the positioner (or liP if a positioner is not
used) is applied directly to the actuator. For this control valve, the air is
supplied above the diaphragm and pushes against spring pressure to
close the valve. The valve is fully closed when the plug is foullyseated
against the seat ring. Notice that as air pressure is-decreased, the spring
pressure causes the diaphragm, stem, and plug to move upward, opening
the valve. This means that a loss of pressure would cause the valve to
open. Therefore this is known as a fail-open valve, Different
configurations of air inlet, spring location, and valve seat arrangement
result in different fail positions and determine whether the valve is director reverse-acting. For example, the same valve pictured above, with the
plug below the seat ring (reverse-seated), would open with increased air
pressure and would fail closed on loss of air pressure ..
As can be seen from the discussion above, all components in the final
control subsystem must be configured correctly for the system to work
properly. The fail-safe positions must be correct for the application and
the action must produce the desired results. These configurations must be
properly documented and utilized during calibration, loop checks, or
troubleshooting,

Calibration

7. 1

95

CALIBRATION OF AN lIP lRANSDUCER

FIGURE 7-6.
Ill? TransducerCalibration

i
-,I
I

The figure above illustrates the setup for a bench calibration of an IIP
transducer. The air supply connected to the input must be in accordance
with manufacturer's specification (typically 20-100psig). The pressure
standard is connected to the air outlet, and a rnA simulator is connected to
the current input: It is important for the L/P transducer to be oriented the
same way as the installed position in the field.A change inorientation will
introduce error in most liP transducers,
If the calibration is performedin the field, the existing supply air
would be used. It is convenient to tee into the air outlet so the control,
valve position can be checked at the same time. Of course, you need to
ensure the system is in a safe condition before you open and close the
valve.
Once the setup is established, apply the rnA inputs for each desired
test point, such as 4.0, 8.0, 12.0,16.0, and 20.0 mAo Record the
corresponding outlet pressure at each test point. For a 4-20rnA input
3-15psig.output L/P, the corresponding outputs would be 3.0, 6.0,9.0, 12.0
and 15.0psig. Some facilities adjust the 0% test point so a slightly higher
rnA input results in the 0% output For example,4.10 mA may result in a
3.0 psig output. This ensures that the valve is closed with a controller
output of 4.0mAo
Once the as-found readings are obtained, evaluate the results against
the required specification. If required, perform zero and span adjustments

96

Final Control Devices Calibration

until no further adjustment is required. Then, repeat all test points to


record as-left readings.
Many organizations do not require periodic calibration of I/f'
transducers, positioners, or control valves. The justification is that the
control signal will adjust the output until the required setpoint is achieved
based on the process measurement. This is true, but you want to make
sure the output loop is performing correctly. The best way to do that is to
check the calibration periodically.

7.2

CALIBRATION OF A VALVE POSITIONER

Calibration of-the valve positioner can be performed at the same time


as the liP in a loop calibration. Simply tee in the pressure module at the
IfP outlet as mentioned above in the I/P calibration. Record the valve
position at each test point.
If the valve positioner is calibrated separately, connect an input test
pressure regulator or hand pump and monitor the input pressure applied
with a pressure standard. If supply air is not provided, connect the
required supply air to the positioner. Apply the pressure for the desired
test points and record valve position. For example, assume our valve
positioner is 3-15psig input = 0-100%valve position. In this case, apply
3.0,6.0,9.0, 12.0,and 15.0 psig. The expected valve positions should be 0,
25,50,75, and 100%,respectively. The valve position indicator on the stem
is usually indicated in 5% or 10%increments. Therefore a best estimate of
the valve position may be all you can obtain. In other cases, a valve
position detector provides a remote indication, to a DeS, for example. In
this case, ensure both indicators are working properly.
Many organizations do not require calibration of valve positioners for
the same reason described above. To be honest, I've calibrated very few
positioners myself. However, there is documentation that control valve
positioner performance is responsible for significant loss in system
efficiency and therefore increased costs. To provide guidance on methods
for testing positioners and control valve performance, ISA has developed
a standard, ANSI/ISA-75.25.01-2000, Test Procedure for Control Valve
Response Measurement for Step Inputs. This standard has no application to
valve positioner calibration.

'I

197

Calibration

7.3

;1

~I
I

"

I,.

.
(:

CALIBRATION OF A CONTROL VALVE

As in positioner calibration, a pressure signal is applied to the


actuator and the resulting valve position is recorded. This can be
performed with the positioner calibration, if applicable. It can also be
performed in conjunction with L/P calibration as describe~ above. Just"
remember to ensure the system is in a safe condition if performing the
calibration in the-field, Also remember that you should know the correct
action, direct or reverse, and fail position before starting.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Use the information from this chapter and the references in Appendix Aas
necessary to answer the following questions:
1.

A. 0-20 psig

.,_

,,

'.

From the list below, what is the likely calibration range for TY-300? "
B. 3~25psig = 4-20 rnA
C. 4-20 rnA = 3-15 psig
D. 20SCFM

'.

+!,

.'

4"0_

..

:~~
..

....

2.

Refer to the P&ID inAppendix A-I. If the calibration ranges ofFY301 and PY-301 are the same as TY-300, what if any difference i~there
between the three IIP transducers?

3.

"Select the correct procedure to be used for this calibration of TY-300.

4.

From your answer to question 1 and the procedure selected in


question 3, what ate the correct input values to simulate TY-300?

5..

What are the expected output values for the inputs applied from
question 3?

.'

98'

Final Control Devices Calibration

6.

Which is the correct test equipment hookup for calibration of TY-

300?

Pressure
Stnndartl

HI'

3.00

LP

lIP Transducer
iYJOO
rnA
simulator

Output

30 psig

Supply

Pressure

Source

7.

With the results indicated, what instrument in the loop requires


adjustment?
% INPUT

OUTPUT (PSIG)

VALVE POSITION

3.2

2%

50

9.5

54%

100

15.8

100%

8.

How would the calibration required in the previous step be


performed?

9.

If a control valve is being checked during an liP calibration and the


liP is properly calibrated, what is the most likely cause of an
improper valve position (no positioner is installed)?

10.

What is the purpose of a valve positioner?

fl
I.

Calibration

99

11. Is the action (direct or reverse) verified during a positioner


calibration?

12. What is the basic procedure for calibration of a positioner?


j',

13. .What is the basic procedure for calibration of a control valve?

1f.

i
I;

I'

,.

8
PROCESS A.NAl YTICAL
INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION
After completing this cbepter. you should be able to:
Calibrate the following analytical instrument types (to ISA
standards, where applicable)and determine acceptability:

pH
Conductivity
ResistiVity
Select the proper calibrationprocedure and calibratiofJ;c/,?ra
'"sheet.
Select appropriate certified test equipment.

!I
0

Properly set up/connect test equipment to device under test


(DUT) for calibration.
. Properlymaintain pH electrodes and prepare for field
,
calibration.
Return equipment to service following calibration.
Complete and properly maintain calibration documentation.

We can't overlook analytical instruments used to monitor and, in


some cases, control processes. There are many specialized analytical
instruments used in various processes. These instruments are less
common than temperature, pressure,level, flow, and final control
instrum7nts-but no less important. Analytical instrumentation is more
corrunonly used in the research or quality control lab.
. In the lab environment, these instruments are typically verified
against a refererice standard by the user. In many facilities, the calibration
techIucian is not responsible for maintaining lab instruments. However,
for those control system technicians responsible for lab instrumentation,
the same principles discussed for process instruments will apply. We'll
discuss pH, conductivity, and resistivity.

I'

I
I

I
,

101

I
1

Process Analytical Instrument Calibration

102

Many industrial processes-such as food processing, sewage


treatment, water purification, and pharmaceutical production-are
sensitive to pH. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an
aqueous solution. Maintaining the proper pH is essential for living
systems. When acids are added to water, they dissociate, either completely
or partially, and release hydrogen ions (H+)into the solution. pH is equal
to the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, written in
equation form as:

You'll have to study up on logarithms, chemistry, and molarities on


your own. To give you an idea of H+ concentrations and interpreting the
associated pH value, the following table is provided. For example, the I-r
conc~ntration of pure water is 1 x 10-7 mole/liter. The log of 1 x 10-7 is -7.
Therefore the negative log is 7, and the pH of pure water is 7. A pH of 7 is
considered neutral, neither acidic nor basic. Solutions with a pH value less
than 7 are acidic; pH values above 7 are basic (sometimes referred to as
alkaline). The nominal voltage output at each pH value is described later
in the chapter.
HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION
EXPONENTIAL

DECIMAL

pH

NOMINAL
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT @ 25C
(mV)

ACIDIC
10
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-6
10-6

1.0
0.1
0,01
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001

10-7

0.0000001

a
1
2
3
4
5
6

414.12
354.96
295.8
236.64
177.48
118.32
59.16

0.0

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

-59.16
-118.32
-177.48
-236.64
-295.8
-354.96
-414.12

NEUTRAL
BASIC
10-8
10-9
10.10
10-11

10.12
10.13
10-14

0.00000001
0.000000001
O.0000000001
0.00000000001
0.000000000001
0.0000000000001
0.00000000000001

Calibration'

103

.The instrumentation used to measure pH in a process system consists


of a pH meter and electrode. The electrode is actually a combination
electrode consisting of a measuring electrode and a reference electrode.
The measuring electrode has a thin, fragile glass bulb at its tip that is
sensitive to the H+ ions in the surrounding medium. An electrical
potential develops between the inner and outer'surfaces of the glass bulb.
The magnitude of this potential varies, depending on the concentration of
hydrogen ions in the solution. The reference electrode provides a stable, .
constant voltage.
The two electrodes are connected to the pH meter. The meter
measures the v~ltage difference between the reference electrode and the
measuring electrode, amplifies the signal, and converts the signal to a pH
value.
The difference between the two millivolt signals (,:lmV) is ideally,.~
OmYat a pH of 7.0.At 25Cthe nominal ,:lmV signal increases by
59.16mV for each.pH unit measurement below 7.0pH. For exampleg
AmV
..~
= 177.48=4.0 pH. The ilmV signal irtcreases by -59.16 mV for each pH ,
unit measurement above 7.0 pfi. For example, ,:lmV. = -177.48 = 10.0
Since the pH electrode is not a perfect device and performance .
changes with age, the pH meter contains a calibration circuit. All pH."
electrodes require calibration from time to time. Many organizations.:'"
require pH calibration prior to each use, or daily. A two point calibration
characterizes an electrode with a specific pH meter. When calibrating, the
calibration circuit will adjust the 4\m V output to read 0 mV while the
electrode is immersed in a 7.0pH buffer standardization solution. This is
referred to as the "zero point" or "standardize" adjustment.
While the electrode is immersed in a 4.0 (or 10.0)pH buffer solution,
the slope ~ontrol adjusts thezsm'Voutput to read + 177 mV (or -177mV).
This is referred to as the "slope," "span," or "efficiency" adjustment. It is
preferable to use a 4.0 pH buffer solution because pH buffer solutions
above 7.0 pH are less stable and have a limited life. These high pH buffers
will more readily absorb .CO2 from the atmosphere and typically change
to a lower pH value when left open .
.Temperature is very important when measuring. pH. The measuring
electrode's response to pH is affected by temperature. Also, the pH of the
solution that is being measured may increase or decrease as temperature
changes. Temperature compensation is accomplished in one of two ways.
Most modern pH meters have an automatic temperature compensating
(ATC)probe which measures the sample temperature and compen~ates
the pH reading. This ArC probe maybe a separate probe or it may be
built into the electrode housing. If the pH meter does not have ATC, the

pH.

I
I

.i
i

104

Process Analytical Instrument Calibration

temperature of the solution is determined with a calibrated temperature


indicator or thermometer and the temperature dial on the pH meter is
adjusted to this temperature.
The following chart illustrates the linear ideal pH electrode output at
25Cand the effect of temperature on pH electrode output at aoe and
100C.
FIGURE 8-1.

pH Eloclrodo Output
mV

600,--------------------------,
600

300- - - - - - -

. - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2SC (59.16 mV/pH)

200
100
pH

567

-100
--------------------------------200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-<400
500

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

~ooL---------------------------~
pH electrodes must be properly stored when not in use. If not
properly stored, the electrode will dry out and this will impair
performance or possibly destroy the electrode. The probe should be stored
in a 4.0 pH buffer solution or 3.8MKCLsolution. There are special storage
bottles for long-term secure storage to prevent damage and dehydration.
Do not store in deionized water. Prior to returning a pH meter to service
after storage, the probe should be thoroughly cleaned with deionized
water and calibrated.

'I
I:

Calibration

8.1

105

pH CALIBRATION PROCEDURE

Consult the manufacturer' s technical manual for the required


calibration procedure, especially for microprocessor-based pH meters
with auto-calibration features.
.

1.

Rinse the electrode thoroughly with deioniied water and gently blot
the electrode on a soft tissue.

2.

Insert the electrode (and any separate temperature compensation


probe) in a 7.00pH buffer solution. Allow 30 seconds to reach
equilibrium. Adjust the pH meter with t~e standardize or zero
control for a pH indication of 7.0.

II

. Note: If the meter does not have automatic temperature


compensation, then place a calibrated temperature indicator in the
same buffer solution with the pH electrode. After 30 seconds, adjust
the temperature dial on the pH meter to correspond With the ..
temperature indicated. Then adjust the pH meter indication vv.'ith the
standardize/zero control for a pH indication of 7.0.

;:

.j

i.

;:1

Note: As mentioned above, a 10.0pH buffer solution may be '~


substituted for the 4.01buffer solution in step 4. However, pH buffer
solutions above 7.0 are less stable. Therefore it is preferable to use the
4.0~buffer solution.

. ::1

3.

Remove the pH electrode from the buffer solution and repeat step

4.

Repeat step 2, except use a 4.01pH buffer solution and adjust the
slope/ span contr~l for a pH reading of 4.01.
. . .

5.

Repeat steps l-to-4 to maximize the precision of the calibration.

6.

If desired, check the pH meter indication using a 10.0pH (or 4.01pH) .


buffer.solution. Typically, there is not. an adjustment for this third
buffer solution.

Note: Newer, microprocessor-based pH meters allow the use of any


two standard pH buffers that bracket the pH of the samples. Some
also allow more than two buffers to determine the slope. Refer to the
manufacturer's technical manual for procedures specific to the pH
instrument.

:.1

"'r

",'

.. ~
,
',j

106

8.2

ProcessAnalytical Instrument Calibration

DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR pH ELECTRODES

The asymmetry potential (AP) and slope (efficiency) can be used as a


guideline to judge electrode performance. To perform this test, the pH
meter must have am V readout.

1.

Set the pH meter to readout in m V.

2.

Connect a shorting plug to the input on the pH meter and adjust the
standardize/zero
control on the pH meter for a reading of 0.0 mY.

3.

Disconnect the shorting plug and connect the pH electrode that will
be tested.
.

4.

Rinse the electrode thoroughly with deionized water and gently blot
the electrode on a soft tissue

5.

Insert the electrode (and any separate temperature compensation


probe) in a 7.00 pH buffer solution. Allow 30 seconds to reach
equilibrium. Record the mV reading. This is the asymmetry potential
(AP).
Note: If the meter does not have automatic temperature
compensation, then place a calibrated temperature indicator in the
same buffer solution with the pH electrode. After 30 seconds, adjust
the temperature dial on the pH meter to 'correspond with the
temperature indicated. Then record the m V reading to determine the
AP.

6.

Remove the pH electrode from the buffer solution and repeat step 4.

7.

Repeat step 5, except use a 4.01 pH buffer solution and record the mV
reading.

8.

Determine the mathematical difference between the two mV


readings (from steps 5 and 7). This is the electrodes span.

9.

Divide the electrode's span by the theoretical span of 176.9 mV and


multiply the result by 100.
Example:

Reading in a 7.00 pH buffer solution: -5.8 m V


Reading in 4.01 pH buffer solution: +167.5 m V
Asymmetry Potential = -5.8 mV
Span = 167.5 - (-5.8) = 173.3 m V
Slope = (173.3 mV / 176.9 mV) X 100% = 98%

.'

107

Calibration

Typically an electrode is replaced when the AP is greater than


40mV and /or the slope is '< 91%.

8.3

MEASURING CONDUCTIVITY

There are situations where it is useful to measure the combined


concentration of all ions in an aqueous solution. The total ionic '
concentration is determined by measuring the conductivity of the
solution. Conductivity is defined ,asthe ability of a material to conduct
electrical current. We are used to current flowing through copper wires.
Electric current can also flow through ionic solutions. The higher the
concentration of ions in a solution, the more conducti~e the solution.
A simple device to,measure conductivity consists of two flat
electrodes placed in a sample solution, connected to.a battery and an
ammeter. The battery generates electric current that can,flow only if Qle
sample solution is conductive and completes the current path. ~ositiv'e '
ions in the solution are attracted, to the negative electrode, and negative
, ions are attracted to the positive electrode. At the positive electrode, '
negative ions give up electrons that flow to the positive battery te~al:
At the negative electrode, positive ions take electrori.s.This results in ;:
continuing electron flow through the circuit and continuing movement of
ions through the solution. The more ions present, the mOTecurrent ,tt',
detected by the ammeter.
.
The amount of current flow that is measured by the conductivity
instrument will vary depending on the distance between the electrodes (d)
and the area of the electrodes (A). For thesame ionic concentration,
electrodes spaced farther apart or a smaller electrode area would result in
less current measured. The relationship of this distance to the surface area
is known as the cell constant (K), and is defined as:
'K=d/A

, A device with a lower K value is more sensitive than a device with a


higher K value. Conductivity probes with different cell constants are
necessary for the wide range of applications that require conductivity
measurement. A purified water system has fewer ions and therefor~
,requires a more sensitive conductivity probe with a K value of about '0.1:A ,
cell constant of up to 10 would be used for solutions with high
conductivities.
Some applications utilize resistivity instruments. Resistivity
instruments are the same as conductivity instruments, except resistivity is

~::.

108

Process Analytical Instrument Calibration

simply t~e inverse of conductivity. Resistivity = 1/ conductivity. The units


of conductivity are Siemens or mho. In practice, a Siemen is too large, so
instruments typically display in microsiemens/micromhos li1S/flmho) or
milliSiemens/millimhos (mS/mmho). Resistivity is measured in ohms
with typical values in the megohm range. 1 megohm';" 1 million ohms.
The conductivities and resistivities of common solutions are listed below.
SOLUTION

CONDUCTIVITY

RESISTIVITY

Ultrapure Water
Distilled Water

0.055 I1S/cm

18.2 MQ

1 I1S/em
80 I.lS/cm

Deionized Water
0.05% NaCI

1000l1S/em
50,000 I.lS/em
1,000,000 I.lS/cm

Seawater
30% H2SO4

1 MQ
12,500 ohm-em
1000 ohm-em
20ohmem
1 ohm-em

Like pH, temperature has an effect on conductivity. Conductivity


probes include a temperature sensor which measures the temperature of
the solution and automatically compensates the conductivity reading.
Standard solutions for conductivity calibrations are commercially
available. Conductivity instruments can be calibrated by disconnecting
the conductivity probe and using a decade box to simulate resistance of
the solution. After the instrument calibration is completed and the probe
is reconnected, the conductivity system is checked using a standard
conductivity solution, if available, or compared to another calibrated
conductivity instrument in the same solution, To perform a calibration of a
conductivity instrument, you'll need to know the range of the instrument,
the cell constant, terminal wiring for the conductivity cell/temperature
compensation, and the temperature compensation resistance at 25C.
Also, if the conductivity instrument provides an output Signal,the output
signal and range must be known. The following example calibration
procedure is specific to a Leeds & Northrup 7082conductivity meter and
assumes the following:
Calibration range: 0 -10 ~/cm

= 4 - 20 rnA output.

Cell Constant = 1 (the actual cell constant for this range would
likely be 0.1, but we will assume 1 for ease of explanation).
,

Temperature compensation thermistor wired to terminals Band D,


conductivity probe wired to terminals A and C.
Temperature compensation resistance at 25C is 8550'ohms_

Calibration

109

8.4 CALIBRATION PROCEDURE WITH


EXPLANATIONS
1.

Verify system is shutdown and/ or conductivity cell is isolated from


. the system pressure. Carefully rem.ove the conductivity probe from
the system ensuring syste:ffi pressure is zero.

2.

Rinse the probe thoroughly using deionized water.

3.

Place the probe ill a standard conductivity solution within the range
of the instrument or a sample with a calibrated analytical
conductivity meter. Record the lias-found" conductivity reading.
(This is to record the "as found" condition of the conductivity
system, probe and meter, prior to any adjustments. It is difficult to
find standard conductivity solutions in this very low conductivity
range. Therefore, it may be necessary to use purified water and ::.
compare the indication of.the. instrument under. test to. another.
: ',i,\
calibrated conductivity instrument.) .

4.

II
5.

6.

I
i

an

Disconnect the thermistor from terminals Band. D and connect


"".
8550-ohin resistor. or decade box set to 8550. ohms. (This is done
simulate a sample resistance of 25C during calibration. If the a~tual
.temperature compensation sensor was used, the conductivity
.,
i..
readings obtained would be uncompensated readings at an
.unknown temperatur~.)

Ii;
~I
,..:

to

Disconnect the conductivityprobe


leads from terminals A and C.
Connect a decade box or other calibrated resistance simulator,
capable of 10.0Kohms to 10.Mohms, (We will use resistance to .
simulate the conductivity probe; Remember thaf conductivity :::;:
l/Resistivity.)
.
Connect a milliammeterin

series with the 4-20. rnA output signal,

7.

Set the decade box to 10.Mohms.to simulate 0..1 J,lS/cm. Recordthe


conductivity reading and the rnA output (10. Mohms is used to
simulate 0..1 ).lS/cm because J.l (micro) = 10.-6 and 1.;- 0.1 X 1O~6=
10.,0.0.0.,0.0.0..Since 1 million is mega. (M), 10.Mohms of resistance will
simulate 0..1uS/em conductivity. Confused? The expected rnA
output would be 4.16mA.. 0.1 of 10.is 1/1Oo.th and 1/10Dth of 16rnA is
0..16rnA. Add this to the zero value of 4 IDA and the expected output
. is 4.16 mA)

8.

Set the decade box to 1 Mohm to .simulate 1.0 j.lS/ em. Record the
conductivity reading and rnA output. (i .;-1.0. x 1O-~:::;:
1,00.0,00.0.The

1
!

T.

.11

....

110

Process Analytical Instrument Calibration

expected rnA output would be 5.60 rnA since 1 j.lS1 em of 10 J.1S1 em is


1/loth of 4-20 rnA.)
9.

Set the decade box to 100 Kohm to simulate 10 J.1S1 cm. Record the
conductivity reading and
output. (1 -i- 10.0 x 10-6 ;; 100,000. The
expected rnA output would be 20.0 mA.)

rr0

10.

If adjustment is required, calibrate the indication and/or mA output


in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction manual and repeat
steps 7-to-9 to obtain "as-left" readings.

11.

Disconnect the test equipment and restore the instrument


connections,

12.

Repeat step 3 and record the "as-left" conductivity reading. (TI1isis


to record the lias left" condition of the conductivity system, probe
and meter, following any adjustments and to verify instrument is
connected properly.)

How would the simulated conductivity readings change if the cell


constant (K) is 0.1? A cell constant of 0.1 is 10 times more sensitive than a
cell constant of 1. (This means the distance between the electrodes is
reduced by a factor of 10, the surface area of the electrodes is increased by
a factor of 10, or some combination of both.) The best way to think about
this is that if we used the same simulated values as above with a K of 0.1,
the conductivity readings would be increased by a factor of 10. Therefore,
to perform the calibration properly, we must decrease the simulated
resistances by a factor of 10. So, the simulated resistances for the same
conductivity instrument with a cell constant of 0.1 would be 1 Mohm,
100 Kohm, and 10 Kohm for conductivities of 0.1 J.1S1 em, 1 j.lS1 em, and
10 ).LSI em, respectively.
Let's do one more problem. What resistance would we have used to
simulate 5 j.lS/cm with a K ;;1? Since 5 ).LS/em;; 5 x 10-6 S/cm and 1.;- 5 X
10-6, we would use a resistance of 200,000 ohms or 200 Kohms. That makes
sense since 5 IlSI em is ~ of 10 ).LS
I em and we are using twice the
resistance as we used to simulate 10 ).LS/cm. Got it!
This is all simplified if you are calibrating a resistivity instrument.
The procedure is the same, except you do not need to do the conversions
from conductivity to resistivity. You do need to account for the cell
constant, however.

Calibration

111

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Use the reference section, as necessary, to answer the following questions:
1.

What are the ideal amV input values for a pH meter at 4, 7, and 10
pH at 25C?

2.

What buffer solution' is used 'to .standardlze a pH meter?

3.

What buffer is preferred for calibration of the slope? Why~

4.

What is the purpose of a pH diagnostic?test? " .

5.

What are the basic steps of ~ pH diagnostic test?

6.

What is the diagnostic test acceptance criterion that determines,


whether the electrode-should be replaced?
.,

.u,

7.

What test equipment is used to simulate a conductivity signal to a


conductivity meter?

8.

How is the resistance value input for a conductivity instrument


calibration determined?

9.

How is the 25C temperature simulated during a conductivity or


resistivity instrument calibration?

10. Why is it important to know the cell constant for a conductivity


calibration?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ANSI/ISA-51.1-1979(R1993).Process Instrumentation Terminology. IsA
1995..
.

ANSI/ISA-75.25.01-2000.Test Procedure for Control Valve Response


Measurement for Step Inputs. I~A, 2000.
Battikha.N'E, The Condensed Handbook of Measurement and Control. Secord
edition, ISA, 2003.
Broadley-lames Corporation. The ph Primer: A Selected Review of pH
Measurement Practice from the Perspective of the pH Sensor. Broadley-lames
Corporation, 1994.
Calibrating Flaw Instrument: User's Guide. Involve Instrument Calibration
Series. ISA and ITC Learning (ITCAIC 04), 1990.(CD-ROMwith.
Instructor's Guide and Student Workboo~) .

1
)

Calibrating Level Instruments: User'~ Guide. Inv~lveInstrument Calibration


Series. ISA and ITC Learning (ITCAlC05), 1990.(CD-ROMwith
Instructor's Guide and.Student Workbook)
Calibrating Temperature Instruments: User's Guide. Involve Instrument'
Calibration Series. ISA and ITC Learning (ITCAIC03),'1990.(CD-ROM
. with Instructor's Guide and Student Workbook)
Calibratio~ Principles: User's G~tide.InvolveInstrument Calibration Series.
IsA and ITC Learning (ITe AlC01), 1989. (CD-ROMwith Instructor's
Guide and Student Workbook)
Capacitance Level Measurement. Technical Bulletin TB~L1,rev 4-201.GLI
International, (n.d.). Retrieved 11/09/2004 from:
http://www.gliint.com/library /fb-l l.pdf
113

114

Bibliography

Instrument Calibration Series. Volume 1:Principles of Calibration, Volume 2:


Calibrating Pressure and Temperature Instruments, Volume 3: Calibrating Flow
and Level Instruments. Instrument Society of America. ISA,1989.
(Videotapes with User's Manuals)
Cubberly, William H. ISA Handbook of Measurement Equations and Tables.
Research Triangle Park, NC: ISA, 1993.
Coettsche. L. D. Maintenance of Instruments & Systems. Second edition. ISA,
2005.
ISA-5.4-1991.Instrument Loop Diagrams. ISA, 1991.
ISA-TR20.00.01-2001.Specification Forms for Process Measurement and
Control Instruments, Part I: General Considerations. ISA, 2001. (Microsoft
Word Format on CD-ROM)
ISA-TR91.00.02-2003,Criticality Classification Guideline for Instrumentation.
ISA,2003.
ISA Training Courses -- available on topics such as CSSTreview, standard
instrumentation and control documentation, calibration, and maintaining
electronic instruments -- Retrieved 11/9/2004 from http://www.isa.org/
Template.cfm?Section=Education_and_Training&Template=1
Taggedpage I trainingintro.cfm
ISOI IEC 17025:1999.General requirements for the competence of testing and
calibration laboratories. ISOllEC, 1999.
Library Reference, Vol. MM. Omega Engineering, 2001. (CD-ROM)
Seidman, Lisa A. and Cynthia J. Moore. Basic Laboratonj Methods for
BiotechnologlJ. Prentice Hall, 2000.
Temperature and Measurement Test Devices: User's Guide. InvolveTest
Measurement and Devices Series. ISA and ITC Learning (ITCAT103),
1990. (CD-ROMwith Instructor's Guide and Student Workbook)
TPC Training Systems. Process Control Instrumentation: Final Control
Elements. Trainee's Guide. TPC Training Systems, 1992. (Training Course
Materials)

Calibration.

115

Transactions in Measurement and Control, Vol. 4: Flow Level and Measurement.


Omega Engineering, (n.d.) Retrieved 11/09/2004 from:
http://www.omega.com/literature/transactions/volume4
TWI Press, Inc. Cashco Positioners. 1998.Retrieved 11/09/2004 from:
<http://www.maintenanceresources.com/ReferenceLibrary /
ControlValves/ CashcoPositioners.htm>
Type 1000 lIP and EIP Transducers (LT 06653m). Marsh Bellofram, 2003.
(Brochure).Retrieved 11/09/2004 from:
http://www.marshbellofram.com/pdfs/type1000.pdf
Type 3660 and 3661Positioners. Product Bulletin 62,1:3660.Fisher Controls
(Emerson Process Management), 2002.

I
j

I
"I

...:.:.

Appendix

A-1

PIPING & INSTRUMENT


DIAGRAMS (.P&IDs)
,

. I

. I
.

.-.:
:

:..:. ~;

I .
j

117

Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs)

118

P&ID for the Reactor R-300 System

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Appendix

A- 2

- LOOP DIAGRAMS

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119

Loop Diagrams

120

IT-300

Reactor R-300 Temperature Control Loop

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Calibration

121

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Appendix

A-3

INSTRUMENT SPECIFICATIONS
;
I

:'j

'.

The following Instrument Specification Forms are examples only


using ISA-TR20.Use the information provided in these specification forms
to answer the chapter review questions.
The ABC Company Instrument SpecificationData Form.at the end of
this section is provided as an example for reference only. This form, ."0
.
. modified for your use, can be used to document calibration information
for each instrument and obtain approval from the user, calibration
supervisor, and quality department.

,.

.~.

123

124

Instrument Specifications

RESPONSIBLE ORGANIZAnON

2131-

~I11
12

59

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I.

6D
01

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10
10
17
10
10
20
21

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End rOt
nlla mnlorl31

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dlnrMl(W

24

ASSEMBLY

26
26
27
28
20

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DO

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63
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70

PERFORMANce CHARACTERISTICS
'ADX:JJr.os." at dotdQl'llflmP
AI

72

Ff.Dwrille

"~

rnr.n

neta-t:t .

73
74

CONNECTION

10u,10

30 ....
31
32

75
10
77

EhD

~'I"d'rd

I<L,.
IlUon~o

sa

78

70
80

A
1~:ty_eo..'lndnl~

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34

61
82
83
TRANS
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mOOMo11oo

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41
42
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44

ERORCOMP
ER
NEMA.,
oRdosuro

85
84~
88
81
88
89
90

don5lty

nnal

curt "I & ((QQuoncv


e

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ka/mIn
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SPECIAl REOUIREMENTS
sst oerinanellt attachod

sid

45
46

6n<I115VAC 60Hz
[8iisafe set aOie

92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

"~

47
48
49

50
61

52

molcOOI

~oooX~coal8dafuminum

100

53
t;.I

sa

CAlIllRATIONSANO TEST
TAG NO/FUNCTIONAL IDENT
EIIS/SIGNAllTEST
H30t
Mall" ftowAnnlo cutout
Mnns-Annfo cut lit"
McnlJ.-Mol
otlluul3

II

con uralion
dis 18 lanauace
PHYS

TA

estimated weio.ht
Facelotace dimension
OYe""'''''ioIrt
R&moval clearance
SIanoI conn rtorM'lcl alze
~r mkl1onl:o dwa

101
102
103
104
INPUT OR TEST
LRV
URV

55
51
110
III
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
110
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
Roy

tvoe
1:ndosure twa naldaS5
SIonaJ oower SC\n'C8
Totail.

05

23
22~

30
31
30

TOTAlIZER INDICATOR

58

In!!no

!",.

SPECIFICATlON 100001FICATIONS
Oocumen no
La'osl reviston
Dale
Issue stalus

u.

FLOWMETER BODY AND HOUSING

leN

6
7
B
9
10

CORIOUS MASS flOWMETER


w/wo TOTALIZER INDICATOR
Device Soaciticatlon

Okolm

2Dok

Ok()/rnln

200kolmln

51

ACTlON
dltod

a rnn

dltoet

Ot-b.

OUTPUT OR SCAlE
LRV
unv

20mn
0000

to

COMPONENT TYPE

Dot<l

FOlm; 20F2521 Roy 0

R_eo_

COMPONENT IDENTIFICATIONS
MhNUFACTURER

By IAo.. t IAoov2 IAooY3

LNUMDER

REMARl<S

020011SA

125

Calibration

RESPONSIBLEORGANIZATION DIFFERENTIALPRESSURELEVEL

SPECIFICATION IONTIFICATIONS
no
Dala

TRANSMITTER FLAI<GE'"CUNlCO

l;Mest revision

8
9

"sue"""'"

re

:!~~~~;.~~~~~~~~.r~"~ill!ITT)~EIR~~BiOOi~T.Y~':;~;;:~~;;~~;;~~;:~-'~6~~r-~~~~.
~ __~RE~MO~'~E~~~~~ ~-i

i-'-,--~

"!

PIQCl6J
lerrnn Iv'De
VenVDtain location

14
15
16
17
U'
19
21
22

St\'Ie

80llfnq malerial

carbon sleet line DIaled


316SST
carbon sleel zinc plaled

GaskeVO[inC! malerial
Mountinakit malerial

lenan
slalnless ,luI

,1AI

OuIpu slanal

30
39

,I

n~~~~~;;~~~~~~~~
69

SST

mal rial

~
15
16

PE
RMANCECHARACTERlSncs
MaxDfessaldesion~"
SOosJo
At 2SOC

_;~

_-

~
450~

ACCESSORIES

as

AK set rdler sMe

90
91
9:

HeainQ kf1sMe
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,:,!~

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99E~

-:_.,

-'-:

_'-:":C"

RE~!:;S~~~.

~
~-101
102
103
104
105
1D6

Ratina
Stvle

~
110
III
'12
113
114
115
1115

Mn

-INTEGAAlSEAL-'

52
Proot sconnnominafsJze
~~roces,
M
~
55
56
oematl
57

r~~I>k~'"~~~'~~~~E~~
.

iv

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anatoa meter Uf1Iform


mternallemlnbfock
NA
NA

~
soan Max 185C
Onli2O
URI. 25OInH2C .
1..D2
At Ie
25C

Ierno
Rt.

81
82
83
84

41
40
42
43

Leno(h

70
7.

TRANSMITTER
an;tIoQ currenl

tvoe

SMe

to

6<)

3
33
34
35

nomsixe
uanlitv
dia
(iar

n_

SENSINGREI.ENT
oiezwesistivesensor
100inH20
Max 4OO1nH2O

30329

Ier..

64
6S
66
67
68

2O!~!FII:.:'d:':DI~.'~"l'~I"'l"~I~~s!I.!;n!'.~S'iS1'' '~;::~~
~
26
27~
28

---

NPT IF)

'-. "_.... ~.- ';PHYSrCAl..OATA


Estimated weloht

'.~.- _' ~'.:"_.

Overa' heioht

R.tmoval clearance
SIonalconnnominaisile
Wr fslefence dwo

100
TAG
UT202

.~CAU6RATI~""
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0 1nH20

120InH20

d;,od_

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- tRY ,- - _-:'URV-,
20 ...

. ilalouloul

117

:::r-+---~CC~M~~~N~~NT~TY~-=~=---:~----~MA~N~~~F~~'~~T~~R~;f~C~O~,~~P~O~_~~Er~~T~ro~ENTIF~~I~CA~T~ro~N~S~'~;~:~:M~:~~~O~:~-~~L+'~~~M~'B=-E~R~-~-----~:
12.
121
122
1~
124

125
Rev

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--

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IAIljW3

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REMARKS - -

C200"SA

126

Instrument Specifications

Calibration

127

I RESPONSIBLE
ORGANIZATION
U DIFFERENTIAlPRESSURESWITCH

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~:c- BodVtv:.
13
14

wiM>TRANSMInER

61

Precess
conn

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SWITCHMECHANISMwlwaTRANSMlnER

tvoe
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32
34

ReselslvJe
SiQnalnewer seuree

75

8O;~I~~~~~~~I~~~~~~~

rerev & analoQ'

76
7S

4X
manualincreasina

62~

35.

83

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96

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5.5inH20
NC
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24V
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20inH20

dired

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20me

eeessoe-sese

116

., "";.:.,

..

COMPQNENTIDENTIFICAnONS''
.. t=";
'.'" ,; ... :.' ..:.
j.;.. ..
~COMPONENTTYPE: ,",: ~-MANUFACTURER' ':.' ...:_~":! .~.'::" ~MOOElNUMeER~.;:2:
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Form; 20P2501 Rev 0

t "...':

~~~.'

.';,.

:!~~~~~5~mM~am~~
~II,~~-=~,.:=':'

4Il

126
Rev"

S?ECrALREQI1!REMENTS~- ,0.
sst o8ananent

91~aa
92

U9
120
121
122
123
124
125

ACCESSORIES

!!tvlDl.~~;iS;!;~~!;s:!rmja;;,,~,,~~Q~U~'~"':i(v:~ ~
~!>;-l':BticSe::'i~i.:~~:i:;~~:da:;:stv;D,,:';::.:rc;";,~o;o!,!e!e!o~e~C~C~C~_~_~_~_:_~_;_~:~_;C~-11

r--

,:
111
112
113
114
115
116
117

Max
AI max
AI max 30V

25 30
31 -

~=

IA

27~'

(\vorkina lemo

ac rarinQ
de ra .

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URL 20inH20

67
68
69
10
71

SENSINGELEMEKT
Sensor etemenl lvne
oressure Itansducer
AdfuslableLRL
0 fnH20
URt 20lnHZO
Oia hraQmMrettedmaLerial 316 SST

. Max

...
n=-

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~
65

:~ ~
43
44

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62.~--fl;c%~so

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lermn woe

19
20
21
22
23

SPECIFICATION
lDENTIACATlONS

E3i~I;:I~~ii~~~~~D:a:t'~

_I

.. Revlslon Oescriptlon

. REMARKS:

.:...

1t)20011SA

128

Instrument Specifications

w=~~~

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81
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66

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28
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04
05

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87

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90

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93

97

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5

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Bv

REMARI\S

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129

Calibration

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flat

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side

bracket

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::
20
21

carllon
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~
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materia'

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TRANSMITTER
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42

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69
70
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51

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56
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78
79

~
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62
83

AcceSSORIES

NA

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87 '--

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89

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LCD meier 4 dian


lccal !.oan & zero
drNe ouout hfoh

ac on

46

PERFORMANCECHARACTERtSllCS

""""====,---1
7767
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NA'

~
~
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34
35

Oate

Issue status

n
N
SENSING B.EMENT

26
27
28~
29
30

8
9
10

60

TRANSMITTERBODY
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Document no
Latest reyisi<:ln

646~1m

Device SpecifJCallon

1------1

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SPECIFICATIONIDENTIFICATIONS

11
12
13
14

PRESSURE TllANSMJTTER

RESPONSIBLEORGANIZATiON

NA

~S;;M;.====t====:::=============~
901_+-~-~~~~;;;;;;;;:;1;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;~~~~~~~~~.j
91
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100"--6-",,""""_";"";_"",':,;;:..;_.-'P"Hl.!Y.sS~IC~A"'t"'D"'Al:l.!A>...,;."-'.....c.-""'"'-'_i1
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105
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59
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111
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4mA
20mA
50
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112
113
110:::p'Tt-~~::~~:IF::U:N~:----+",
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114
115
116
117
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118
" MANUFACTURER .. ".
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. MODEL NUMBER .
119
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12d
121
122
123
124
125
REMARKS :.
Rov . Date"
Revi$lon Descrintion '.'
8v' Aoov1rAopv2
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Lou.;

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C2oo11SA

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130

Instrument Specifications

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132

Instrument Specifications

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133

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134

Instrument

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Copyright Emerson Process Management. All rights reserved.


Reproduced with the permission of Emerson Process Management,
Eden Prairie, MN 55344.www.emersonprocess.com

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Instrument Specifications

138

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Copyright Emerson Process Management All rights reserved.


Reproduced with the permission of Emerson Process Management,
Eden Prairie, MN 55344.www.emersonprocess.com

139

Calibration

BJMETAlLIC THERMOMETER
w/wo THERMOWELL

RESPONSIBLE ORGANIZATION

!~1iSfi\
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10

OPERAnNG PARAMETERS

12
13
14
15

s;:.

17

Ate.
Relate6 eauipmen

20
21
22

MlICinl\hTl

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ProJeCt
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60

Sub oroiect no

16
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61
62
63
64

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PROCESS CONNECTION AND CASE


Case tvDe

69
70
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68

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112
113
114
115
116
117
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118
C PONEN TV
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119
120
121
122
123
124
125
Rev
Doi)te.
Revislon Description ,
:.' REMARKS
BVl",,"vll_2
",,"v3

~F::==,"'~;.=~.~:3;~~.~
..

;.,

Form: 20T200t Rev0

Cl20011SA

140

Instrument Specifications

nFIlPoM "Rt.

Wi'::

FI~WtTC~
THeRMOWELL
D<3vlcoSDocficallon

~-'@

~=

10

11

'BULB

~I

60
6,

ruse

6:l

LR.111<I1
LSM'
LSMe

~LSM.

1.25DIn

li~~-

LLo""lh L61n

;~
H
73

i~
~E

30

lond nnd tvne


:o.[n,
,In.,. IIndl,,,,tot.MD

~~

IIvo.

:~
;;~

INA
IUL

.;

;~
:~
:~
:~
:~

~~
42
4,

!!~

31

~~

JJ!

~~

93

94

:~

:~
~

,motorial

60

t attached

,reoor!

1~

~~
~~

'0'

;;
~;
I::;
1m
I::i
I'I!

Dva",U holohl
Romov.1 "o.rnne.
Slannl conn nomlnlll slzo

IStylo

107

69

IINOTES~

OUTPUT IRSCALE

II

I"!

In

1'2'
1m
1m
1'2'
Rov

Form:

Rovl,lon De,;cripUon

Dolo

Intll

Roy 0

8v

REMARKS

@2oo' 'SA

141

Calibration

RESPONSIBLEORGANIZATION

RTDlTHERMOCOUPLETEMPERATURE
TRANSMITTER OR SWITCH
Davies specmcaUon

~~
~~~~HO-U-SI~na~~~.~~T~RAN~S~M~I~TTTER~O~R~SW1~T~C~H~'~
~ ~
13
14
15
16
17
18

fnolit sensOf' t'lDe


OulDuls1onallvoe

-r--- __
Min measUlementsoan
Terro coaf!ToIerancec(
Isolallon tvoe
Enctosure tvoe no/class'

54
55
56
57
58
59

F
rd

-l'~'linear
Pro",n!.Jt
DU"""sh",b""utto=n~~~~_"
10 measurement

190
2
"21 ~

std

22r~r~r-

Hart ereteeer
1000
12-2hdc

62

NA

~~r-- Transien1

Dcotection

S601

63
~
~

25 '-

10
PERFORMANCECHARACTERISTICS
Accuracv faUna
0.2% soan
Measurement LRL
32"F
URL 212"F
10C
M'1I1 ambient workloo femo
Max 50C
ContaCls ac ratlna
At max
Conlacls de raUno
At max

auonlllv

65

failsafe

:
69
70
71

ACCESSORIES

IR.mote TndlcalOlsMa
/Indicator enclosure
IfJJt sat tilter style
lAir set eauaee

28
29
30

'nleore.'ndlcaklr sMa
Sianallennlnation tvue
CerVAoDoovaj tvoe

LCD meter 4 diQil


Irani screw terminals

32
33

FallurelOiaanoslicBeUon
Dead band tvce

drive output high

35

TamilQ)lJlDeosatiolllvoef:oldiunction:inlernal

76_

36

E!nclosuramaterial

17

~~
~

Mounflna
kitmalerial

84.-"

====~~s~aoI;;in;t::::::========::::::::::::j
AA

Sa

sue

~~_

sst oermanent

~:

41

aUachad

82

43
44
45

85
86

weiQhl

47
48
~40

- aQ
00

reference

PI-/YSICALOATA

'..,.
-_.
Sf Ie

dWQ

81111!ii!!ii!i!iI~"lIl''iil''-I1i1l1'1II

~
~
110
111
112
113
11~
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
128
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
. Rev

73
74

~
~
CALIBRATIONSANDTESr-:
TAG NO/FUNCTIONALIDENT MEASISIGNAUTEST'
Tr-200
Temp-AnaklQ output 1

'. INPUTORSETPOINT.
LRV"
.. URV .'
32.o-F
212.0F

. -.'
AcnON
dired

-.,' OUTPUT OR SCALE


lRV -, ... -, ,. URV.
4:00 mA
20.00rnA

IE
Tempsetoolnl
Temp
Temp
Temo

".""J"','"
-'Ce"
r . COMPONENTlYPE'

Date

1-0utpUt
2-Outaul
3-QuIa:wt
4-Oulpltt

",)/".".
,"'"'COMPONENfiDENTIACATIONS
'. MANUFACTURER"
"
.",

..: RevisIol1DeSCriDtiot,-.'

Bv .. Appvf Appv2 Ap,oVJ '.~"~; ,:,,':~'

',n ;c':. "c.'~"'''''' .":.'.- ..".;-"

......".
MODEL NUMBER ." .. , ,., ,:. "- -;',

'!"

;,",',:"REMARKS:-

",

*':
Form: 20T2221 Rev 0

2001ISA

142

Instrument Specifications

Calibration

143

ABC Company
Instrument Specification Data Form

ired:
INSTRUMENT DATA
Manufacturer:
Model Number:
Equipment/System:
Serial Number:
Tag Number:
*Instrument Range:
Description:
Calibration Standard: DYES
Per manufacturer's specification
PROCESS DATA

DNa

..* Calibration tolerance cannot be more stringent than the manufacturer's tolerance.

If
tighter tolerance is necessary, the instrument must be re-evaluated for the application .

.'{.:\\<;';' ..:::'X.; IliISTRUMEI'ITCLASSIFICATION (CheCKoili:liiix,'iirilV':';'\'c<':1:i.";'~i;:1


o Critical Instrument - Product impact- A device that, when not performing to

J.

specification, could Causeproduct impact. The instrument owner wil! be required to


perform an evaluation on all out oftolerance conditions for Critical devices. An Out
of Tolerance Evaluation form will be initiated..
D Non-Critical Instrument - Equipment Performance/Safety - A device that is
significant to equipment Iproc~ss operation, or equipmentlpersonal safety, but does
not pose an impact to product or process quality. Out od Tolerance Evaluation
Forms, are not issued 01\ Non-Critical devices, These.mstrumenrs are calibrated 00 a
routine basis.
D Reference Only Instrument - Trending or Information Only. Not used for
quantitative measure, not used for quality decisions; Instruments are calibrated
initially and all subsequent calibrations are perfonned on demand only.
o This instrument does not require calibration (if this box is checked attachjustification
statement)

-.1
-v-

._.

"'' 'l' ' f;'~'~:_.

"",~"",,,,,~~;-;:'>;-;:
.. ;7:,"';;."'~,;""\\""'."i"',r"';;,""TIi=lis""''''q;.''''e'''a''',:i''o")~l!''')-:::b''''m"'o"-::11'-~"'ea"';-:.by""7'"::ih7"ll'>'~C.r.Q:;lt;;'6"'ra".i"..iiJ".'n
.... D::,.,f!jjQ'7""'7i,"'.'(J-::ii-::~."'t.,,"..,::~~;"';::,,.,,;""'"::.~',,-?:.'o-"

New Calibration ID Assigned:


New Calibration SOP Required?
New Calibration Standard(s) Required?
Is this a Calibration Program Instrument?

Calibration Frequency:
0 YES
0 NO
0 YES
0 NO
0 YES
0 NO
Date:
Date:
Date:

months

._1
.: .. 1

I
I

A-4

Appendix
CALIBRATION

PROCEDURES

The following calibration standard operating procedures (SOPs) are


examples only. Use the information provided in these procedures to
answer the chapter review questions ..
All calibration procedures in this appendix refer to the
manufacturer's technical manual for performing the adjustments. Note
that some companies do not allow reference to other documents in
calibration procedures per their interpretation of OSHA 1910and other
regulations.

i
-I

Pressure

SOP

TITLE

NUMBER
SOP-CAL-01
SOP-CAL-02

Calibration/Calibration
Indicator

Check of Electronic Pressure Transmitter/

Calibration/Calibration

Check of Electronic Differential Pressure

'Irahsmitter
SOP-CAL-03

Calibration of Differential Pressure Transmitters

SOP-CAL-04

Calibration/Calibration

Check of Pressure (Vacuum) Gauges

SOP-CAL-OS

Calibration/Calibration

Check of a Pressure Switch

Temperature

SOP

TITLE

NUMBER
SOP-CAL~06

Calibration/Calibration

Check of Temperature Indicator/Recorder

SOP-CAL-O?

Calibration/Calibration

Check of Dial Thermometers

SOP-CAL-OB

Calibration/Caiibration
Transmitters

Check of RTD Input Electronic Temperature

SOP-CAL-09

Calibration Check of Glass Thermometers

145

.>

Calibration Procedures

146

Level (see Chapter 5 for additional Level Calibration procedures)

SOP

TITLE

NUMBER
SOP-CAL-02

Calibration/Calibration
Transmitter

Check of Electronic Differential Pressure

SOP-CAL-03

Calibration of Differential Pressure Transmitters

SOP-CAL-l0

Calibration/Calibration
Transmitter

Check of Capacitance Probe Level

Flow (see Chapter 6 for additional Flow Calibration procedures)

SOP

TITLE

NUMBER
SOP-CAL-l1

Calibration/Calibration

Check of Flow Totalizers/Transmitters

Final Control Elements (See Chapter 7 for additional Final Element


Calibration Procedures)

SOP

TITLE

NUMBER
SOP-CAL-12

Calibration of Current to Pressure Transducers

Analytical Instruments (See Chapter 8 for additional Analytical


Instrument Calibration Procedures)

SOP

TITLE

NUMBER
SOP-CAL-13

Calibration/Calibration Check of leeds & Northrup 7082


Conductivity Analyzers
.

The following example calibration data sheets could be used for a


manual system or as a template report for your database system with
fields imported for each calibration. This could be used instead of the
calibration data sheet attachments to each procedure (in which case you
would not set up your system with data sheet attachments to your
calibration SOPs). .

147

Calibration

Example Calibration Data Sheet # 1

,
i

Instrument ill:
Manufacturer:
Model:
Serial Number:
Description:
Calibration Range:
Calibration Interval:

System ID:
Location:
Classification:
Owner:
Calibration SOP:
Calibration Tolerance:
Calibration Due Date:

!
1

% Input

Standard

Calibration Data
As-Found

Deviation

As-Left

i
I

.!
Service:
Status Change.' ( ) NI A
( ) In tolerance
' ( )New
( ) Out of Tolerance
( ) Active
( ) Adj. to within tolerance ( ) Out of service
( ) Cal by vendor,
( ) Tolerance
( ) Repaired
( ) Classification
( ) Work Order
( ) Interval
Standard(s) Used

ID'

Attachments: ( ) N/A
( ) Data
( ) Chart
( ) Test Report
( ) Certificate
( ) Mfg specifications
( ) Other:
Cal Due Date

I Calibration Date:

I Next Calibration Due Date:

Comments:

Performed By:

Date:

Reviewed By:

Date:

I
I
!

148

Calibration

Procedures

Example Calibration Data Sheet #2


TaR Number:
Calibration 10:
Description:
Manufacturer:
Model:
Serial Number:
Classification:

Location:
Owner/User:
Calibration Range:
Calibration Tolerance:
Calibration SOP:
Calibration Interval:
Calibration Due Date:

Calibration Data
Measured Data (DUT / Standard)

Target (Std./ OUT)


(circle one)

{circle one)

As-Found

Calibration Dale:
Test Standard(s) Information:
Srandardts) Used

Deviation

As-Left

Deviation

Next Calibration Due Date:


ID

Calibration Due Date

Technician's comments:

Check One:

Check all thai apply:

o Found In Tolerance
o Found Our ofTolcrance

o Left in Tolerance
o Left Out of Tolerance

[] Found Damaged

o Removed from service

Performed By:

Dale:

Reviewed By:

Date:

"

149

Calibration

ABC Company

Calibration/Calibration Check of
Electronic Pressure
Transmltter/Indication
Work Instruction

Purpose

SOP-CAL-OI Rev 0
Effective Date: 3/24/03
Page 1 of4

Attach.: 1.

t~perform a calibration/calibration check of a pressure control loop consisting


of sensor, transmitter, and/or digital indication(s) and to operationally check
alarms and control outputs as applicable.

Equipmcnt!
materials
nceded

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


'. Regulated air or nitrogen pressure source
Digital pressure gauge accurate to 0.1% of reading
Multimeter accurate to 0.1% of reading
Pressure hoses and fittings capable of withstanding applied
pressures

Prerequisites

The'following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of th~~'>'


maintenance item:
.. :
Determine the components of the loop to be 'checked and record
identification (P&ID tag number, bar code number, serial number, or ~_
description) in the remarks column.
Record the required information on the calibration form.
'~~

.~"
Initial
conditions

Perform the following prior to testing:


Ensure associated system is shut down. Ifthis is not possible, the contioi
functions from the instrument loop under test must be placed in mamjJOr
disabled to prevent rel!ponseto test signal simulations.
Isolate the pressure sensor, if practical, and bleed off pressure in
accordance with the site Lockout/Tagoutprocedure.

~-1
J

I!

150

I SOP-CAL-OI

Procedural
steps

Calibration

Rev 0

Procedures

Page 2 of4

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has
been recorded.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form.
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.
If the loop being checked does not include a component that this
procedure is checking, mark the step NI A on the calibration data form.
Step

Action

Make connections between the pressure source, pressure standard,


and the transmitter input.

Connect the digital multi meter to the current output of the


transmitter.

Ex.ercise the transmitter from zero to full scale and back to zero.

4#

Adjust the pressure (vacuum) source to 10, 50, and 90% of the
calibration range and record tbe following at each data point:
Digital pressure standard reading
Current output
Remote indication (if applicable)

5#

Verify proper operation of all control outputs and alarms at the


proper setpoints. Record all outputs checked and actual values
obtained.

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

151

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-Or Rev 0

Page 3 of4

Procedural steps (cont.)


Action

Step

6#
If...

Then ...

If transmitter output is not


-within 112the specified
tolerance
manual

Calibrate the transmitter in accordance with the applicable


manufacturers technical
and repeat step 4.

Ifremote display is not


within 1/2 the specified
tolerance
manual

Calibrate the display in


accordance with the
manufacturers technical
and repeat step 4.

If any alarm or control


. output operates improperly
or does not actuate within
112the specified tolerance'

&#

I
.;.if

Adjust the output and repea.t


step 5.
.
k;;;

I
I
.I

.*~

Disconnect the test equipment from the unit under test and
reinstall, if necessary.
Complete the calibration' form and apply the appropriate
calibration label.
.
If all checks are within tolerance, restore the instruments to
operational condition and notify appropriate personnel of work
performed.
.

Continued 0" "ext page

For Reference Only

.'..,

152

I SOP-CAL-OI

Acceptance
criteria

Calibration

Procedures

Page 4 of4

Rev 0

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
Final readings obtained arc within thc tolerance specified on the
calibration work order fonn.
If any readings ore found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
. Record name of person contacted in comments section of work
order form.

Attachments

The following arc attachments to this work instruction:

No.
A

Title'

Pages

Calibration/Calibration Check of Electronic Pressure


Transmitter/Indication Data Sheet

References
Manunl No.
N/A

Approvals/
author

Manual TiUe
Applicable manufacturer's technical manual

This work instruction must be approved by:

Manager, ABC Company

Datc

Quality, ABC Company

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

153

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-Ol Rev 0

Attachment

CALIBRATION/CALIBRATION
CHECK OF ELECTRONIC
TRANSMITTER/INDICATION
DATA SHEET

Step#'

4,6

Digital Pressure standard at


10%

4,6

Transmitter output current


all0%

4,6

Remote Indication at 10%

4,6

Digital Pressure standard at


50%

4,6

Transmitter output current


at 50%

Parameter

As-Found
Data

Reguired

Page 1 of 2

PRESSURE

As-Left
Data

NA

5.60:1:

rnA DC __

-rnA __

rnA

__

rnA

:I:

NA

12.00

rnA DC __

mA

-~.I'

4,6

Remote Indication at 50%

,I

:I:

-!~~

4,6

Digital Pressure standard at


- 90%

4,6

Transmitter output current


8t90%

18.4O

4,6

Remote Indication at 90%

5,6

Alarm or control output

NA

-.
mADC

rnA

__

--,

rnA

~~

~~
--

.:';:~

.~;

--

5,6

Alarm or control output

5,6

Alarm or control output

Continued on nextpage

For Reference Only

154

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-Ol
Standards

Rev 0

Attachment A Page 2 of2

Used:
Description
Digital pressure gauge

Procedures

Serial number or other

to.

Cal Due Date

-~---.------

Milliammeter

3
4

Remarks:

Performed By:
Reviewed By:

Date:

Date:

For Reference Only

r-

155

Calibration

ABC Company

Calibration/Calibration Check
of Electronic Diffential Pressure
Transmitter
Work Instruction

Purpose

Equipment!
materials
needed

Prerequisites

SOP-CAL-02 Rev 0
Effective Date: DRAFT
Attach.: 1

Page 1 of3

To perform a calibration check and, if necessary, calibration of a


differential pressure transmitter.

I
I

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


Regulated air or nitrogen pressure source
Digital pressure gauge accurate to 0.1% of reading
Multimeter accurate to 0.1 % of reading
." Pressure hoses and fittings capable of withstanding applied
pressures

I
I

I
....

Prior to performing this maintenance item, perform the following


activities:
Record required information on the calibration form.

I
II

-.

:t:

.~

Ii

;.

Procedural
steps

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustmentsuntil all "as found" calibration data ..
has been recorded.
.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form.
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require
information found on the calibration form used for recording data
(Attachment A) or req~ire data to be recorded on the calibration form.
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER CALmRATION/

-'i

jf

...
<'

,d

:"',

CALIBRATION CHECK

Step

Action

Make connections between the pressure source, pressure standard,


and the transmitter input.

Connect the digital multimeter to the current output of the


transmitter.

Continued on next page

'."-:;:

For Reference Only

156

I SOPCAL-02

Calibration Procedures

Rev 0

Page 2 of3

Procedural steps (cont.)


PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
CALIBRATION
Step

CALlBRA nONI

CHECK (cont.)
Action

Exercise the transmitter from zero to full scale and back to zero.

4#

Adjust the pressure (vacuum) source to 0, 25, 50, 75,and 100"10of


the calibration range and record the following at each data point:
Digital pressure standard reading
Current output

511
If ...

Then ..

If transmitter output is not Calibrate the transmitter in accordwithin 112 the specified
ance with the applicable manufactolerance
turers technical manual and repeat
step 4.
6

Disconnect the test equipment from the unit under test and
reinstall, if necessary.

7#

Complete the calibration form and apply the appropriate


calibration label.

If all checks are within tolerance, restore the instruments to


operational condition and noti fy appropriate personnel of work
performed,

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

'I

157

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-02
Acceptance
criteria

Rev Q

Page 3 of3

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
Final readings obtained are within the tolerance specified on the
calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record flame of person contacted in comments section ofwark
order form.

.Attachments

The following are attachments to this work instruction:


No.
A

Title

Pages'
1

Calibration/Calibration Check of Differential

Pressure'Iransmitter Data Sheet

~..

..

References
.Manual No.
N/A.

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturer's technical manual

-......
.,.

Approvals!
author

This procedure must be approved by:

Manager, ABC Company

Date

Quality, ABC Company Date


Writer: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

I
I

Calibration Procedures

158

I SOP-CAL02

Attachment A Page 1 of I

Rev 0

CALIBRA TION/CALmRA TION CHECK OF


ELECfRONIC DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

Fo,': PID Tag #

Step II

Required

Parameter

4,5

Output current at 0%

4.00 0.16 mA

4,5

Output current at 25%

8.00 0.16 rnA

4,5

Output current at 50%

12.00 0.16 mA

4,5

Output current

16.00 0.16 rnA

4,5

Output current at 100%

at

75%

As-Found
Data

As-Left
Datll

20.00 0.16 rnA

Standards Used:
Description

Serial number or other 1.0.

Cal Due Date

Digital pressure gauge


2

Milliammeter

Remarks:

Performed By:
Reviewed By:

Date:

D;ttc:

For Reference Only

Calibration

ABC Company
Document No.:

SOP-CAL-03

159

~~vision No.:

Sta'ndard Operating

Effective Date:

Title:

Calibration of Differential Pressure Transmitters

Proeedure

Page 1 of4

Supersedes Document No.:


None
.

Author (print Name):

Author Signature:

Date:

QAfCompliance Approval (Print Name):

QAlCompliance Approval Signature:

Date:

Table of Contents
1.0

2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0

6.0
7.0
8.0

PURPOSE
SCOPE
:

1
~

DEFINITIONS

REFERENCES/ATTACHMENTS

MATERIALSIREAGENTS/EQUIPMENT

SAFETY

PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT REVISION

...:

:.2
3

4,

. fl

-,

~.
For Reference Only

Calibration Procedures

160

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

NO.:]

DocumentNo.:
loROeviSion EffectiveDate:
SOP-CAL-03
1
Tille: Cnllbratlen of Dlfferentlnl Pressure Transmitters

1.0

4.0

6.0

This procedure applies to personnel required to calibrate and maintain differential


pressure transmitters located at ABC Company.

DEFINlTIONS
3.1

NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology

3.2

UUT - Unit Under Test

3.3

OaT - Out of Tolerance

REFERENCES/ATTACHMENTS
4.1

5.0

TIle purpose of this procedure is to provide standardized instruction for the


calibration of'Differentinl Pressure Transmitters.

SCOPE
2. I

3.0

Page 2 of 4

PURPOSE

I. I
2.0

Calibration System Description SOP

MATERIALSfREAGENTS/EQUIPMENT
5.1

NIST Traceable Pressure Calibrating Device

5.2

NIST Traceable Milliammeter

5.3

Pressure Source

5.4

Calibration Labels

SAFETY
6.1

All procedures will be performed in accordance with and under the constraints of
ABC Company safety procedures and applicable Federal, State, and Local safety
rules and regulations.
For Reference Only

161

Calibration

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

IEffe~tive

I Page 3 of 4

DocumentNo.:
l&ooeVisionNo.:
Date:
SOP-CAL-03
Title: Calibration of Differential Pressure Transmitters
7.0

PROCEDURE
7.1

Visually inspect the UUT for damage. Notify the user group and repair or replace as
directed.
.
Note: Always attempt to obtain "As Found" data prior to repair, replacement, or
adjustments.
.

7.2

Wann up/Stabilization Requirement: None.

7.3

UUT Accuracy/Specification: Manufacturer's specification or approved user assigned


tolerance.

. 7.4

"As-Found" Data Acquisition


7.4.1 Differential pressure transmitters will be tested at 10"10, 50%, and 90% of span
unless otherwise specified by instrument owner. Test Standards must.
_ ,I
maintain a 4: 1 accuracy ratio unless otherwise specified on the applicable'
Instrument Specification. Data Form.

.!

7.4.2

Disconnect one of the transmitter output leads and connect.the millianun~ter .


in series with the transmitter output.

t!

7.4.3

Connect the pressure source and NIST traceable pressure calibrator to the high
pressure port of the UUT.
':;",

ro.

7.4.4 Apply pressute to the high pressure side of the transmitter. Approach thetest
point as indicated by the pressure standard. Record the transmitter output'
current reading and the remote indication, if applicable, on Calibration Data
Sbeet#2.
Note: Test points must be reached within +1- 5% of targeted test point.
7.4.5

Repeat step 7.4.4 for the remaining test points.

7.4.6 Proceed to section 7.5, "As Found~ Data Interpretation


7.5

"As Found" Data Interpretation


7.5.1

Compare the "As Found" data to the tolerance specified on the Calibration
Data Sheet.

For Reference Only

162

Calibration

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

DocumentNo.:
ROOevision
No.: EffectiveDate:
SOP-CAL-03
Title: Cnllbratlon of Differential Pressure Transmitters

7.6

7.7

8.0

Page 4 of 4 .

7.5.2

Iran "As Found" value is "Out of Tolerance", a Calibration Out of Tolerance


Form must be generated per Calibration System Description SOP. Proceed to
Adjustments, section 7.6.

7.5.3

To optimize instrument performance or if adjustment is needed, proceed to


Adjustments, section 7.6.

7.5.4

If all of the "As Found" data is within the specified tolerance, proceed to
section 7.7.

Adjustments
7.6.1

Adjust and repair transmitter according to manu facturcrs suggested repair


guidelines. If guidelines are unavailable, replace the transmitter.

7.6.2

If'the UUT can not be adjusted to specification, remove the device from
service

7.6.3

Proceed to section 7.8, Documentation and Labeling.

No Adjustment Necessary
7.7.1

7.8

Procedures

Return UUT to service.

Documentation and Labeling


7,8.1

Complete and process the Calibration Data Sheet per the Calibration System
Description SOP.

7.8.2

Complete and affix the appropriate calibration labels per the Calibration
System Description SOP.

DOCUMENT REVISION

For Reference Only

/'

Calibration

163

ABC Company

Calibration/Calibration Check of
Pressure (Vacuum) Gauges
Work Instruction

I
,I
',1

SOP-CAL-04 Rev 0
Effective Date: 3124/03
Page 1 of3

Attach.: 1

Purpose

To perform a calibration check and; if necessary, calibration of a mechanical


pressure, vacuum, or pressure/vacuum compound gauge.

Equipment!
materials
needed

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


Regulated air or nitrogen pressure source
Vacuum source, if applicable
Digital pressure/vacuum gauge accurate to 0.1% of reading
Pressure hoses and fittings capable of withstanding applied
pressures

Prerequisites

The following prerequisites shail be completed prior to performance of the


maintenance item:
Record the required information on the calibration form.

Initial
conditions

Perform the following prior to testing:


Isolate the gauge and bleed off pressure per the site Lockout/Tagout

Procedure,

'

fl

Procedural
steps

;[
"

'/

'I

Step

~J

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has
been recorded.
"
Note any deviation from this procedure in tbe remarks section of the
calibration form.
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.

Action

Inspect !he gauge for integrity and cleanliness .

Clean as neces~ary.

'

Conlinlledon nextpage

For Reference Only

Calibration Procedures

164

I SOP CAL-04
Procedural

Page 2 of3

Rev 0

steps (cont.)

Step

Action

Make connections between the pressure source, pressure standard,


and thc gauge under test.

If gauge has been removed, stabilize the gauge in the same


orientation as when it is installed.

Exercise the gauge from zero to full scale three times.

511

Record the pressure (vacuum) standard reading and gauge under


test rending at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the calibration range as
pressure (vacuum) is increased.
Note: If the pressure (vacuum) is increased above the desired
reading, decrease pressure (vacuum) to the previous
reading taken, and then increase pressure (vacuum) to
desired value.

6#

Record the pressure (vacuum) standard reading and gauge under


test reading at 75, 50, 25, and 0% of the calibration range as
pressure (vacuum) is decreased.
Note: Ifthe pressure (vacuum) is decreased below the desired
reading, increase pressure (vacuum) to the previous
reading taken, then decrease pressure (vacuum) to desired
value.

711

lfthe gauge under test indicates values greater than 1/2 the
specified tolerance and the gauge is calibratablc, adjust the
gauge until indications are less than 1/2 the specified
tolerance,
If adjustments are made, repeat steps 5 - 6 and record final
values.

Disconnect the test equipment from the gauge under test and
reinstall, if necessary.

9#

Complete the calibration form and apply the applicable calibration


label.
Continuedon nextpage

For Reference Only

Calibration

I SOP CAL-04

165

. Page 3 of3

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont.)

Acceptance
'~riteria

Step

Action

10

If all checks are within tolerance, restore the gauge to operational


condition and notify appropriate personnel of work performed.

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria to


determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by supervision.
Final pressure.(vacuum) measurements obtained are within the tolerance
specified on the calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
.
., Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record name of person contacted in comments section of work order
furm.
.

,..

-, ...~....Attacbments

The following are attachments to this work instruction:


I

.....

No.
A

Title
Calibration/Calibration
Gauges DataSheet

Pages

Check of Pressure (Vacuum)

;',':-;'

References
Manual No.
N/A

Approvals!
author

Manual Title
App'licable manufacturer's technical manual

'This work instruction must be approved by:


Manager, ABC Company

Quality, ABC Company

Date

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

167

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-04

Rev 0 .

Attachment A Page 1 of~

CALIBRA TlON/CALlBRA TION CHECK OF


PRESSURE (VACUUM) GAUGE DATA SHEET

Step #

Parameter

Reguired

5,7

0% Increasing pressure
(vacuum)

+1-

5,7

25% Increasing pressure


(vacuum)

+1-

5,7

50% Increasing pressure


(vacuum)

+/-

5,7

75% Increasing pressure


. (vacuum)

+1-

.5,7

100% Increasing pressure


(vacuum)

+/-

6,7

75% Decreasing pressure


(vacuum)

+/-

6,7

50% Decreasing pressure


(vacuu~)

+/-

6,7

25% Decreasing pressure


(vacuum)

+/-

6,7

0% Decreasing pressure
(vacuum)

+/-

..~

As-Found
Data

As-Left
Data

Continued on next poge

For Reference Only

168

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-04

Rev 0

Procedures

Attachment A Page 2 of2

Standurds Used:
Description

Serial number or other 1.0.

Cal Due Date

Digital pressure/vacuum
gauge
2

Remarks:

PcrfurmcdBy:
Reviewed By:

Date:

Date:

For Reference Only

169

Calibration

ABC Company

Calibration/Calibration Check of
a Pressure Switch
. Work Instruction

11

SOP-CAL-05 Rev 0
Effective Date: 3124/03
Page 1 of4

Attach.: I

Purpose

To perform a calibration check and, ifnecessary, calibration of a pressure


switch.

Equipment!
materials
nee4ed

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


.Regulated air or nitrogen pressure source
Digital pressure gauge accurate to 0.1% of reading
Multimeter capable of reading a change of state in resistance or voltage
Pressure hoses and fittings capable of withstanding applied pressures

Prerequlsltes

The following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of the


maintenance item:
Record the required information on the calibration form.
..~....

Initial
condltlons

Perform the following prior to testing: .


Isolate the pressure switch and bleed off pressure per the site
Lockout/Tagout Procedure.

. Procedural
steps

';

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has,
. been recorded.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form. . .
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
.found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.
Continued

~1I

next page

For Reference Only

Calibration Procedures

170

I SOP-CALOSRev 0

Page 2 of4

Procedural steps (cont.)


Step
I

Action
Caution:

Keep powcr leads separated to prevent circuit


shorting and possible equipment damage.

lfrequired, disconnect power leads from pressure switch.


2

Cnutlon:

Conflrm sensing line is depressurized.

Make connections between the pressure source, pressure standard,


and the pressure switch sensing line.

Connect the multimeter leads across the switch contact.


If checking a low pressure switch, go to step 6.
For high pressure switch continue with step 4.

4#

For high pressure switch:


Increase pressure until the switch changes state, as indicated
by a change in voltage or resistance reading.
Record the pressure switch trip value as indicated on the
digital pressure gauge.

5#

For high pressure switch:


Slowly decrease the pressure until the switch changes state, as
indicated by a change in voltage or resistance reading.
Record the pressure switch reset value as indicated on the
digital pressure gauge.

For low pressure switch:


Increase pressure until the switch resets, as indicated by a
change in voltage or resistance reading.

7#

For low pressure switch:


Slowly decrease the pressure until the switch changes state, as
indicated by a change in voltage or resistance reading.
Record the pressure switch trip value as indicated on the
digital pressure gauge.

Continuedon next page

For Reference Only

171

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-05

Page 3 of4

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont)


Step

Action

8#

For low pressure switch:


Slowly increase the pressure until the switch changes state, as
indicated by a change in voltage or resistance reading.
Record the pressure switch reset value as indicated on the
digital pressure gauge.

9#

10

If the actual pressure switch trip (and ifrequired, reset) values


are greater than 112 the specified tolerance, adjust the switch
',.
until values are less than 112 the specified tolerance.
Ifadjustments are made, repeat steps 4 and 5 or 6 - 8 as
applicable and record final values.
."

I
J

Disconnect the test equipment from the switch under test.

11#

Complete the calibration form and affix the applicable calibra.t!p!i. '.
label.'
.
."".'

12

Ifall checks are within' tolerance, restore the pressure switch to .


operational condition and notify appropriate personnel of work ._.
performed.

~..

''.J:1

...
....i

Acceptance
criteria
...

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
,
'. Final trip (and reset) values obtained are within the tolerance
specified on the calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
. Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
. Record name of person contacted in comments section of work
order form.
Continued on next page

"
For Reference Only

:. I,

172

I SOP-CAL-OS

Attachments

Calibration

Rev 0

Procedures

Page4of4

The following are attachments to this work instruction:


No.
A

Title
Calibration/Calibration
Sheet

Pages

Check ofa Pressure Switch Data

References

Manual No.
N/A

Approvnlsl
!luthor

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturer's technicul manual

This work instruction must be approved b.y:

Manager, ABC Company

Date

Quality, ABC Company

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

,;

Calibration

173

I SOP-CAL-05

Rev 0

CALIBRATION/CALIBRATION

Step #

Parameter

Attachment A Page 1 of I
CHECK OF A PRESSURE SWITCH DATA SHEET

As-Found
Data

Reguired'

4,9

High pressure switch trip

+/-

5,9

High pressure switch reset

+/-

7,9

Low pressure switch trip

+/-

8,9

Low pressure switch reset

+/-

As-Left
Data

--

--

Standards Used:
. Description

Serial number or other I.D.

CaJ Due Date

Digital pressure gauge


2

Multimeter

. Remarks;

PcrfurmedBy:
Reviewed By:

~--

__

Date:

Date:

i:'

For Reference Only

"

175

Calibration

ABC ,Company

Calibration/Calibration Check of
Temperature IndicatorlRecorder
Work Instruction

Page 1 of4

Attach.: ,I

Purpose

To perform an operational check or calibration check and, if necessary,


calibration of a temperature indicator/recorder.

Equipment!

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


e . Digital RID reference thermometer accurate to +/- 0.5 F (0.2 C)
Temperature reference bathlblock
.

materials
. needed

Procedural
.steps

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data.has
been recorded,
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form.
.Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.

If...
Performing onlythe temperature indicator/
recorder operational check (temperature sensor
not accessible)

,,~

SOP-CAL-06 Rev 0
Effective Date: 3/24/03

Performing temperature indicator/recorder


calibration check

,;

Then perform steps

1-3
and 7 -8.

4- 8.

"

Continued on nextpage.

..

. For Reference' Only

176

I SOPCAL06

Calibration Procedures

Page 20f4

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont.)


PERFORMING ONLY THE TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR/RECORDER OPERATIONAL CHECK
Step
111

Action

With temperature of the system at normal operating


temperature, measure the system temperature at a point near
the system thermometer using the reference RTD
thermometer.

Allow reading to stabilize and record this as the required value


on the calibration data form.

2#

Record the temperature indication on the calibration data form.

311

If the indicator under test indicates values greater than 1/2 the
specified tolerance, perform steps I and 2 at 10% and 90% of
full range.
Adjust the indicator until the correct reading is obtained and
repeat steps 1 - 3.
Go to step 7.

PERFO~NGTEMPERATUREINDICATOR1JRECORDER
CALIBRATION CHECK
Step
4

Action

5#

6#

Verify temperature sensor is in a well and remove from


system.
If not in a well, coordinate with the user area and isolate the
system to allow removal.
Place the temperature sensor and digital RTD reference
thermometer in the temperature bathlblock.
Record both readings at a minimum of two points (such as ice
point and process temperature).
If the indicator under test indicates values greater than 112the
specified tolerance, make adjustments at process temperature
until indications are less than 1/2 the specified tolerance.
If adjustments are made, repeat step 5 and record final values.
Go to step 7.
Continued on next page

For Reference Only

177 ,

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-06 Rev 0

Page 3 of4

Preceduralsteps (cont.)

COMPLETION

Acceptance
criteria

Step

Action

7#

Complete the calibration form and apply the applicable calibration


label.

If all checks are within tolerance, restore to operational condition


and notify appropriate personnel of work performed.

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following'criteria


,to determine satisfactory completion. subject to review of data by
,supervision.
Final readings obtained are within the tolerance specified on the:'
calibration work-order form.

be

If any readings are found to


out of'toleranceor if any step cannot be
performed;
Notify the'appropriate-personnel for resolution:
Record name of person contactedirrcomments section of work
order form.

Attachments

The following are attachments to this work instruction:


No.
A

-Title

Pages

Calibration/Calibration Check of Temperature


Indicator/Recorder Data Sheet

Continued on next page

,I
I
,,'
~.

o
-e-.

For Reference Only

178

I SOP-CAL-06

Calibration

Rev 0

Procedures

Page 4 of4

References

Manual No.
N/A

Approvalsl
nuthor

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturer's technical manual

This work instruction must be approved by:

Manager, AIlC Company

Date

Manager, A!3~ Company

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

179

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-06

Attachment A Page 1 of 1

Rev 0

CALIBRA TIONfCALIBRA nON CHECK OF TEMPERA TORE


INDICATORfRECORDER DATA SHEET
As-Found
Parameter
1,2,3

Normal Operating
Temperature

--

10% Range
(if required)

--

90% Range
(if required)

--

5,6
5,6
5,6

As-Left

Reauired

Temperature
(ice point)
Temperature
-(process)
Temperature
(additional point if desired)

--

--

orNA

-orNA

L
I

Standards Used:
Description

I
Serial number or other I.D.

Cal Due Date

I
J

J--

Reference thermometer
2

Bath/block

Remarks:

.;.-

PerrormedBy:
Reviewed By:

,'<;

Date:

Date:

For Reference Only

I
I

Calibration

181

ABC Company

.Calibration/Calibration Check of
Dial Thermometers
Work Instruction

SOP-CAL-07 Rev 0
Effective Date: 3124/03
Page 1of4

Attach.: 1

Purpose

To perform an operational check or calibration check and, if necessary,


calibration of a dial type thermometers,

Equipment!
materials
needed

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


Digital RTD reference thermometer accurate to +/- 0.5 F (0.2 C)
Temperature reference bathlblock
Thermocouple reference (special type T TIC and digital thermocouple
reference standard) accurate to +1- 2 F (1 C), ifrequired

Prerequisites

The following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of the


maintenance item:
'
Record the required information on the calibration form.

Procedural
steps

Follow the procedural steps shown in 'the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has
been recorded.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form.
Procedural steps markedwith a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration formused for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the-calibration form.

If...
Performing only the thermometer
operational check
Performing thermometer calibration check

Then perform steps ...


1- 3

<

::

.: !,

A~~.
;fl

'1

and 7 - 8.

4 - 8.

Continued on next page

I
I

I
For Reference Only

182

I SOP-CAL-07

Calibration Procedures

Page 2 of4

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont.)


PERFORMING ONLY THE THERMOMETER
OPERATIONAL CHECK
Step

Action

III

With temperature of the system at normal operating temperature,


record the thermometer indication on the calibmtion data form.

2#

Measure the system temperature at n point ncar the system


thermometer using the reference RTD thermometer or
thermocouple.

If the system thermometer is in a well and temperature is


constant, remove the dial thermometer and place the reference
RTD thermometer in the same well.

3#

Allow reading to stabilize and record on the calibration data


form.
If the thermometer under test indicates values greater than 1/2
the specified tolerance, adjust the thermometer until the
correct reading is obtained and perform a complete calibration
check in accordance with steps 4 - 6.
Continue with step 7.

PERFORMING THERMOMETER
Step
4

5#

CALm RATION CHECK

Action

Verify thermometer is in a well and remove from system.


Ifnot in a well, coordinate with the user area and isolate thc
system to allow removal.
Place the thermometer and digital RTD reference thermometer
in the temperature bathlblock.
Record both readings at a minimum of two points (such as ice
point and process temperature).

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-07

183

Page 3 of4

Rev 0

Procedural steps (con t.)


PERFORMING THERMOMETER CALIBRATION CHECK
Step
6#

Action

If thermometer under test indicates values greater than li2 the


specified tolerance and is calibratable, make adjustments at
process temperature until indications are less than lJ2 the
specified tolerance.
If adjustments are made, repeat step 5 and record final values.
If thermometer is not calibralable but within tolerance, make a
note io the remarks section and accept as is.
Continue with step 7.
t

COMPLETION
Step

Action

7#

Complete the calibration form and apply the applicable calibration


:~ ..
label.

It all checks are within tolerance, restore the thermometer to


operational condition and notify appropriate personnel of work
performed,

I.
J

,.'

.";c.

Acceptance
crlterla

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
.
Final thermometer indications obtained are within the tolerance
specified on the calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record name of person contacted in comments section of work
order form.
.

Continued on next page

.'
For Reference Only

184

I SOP-CAL-07

Attachmcnts

Calibration

Rev 0

Procedures

Page 4 of4

The following nrc attachments to this work instruction:

No.
A

Title
Calibration/Calibration
Data Sheet

Pages

Check of Dial Thermometers

References
Manual No.
N/A

Approvals/
author

Manunl Title
Applicable manufacturer's technical manuul

This work instruction must be approved by:

Manager, ABC Company

Date

Manager, ABC Company

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

"-:

185

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-07 Rev

Attachment A Page I of2

CALIBRATION/CALmRATlON
CHECK OF
DIAL THERMOMETER DATA SHEET .
. r

Step #

:,,

'.

As-Found
Data

Reguired

As-Left
Data

1,2,3

Reference thermometer (normal


operating temperature)

1,2,3

Dial thermoReference thermometer


reading __
meter (normal
operating temperature)

5,6

Reference thermometer (ice point)

5,6

Dial thermometer (ice point)


Reference thermometer (process)

Reference thermometer
reading __

5,6

Dial thermometer (process)

Reference thermometer
reading __

5,9

Reference thermometer (additional


point if desired)

5,6

Dial thermometer (additional


point if desired)

5,6

Parameter

NA

NA

NA

._--

NA

.-:";

Reference thermometer
reading, _.__

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

186

Calibration Procedures

I SOP-CAL07

Attachment A Page 2 of 2

Rev 0

Standards Used:
D~scrlption

Serial number or other I.D.

Cal Due Date

Reference thermometer
2

Bath/block

Thermocouple reference
(if required)

Remarks:

Performed By:
Reviewed By:

Date:

Date:

For Reference Only

18i

Calibration

ABC Company

Calibration/Calibration
Check
ofRTD Input Electronic
Temperature Controller
Work Instruction

SOP-CAL-08 Rev 0
Effective Date: 3/24/03
Page Iof7

Attach.:

Purpose

To perform a calibration/calibration check of an RTD input electronic


temperature transmitter and remote indication(s), in addition to
operationally checking other control outputs and alarms.

Equipment!
materials
needed

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


RTD simulator (or decade box) accurate to +1- 0.1 5 ohms (method
B only) .
Digital RID reference thermometer accurate to +/- 0.1 C
Multimeter accurate to 0.1% of reading
Temperature reference bathlblock

.1

..,

':e..
:.:.',,,,.,~

Prerequisites

The following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of the


maintenance item:
Determine the method to be used from the work order:
.Loop check (Method A) or
Electronic check (Method B)
Record the required setpoint on the Calibration form.
Determine the. components of the loop to be checked and record
ideritification (P&ID tag number, bar code number, serial number, or
description) in the remarks column.
Confirm the' correct RID alpha is being used.
Determine the required transmitter output current (required for performing'
step 4) using the following equation: .
{(Required Reference Temperature - Instrument Zero Temperature) 1
Instrument Temperature Range} * 16 rnA + 4 rnA
Example: Required reference thermometer temperature is 60 degrees C.
Temperature transmitter range is 40 - 90 degrees C.

.-

.J

,"'.

{ (60 deg- 40 deg) / 50 deg } * 16 rnA + 4 rnA = 10.40 rnA

Continued on nextpage
'j.

.<;"

For Reference Only

I
I
I

Calibration Procedures

188

I SOP-CAL-08

Initial
condltlens

Procedural
steps

Rev 0

Page 2 of7

Ensure temperature and humidity conditions in the area being recorded are
stable
Then ...
If...
The temperature control loop
performs control function which
could produce undesirable operating
results while simulating test signals
(for example, temperature signal
provides input for control steam to
heat exchanger)

plnce controller in manual

RTD is in a well

Remove the RTD from the well

RTD is not in a well

Shutdown and drain the system

OR
disable controller output
OR
shutdown the system being
controlled (coordinate with
user area).

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has
been recorded.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form.
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (If) eilher require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.
If the loop being checked does not include a component that this
procedure is checking, mark the step N/A on the calibration data form.

For

perform ..

steps ...

Loop check

Preliminary Operating Point Check,

I - 4,

(method A)

Loop Check,

5 -7,

Final Operating Point Check, and

13,and

Completion

14 - 15

Electronic check

Preliminary Operating Point Check,

(method B)

Electronic Check,

8 - 12,

Final Operating Point Check, and

13, and

Completion

14-15

1 - 4,

Continued on nextpage
For Reference Only

,'
189

Calibration

Page 3 of7
Procedural steps (cont.)
PRELIMINARY OPERATING POINT CHECK (METHOD A AND B)
Step

Action
Place RTD and reference thermometer in temperature reference
bathlblock _at or within the process setpoint,

,I

Disconnect an output lead from the transmitter and connect


multimeter in series to measure output current.

',1!

Convert the transmitter output current to an equivalent


temperature using the following equation:

-".

(Output current - 4mA)(Inst temp range) + 0% value == X deg


16mA

.a

For example: output current for 20 - 100 C transmitter ~ 13. 62 .,


rnA. Therefore [(13.62mA - 4rnA)(80 C) / 16mAJ + 20 C = 68.1"; .;

I,

:,.1

4#

Record the reference thermometer indication, transmitter .....


~
output value (current output and converted temperature); and
remote displayts),
~
Verify current output and remote iridication(s) are within th~
specified tolerance.
",.
Do not make any adjustments.
"

LOOP CHECK (METHOD A)

Step'
5#

Action
Adjust the bathlblock temperature to 10,50, and 90% of the
transmitter span and allow temperature to stabilize for 5 minutes
at each data point.
Record the following at each data point:

Bath/block Temperature
Transmitter output current

,.

Remote displaj(s), if applicable

Continued on nextpage
For Reference Only

:oJ

!.
I

:; .

C.

',!!

Calibration Procedures

190

I SOP-CAL-08

Rev 0

Page 4 of7

Procedural steps (cont.)


LOOP CHECK (METHOD A) (cont.)
Action

Step
6#

Verify proper actuation ofall control outputs and alarms at the


proper sctpoints, Record all outputs checked and actual values
obtained.

7#
If ...

Theil ...

If transmitter output is not Adjust beth/block temperature to


within 112the speci fled
0% and 100% of transmitter span.
Adjust zero and span at each
tolerance
point, respectively, until no
further adjustments are required.
Repeat step 5.
If remote display is not
within 1/2 the specified
tolerance

Calibrate the display in accordance


with the manufacturers technical
manual and repeat step 5.

If any control output


Adjust the output and repeat
step 6.
operates improperly or
does not actuate within
1/2 the specified tolerance

ELECTRONIC CHECK (METHOD B)


Step

Action

Disconnect the RTD,from transmitter input and connect the RTD


simulator (or decade box) to transmitter input.

Continued on' next page

For Reference Only

191

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-08

Page 50f7

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont.)


ELECTRONIC

'.

CHECK (METHOD

9#

8) (cont.)

Action

Step.

Set the RTD simulator to 10, 50, 90% ofthe transmitter span.
Record the following at each data point:
Simulated Temperature
'. Transmitter output current
Remote display(s), if applicable

10#

Verify proper actuation of all control outputs and alarms at the


proper setpoints. Record all outputs checked and actual values
obtained.

11#
If...

Then ...

If transmitter output is not Calibrate the transmitter in accordwithin U2 the specified


ance with the applicable manufac-.:
tolerance
turers technical manual and repeat
step 9.

..

Ifremote display is not


within 112the specified,
tolerance

Calibrate the display in accordance


with the manufacturers technical
manual and repeat step 9.

Ifany control output


Adjust the output and repeat step"
operates improper! y or
10.
does not actU~te within 1/1
the specified tolerance

,; .

12

Disconnect the RTD simulator (or decade box) from transmitter


input and reconnect the RTD to transmitter input. .

Continued on

II(!XI

page

:-"

For Reference Only

.:..!

192

I SOP-CAl-OS

Calibration Procedures

Rev 0

Page 6 of7

Prceedurnl steps (cont.)


FINAL OPERATING

POINT CHECK (METHOD

Step
13#

A AND B)

Action

Repeat steps I, 3, and 4.

Ifany readings are not within 1/2 the specified tolerance,


confirm the RTD has been properly reconnected. Otherwise,
determine and correct cause.

COMPLETION
Step

Acceptance
criteria

Action

1411

Complete the calibration form and affix the applicable calibration


label.

15

Ifall checks are within tolerance, restore the instruments to


operational condition and notify appropriate personnel of work
performed.

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
Final rendings obtained are within the tolerance specified on the
calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record name of person contacted in comments section of work
order form.

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

193

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-08

Rev 0

Page 7 of7

I
I'

!~

Attachments

The following are attachments to this work instruction:

Pages

Title

No.
: :

Calibration/Calibration Check ofRTD Input Electronic


Temperature Controller Data Sheet

.I

References
Manual No.
N!A

Approvals!
author

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturer's technical manual

This procedure must be approved by:

Manager, ABC Company

Quality, ABC Company

Date

Date

Author: Mike Cable, (Engineering Technician)

.,

I
f

;1

'.'
For Reference Only

I
'1

.i95

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-OS

Attachment A Page 1 of2

Rev 0

CALffiRATION/CALffiRA TION CHECK OF RTD INPUT ELECTRONIC


TEMFERATURE CONTROLLER DATA SHEET
For: PID Tag #
Steps performed for method B are in parenthesis.
Step #
4,13
4,13

Reguired

Parameter

+/+/-

Reference Themometer
XMTR Output Current

As-Found

As-Left

Data

Data

rnA .

rnA

I
I

(corresponding to
reference thermometer)
4,13

Converted Temperature

Reference thermometer

4,13

Remote Display

reading +.1- .
Reference thermometer

5,7

10% Temperature

(9, 1i)
5, 7

10% Output Current

(9, 11)
5, 7

10% Re~ote Display

(~, 1I)
5, 7

50% Temperature

I'

reading +/-

inA

5.60 +/-

rnA

Li

rnA

+/-

(9, 1I)
5, 7

50% Output Current

(9, 11)
5,7

12.00 +/rnA

rnA

rnA

rnA

rnA

50% Remote Display

(9, 1I)
S, 7

90% Temperature

+/-

(9, 11)
5, 7

9OO/O
Output Current

5,7
e-

18.40 +/-

rnA

(9, 11)
90% Remote Display

+/- _--

(9, 11)

Continued on nextpage

For Reference Only

Calibration

196

I SOP-CAl-OS

Rev 0

Procedures

Attachment A Page 2 of 2

CALIBRA TION/CALIBRA TION CHECK OF RTD INPUT ELECTRONIC


TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER DATA SHEET (cont.)

As-Found
Parameter
Alarm or control output

Required

6, 7

Alarm or control output

+/-

(10, II)
6, 7

Alarm or control output

+/-

SteD #
6, 7

As-Found

+/-

(10, II)

(10,11 )

Standards Used:
Description

Serial number or other I.D.

Cal Due Date

RTD simulator
2

Referencethermometer

Milliammeter

BathIBlock

'f

I"

Remarks:

Performed

By:

Reviewed By: "

__

Date:

__

Date:

For Reference Only

Calibration

ABC Compariy

Document No.:

SOP-CAL-09

197

~~viSion No.:

Standard Operating Procedure

Page 1 of4

Effective Date:

Tille:

Calibration of Glass Thermometers

Supersedes Document No.: .


None
.

Author (print Name):

Author Signature:

Date:

QAlCompliance Approval (Print Name):

QAlCompliance Approval Signature:

Date:

Table of Contents
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0'
6.0
7.0
8.0

PURPOSE
SCOPE
,
DEFINITIONS
REFERENCESIATTACHMENTS

, ~

:
,

MATERIALSIREAGENTSIEQUIPMENT

SAFETY
:
PROCEDURE
DOCUMENT REVISION

~
;

~ .. : 2
"".2
2
2.
,;.~:;.; 2
:
3
;
,
3
4
-~

: I

For Reference

Only

Calibration Procedures

198

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure


Page 2 of 4

Document No.:
ROOeVision
No.: Effective Date:
SOP-CAL-09
Title: Calibration of Digital and Glass Thermometers

1.0

PURPOSE
1.1

2.0

4.0

This procedure applies to personnel required to calibrate and maintain glass


thermometers and digital thermometers located at ABC Company.

DEFINITIONS
3.1

NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology

3.2

UUT - Unit Under Test

3.3

OOT - Out of Tolerance

REFERENCES/ATTACHMENTS
4.1

5.0

The purpose of this procedure is to provide standardized instruction for the


calibration of digital thermometers and glass thermometers.

SCOPE
2.1

3.0

Calibration System Description SOP

MATERIALSIREAGENTSIEQUIPMENT
5.1

NIST Traceable Temperature Measuring Device

5.2

Temperature Source (bath)

5.3

Ice

5.4

Calibration Labels

For Reference Only

Calibration

199

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

Document No.:
ROOeViSio.
n No.: I Effective Date:
SOP-CAL-09
L
Title: Calibration of Digital and Glass Thermometers

Page 3 of4

6.0 SAFETY
6.1

7.0

All procedures will be performed In accordance with and under the constraints of
ABC Company safety procedures and applicable Federal, State, and Local safety
rules and regulations.

PROCEDURE
7.1

7.2

Visually inspect the UUT for damage. If damage is found, notify the user group and
repair or replace as directed.

.j

Note: Always attempt to obtain "As Found" data prior to repair, replacement, or
adjustment.

Warm up/Stabilization Requirement None.

s-

7.3 . UUT Accuracy/Specification: Manufacturer's specification .orapproved user-assigned.


tolerance.
~i
.
:..
7.4

"As Found" Data Acquisition


Note: Glass thermometers will be tested at 3 points across the operating range of.;he
UUT in the lower, middle and upper third of the range, unless otherwise '.'
specified by instrument owner. (JOe will be used as a test point in the '. .appropriate third of the thermometer.

7.4.1 Place a NIST traceable temperature indicator in appropriate bath. Run the
bath to the test point as indicated on the test standard. Both the standard'and
the UUT must be placed at the same depth in the bath. If the UUT is a partial
immersion thermometer insert the thermometer in the bath at a depth equal to
the immersion line.

704.2 After test point is achieved, record the "as found" readings from the test
standard and UUT on the Calibration Data Sheet.
7.43 . Repeat steps 7.4.1 and 7.4.2 for the remaining test points:
7.4.4 Proceed to section 7.5, "As Found" Data Interpretation.

For Reference Only

I.j
I
I

200

Calibration

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

1 Page 4 of 4

DocumentNo.:
ROOevision
No.: EffectiveDate:
SOP-CAL-09
Title: Calibration of Digital and Glass Thermometers
7.5

7.6

Procedures

"As Found" Data Interpretation


7.5.1

Compare the "As Found" data to the tolerance specified on the Calibration
Data Sheet.

7.5.2

If an "As Found" value is "Out of Tolerance", a Calibration Out of Tolerance


Form must be generated per Calibration System Description SOP. Proceed
to section 7.6, Adjustments.

7.5.3

Ifall of the "As Found" data is within the specified tolerance, proceed to
section 7.7.

Adjustments
7.6. I

Adjust and repair gauge according to manufacturers suggested repair


guidelines. If guidelines are unavailable, replace thermometer.

7.6.2

If the UlIT can not be adjusted to specification, remove the device from
service.

7.6.3 Proceed to section 7.8, Documentation and Labeling.


7.7

No Adjustment Necessary
7.7.1 Return UUT to service.

7.8

8.0

Documentation and Labeling


7.8.1

Complete and process the calibration data sheet per the Calibration System
Description SOP.

7.8.2

Complete and affix the appropriate calibration labels per the Calibration
System Description SOP.

DOCUMENT REVISION

For Reference Only

201

Calibration

ABC Company.

Calibration/Calibration
Check of
a Capacitance Probe Level
Transmitter
Work Instruction

,!

Page lof5

Attach.: 1

To perform a calibration check and, if necessary. calibration of a capacitance


probe level transmitter.

Equipment!
materials
needed

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


Multirneter accurate to O.~% of reading
Capacitance meter (if desired to check probe capacitance) .
Frequency counter (ifdesired to check probe frequency)
Capacitance Decade Box (for Method B using capacitance)
Function Generator (for Method B using frequency)

Prerequisites

Procedural
steps
.".

Rev 0

Purpose
I

'1

SOP-CAL-IO

Effective Date: 3124/03

./

, J

t~:

,f

The following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of


maintenance item: .
'jd:.
Determine the method to be used from the work order: .
* Actual Tank Volume (Method A) or
,* CapacitancelFrequency Simulation (Method B).
Record the required information on the calibration form.

Follow the procedural steps shown in the-table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has'
been recorded.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the ;_;:
calibration form.
_
'
,
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.
Continued on next page

~.

I~

For Reference Only

I
I

202

I SOP-CAL-tO

Calibration Procedures

Rev 0

Page 2 of5

Procedural steps (cont.)


Then perform steps ...

If...
Using actual tank volume (method
A)

and 15 - 16

1 -7

Capacitance/frequency simulation
(method B)

and 15-16

8 - 14

USING ACTUAL TANK VOLUME (METHOD A)


Step
1

Action
Drain the associated tank and

fin to 10% capacity.

2#

Record the current output from the transmitter and remote


indication. If desired, also record the probe capacitance andlor
frequency for future reference.

3#

Fill to 50% total volume. Record transmitter current output and


remote indication. If desired, also record the probe capacitance
andlor frequency for future references.

4#

Fill to 90% total volume. Record transmitter current output and


remote indication. If desired, also record the probe capacitance
and/or frequency for future references.

5#

Verify proper operation of all alarm outputs and control functions.


Record results.

6#
IF_.
. The instrument under test
indicates values greater than
112 the specified tolerance.

THEN...
Then calibrate in accordance
with the manufacturers
technical manual until
indications are less than )/2
the specified tolerance and
repeat steps I - 4.

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

203

Calibration

ISOP-CAL-IO

Page 3.ofS

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont.)


USING ACfUAL TANK VOLUME (METHOD A) (cont.)
step
7

Action
Ifnecessary, drain tank and refill with proper fluid.

CAPACITANCEIFREQUENCY
Step

SIMULATION (METHOD B)
A~tion

Disconnect the probe from the transmitter input and install a


capacitance decade box or function generator to the transmitter
Input.

9#

Simulate a capacitance or frequency signal equivalent to 10%


level for the probe that was disconnected. Record the current .
output from the transmitter and remote indication

:;:
.:.,.-:

__

. ,.,

10#

Simulate a capacitance or frequency signal equivalent to 50%#,:(:level for the probe that was disconnected. Record the current
output from the transmitter and remote indication.

ll#

Simulate a capacitance or frequency signal equivalent to 90%


level for tbe probe that was disconnected. Record the current
output from the transmitter and remote indication. .

.-.
"

.~,
:.:

-i-

.,.

12#

Verify proper operation of all alarm outputs and control functions.


Record results,
7

13#
IF....
The instrument under test
indicates values greaterthan
1/2 the specified tolerance.
...

THEN ...
Then calibrate in accordance
with the manufacturers
technical manual until
indications are less than 1/2
the specified tolerance and
repeat steps 9 - 11.

Continued Oil next ppge

.~

For Reference Only

':r

,
~._'

204

Calibration Procedures

I SOP-CAl-to
Procedural

Rev 0

Page4of5

steps (cont.)

CAPACITANCEIFREQUENCY

SIMULATION (METHOD B)

Step

Action

14

Disconnect capacitance decade box or function generator and


restore level transmitter to normal operation.

COMPLETION

Acceptance
criteria

Step

15#

Complete the calibration form and affix the applicable calibration


label.

16

If all checks are within tolerance, restore the instruments to


operational condition and notify appropriate personnel of work
performed.

Action

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
Final readings obtained are within the tolerance specified on the
calibration work order form,
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record name of person contacted in comments section of work
order form.

Attachments

The following are attachments to this work instruction:


No.
A

Title

Pages

Calibration/Calibration Check of a Capacitance Probe


Level Transmitter Data Sheet

Continued 011 nextpage

For Reference Only

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-IO

205

Page 5 of5

Rev 0

References

Manual No.
N/A

Approvalsl
author.

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturer's technical manual

This work instruction must be approved by:

Manager, ABC Company

Date

Quality, ABC Company

Date

I
I

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

.-. __JL

.,
!

-,J-

I
-j

-I

I
For Reference Only

207

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-IO RevO

Attachment A Page lof2

CALIBRATION/CALIBRA TION CHECK OF CAPACITANCE PROBE LEVEL'


TRANS MUTTER DATA SHEET
For: PID Tag #
Steps performed for method B are in parenthesis.

Step #

Parameter

2,6
(9, 13)

10% Output Current

2,6

1Q%Remote Display

Required
5.60 +/-

As-Found

As-Left

Data

Data

rnA

rnA

rnA

+/-

(9, 13)
2,6
(9, 13)
3,6

10% Frequency 1
Capacitance
50% Output Current

'"

. 12.00 +1- -~

rnA

rnA

--

. inA

(10, 13)
3,6

+/.

50% Remote Display

(10, 13)

3,6

50% Frequency /
Capacitance
(I0, 13)

,~.

4,6

90% Output Current

"I

i8.40 +/-

rnA

rnA

rnA

:!

(11, 13)
4,6

90% Remote Display

+/-

',1

---"

(11, 13)
4,6

90% Frequency

(11, 13)

Step #

Parameter

Required

Alarm or control ouiput

+/-

Alarm or control output

+/-

Alarm or control output

+/-

As-Found

As-Found

Data

Data

(12)

f!
I

(12)

5
;;;-

(12)
Continued On next page

For Reference

Only

.1

208

Calibration Procedures

I SOP-CAL-IO

Rev 0

Page 2 of2

CALIBRATION/CALIBRATION CHECK OF RTD INPUT ELECTRONIC


TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER DATA SHEET (cont.)
Standards Used:
Description

Serial number or other J.D.

Cal Due Date

Milliammeter
2

Capacitance Meter

Frequency Counter

Capacitance Decade Box

Function Generator

Remarks:

PerfunnedBy:
Reviewed By:

__

Date:

Date:

For Reference Only

209

Calibration

Calibration/Calibration

Check of Flow

SOP-CAL-Il Rev 0

Totalizers/Transmitters

ABC Company

Effective Date: 3/24/03


Page 1 of3

Work Instruction

Attach.: 1

Purpose

To perform a calibration/ calibration checkof flow totalizer/transmitter.

Equipment/
materials

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


Digital scale accurate to 0.1% of reading
Rosemount 268 interface (for Micromotion, if adjustment is required)
Container adequate for amount to be dispensed

needed

I
Prerequisites

The following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of the '


maintenance item:
'Determine a practical method of directing totalizer output into a container.
Confirm fluid is in the sensor and ali air is out of the Iines.,
Record the required information on the calibration form. ,

I
I
[

Procedural

steps

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below:


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has,
been recorded.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form,
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment-A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.
If the loop being checked does not include a component that this'
procedure is checking, mark the step N/A on the calibration data form.

.i
.'
']
-\,

;
"'I"

.)
"

.;~

,__

-r , '

Step
1

Action

Place the container on the scale and zero (tare) the scale.
If a large amount of fluid will be weighed, it may be desirable
, to place the container on a cart. In this case, ensure the cart is
'.
on the scale when tared.
If possible, reset the totalizer indication to zero.
If not possible, note the initial indication.

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

'1
,'.,

Calibration Procedures

210

I SOP-CAL-II

Page 2 of3

Rev 0

Procedural steps (cont.)


Stcp
3

4#

Action

Direct all output from the flow totalizer into the container.

Dispense as much fluid as is practical.

Weigh the amount dispensed and record the following:

5#

Weight of amount dispensed


Indication of amount dispensed on totalizer

Remote indication, if applicable

Using the following conversions, determine the total volume


dispensed based on the weight obtained.

Record this as the step 4 required value for totalizer indication


and remote indication, if applicable.
1 gallon = 8.35 Ib
1 Ib = 0.45 k~; 1 kg

= 2.2 lb

1 liter = 0.2642 gallons; I gallon = 3.785 liters

If values obtained are not within the specified tolerance:


Perform a calibration in accordance with the applicable
manufacturers technical manual.
Repeat steps 1 - 5.

Complete the calibration form and apply the appropriate


calibration label.

If all checks are within tolerance, restore the flow totalizer to


operational condition and notify appropriate personnel of work
performed.

Continued on next page

For Reference Only

211

Calibration

ISOP-CAL-I I

Acceptance
criteria

Page 3 of3

Rev 0

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by

supervision.
Final volumes agree within the tolerance specified on the
calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
.
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record name of person contacted in comments section of work
order form.

Attachments

I,

The following are attachments to this work instruction:


No.
A

,,, .

I,
I

I
I
I

Pages

Title

Calibration/Calibration Check of Flow Totalizers/


Transmitters Data Sheet

References
Manual No.
N/A

Approvals!
Author

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturer's technical manual.

I
I

This work instruction must be approved by:

I
I

Manager, ABC Company

Date

Quality, ABC Company

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

For Reference Only

I
I
I
!
I
1

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-l!

213

Rev 0

Attachment A Page I of 1

CALIDRATION/CALIDRATION CHECK OF FLOW


TOT ALIZERSrrRANSMITIERS
DATA SHEET
For: PID Tag #

II

Parameter

Required

As-Left

As-Found
Data

Step#

4,6

Weight of amount
dispensed

4, 6

Totalizer Indication

--- +/----

4, 6

Remote Indication
(if applicable)

----+~---,
-------

Data

"

NA

Standards Used:
Description

Serial number. or other J.D.

Cal Due Date

Digital SC,aIe
2

Rosemount 268 Interface'


(if applicable)

3
4

Remarks:

PerfurmedBy:
"{.-"

Reviewed By:

Date:

Date:

__

For Reference Only

215

Calibration

ABC Company
Document No.:

SOP-CAL-12
Title:
Calibration

of Current

~~viSion No.:

to Pressure

Transducers

Standard Operating Procedure

Effective Date:

Page 1 of4

I Supersedes Document No.:


None

Author (print Name):

Author Signature:

Date:

QAlCompliance Approval (Print Name):

QAlCompliance Approval Signature:

Date:

Table of Contents
i
J
.!

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

PURPOSE
SCOPE

1:.
2

;.:

DEFINITIONS

REFERENCES/ATTACHMENTS

:.2
;.2

:2

MATERlALSJREAGENTSIEQUIPMENT
SAFETY

~~~~~REViSioN::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::j::::.:.

.. ;ti-c:

.~~
J.~

"!,,~l

,~';!

I.

.: i

,-'I

I
~.
For Reference

Only

216

Calibration

ABC Company
Document No.:
SOP-CAL-12
Title: Cnllbratlon of Current

1.0

4.0

6.0

Page 2 of 4

to Pressure Transducers

The purpose of this procedure is to provide standardized instruction for the


calibration of Current to Pressure Transducers.

This procedure applies to personnel required to calibrate and maintain current to


pressure transducers located at AUC Company.

DEFINITIONS
3.1

NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology

3.2

UUT - Unit Under Test

3.3

OOT - Out of Tolerance

REFERENCES/A IT ACHMENTS
4.1

5.0

SCOPE
2.1

3.0

Standard Operating Procedure

RooeviSion
N0':lEfTective Date:

PURPOSE
1.1

2.0

Procedures

Calibration System Description SOP

MATERIALSIREAGENTSIEQUIPMENT
5. I

NIST Traceable Pressure Measuring Device

5.2

NIST Traceable Milliamp simulator

5.3

Pressure Source (if necessary)

5.4

Calibration Labels

SAFETY
6.1

All procedures will be performed in accordance with and under the constraints of
ABC Company safety procedures and applicable Federal, State, and Local safety
rules and regulations.
For Reference Only

/.
i

.217

Calibration

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

Document No,:
IROOeviSiOn
No.: Effective Date:
SOP-CAL-12
1
Title: Calibration of Current to Pressure Transducers

Page 3 of 4

7.0 PROCEDURE
7.1

Visually inspect the UUT for damage. Notify the user group and repair or replace as
directed.
Note: Always attempt to obtain "As Found" data prior to repair, replacement, or
adjustments.

I.

7.2

Warm up/Stabilization Requirement: None.

7.3

UUT Accuracy/Specification: Manufacturer's specification or approved user assigned.,


tolerance.

7.4

"As Found" Data Acquisition


7.4.1

Apply the appropriate air supply pressure to the UUT. Measure and document
the supply pressure in the comment section of the calibration Data Sheet: s~l'

7.4.2

Connect the milliamp simulator to the input of the UUT.

7.4.3

Connect the pressure measuring device to the output ofthe UUT.

7.4.4

Set,the milliamp simulator for 4 rnA (or the 0010


'signal) to the input and rec3Id
the output pressure on the Calibration Data Sheet. .

~,.i

~.'
~'.

7.4.5

Repeat step 7,4.4 for input values of 12.0 rnA and 20.0mA.

7.4.6

Proceed to section 7.5, "As Found" Data Interpretation

'ff,

I
.' .....1

;~--

::~
.~

j
't

,-!-i

7.5 "AsFound" Data Interpretation


7.5.1

Compare the "As Found" data to the tolerance specified on the Calibration
Data Sheet.
.

7.5.2

If an "As Found" value is "Out of Tolerance", a Calibration Out of Tolerance


Form must be generated per Calibration System Description SOP. Proceed to
Adjustments, section 7.6.
.
.

7.5.3 To optimize instrument performance or if adjustment is needed, proceed to


Adjustments, section 7.6.
y.

.For Reference Only

$
.i..':

218

Calibration Procedures

ABC Company

Standard Operating Procedure

DocumentNo.:
ROOCYision
No.: ~tTcctiveDate:
SOP-CAL-12
Title: Cnllbrntlon of Current to Pressure Transducers
7.5.4

7.6

Page 4 of 4

If nil of the "As Found" data is within the specified tolerance, proceed to
section 7.7.

Adjustments
7.6. I Adjust and repair transducer according to manufacturers suggested repair
guidelines, If guidelines arc unavailable, replace the transducer.

7.7

7.6.2

If thc UUT can not be adjusted to specification, remove the device from
service

7.6.3

Proceed to section 7.8, Documentation and Labeling.

No Adjustment Necessary
7.7.1

7.8

8.0

RetumUUTtoservice.

Documentation and Labeling


7.8.1

Complete and process the Calibration Data Sheet per the Calibration System
Description SOP.

7.8.2

Complete and affix the appropriate calibration labels per the Calibration
System Description SOP.

DOCUMENT REVISION

For Reference Only

219

Calibration

. ABC Company

Calibration/Calibration Check of
Leads & Northrup 7082
Conductivity Analyzers
Work Instruetlon

SOP-CAL-13 Rev 0
Effective Date: Draft
Page 1 of5

Attach.: 1

Purpose

To perform a calibration check and, if necessary, calibration of Leeds &


Northrup 7082 conductivity analyzers.

Equipment/
materials
needed

These items will be needed for performance of this procedure:


. Deionized water

8550 ohm precision resistor, Leeds &Northrup PIN 233300 or equivalent

Decade resistance box, 100 Kohm to 10 Mohm, accurate to +/- 0.1%

Appropriate beakers for solution and conductivity probe length

Hydrogen peroxide or other approved sanitizing solu~on

Prerequisites

The following prerequisites shall be completed prior to performance of'the


maintenance item:'
.
:i,'
Prepare a beaker of deionized water in a clean air environment and let ...,.
stand for one hour.
Record therequiredinformation on the calibration form.

Initial
conditions

Perform the following prior to testing:


Isolate the conductivity cell and bleed off system pressure per the site
Lockout/Tagout Procedure.

Procedural
steps

Follow the procedural steps shown in the table below;


Do not perform any adjustments until all "as found" calibration data has
been recorded.
.
Note any deviation from this procedure in the remarks section of the
calibration form.
Procedural steps marked with a pound sign (#) either require information
found on the calibration form used for recording data (Attachment A) or
require data to be recorded on the calibration form.
If the loop being checked does not include a component that this
procedure is checking, mark the step N/A on the calibration data form ..
Continued on next page

For Reference Only

220

I SOI'-CAL-13

Calibration Procedures

Rev 0

Page 2 of5

Procedurnl steps (cont.)


Action

Step
I

Remove the conductivity cell from the system.

Rinse the probe thoroughly using deionized water.

311

Place the cell in the beaker ofprcpared deionized water.


Record the conductivity indication.
If available, place a digital conductivity standard in the
solution to verify the required indication.

Disconnect the temperature compensation leads from terminals B


and D of the conductivity cell and connect the 8550 ohm resistor.

5#

Record the ALARM I and ALARM2 setpoints on [he


calibration form.

6#

At the analyzer, press CELL CONST.


Record the cell constant on the calibration form.

7#

At the analyzer, press CELL CONST then press CELL


CONST and the up arrow simultaneously.
Record the cell calibration factor on the calibration form.

Note: This step will remove all stored alarm setpoints and cell
constant will default.
Usc the up and down arrows to change the cell calibration factor
to 1.000 and~NTER.

9#

Disconnect the conductivity cell from terminals A and C and


connect the resistance decade box,
Apply values of 10 Mohm, 1 Mohm and 100 Kohm.
Record conductivity indications at each value.

Continued 011n('.TI page

For Reference Only

221

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-13

Rev 0

Page 3 of5

Procedural steps (cont.)


Step

Action

10#

If...
If the indicator under test
indicates values greater
than 112the specified
tolerance

Then ...
Calibratethe indicator in
accordance with the manufacturer's
technical manual until indications
are less than 112the specified
tolerance.
-.-.

If adjustments are made

Repeat step 9 and record final


values.

If adjustments are made

Repeat steps 2 and 3. 'Record final


values.

..

II

,.. .'

Thoroughly rinse the probe with deionized water and sanitize.


with hydrogen peroxide or other solution approved by Quality
..
Assurance.
Reinstall the conductivity probe .

12

Disconnect the resistance decade box and reconnect the


conductivity cell to terminals A and C.

13

Disconnect the 8550 ohm resistor and connect the temperature


compensation to terminals B and D.

14.

At the analyzer. press CELL CONST then press CELL CONST


and the up arrow simultaneously.

._.

..

.,

15#

16#

Use the up and down arrows to change the cell calibration


factor to the value recorded on step 7.
Press ENTER.
Restore the ALARM I and ALARM2 to the values recorded
on step 5 of the calibration form.

~.
Continued 011 nextpage

For Reference Only

Calibration Procedures

222

I SOP-CAL-13

Rev O

..:..P,:;)ag"'e:_4.:__0::..:f:...:5'--l

Prucedurnl steps (cont.)

Action

Step

Acceptance
crlterln

1711

1811

Verify proper operation of any alarms and/or control functions


and record results.

At the analyzer, press CELL CONST.


Usc the up anddown arrows to change the cell constant to the
value recorded on step 6.

Step

Action

1911

Complete the calibration form and affix the applicable calibration


label.

20

If all checks are within tolerance, restore the conductivity


indicator to operational condition and notify appropriate
personnel of work performed.

Personnel performing this maintenance shall use the following criteria


to determine satisfactory completion, subject to review of data by
supervision.
Final conductivity indications obtained are within the tolerance
specified on the calibration work order form.
If any readings are found to be out of tolerance or if any step cannot be
performed:
Notify the appropriate personnel for resolution.
Record name ofpcrson contacted incomments section of work
order form.

Attachments

The following nrc attachments to this work instruction:


No.
A

Pages

Title
Calibration/Calibration Check of Lends & Northrup
7082 Conductivity Analyzers Data Sheet

Continued On next page

For Reference Only

223

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-13

Rev 0

Page 5 of5

References
Manual No. '
N/A

Manual Title
Applicable manufacturers. technical manual

;1"

Approvalsl
author

This work instruction must be approved by:

.1

Manager, ABC Company

Date

,
.:

Quality. ABC Company

Date

Author: Mike Cable, Engineering Technician

------------------------------------------~-t-..

;:;;-

For Reference Only

",J
"

:: I
'\., ..

.f

225

Calibration

I SOP-CAL-13 .RevO

Attachment A Page I of2

CALIBRATION/CALIBRATION CHECK OF LEADS & NORTHRUP 7082


CONDUCTnnTYANALYZERSDATASHEET

For: PID Tag #


As-Found

As-Left

Tal

Required

Parameter
3, 10

Conductivity in DI water

5, 16

Alarm I Setpoint

NA

NA

5, 16

Alarm 2 Setpoint

NA

NA

6, 17

Cell Constant

NA

NA

7, 15

Cell Calibration Factor

NA

NA

9,10

Conductivity at 10 Mohm

0.1 0.1 uMbo/cm


lIMho/cm . uMbo/em

9, 10

9, 10

18

Conductivity at 1 Mohm

Conductivity at 100 Kohm

Alarm/Control Functions

1.0 0.1 uMbo/em


uMbo/em

uMho/cm

uMbo/em

uMho/cm

Sat! Unsat

NA I Sat

(circle one)

(circle one)

10.0 0.1 uMho/cm

Satisfactory

Standards Used:
Description

Serial number or other J.D.

Cal Due Date

II

Decade Resistance Box


2

.j

Digital Conductivity Standard

3
Continued on next page

.~

For Reference Only

Calibration Procedures

226

I SOP-CAL-13

RcvO

Attachment A Page 20f2

CALInRATION/CALIBRA TION CHECK OF LEADS & NORTHRUP 7082


CONDUCTIVITY ANALYZERS DATA SHEET (CODt.)
Worse Cnse Tolerance Code:
Remarks:

Performed By: .___________________

Date:

Reviewed By:

Date:

For Reference Only

A- 5

Appendix

TEST EQUIPMENT
Note: This list is for example purpose~ only and is not recommending a

particular manufacturer/model number.

I
'j

EQUIPMENT 1YPE
Digital multimeter

Fluke 87, or equivalent

Analog multimeter

Simpson 560

Multi-function
calibrator
Decade box
Thermocouple
calibrator
Temperature bath
.'

Fluke 743B with applicable


. pressure modules
General Radio 1432A
Altek 322
Hart 7320

Temperature block

Hart 9103

Precision RTD

Hart 1521

HART communicator

Rosemount 275
Mettler-Toledo
Floor scale
Hand pressure/vacuum Heise TP-l
pump
Dead weight tester
Ashcroft 1305D.

,.

SIMPLIFIED
'SPECIFICATIONS

EXAMPLE

12" analog test gCluge Heise CC


41J.z
- 6 digit calibrated. Heise 910B
meter

DCV (.05% + 1 digit)


DC Current '(,2% +2 digit)
ACV (.7%. + 1 ~igit)
AC Current (1.0% + 2 digit)
Resistance (.2% + 1 digit)
DCV 2% 'FS
DC Current 2% FS
ACV 3%.fS
Resistance 20 of arc'

MUltiple

0.05%

reading

(0,008% rdg + 0.006 mv)


Range: -20C to 150C
Stability/Uniformity: .00Se
.
-25C to 140C
0.25C
0.025C

NA
0.1% reading + 1 digit

N/A

/'

0.1 % of reading

0.1 % FS
0.035% span

227

Appendix

A-6

RTD AND THERMOCOUPLE


-TABLESRTD

VB.

Resistance-Table for Alpha = .00385, ITS-90 (DIN 43760)

RID vs. Resistance Table for Alpha = .00392, ItS-90

J Thermocouple

Reference Tables

Type T Thermocouple

Reference Tables

Type K Thermocouple

Reference Tables

Type

II

.-,oj

-,

.1

229

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

230

RTD Temperature
vs. Resistan'ce Table
For European Curve, Alpha::: .00385,ITS-90
c Oh'III DU~ 'C Ohm. 0111. -c Ol&ml PUI. c
200
100
190
197
100

rasa

0 . 4
0.43
0.43
0.43
ms
6.43
194
0.43
103
0.43
102
0.43
101
0043
100
0.43
2320 0.43
180 23.G9 0.43
107 24.12 9.43
100 24,55 0.43
IDS 2~.97 0.42
164 25_39 OA2
103 26.62 0.43
182 20.:tfl 0.03
161 20.07 0.42
160 27.10 0."3
170 27.62 0,42
170 27.55 0.03
177 28.37 0..2
170 20.80 0.43
178 20.22 0.42
17.
20.65 0.43
173 30.07 0.42
172 30.49 0.42
171 30.92 0.03
170 31.~
0.42
169 31.10 0.42
108 32.16 0.42
1fIT 32.61 0.43
IGO 33.03 0.42
165 33.45 0.42
1114 33.00 0.41
0.42
103 ~.28
162 34.70 0.42
161 35.12 0.42
lGO 35.64 0.42
159 35.99 0.~2
160 30.38 0.42
157 30.60 0.42
158 37.22 O.4~
155 37.63 0.41
164 36.05 0.42
163 3B. 7 0.42
152 36.89 0.42
151 39.31 0,42
160 39.72 0.41
140 40.14 0.42
140 40.56 0.42
1~7 40.97 0.41
140 41.39 0.42
145 41.110 0.41
144 42.22 0.42
143 42.(14 0,42
142 43.05 0041
141 43.411 0.41

lao

10.00
19.39
19.82
20.2$
20.GO
21.11
21.64
21.D7
22.40
22.53

1~0
139
138
137
138
135
134
133
132
131
100
129
120
127
120
125
124
123
122
121
120
110
110
117
116

liS
114
113
112
111
110
109
108

lfIT
106
105
104
103
102
101
100

00
00
07
99

os

901
93

02
91
90
00
B8
07
86
05
64
03
62
61

03'u
4420
".71
4512
45.5:1

45.05
40.3~
40.70
~7.18
47.69
48.00
40.41
46.02
40.23
40.o-r
50.00
60.47
60.88
5129
5'.70
52.11
52.62
52.92
53.33
53.74
54.15
54.56
54.97
55.36
55.78
56.'9

55.60
57.00
57.41
57.82
58.22
58.63
6O.o-r
59.44
59.85
0020
00.67
01.07

OUO
OUl7
62.20
02.69
63.10
03.50
6391
04.30
04.70

GS.II
65.51
05.91
66.3'

66.72
67.12
67.52
67.02

0.~2
0.41
0.42
0.41
0.~1
0.42

OAO
0.41
0.42
0.~1
0,41
0.41
041
0.41
0.41
0.42
0.4'
0.41
0,41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.41
0.41
0,40
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.41
0.41
0.42
0.40
0.41
0.40
0.41
0.39
0.40
0,41
0.'0
0.40
0.40
0.41
0.40
0.40
0.40

-00
70
70

77
70
75
74
73

72
71
70

ro
80

fIT
00
55

64
03
02
6'
60
59
58
57
58
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
48

45
0\4
43
42
41
40
30
38
37
30
35
34
33
32
3'
30
29
20
27
20
25
2'
23
22
21

!l8.33
GO.73
00.13
69.63
69.03
70.33
70.73
71.13
71.53
71.03
72.33
72.73
73.13
73.63
73.03
7. 33
74.73
75.13
75.63
75.03
76.33
76.73
77.13
77.52
77.02
7B.32
7B.72
79.11
79.51
79.91
80.31
00.70
81.10
61.50
61.89
82.29
62.60
03.!l8
83.48
83.60
84.27
64.07

1lS.00
05.46
05.05
00,25
00.04
87.o-r
87.43
87.03
00.22
00.02
B9.01
69.40
60.80
00.19
90.59
90.96
9'.37
91.77

0. '
O,otO
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
OAO
0.39
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.39
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.39
D.40
0.40
0.39
0.40
040
0.39
0.'0
OAO
0.39
0.40
0.30
0.40
0.39
0.40
0.30
0,40
0.39
0.40
0.39
0.40
0.39
0.39
0.40
0.30
0.40
0.39
0.39
0.40

1 Celsius Increments
Ohms

PIff.

Ohms

Dill.

'C

20
10
19
17
10
15
14
13
12

02.16
02.55
02.05
03.34
03.73
94.12
04.62
04.01
95.00

00
+1
2
3
4
5
8
7
8

OS.OO

10
9

00.09

100.00
100.39
100.78
101.17
101.so
101.95
102.34
102.73
103.12
103.61
103.00
104.20
104.80
105.07
105.40
105.05
10024
100.03
107.02
107.~0
lfIT.7e
108.18
108.57
100.00
109.35
109.73
110.12
110.51
110.90
111.26
111.67
112J)6
112.45
112.83
113.22
113.61
113.99
114.38
114.77
115.16
116.64
116.03
118.31
110.70
117.06
117.47
117.05
116.24
110.02
110.01
110.40
110.78
120.16
120.55
120.03
121.32
121.70
122.09
122.47
122.86

0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.30
0.39
0.30
0.39
0.30
0.39
0.39
0.30
0.39
O.:JD
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.36
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.38

-so

II

0.39
0.39
0.40
0.39
0.39
0.39
0040
0.30
0.39
0.39
0.40
0.39
0.39
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.40
0.39
0.30
0.39

7
0
5
4
3
2
1

00.40
06.67
97.20
07.05
08.Q4
00.44
08.03
60.22
99.61

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
21l

27
28
29
30
31
32

as

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

0\4
45

40
47
48
49
50
61
52
53
54

SS
56
57
58
59

Q.39

0.39
0.39
0.38
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.38
0.39
0.39
0.38
0.39
0.39
0.38
0.39
0.30
0.36
0.39
0.30
0.39
0.38
0.30
0.38
0.39
0.30
0.38
0.30
0.39
0.36
0.39
0.36
0.39
0.36
0.39

61
62
63

a.I
65
66
fIT

sa

60
70
71
72
73
74
76
78

77
70
79
80
81
82
83
84
65
88
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
04
05
06
97
99
00
100
101
102
103
104
109
100
107
100
100
11,0
111
112
113

II,
116
110
117
118
119

Ohms

0111.

123.2~
12:1.62
124.01
124.39
124.77
125.17
125.55
125.93
1:tfl.32
12!l.70
127.00
127.40
127.85
121l.23
128.01
12D.OD
121l.30
129.76
'38.14
1:n52
130.90
131.26
131.67
1:!2.05
132.43
132.81
133.19
1:1357
1:13.95
134.33
134.71
135.09
135.47
135.65
13623
136.61
138.09
137.37
137.75
130.13
138.51
138.89
130.27
139.05
140.03
140.30
140.77
141.15
141.63
141.91
1422B
142.66
'43.04
143.42
".3.00
IM.16
144.so
1"".94
145.32
\45.69

0.38
0.38
0.39
0.38
0.38
0.40
038
0.38
0.39
0.38
038
0.38
0.39
0.38
030
0~6
0.39
0.36
0.38
0.36
0.38
0.36
0.39
0.33
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.38
0.38
0.36
0.38
0.39
0.38
0.36
0.38
0.38
0.36
0.38
0.36
0.38
0.36
0,38
0.30
0.36
0.38
0,39
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.36
0.37
0.38
Q,JB

0.38
0.36
0.38
0.36
0.36
0.37

lOIN 4:1760)

Nolo: At IOOC.rosls'anco b 138.50 oruns.

Z252

Copyright OMEGAEngineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

I.

231

Calibration

RTD Temperature
vs. Resistance Table
For European Curve, Alpha = .00385,ITS-go
c Ohms Dfff. 'C Ohms DIn. c Ohms DIn.
ft12Q
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
0129
130
131
132
133
134

135
136
137
136
139
140
141
142
i43

144.
145
146

147
148

;49

..150
151

152
--i53

'154
155

,lM
151

.i58
i59

160
i61
'162
'163
164
.1.65
166

IIi!
'166
169
170

ii)
..172

17:i

174

fii;
176

rTf
178

'ii9

146.07
146.45
146.82
147.20
147.58
147.95
148.33
146.71
149.08
149.46
149.83
150.21
150.58
150.96
151.34
151.71
152.09
152.46
152.84
153.21
153.58
153.95
154.32'
154.71
155.08
155.46
155.63
156.21
156.58
156.96
157.33
157.71
15a.oS
158.45
158.83
159.20
159.56
159.94
160.31
180.68
161.05
161.43
161.80
162.17
162.54
162.91
163.28
163.66
164.03
164.40
164.77
165.14
165.51
185.88
166.25
165.62
167.00
167.37
167.74
168.11

Nota. Ar 100C,

0.38
0.38
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.39
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.38
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
.0.38
0.37
0.37
0.37

168.48
168.85
169.22
169.59
169.96
170.33
170.69
171.06
171.43
171.80
190 172.17
191 172.54
'192 172.91
193 173.27
.194 173.64
195 174.01
195 174.39
197 174.75
'.199 175.12
,199 175.49
175.85
'201 176.23
202 176.59
203 176.96
177.33
'205 In.70
206 178.06
178.43
'206 176.80
179.16
'209
210 179.53
211 179.90
212 18!J.26
'213 180.63
180.99
'214
"215 181.36
181.73
'2i"7 182.09
0218 182.46
219 182.62
2~O 183.19
221 183.55
183.92
'223 184.2Il
22.( 184.65
' 225 185.01
'226 185.38
.185.74
228 186.fl
229 166.47
186.84
187.20
:,23
187.56
'232
' 233 187.93
188.29
235 188.55
236 189.02
237 189.38
236 189.74
190.11
+180
181
182
183
184
185
.1~
187
.1118

189

.200
204

ir:n

;i16

7~

;2;;?

';2:lO:
1

;234'

239

0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.37
0:36
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.37

reslsteree Is 138.50 ohms.

.+240
241
'242'
.. 243
.,244
245

246
247.
246
249

250
'.251
252

253

254
2S5
255
.257

258

;~~..
261:
.262

'.263:
':264

'"285

::266:
.,.257.;
'.268.
,:269
::270
~~271
"272'
'i!73
'0274
.'.
'275

:"216,
:277':

190.47
190.83
191.20
191.56
191.92
192.28
192.66
193.02
193.38
193.74
194.10
194.47
194.83
195.19
195.55
195.90
196.28
196.62
196.98
197.35
197.71
198.07
198.43
198.79
199.15
199.51
199.87
200.23
200.59
200.95
201.31
201.67
202.03
202.36
202.74
20310
203.46
203.62
204.18
204.54
204.90
205.25
205.61
205.97

;.~:

;2800.

;jJij:
,282

283.

'2&\ 206.33
'285. 206.70
. '2eii' 207.05
207.41

':'~~,207.71

;~:

208.13
'208.48
208.84
209.20

..~:
;2~

209.55

'294 209.91

;295;

210.27
296 210.62
'29j 210.98
..298 211.34
0299. 211.69

0.36
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.30

0.38

1 Celsius Increments
0

'C

Ohms

212.05
301
212.40
212.76
.302
303 213.12
3Ii4 213.47
305 213.83
aOO 214.19
307
214.55
,306. 214.90
215.26
..
310 215.61
215.97
311
312 216.32
313 216.68
314 217.03
315 217.39
316 217.73
218.OS
.317
218.44
'318
319 218.79
;320 219.15
'321'
219.50
'322 219.85
220.21
324. 220.56
220.91
'325
;326 221.27
221.62
:.328,. 221.97
329.- 222.32

0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.S7
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.S8
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
. ':;33.:
0.35
0.36
0.36 '335'
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36 .:3:39'
0.36
0.35 :34F
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.37
345.:
0.35 S'is
0.36
0.36 :'348
0.36
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.35
~.
0.36
0.36 ' 365
0.35 '356.
0.36
0
0.36
0.35

'.323

.:3'4.

::;: azasa
.-,'332:
.334

223.03
223.38
223.73
224.09
224.45
224.60
225.15
225.50
22S.SS
226.21
226.56
226.91
227.26
227.61
227.96
226.31
228.66
229.01
229.36
229.72
230.07
230,42
230.n
231.12
231.47
231.81
232.16
232.51
232.66

.~:'
'340'
342

,,34:1'"
34<l.

<'34.r;;

Diff.

0.36 +36Q
0.35
361
0.36
362
363
0.36
364
0.35
0.36
366
0.36 .366
0.35 367
0.35 ..368
0.36 .)69
370
0.35
371
0.36
0.35
0.36
0.35 '314'
375
0.36
0.34 :~6
0.35 377
0.38 . 37S
0.35 1:379"

-ii2
373

0.36 ,390
0.35
0.35
0.38
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.38
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.36

.~~:
~'.~'
..

351
358

.3?9

381
:.382

'383

:'384.
0385

'386
'387

'-308'
0'389
':390'
~.391:'
::392

:300

,~.

385f386

\311!'
;j9(
"399

''#
J~',403'
40F

'm,
;;106:
,'407

'408
".jO!{

~;'tl0
411
<412
413

'4;4
.415
416
417
::418
::41~

Ohms

0111.

'C

Ohms

0111.

23321
23356
233.91
234.26
234.60
234.95
235.30
235.65
236.00
236.35
236.70
237.05
237.40
237.75
238.09
238.44
238.79
239.14
239.48
239.83
240.18
240.52
240.87
241.22
241.56
241.91
242.25
242.60
242.95
243.29
243064
243.98
244.33
244.67
245.02
245.36
245.71
246.05
246.40
246.74
247.09
247.43
247.78
248.12
246.46
248.81
249.15
249.50
249.84
250.18
250.53
250.69
251.21
251.55
251.90
252.24
252.59
252.94
253.28
253.62

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.35
0.35.
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.34
0.34

+420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
4sq
. 431

253.96
254.30
254.65
254.99
255.3J
255.67
256.01
256.35
256.70

0.34
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34'
0.34
0.34
0.34

432
"433
434
435
435.

437
436
;439
"440
441

,"443

444'

'.445

'446

.0441.

.!I48.
"+19

257.04
257.38
257.72
258.06
258.40
258.74
259.08
259.42
259.76
260.10
260.44
260.78
261.12
261.46
261.80
262.14
262.48
262.63
263.17
283.50

263.64

.~50'

2&1.18
264.52
264.80
265.20
465.54 .
265.67
':455
266.21
: 457. 266.55
;458' 266.89
267.22
267.!i6
:'~61,. 267.90
:462, 268.24
'463 268.57
268.91
465 269.25
269.58
269.92
0:468'- 270.26
270.59
27Q.93
470'
271.27
271.60
4"73 271.94
272.27
'475 272.61
272.95
273.28
476 273.62
273.95
45"

452
453

:~iS;f;

,~

~:4s9',

.~:;
':1~,

.-'406
;~si;
:46"9

:~~:
47....

:o:~
479

O&l
o~

0.34
0.34
0.:J5..

031:
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.33
0.34
0:34

ri.34
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.33
0.34
Q.34

0.33
0.34
0.34
0.33
0.34
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.33
0.34
0.33

lOIN 43 760)

Z-2S3

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

.i

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

232

RTD Temperature
vs. Resistance Table
.
For European Curve, Alpha = .00385,ITS-gO
c 01.... ow. c Oh .... Dill. -c orun. Dill. c
0.34 +542 294.87 0,33 .004
0,33 543 295.20 0.33 005
0.34 044 295,63 0,33 000
0.33 04~ 205,65 0,32 007
484
0.34 G40 200.18 0.33 000
485
0.33 641 200.51 0.33 GOO
0,34
4SO
640 290.84 0.33 010
0,33 649 201.18 0.32 011
407
400
0.33 ~50 267.40 0,33 012
400 2n,31 0.34 551 207.82 0,33 013
400 ~n.64 0,33 Ci52 200,14 0,32 014
491 2n.OO 0.34 653 208.47 0.33 016
492 276.31 0,33 634 208.eo 0.33 DID
493 278,64 0.33 65!i 290.12 0.32 817
404 271I.SO 0.34 650 200.4~ 0.33 010
409 270.31 0,33 657 =.70
0.33 OlD
~OO 270.1>1 0,33 056 300.10 0.32 o:!O
407 270,00 0,3" 6$0 300,43 0.33 621
400 200.31 0,33 fiOO 300.75 0.32 022
400 2BO.64 0,33 501 301M 0.33 023
000 280.80 0.34 662 301.41 0.33 G2iI
501 281,31 0.33 G03 301.73 0.32 625
002 261.04 0.33 664 302.06 0.33 626
503 201.07 0.33 565 302.38 0.32 627
0D4 202.31 0,34 GOD 302.71 0.33 628
OO~ 202,64 0,33 507 393.03 0,32 829
GOO 262.07 0.33 6GQ 303.36 0.33 830
607 203.30 0.33 6G9 303.68 0.32 631
600 203.83 0.33 570 304.01 0.33 632
609 2D3.97 0,34 671 304.33 0.32 633
610 21l4.30 0,33 572 304.66 0.33 G34
611 21101.630,33 573 304.98 0.32 ..835
512 204.00 0,33 574 305.30 0.32 . 636
013 205.29 0.33 575 305.63 0.33 037
514 2OS.li2 0.33 578 305.95 0.32 '836
616 20$.05 0.33 srr, 3J6.29 0.33 839
610 290,30 0.35 578 :D6.60 0.32 '640
517 286.63 0.33 1;79 300.92 0.32 841.
518 200.00 0,33 580. 307.25 0.33' 842
519 207.20 0,33 5~1 307.57 0,32 843
520 207.62 0,33 582 307.89 0.32 844
308.22 0.33 645
521 207.05 0.33
822 206.28 0.33 584 308.54 0.32 840
523 208.61 0.33 5B5 3OB.BB 0.32 847
624 208.94 0,33 588 309.10 0.33 &18
625 209.27 0.33 567 309.61 0.32 849
626 269.00 0,33 588 309.63 0.32 GOO
627 2lI!l,03 0,33 589 310,16 0,32 651
626 290.26 0.33 500 310,48 0.33 652
620 200.59 0,33 591 310.00 0.32 853
530 200,92 0,33 692 311.12 0.32
654
631 291.25 0.33 593 311.45 0.33 655
532 291.56 0,33 ~04 311.78 0.33 656
657
533 201.00 0,32 595 312.10 0.32
534 202.23 0,33 500 312,43 0,33 658
535 202."56 0.33 697 312,75 0.32 659
536 202.00 0.34 698 313.07 0.32 660
537 203ZJ 0.33 599 313.39 0.32 681
630 293.56 0,33 eoo 313.71 0.32 6B2
639 293.09 0,33 601 314.D4 0,33 B63
840 294.21 0.32 602 314.30 0.32 664
841 294.64 0,33 eo:! 314.68 0.32 66S
Nolo: At tOOC./oSlslance Is 138.50 ohms.
1-400
401
402
403

274.29
274,t;:!
27~,OO
275.20
276.63
275.00
270.31
276.0.1
270.07

315.00
316.32
316.64
315.06
316.28
310.00
31M2
317.24
317,6(1
317,00
310,20
3'8.52
31M!;
310.17
319.49
319.61
320.12
320,~4
320.70
321.00
321.~O
321.72
322.03
322.34
322.68
322,98
323.30
323.61
323.93
324.25

324.57
324.88
325.21

0.32 +61;8
0,32 667
0.32 668
0,32 GQ9
0.32 070
0.32
671
0,32 072
0.32 073
0.32 074
0.32 676
0.32 670
0.32 on
0,33 G7a
0.32 070
0.32 Gao
0.32 DOl
0,31 0D2
0.32 D03
0.32 0D4
0.32 00!i
0.32 DOD
0.32 Ba7
0.31
6118
0.31 609
0.32 699
0.32 691
0.32 692
0.31 893
0.32 694
Q.32

326.18

0.32
0.31
0.33
0.32
0.32
0.31

326.48
326.79

0.32
0,31

327,11
327,43
327.74
328.00
329.30
329.89
329.01
320.32
320,04
320.06
330,27
330.8
330.00
331.21
331.53
331.84
332,18
332.47
332.79
333.10
333.41
333.73
334,84
334.36

0.32
0.32
0.31
0.32
0.32
0.31
0.32
0.31
0.32
0,31
0.32
0,31

325.53
325.85

0.32

0.31
0.32
0.31
0,32
0,31

0111.

'C

Ohm>

DIll.

331,68
334.09
335,31
335,62
335.93
33025

0.32

+728
729

353.91

33O,G(l

0.31

0.30 +790
0.31 791
0.31 792
0.30 793
0.31 794
0.30 195
796
0.31
0,31 797
0.31 7!lO
0.31 799
0.30 eoo
0.31 801
0.30 802
0.31 603
0.30 804
0.31 1!05
0.30 BOO
0.31 B07
0.30 IlOO
0.30 8C9
0.31 610
0.30 811
0.31 812
0.30 613
0.30 814
0.31
815
0.30 816
0.30 817
0.31 618
0.30 819
0.30 1l2o
0.30 621
0.31 822
0.30 823
0.30 824
0.30 B25
0.31 e2s

0.31
0,32
0.31
0.31

0.32

330.07 0,31
337,18 0,31
337.60 0.32
337.01 0.31
330.12 0,31
330.43 0.31
330,76 0.32
339.00 0,31
339.37 0.31
339,GO 0.31
330,90 0.31
340,30 0,31
340,G2 0.32
340.94 0.32
341.25 0.31
341.55 0,30
341.87 0,32
342.18 0,31
342.49 0.31
342.00 0.31
343.11 0.31
343.42 0.31
695 343.73 0.31
696 344.04 0.31
344.35 0.31

698

344,66

699
700

344.97
345.28
345.59
3-15.90
346.21
346.S2
346,03
340,16
347.~0
347.70
340,07
348.38
3'.8.69
340,00
349.31
g,fg,OI
340,02
350.23

701
702
703
704
705
708
707
700
700
710

711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720

721
722
723
724

0.32
0,31
0.31
0.32
0.31

126

0.32

727

725

Z-254

1 Celsius Increments

Ohms

350.54
$0,85

0.31
0.31

0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31

0,31
0.31
0.32
0,31
0.30
0.31
0.31
0,31
0,31
0,31
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.31
0,31

351.15 0.30
351.40 0,31
351.n
0.31
352.07 0,30
352.38 0,31
352.69 0.31
352.99 0.30
353.30 0.31
353.6\ 0.31

354.22

730 354.53
731 354.63
732 355.14
733 355.44
?34 355.75
735 356.06
738 356.37
737 356.68
738 350,98
739 357,29
740 357,59
741 357,00
742 358.20
743 358.61
7014 350.01
748 359,12
740 350,42
747 359.72
740 300,03
749 3GO.33
760 300.04
751 360,04
752 301.24
753 361,55
754 361,85
755 362.15
756 362.48
1ST 362.76
758 363.flIi
7SS 363.36
7t1l 363.67
761' 363.97
782 364.27
763 364.57
784 364.88
765 365,18
766 365,49
767 365,79
700 300.09
789 368.40
no 3GO.70
n1 307,00
rn 307.30
173 307.60
n4
387.00
300.20
n5
no 300.60
m 308.01
no 389,11
369,41
n9
780 369.71
781 370.01
782 370.31
783 370,61
784 370.91
785 371.21
766 311.52
787 311.92
78B 372.12
789 372.41

uso

0.31
0.30
0,30
0.31

0.30
0.30
0.30
0,30
0.30
0.30
0,30
0.31
0.30
0.30
0,30
0,30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.""
0.31
0.30
0.30
0.29

"C

Ohms

DIIt.

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.3D
374.21 0.30
374.51 o.aa
374.80 0.29
374.10 0.30
375.40 0.30
375.70 030
376.00 0.30
376.29 0.29
378,59 0.30
376.09 O.W
0.30
3n.IO
0,30
3n.49
0.30
m.70
370.09 0,30
378.39 0.30
370,08 0.29
378,98 0,30
379.28 0.30
370,57 0.20
379.87 0.30
380.17 0.30
:180.48 0.29
380,76 0.30
331.05 0.29
381.35 0.30
381.65 0.30
381.94 0.29
382.24 0.30
382,53 0.29
332.63 0.30
363.12 0.29
383.42 0.30
B27 383.71 ().29
e2e 384.01 0.""
829 384.30 0.29
830 :184.60 0.30
031 384.89 0.29
832 :185.18 0.29
833 385.46 0.30
B34
835
D30

372.71
373.G1
373.31
373.61
373.91

385.n

380.07
306,37
037 300,00
D3D 306.08
838 387.25
S40 307.55
641 387.64
042 388.13
843 338.42
044 360.72
045 38Ml
648 380.31
847 38o.el
B4D 389.90
849 390.19
Ii50 390.46

0.29

0.30
0.30
0,29

0,30
0.29
0.""
Q.29

0.29
0.29

0.30
0.29
0,30
0,30
0.29

0.29
0.29

(DIN43 760)

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

. 233

Calibration

RTD Temperature
vs. Resistance Table
For American Curve, Alpha
-c

0hntS

.59.57 -38
59.S8 $
'-99
60.39 "36
.-96
60.80 -35
97
61.21 -34
-96
.-95 61.63 -.
62.04 ~
.g.j
62.45'-31
93 62.86 -30
-92
63.27 ~
-91
63.65 .28
64.09 -'B
,-89
:26
-sa 64.SO
64.91 .25
-37 65.32 ',24.
-86
65.73 ,23
-35.
. 22
'-3; 66.14
66.55 .21.
-83 66.96 -20
-82

-100

:!!,

-so

-61'

-<10
,79
-78
-71
76
75
-74
-73

, -72.
-71
-70

~.
-68

-lI4
.~

-<11

.~

,59'

~:sa

;-w.
..56.

_::.:
<ss
'52

'5'-

..'SO

-49'

48'
':-'47:
-46

'-45

:~

-43
'42
41

:-40
3g

BUD
24
85.20
25
85.80 ':!6
86.01
27
86.41
2B
85J!1 ,29
87.21
30
87.61
31
saOI
32
88.42 '33
88.82
34
89.22
35
89.62
36
90.02 '37
90A2
38
90.82'
33
91.22 40
91.62 "41'
92.02 '42

1 Celsius Increments

= .00392

ot'wH

'c

109.51
109.90
110.30
110.69
111.09
111.48
111.88
112.27'
112.66
113.06
113AS
113.84
114.24
114.63
115.02
115.42
115.81
116.20
115.59

sa

Ohms

Ohms

133.75 1018 157.53'


134.14 149 157.91
134.52 150 158.29
134.91 151 158.61
:90 135.30 152 159.OS
91 136.68 . 153 159.43
'92 136.07' 154 159.81
93 136.46 155 160.19'
94 136.84 156 180.57
95 137.23 157' 160.95
96' 137.62 ;SS' 161.33
97 138.00 159 161.70'
98 138.39 .,160
152.06
. 99" 138.71 '161 .162.48
100. 139.16 162 162.84
10i
139.55' 163 163.22
102 139.93 '164 16!l.60
103 140.32: 165 163.97
104 140.70 'loil)
164.35
81
'88
89

C
210
211
212
'213
21~
.215
216
217
218

i!19
220
221
222

'223
224
225
226

227
~

Ohms

-c

180.86 212.
181.23 273
181.111 274"
181.98 215
182.35 276
182.72 277:
198.09 278
198.47 279
198.84 280
184.21 281
184.58 282
184.95 283
185.32 :i84
186.70 285
186.07 288
188.44
185.81 '2S8
187.18 21\9
187.55 290

2Irt

Ohms

'C

Ohms

'C

203.14 334
204.11 '335
21)4.47 .. 3:36
204.84 331

226.17

396

Ohms

248.16
24851
226.89 39B' 248.86
227.25398
249.21
205.20 338 227.61 400 24956
21l5.57 339 227,96 401 249.91
2<lS.93 340 22!1.32 402 2SO.26
206.30' 341 228.68 403 250.61
2lI6.66 342' 229.04 404 250.96
2<17.02' 343' 229.39 405 251.31
2<17.39 344 229.75 406 251.66
207.75' 34S 230.11 4Q7 252.01
2lJ8.12 346 230.46 408 252.36
208.48 347 ZlO.82 409 252.71"
2Il8.85 3M! 231.18 410 253.06'
209.21 3:'19 231.53. 411 259.41
209.57.350
231.89 .412 253.76~
209.94 '351. 232.25.413.
254.11 ",
210.30 .352' 232.60' 414 254.46';'

226.53 397

~~ =:~':: ~: ::~~ .:: ::::~ :~ ::~:~ :::~: :~ ~~::.':35S:,~::: ~:;!~::~


68.18
68.59
69.00
69.41
GIlJll
70.22

., ,7
-16
::-15
"14'
-1j
".-12,

93.22
93.62'

4S

117.71
118.16
118.56
94.42 .48
118.95
94.B2 :49.119.34
95.22 .'50
119.73

48
94.02 .;:47

107
.108.
109
110
Iii

141.86,169
H2.24 '''170
142.e:! :~17i;
143.01 '172.
143.39 173':
143.78 174

h:i

165.48 231
165.86 :232
166.24:=
166.62 .~
166.99 '235
167.37

':236

168.66 293 211.39


189.03 294 211.75 '356'
189.40 295 212.11 357,:
189.77 ~
212.48 358
190.14 297' 212.84 "359
19051
213.20 360

"298'

233.67 ,.i7
234.03 '-418:
234.38 :419
234.74 420
235.09 421
235.45 422c'

255.50
2~.!j5
2~20'.
2s'ii35
256.89

s,

257.2~

~:~::~
~~ ":~
::~~::r :::~':i:
:::~~:.~~::~
~. ~:~::.;:
;:~~ :~:
:;:.
;;,,:9'
':,53.,
"'rr7
.':'Z23s4'
'301',
:'363;
425
71.404

1i6.42
::.-<1 96.81 :'54.'
".-7
97.21: 55'
72.66 ''--6, g7.61 .56"
73.07
98.01 ';57.,:
73.48'::4'
98.41 '.':58.
73.68
~~. 98.81 .~59
74.29 .,.~'
99.20' 60.
71.85
72.26

.~.
-68

..65.

Ohms

.;:.5.,

~~:~g
.:J:~::

12Ml
121.30
121.89
122116
122.47
122.86
123.25
123.64

':1)5
.115
'''7

144.93
145.31
145.70.;.179:
'118 146.08 :ISO:'
",9. 146.47 :'i8(.
:120::,146.85 '.182'
121' 147.23 "183.
122 147,61' 184

:;.HiI..

t,ti: :~::~~
.:~!:':::]:

,'I!8.li068.88

01'99"
..6299
214.29
235.51 -,
214.55' 364 238.87.428
169.25 '24L 192.36 303' 215.01 :.365,231.22
'427'
lse.83 '~.
19273
212155.3.7~
366 237.58.428
170.00 .C2q 193.09
'.,,3fi!' 237.93
170.38 ';244' 193.46 3il6. 216.10.~.
~~~~ '~.I.
170.76 :'245 193.83 307 216.45 ~~
~
171.13 ;'2460 ::::~.
~
216.82' 37Q 236.99 :'43:!'

'30539'\~

.'429.

:~:!!~~~~..3;~,
194Jl4

217.18 .371.

239.35 .~.

258.29.

2S8.63

2sa.$8
259.33.
25S,61'
26002

:::~

75.51 .' 1 .. 100.40 ,'~:;


124.81 .125.
75.91 :'.2/100.eO
'.114,.125.20
126.
7632 .. S. 101.19 'S!!' 125.59 -,IP,

14a76 ,:167 172.26 ':2(9


1115.31. 311. ~~~
';.:~~;:: ~~
:~.:
28'-:7'5
149.15
172.63 '~~ .. ,,~.~: .'33,'32. 218.26 :.~74; 240.41:436
262.10
149.53 "1.89. 173.01 '~51.'
218.63 '.:375' 2'!O.76 ::437. 262.45

7153.fa
102.38 ::68:'.126.76.130:
7134 .;;:7.
102.78 .:f,!9:. 127.15.131::
78.34 ....8 103.16',70
127.54: -,13?~
78.75 ., .. 9.103.57:.71",.127.93
.133
79.15 .;:~10.. 103.97 .;-'72,.' 128.32 1:J4,
79.56 -. 11 104.37,.73:
128.71 "35',.

150.67 ".:1#
151.06 ')93.'
151.401 '194
151.82 .. 195
152.20 ,;19!(:
152.58 :'197;

;;:~ f..;

7998

::.11!8

',)2. 104.76,7:4'

129.09

81.17 )1!(
81.58 :;.16'
81.96
82.38 .\18.

105.95 ~'77"
105.35 . "78
106.74 '179"
107.14 :'80

83.59

108.32

'83

83.99 22' 108.72

s4

174.13 ',:'~.'
174.51
174.88 :.258
175.26.'257
175.63 :'~.
176.01'.259'

'2.15'

~::~~
;:!: =:;-:

,19977'5141'
33'1'67'.'"
219.71 '378' 241.82 '440.
220.07 ~~9, 242.17 :'441
197.sa 3i8 220.43 ':lSO" 2(2.53 :442
198.25 '3is. 220.79
242.88
198.61
!121.15 ':.3!!2., 243.23 :;.444
lsaM' 321 221.51 .:'363 243.58' 445'

.)iji(

263.49

263.83
264.18

'~43:.264.S2

;:38".

264.87
265.21

'1~:::;~::~;::':~:~~~~~
::~~'i~: ~~~,::'. ~!!~:
:tf ~:

:~ \:!' :~~i.~;;'::~:~ 'i39:


Hi'

=~

:g::' ~,:::~ :: :~~~'{:l. :;;;: :i.~:~!.~:;'~::::::

136: 153.73'200
130.26
154.11 ~'~1'
130.65 1~0.: 154.49 . 202
131.04
'154.87 )03:
131.42 ;I~?. 155.25 -: 2Q4.

14'(

171.13 ,'~62' 200.08 '324 222.59 .~300


200.45 :'325" 222.94 .'3fii.
171.88 ::264 200.81 326. 223.30 . 388.
178.25 ~~.,
201.18::Ji7:
223.66', 1l89.
178.62 ;266 201.55 ~328: 224.02 :.!!90.'

In:5ii ,.'?,63

244.64 "448 266.25


244.99
266.59
245.35 ::450 266.94
245.70
267.28
248.OS :;452. 287.63

'.:+J:(
';451:'

::~~!~,
:~:~.':1' :~:~ ':!! :~~:~~
'::. :~~;.:! ~~ ~: ~!:;:.~:-~:~~
i~ :~~
':193
84.40

21

23'109.11"~

~:

260.37

~.7J'

13259': 145, 155.39: '207. 179.74 ;'269 202.64 :i3i 225.10


247.10.455
132.98 -'<!li' 156,71' 208 180.12 '270 203.01 '332 225.46. 39~ 247.46 :456
133.36 ""47' 157.15 '209
180.49 ~71 203.38 '.333 225.01' ~95. 247.81 ,;457

268.66
289.00
269,35

2;-255

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced

with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford,


www.omega.com

cr 06907

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

234

Thermocouple
Grade

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE


~~~g~~!Wle Grade

o 10750C
Extension Grade
32 10392'F
010200"<:
LIMITS OF ERROR

Iron
VS.

~:~~:~!:'2q~~.75%

Copper-Nickel

Specfat: 1.1Cor0.4%
COMMENTS, BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT:
Reducing. Vacuum. 'nett; Umlted Use In
OxidizIng at High Temperatures;
Not Rocommended fOi tow Temperalu:res
TEMPERATURE DEGREES 'C
REFERENCEJUNC7l0N AT O'C

~~

Extomlon

GrGdo

10

~ :t:~1:i~t~
:11~:f:Fl :~i1~
:~:H~
:i~~
:f~ :t-m :~
:~o :&:g~:l:~~
:~~:..arr
173: :!{~
~.gg:&m
:&~ ~.as
o.m
.(I.m
oO.m
o
,.

'OjOl

-O,4'SI .Q.~OI

0Il00

D.Osa 0 10'

rnT

D.Sse

o.(JfJ

-0.301

Il!~' o~
O. GO lUll

~ ~~~~
}~n1:M1H~
l.t1I tilt
-CO

Yl

2.2tll

2..2M

-0.201

.0.101

5~}~:
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g~t
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t~ jg m g~~A
31.<4G1
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D.2Sl D.3Ol O~4 D.~05 a,.t!IG 8.501


Vii:!!: D.II14 o.BSS 0.916 006!l 1.O1!!

I~~l:n~ ::;

2.322

1.<121

2..31.4

t= ~ ~

1.433 1:485 1531

2.1'11 2.150 UOO 2.956 3.OO'l

:ro

(I

0
\0

J8
0(0

~ g~~ ilg~ HPr ti~:~r:~]~~:~r.


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140 USIJ 7.U4 7.~ 1.&241.819 1.134 ~.71!1


15(1 fI.OIO1.Il65 !-UD, .. 175 s.~J 82i1i '.Jet I.nl
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1110 10124 1Q.21! 10.335 lQ.390 1a..t46 1o.~1

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8.5&1 6.562
9.005 9.00:1 9.115

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lo.s51IG.S'2 10..668 to.m

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43.495 43.559
44.139 44.~OJ
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13.711 11833

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Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights 'reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

235

Calibration

Thermocouple
Grade

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE flANGE


Thermocoople Grme
3210 1382"1'
O1075O"C
Extension Grade
3210392"F
~O1<>2OO"C

Iron

UIIlTS OF ERROR
(whlthe_1s !l<eali,)
Standatd: 2.2"C or a.7S~
~peclal: 1.1CO.4%
COMMENTS, BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT:
Reducing. Vacuum. Inert Umi'led' Use In
O"kii2:ing at H'9h Tempefatures;
Not Recommanded fOI Low TemperatUl"es
TEMPERATURE IN OeGREES 'F
REFERENCE JUNCTION AT 32'F

VS,

copper-~NiCkel

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ExtensIon
Grade

-f 11 "
.
7 -6
5 -4
-3
2 -1

-,:
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.lCQ

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables
.

25.2.

110 25.413
._, 25.1.e.1
om 2U!I!I

26._

26,""

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21m 21m
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111

of

2-216

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc" Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com.

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

236

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

Thermocouple

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE

Grade

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Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, cr 06907
www.omega.com

237

Calibration

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

l'hermor;ouple

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE


Th.rmoeoupfe Grade
- 328 10GG2"F
-200I0350C
Extension Grade
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238

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE


Tbermocoupte Grade
- 32B 106S2'F
- 200 1035O"C
Ext.nsfoa Grade
-76 to 212'F
-60 10' l00"C
UMITS OF ERROR
(_ve,lsgl8alerj

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables
Copper
VS.

. i~:tJ;f~.:::"o.~A-.

Copper-Nickel

O'C

S~clal:O.s'CorO."'"
COMMENTS. BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT:

~:~~~~?~~9d
~eg~~oY~~:Ts
Present;

~~

Elton.lon

Low TOmporll!Uro and CI)'Qgenlc AppllcaUons


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REFERENCEJUNCTION AT 32'F

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239

Calibration

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

Thermocouple
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TherrnoolectricVoaage In _.
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with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

}I
.1

240

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

Thermocouple
Grade

TYPE

800 3J21~ lllJllllll1


610 )3W
IDOl
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31115
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Speclal: 1.1 Cor0.4%


COMMENTS, BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT:
Clean Oxidizing and InBrt~Uml100 Use In
Vilcuum or RedllClng; WIde TamperClture
Range; Most Popular Calibf'3lkln
TEMPERATURE III DEGREES'C
REFERENCE JUNCTION AT O'C

~:

Extonalon

3UM 1)43, )"50 ~~n


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SUU SUll SGJn usC] 3UO:J
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,u:~

Nickel-Chromium

Reference
Tables
N.I.S:r.
Monograph 175
RovlsccJto
ITS90

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE


Thermocouple Grade
- 328 to 22B2'F
- 200 10 1250C
Exlension Grade
32 10392F
10200'C
LIMITS OF ERROR

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10W

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Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

241

Calibration

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE


Thermoccup'le Grade
- 32810 2,;I82F
- 200
1250'C
Exten!;Jon Grade
32 10392"F
0102OO"C
UMITS OF eRROR
(whicheVer '" 9',.,)
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Special: LlCorO.4%
COMMENTS,BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT:
Clean (b:ldi,zing and Inert: UmlIed Use if'l
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Range; Masl Popular Calibralion
TEMPERAlURE IN DEGREES 'F
REFERENCE JUNCTIO/( AT 32'F

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

'0

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..

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-5

-4

Nickel-Chromium
VS.
Nickel-Aluminum

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Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

!i

242

RTD and Thermocouple Tables

MA)(JMUI4TE.W'ERATURE RANGE
Thermocouple Grade
- 328 to2282"F
- 200 to 125O'C
Extension Grade
3210 39TF
Olo2OO"C
LIMITS OF ERROR
(whlchovef is grealer)
Slondard: 2.2"'C or 0.75% Above o-c
2.2"C
2.0% Below O"C
SpncJnl.1.1C 01'0.4%
COMMENTS,BARE WJAEENV1RONMENT:

Thermocouple
Gracie

Revised Thermocouple
Reference Tables

TYPE

Nlckel-Chromium
VS.

Referenco
Tablos
N.I.S.T.
Monograph 176
RevIsed to

0'

Et~

Nickel-Aluminum

~~(Jc:~~~I~~Su~~~~~~~~eu,:~~
Rango; Most Popular Calibration
TEhlPl!nATURE IN DEGREES"F
nEFEnENCE JUNCnON AT 32"F

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Z219

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

if

.; ':'11

';1
243

Calibration

ThetmOCoupie
Grad.

,RevisedThermocouple
ReferenceTables

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Z-220

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc" Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

Appendix

A-7

CONVERSION TABLES
, Temperature Conversion Chart (Courtesy Omega)

Pressure Conversion Factors (selected)

PRESSURE CONVERSION FACTORS


Refer to the ISA Handbook of Measurement Equations and Tables f~r more
conversion factors than you will ever need.
psi = in. of H20 x (0.0361273)
psi = in, of Hg x' (0.491154)
psi = mm of H20 x (0.00142233)
I

psi = mm of Hg x (0.0193368)

psi = kg/cm2 x (14.223)

psi= bar x (14.50377) ,

psi = mbar x (0.014503 x 10-2)

psi

= Pa x (1.4503 x 10-4)

psi = kPa x (0,1450377)


"
;co

psi

= millitorrx

(1.93368 x ,10-5)

,-.0

245

Conversion Tables

246

Temperature Conversion Chart


C"" (OF - 321
Kalvtn.,C + 273.15

c--;:p

-,----

From

10C

-u;e

-272.22
271.11
27000
.200 C~
207.70
'200.07
"O~,DO

-4GD
.. 94
-4,.
..j'D

..,

..

-4'0

-4'4
"'.2
""0
..(01
..(08
-4:)4
..(O~
..(00

-42B

..no

-2."4

"'02
-400
.:JUD
.:Jas
3Q4
.:J12
-310
.:J5D
380
-314
-382
.:J80
-378
-370
-374
.:J72
.:J70
-308
.3UO
-304
.:J02
.:JGO
358
.:JOO
3:1<1
.:J52
.:JSO
-31.
3"0
-3~4
-342
-340
338
.:J30
.:J34
-332
330
-320
.:J28
32.
-322
-320
-310
318
-314
312
-310

-243.33
2412.22
-241.11
-240.00
23119
237.78
236.67
'235.50
234."4
233.33
232.22
231.11
230.00
22o.e9
227.78
220.07
226.50
-224.""
2.23.33
2222
221.11
'220.00
2,0.00
-.'1.78
'210 . 7
'2'6.50
2'4.44
-2'3.33
--2'2.22
'211.11
'2'0.00
200.80
207.78
200.07
-205,5<;
204
203.33
202.22
-201,11
200.00
108.80
"07.78
-106.07
'05.50
'0
103.33
'02.22
181.11
'00.00

-Me

,04

.:J02
.:JDO
.90
200

.D.
20.
200
2M
288

.14

215.15D

"00

F,om
-000

203,"
2.222
2Ot 11
-200 00
-2SO~0
-2!l.78
2SO.07

""0
-4'0
-414
"'2
-110
0400
-4..

."

2G4.111

21l-'-"
253.33
-252.22
251.11
25D.00
-240.09
-247.70
-246.87
-2'S.56

-424
-422
-420

467.6
45<.0

..,,,0.8
"'50.4

~43.2
-439.6
-436.0
-432.'
.428.8
-425.2
"""21.6
-4.8.0
-4'4.'
"'0.8
407.2
"03.6
-400.0
-396.4
-JIIUI
-389.2
-385.6
-382.0
-370.'
-374.0
-371.2
-307.0
-304.0
-3(i0.4
~SG.O

-asaz
~o .

~O.O
-342..
-330.8
3JS-Z
331.6
-32G.O
-324,11
-320.0
3'1.2
-3J3.0
oJ1D.Q

.3011.'
-302.8
299.2
-295.&
-2920
-289.4
284.8
-281.2
-277.6
-274.0
-270.4
266.8
263.2
-259.8
-256.0

TABLE EXAMPLE:
To Convort 1000C to -F, look up rooo and read leU
To Convert 1000F 10 DC,lookup 1000 and rood righl

F.~C ..32
Ronklno A F + 459.67

212
~IO
270
270
274
272
-27D

200
-266
264
..2.62
-250
-258
058
254
-252

....,

..248
-246
444'
242
240
236
-238
234
232
-230
226
226
22.
222
220
'2'.
211
214
212
210
2111
208
--204
-202
200
-109
190
104
182
100
1118
168
-184
-11ll
180
-178
17&
-17.
172
~-170

'66
166
184
162
-166

10'C
180,09
107.70
'0e.G7
"05,00
184.",(
183.33
"02.,
101.1'
,'00.00
170.00

m.7.
,'70.07
-11a.GO
174,.. 4
17:1,33

172.22
-171.'1
'70.00
,'88.09
-'87.78
-108.87
'05.66

'64.~'
-16J.3J
-'-161.11
62.22

,'60.00
-'5&.89
-157.78
,'50.67
155.56
-154.44
'153.33
"52.22
-151.11
'50.00
-148.89
-147.78
-148-67
145.56
-144.....
,..'3.33
"'2.22
-1~I,U
,"0.00
'36.00
,'37.70
130.07
,'35.60
134.""
.133.33
"32.22
131.11
,'30.00
"20.89
'27.1.
,20.07
-'26.60
-124.4~
-123.33
-122.22
-121.11
,'20.00
-118.89
117.78
'118.07
115.56
..1\4.of4
'113.33
-112.22
-111.11
-110.00
-,GO.89
107.78
106.67

'oop

Film,

to"C

.. "I'

I~.'

.I!11l
150
1114
152
150

-res.sa

-+17.6

2.0.2
2.5.2

'.<1.6

.30.0
23..
,,30.2
'227.2
223.0
220.0

2115."
2'2.0
.2(1).2
205.8
.202.0
1DS.4
-'04.2
-191.'2
-187.6
'8>1.0

-'BO.'

176.8
'73.2
-'69.6
165.0
1S2.4
-'58.8
'55.2

-rst.e
-'''8.0

-144.4
-140.8
-131.2
-133.6
-'30.0
-1245,4

.,22.2

-119.2
-115.6
112.0
-108.4
-'04.8
-101.2
-07.8
0'.0
00.'
-00.8
-03.2
70.8
70.0
-7M
-e3.1l
~.2
01.6
Ga.O

'~."

66.0
"'7.2
-43.0
"0.0
-38.4
-32.8
''19.2
-25.6
-22.0
-18.4
14.8
-11.2
-1.6
-4.0

-0.'
-13.2
-.6.8
...10.
+1. 0

14.
14.
144
142
140
1:10
-130
'34
132
130
12'
12B
-'24

'22
120

118
-118
-114
112
110
108
108

.,04
tll1

...

-tilO

86
-94
-92
-90
-08
-86

...
-02
-80
78
16
.7<
72
70

..,.-G.
-G.

-Il2
-IlO
58

.~
52
5f
-4.
-40
-4'
-4.
..,0
38
.".
.:J4
-32
.:JO
28
-26
24

....

-2.
-18
-18
1'
-12
-1.

104...4
103.33
102.22
'101.11
'100.00
00.90
-07.78
00.67
'00.50
'04,"4
-03.33
02.22
01.11
00.00
-OU!!
87.70
... .67
-05.50
-&4./14

-83.33
-82.22
-0'.11
-80.00
-78.89
-77.70
-76.S7
-75.56
-74.~
73.33
72.22
71.11
-70.00
68.69
87.78
66.87
-65.so
-04_44
-03.33
-62.22
61.1'
80.00
58.00
57.78
G0.07
G5.50
-04.'4
03.33
62.22
51.11
50.00
"8$
.. 7.7.
.. O.ll7
-4S.66
--1".44
...3.33
"'2.22
...,1.11
...0.00
-38.89
-37.7a
36.67

-asss

-34."4
-33.33
"2.22

-ai.n

-30.00
28.89
27.78
-26.67
-25.56
2".44
-23..33

+21.2

..24.8
+28.4
+-32.0
ill.6
+30.2

"'2.0

...
OA
+50.0
053.0
+31.2
+60.0
+04.4
+<18.0
+71.G
.78.2
.78.8

~
_.0

..

.aO.O
+93.2
+96.8
..100.4
+104.0
107.6

111.2
,,4.2
118.4
122.0
125.6
129.2
13Z-S
136.4
'40.0
'43.6
147.2
,50.8
154."
,58.0
181.6
165.2
'88.8
172-4
176.0
'79.0
'032
'80.8
10D.4
104.0
107.8
20'.2
204.8
20D.4
2'2.0
2'6.0
2102
222.8
228.4
230.0
233.a
237.2
2.0.2
24. '
248.0
251.6
255.2
256.8

262.4
266.0
269.6
273.2
276.8

28tJ.'
284.0

From
-0

....
-4
0
2

0
0
10
12
1.
10
'8
20
22
24
28
26
30
32
3.
38
38
.0
42

..
4&
48

59
52
54
58
58

'0

..
62
14

68
70
72
14
78
78
00
82
84
08
80
110
82
94
89
a8
100
102
104

to.

100
110
112
114

,,1
118
120
122
124
128
128
'3.
132
134

,38
131
140

'o'C

.. OF

F.om

U,22
21.\1
-20,00

287.6
291.2
2tH.8
2!lO.4
302.0
3OS.0
3O!l2
3'2.8
310.4

142
,.4
1<0
1<0
160
152
164
lG.
150
180
102
104

.,11.01)

17.78
'6.07
"0.66
1.,44
13.33
"2.22
11.11
,,0.00
0.e 0
7.70
-6.07
5.SO
.... 44
.:J.J3
2.22
-1.11
0.00
1.11
2.22
3.33
4.44
5sa
8.67
7.70
8.89
'0.00

3~O.O

323.0
327.2
330.0
334,'
=0
341.5
34,.2
348JI
352.4
35M
359.8
363.2
366.8
310.4
374.0
377.6
381.2
384.8

saa.'
392.0

~~
".It
399.2
'2.22
13.a~
14.4'
15.56

'6.87
17.78
18.89
2O.DO
21.11
22.22
23.33
24....
2UO
20.67
27.70
20.88
30.00
31.11
32.22
33.33
3.....
35.IiG
39.07
37.70
38.ao
40.00
".11
42.22
43.33
".4'
."50
40.07
47.78
48.s!)
50.00
51.11
52.22
53.33
54.44
55.56
56.67
57.78
58.89
GO.OO

402.8
408.4
410.0
413.0
417.2
420.8
42-4.4
_0

431.6
"352
438.8
442.4
440.0
'40.0
453,2
460.0
'00.4
4601.0
467.0
471.2
474.8
478.4
-W.O
'85.6
'09.2
492.0
400.4
600.0
603.8
507.2
6'0.8
5" .
518.0
52'.8
525.2
528.8
532.4
5:]8.0
539.6
543.2
548.8
SSM
... .0

..

"8
170
172

17'
178
178
110
'.2
184
118
188
190
. 192
104

'96

Il1B
200
202
2.4
2.,
206
210
212
214
21.
218
220
222
22.
22.
22'
230
232
234
230
230
240
242
244
240
2'0
2S6
262
254
",0
258
2.0
202
2M

"5
2'"
270
272
274
278
278
280
282
284
2
288

te-e
61-1 t
G=

G:llJ
&4.44

BS.5G
60.67
07_76
00.69

70.00
11.11
72_22
7333
7.... "
7$_!.G
16.07
77.10
78.89
00.00
81.11

82..22
83.33
84.44
85.~
80.87
87.78
88. ..

90-00
91.11
92.22

93.33
94.4"
95.56
96.61

97.78
98.89
100.00
lQI.11
'02.22
,03.33
104.""
105.66
100.07
107.7.
10~.OO
110.00
111.11
112.22
113.33
114.404
115.56
116.67
117.70
118.89
'20.00
121.11
122.22
123.33
'24.44
125.58
120.61
127.78
128.89
fSO.CO
'3\.11
132.22
'33.33
134.....
135.56
136.67
137.78
136,89
140.00
141."
'''2.22
' .. 3.33

..-:

Copyright OMEGA Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced

with the permission of OMEGA Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907


www.omega.com

247

Calibration

tc 'f'
557.8
561.2

564.8
558.
572.0
57515
5792
Sll2.8
5I!6.4
590.0
59315
597.2
.600.8
604.4
608.0

310
.312
314
31'
31.
320

su.e

.22

6152
618.8
622.'
628.D
6<9.6
633.2
636.8
840.'
544.0
847.6
651.2
854.8.
.... 4
662.0
665.6
669.2
572.8
616,4
680.0
683.6
681.2
690.8
694.4
698.0
701.6
705.2
708.8
712:4
716.0
719,8
723.2
728.8
730.4
734.0
737.6
741.2
744.8
748-4
752.0
755.6
7592
762.8
765.4
170.0
773.G

,
"

rna

780.8
784.4
788.0
7n6
7952
79B.B

802.'
ao&.o
809.6
B'3.~

~.

From
2.2
294
296
290
300
302
304

8H5.8
820.4
824.0
827.6
831.2
834 .
838A
842.0
8115.6
8'9,2
652.2
856.4
660.0
853.6
8872

~
3CI8

324
826
328

.30
33i
334
336
338
340
342
344

.."

348
350 '
352'
.54
356
358'

'!""
362
384
358'
, 366
'370.

,.3tf

to"
1414.44
US.58
146.67
147.78
'oIS.89
150.00
16t.l1
152.22
153.33
164.44
155.56

156.67
157.78
155.89
'60.00
161.11
162.22
163.33
184.44

165.56
, ... 61
167.78
168.a9
170.00
171.11
172.22
173.33
174.44
175.58
t76.67
177.78
17$.89
180.00
lSI. 1,
10222
183.33
184.44

""'m

870.8
81<4.4
878.0
881.&
885.2
686.8
892.4
896.0
893.6
903.2
906.8
910.4
91 .0
S17.6
921.2

466
458
470
472
47'
47S
471
481
412
48'
488
488

924.8
928.4
932.0
935.6
9392
942.8
940.4
950.0
953.6
9572

4"
SOli

9CSO.8
964.4
95:0.0
971.6
9752
978.8
982,4
986.0
989.6
9932
996.8
1000A
18li.,56
1004.0
186.67 1007.6
187.78 1011.2
18&89 1014.8
190.00 1018.4
191,1t 1022.0
192.22 1040.0
193.33 1058.0

490

492

...
494

502.'
S04
500
501
510
51'
514 '

...
51',

520
52.
524
528
528
530
532
534

536
5'0
640'
'542

~.:

241.11
242.22
243.33
244.44
245.56
246.67
247.18
248.89
250,00
251.11
25222
.253.33
254.44
255.56
256.&7
257.18
256.89
260.00
261.1t
262.22
263.33
264.44
265.56
268.67
267.78
268.89
270.00
271.11
272.22
273.33
274.44
276.58
27".~7
277.78.
273.89'
280.00
281.11
282.22
283.33
284.44
285.56
286.67
287.7B
293.33
298.89

~:~.

,~~f

371 .

5&0:',

560

~~~:
304.44
500
t~A'
1078.0
310.00
195.56 1094.0 .' 5SO,
315.5&
196.&1
1112.0 ,600;,
321.11
388 ' 197.78 1130.0
326.67
890;'
198.89 1148.0
332.22
200.00 (168.0
337.78
'394'
20'.11
ttM.Il
343.33
202.22 1202.0
348,89
203.33 1220.0
354.44
400,'
204.44 1238.0
3UO.00
402,
205.68 1256.0
36S.5<I
.690'
206.67
1274,0
.' 404'
'100:' '. 371,11
: 406 . 207.78 1292.0
376,67

710
208.89 1310.0
",408
382.22
210.00 1329.0 , 720
410,'
,.
387.78
21(11
1346.0
'412 '
'.~.:
393.33
: 414 .. ' 212.22 1364.0
.
750"
398.89
213.33 1382.0
416
, 418 ': 2'4.44 1400.0 ':760\': 404.44
. no" 410.00
420'' ~15.S8 141B.o
415.58
4:n( 218.151 1436.0
421.11
'424 ;. 217.78 1454.0
, aoo', 426.67
, 426';':' 2 18.69 1472.0
.32.22
220.00 1490.0 -.810'
437.78
820.'
221.11 1508.0
443.33
,'432':, 222..22 1526,0
4 .. a,et
~434'
223.33 1544.0
464,44
. BSD:,
224.44 1562.0
....'436.
460.00
86.
; 43.,
225.58 1580.0
_.5<1
- 970.
22S.!i1 1598.0
'44(
471.11
227.78 1816.0
476.67
890
" 444:,
228.89 1S:M.O
900 . -482.22
230.00 1652.0
.46
487.78
.- 910 '
448,
231.'1 t 1870.0
'450
232.22 I '"
8~.:: 493.:13
498.89
" ~52'-' 233.33 1706.~
930
504.44
940
23<1.44 1724.0
'454'
510.00
950 .
23$.56 1742.0
455
515.6G
!160
458.
236.67 17.60.0
521.11
970
237.76 m8.o
460
.9BD
526.67
238.89 1798.0
482

99D'
532.22
240.00 18111.0
'464 :

'380

's'si'
'~;

:'agL,.

i~;:'.

: '442'

,_
'''"

1'"

2372.0
2390.0
2408.0
2426.0
2+14.0
2462.0
2490.0
2496.0
2516.0
2534.0
2552.0
2570.0
2568.0

1300 ..

. 1310
1320

I_,...,
''''
,_

From
1810
339aO
3416.0
3434.0
3452.D
3470,0 1910
3489.0
35()6.0
1930
1940
3524.0
1950
3542.0
1960
3560.0
S93..33
3578.0
1910
1980
5S8.89 3596,0
19'5lD
604.44 ~14.0
2000
610.00 3632.0
2010
815.56 3650..0
2020:
621.11 3568.0
2<130'
626.67 3S86.o
2040
632,22 3704.0
2050
637.78 3722.0
2050
643.33 3740.0
2!l7D.
648.tIS 3758,0
2081)
654.44 3776.0
2000
660.00 3794.0
2100
66S.56 3812.0
2110
611.11 3830.0
678.67 3848.0 2120
2.1:30
682.22 3886.0
2140
887.78 3U4.0
2150
693.33
3902.0
216ti"
&98.89 :mil.0
704.44 3938.0 2170',
.2180 .
710.00 3956.0
2190'
715.58 3974.0
22DO
721.11 3992.0
72ti.tn 4010.0
221'
732.22 4028.0
737.78 4046.0
4064.0
743.3.
748.851 4002.0
15<t.44 4100.0
160.00 41t8.0
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Copyright OMEGAEngineering, Inc. All rights reserved- Reprodl,lced


with the permission of OMEGA Engineerh{g,Inc" Stamford, CT 06907
www.omega.com

Appendix

ANSWERS TO CHAPTER
REVIEW QUESTIONS

CHAPTER 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS


1.

Match the term on the left with the definition on the right.

i
_E_ Calibration

A. permissible deviation from specified

value
_H_ Instrument Range B. upper and lower values specifie&_fpr
facility
.a, Calibration Range C. algebraic differencebetween the
upper and lower range value
_E_ Accuracy
D. adjustment used to produce a parallel
shift of the input-output curve
E. comparison of instrument to a known
....A_ Tolerance
value
_1_ Traceability
F. percent error
..J2_ Zero
G. characterizes the dispersion of the
values that could reasonably be
attributed to the measurand
H. upper and lower values specified by
.J:..... Span
manufacturer
_G_ Uncertainty
1. measurement related to standards
through an unbroken chain of
comparisons

!
..

..
2.

Which of the following errors is typically not correctable?


C. Linearity

249

I
I

I
I
1

250

3.

Answers

to Chapter Review Questions

Why should a calibration technicianhave:


A.

Honesty and Integrity?


Calibrations must be performed in accordance with procedures
and must be properly documented even when the calibration
department may be understaffed and production schedules
demand unrealistic completion requirements.

B. Attention to detail?
The minute a technician is not paying attention to detail, safety
and proper performance nre jeopardized.
C. Excellentdocumentation practices?
If it isn't documented, it wasn't done. The impression of qllalih) is
determined by the content and appearance of documentation.
D. Understanding of processes?
Understanding processes, particularly how the instrument
monitors and controls the process, will enable the technician to
more efficiently calibrate process instrumentation without
disrupting the process. Also, the technician is more capable of
identifying and troubleshooting the cause of process problems.
4.

What are the advantages of performing a field calibration?


Disadvantages?
ADVANTAGES OF FIELD
CALIBRATION
1. May save time
2. May identify and allow troubleshooting of installation problems
3. Performed in actual ambient
environment

DISADVANTAGES OF FIELD
CALIBRATION
1. Availability of instrument for
cleaning and inspection is limited
2_ Difficult (and sometimes
impossible) work environment
3. Utilities (electrical, air, vacuum)
may not be available

251

Calibration

5.

What are the advantages of performing a bench calibration?


Disadvantages?

ADVANTAGES OF BENCH
CALIBRATION

DISADVANTAGES OF BENCH
CALIBRATION

,
1. Removed, cleaned, inspected
2. Better work environment
3. Fixed calibration setup and utilities
(electrical, air, vacuum) available

.~
"

,I
J

II,
6.

What are the advantages of performing a loop calibration?


Disadvantages?'
ADVANTAGES OF LOOP
CALIBRATION
1. Entire loop, including sensor, is
verified within tolerance
2. Mistakes on re-connect minimized
3. More efficient use of time to do
one calibration for loop as opposed
to one calibration for each loop
instrument

7.

1. May take more time (removal,


reinstallation)
2, Minimizes identification of
installation problems,
3. Not performed in actual ambient
enviroriment where installed

DISADVANTAGES OF LOO~~
CALI BRATION
...1. Wrong instrument may be adjusted
to bring the loop within calibration
2. Not as compatible with
multifunction calibrators used f9r
"paperless" data collection
.::

What are the advantages of performing an individual instrument,


, calibration? Disadvantages?

ADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL
CALIBRATION

DISADVANTAGES OF
INDIVIDUAL CALIBRATION

1,.Correct instrument will be adjusted


2. More compatible with multifunction
calibrators

1. Entire loop is not verified within.


tolerance
2. Mistakes on re-connect
3. Less efficient use of time to do one
calibration for each loop instrument
as opposed to one calibration for
the loop

"

..;:

"

252

8.

Answers to Chapter Review Questions

What are the advantages of classifyinginstruments by their


"importance/ criticality" to a process?
may be helpful in assigning calibration frequencies
investigate oui-cf-tolerance calibrations more efficiently

9.

Arrange the traceabilityhierarchy below,beginning with lowest


level and ending with the highest. __c_, ~
L .s: __IL
Primary Standards
B. WorkingStandards
C. ProcessInstrument
D. NIST(or recognized national standard)
E. SecondaryStandards
A.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW QUESTIONS


1.

List the advantages of each procedure development method below.


A. straight from technical manual

Very little time/resources required to develop procedures


Technically accurate and detailed instructions jor the specific
instrument
B. genericprocedure for an instrument type
Limits number of procedures to a manageable level
Can be a good starting point for new facilihj startup until more
effort can be devoted to procedure development
C.

procedure developed for a specificmanufacturer/model or


specificinstrument in the plant
Calibrations are performed the same by all technicians
May take into account the affect on process
Technically accurate and detailed instructions Jor the specific
instrument

Calibration

2.

253

If.test equipment with the specified accuracy is not available to

perform the calibration, what should you do?


Notify supervisor.
3.

If a step of a calibration procedure cannot be followed as specified or

a procedure does not exist, what actions would you take?


Place instrument in a safe condition and notify supervisor.
4.

What elements of a calibration data sheet reflect that the calibration is


NIST traceable?
Record the unique identification of any test standards used to perform the
calibration and, if required by procedure, record the calibration due date of
the standard.
_',-

5. 'For an established facility, what is the most likely resource for


determining the calibration frequency of a new instru.n:{ept? .

-.,:

".

-r-:

Calibration histon; of the specific.instrument and identical mfg/model.A

6.

For a new facility, what is the most likely resource for determining
initial calibration frequency?
Past experience.

7.

What justification can be used to increase the calibration interval


(perform less often) of all instruments of the same type?
Once the calibration history of several calibrations have been performed on
similar instruments and the as-found data has been well within tolerance,
the calibration interval can be increased (with proper documentation of the
analysis and proper approvals per your company procedures). .

8.

What event(s) can lead to'decreasing the calibration interval


(perform more often)?
Failed "as-found" data on successive calibrations (or on ~ven one calibration
in some cases).
I-

, >

-,

~I

254

9.

Answers to Chapter Review Questions

Match the resources on the left with content on the right.

.c,

P&ID

A. includes general instrument


specifications for the facility

_Q_ Instrument Specification


Sheet

10.

B. includes instrument range


capability and instrument
accuracy

Loop diagram

C. detailed overview of a process


system

_A_

Project specifications

D. detailed device requirements

.JL

Manufacturer's
Specifications

E. includes all associated


electrical and piping
connections

What is the purpose of a calibration seal?

Cover adjustments so that any unauthorized adjustments are detected.


11.

What is theminimum
label?

information required on a calibration status

Instrument Identification (such as Tag Number, Instrument ID#, or


serial number)
Date of calibration
Next calibration due date
Technician toh performed the calibration (initials, employee ID, etc.)
12. When should a Limited Calibration status label be used?

For instruments that are not calibrated throughout the range of the
indication.
13. What criteria must be met for test equipment to be used for
calibra tion?

Specified in the calibration procedure (appropriate range and accuracy for


calibration performed)
Within its calibration periodicitv (do not use beyond calibration due date
with approved extension)

Calibration

255

Recorded on Calibration Data Sheet (to ensure process instrument


calibration is traceable to NIST)

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW QUESTIONS


Situation for Questions 1-10: TT-300is installed in a process tank, which
is currently in production. This is the first calibration after initial startup.
Use the references in Appendix A to answer the following questions.
1.

What is the correct calibration range and manufacturer's specified


.accuracy for TT-300?(Appendix A-3)
Calibration Range specified is O.OCto l50.0C - 4.00 rnA to 20.00 mA
(from row 112 of the Instrument Specification for IT-300) and the
manufacturer's specified accuracy is 0.2% .span (from row 53 of same
specification) .

2.

:ft'

Select the correct procedure(s) that could be used for this calibr~tion
. of 1T-300? (Appendix A4)
;::::
SOP-CAL-08, Calibration/Calibration Check 0/ RTD Input Electronic
Temperature Transmitters. .
~.

3.

.~

.,

What local/remote indications should be recorded during calibration


of TT-300?(Appendix A-1) ,

. r

Indication on TIC-300 (the components in the loop are the RTD (TE300),
transmitter (TT300), Indication controller. (TIC-300), lIP (TY-300) and the
control valve (TV300). The only indication in the loop is the TIC.
4.

What must be done prior to removing RTD for calibration of TT-300?


(initial conditions of SOP) .

'~'

Determine if temperature control loop performs control function which


could produce undesirable operating results while simulating test signale
(from the p&rD we can see that this instrument loop controls the cooling.
water supply to the jacket of Reactor R-300. Therefore, ifreactor R-300 is
in operation you 'Wouldneed to coordinate with production to determine
appropriate conditions to perform the calibration. In this case you 'Would
likely wait untzlsystem is not in operation).

I
t

256

Answers to Chapter Review Questions

Determine if RTD is in a well or not (P&ID indicates the RTD is


installed in a well)
5.

What are the correct resistance values to input for 10%,50%, and
90%? (refer to the correct RTDTable in App A-6)
From the Instrument Specification for TE-300, row 25 specifies 0.00385

ohm/ohmiC. Therefore:
10% = 15.0C ::;:;
105.85 ohms
50% = 7S.0C = 128.99 ohms
90% ::;:;
13S.0C ::;:;
151.71 ohms
6.

What are the expected transmitter output values for the resistance
inputs from step 5?
10% output = 5.60 rnA
50% ouipui > 12.00 rnA
90% output::;:;18.40 rnA
The transmitter output is 4.00 to 20.00 rnA (span of16 rnA). 10% of 16m A
is 1.60 mA. The 1.60 mA must be added to the zero value of 4.00 mA. The
result is an expected output of 5.60 mAJor the 10% value. Fifty percent of
16mA is B.OOmA, and B.OOrnAadded to 4.00 mA results in 12.00 mA at the
50% value. Ninety percent of 16mA is 14.40mA, added to 4 mA results in
1B.40 mA at the 90% value.

7.

Indicate the correct test equipment hookup for calibration of TT-300?

Deeede D ox
or other
Reslstenee

Slmulntcr
Temperature Transmitter
Tf-JOO

(polarity

does not
moUer for
resistance
input)

\
\
.:;;
"

Calibration

8.

257

Assume a calibration tolerance of O.soC/D.OS rnA. With the results


indicated what instrumentfs) in the loop require(s) adjustment?
transmitter IT-300

9.

% INPUT

TT-300 rnA OUTPUT

TIC-300 INDICATION

1Q%

5.70

15.9

50%

12.10

75,9

90% '

18.50

135.9

What type of error is indicated by the results of question 8?


A. Zero error.

10. Following adjustment, all as-left data is within tolerance. What must
be performed to place the instrument loop back in service?

Disconnect test equipment


Reconnect RTD and mA output
Install RTD in well
Place controller in automatic
Notify appropriate personnel of work performed

Situation for questions 11 - 15:You.will be performing an initial


calibration of TT-200 on the bench, prior to installation. Use the references
in Appendix A to answer the following questions.

'j
I

11. What are the correct reference temperatures and corresponding


millivolt values to input for a,calibration check at the following test
points? (The Instrument specification for IT-200 indicates range is 32.0F
to 212.0F and the input sensor is Type T thermocouple. Note: 'itis typically
not necessary to look up millivolt values since calibrators will read out in
temperature), '
% INPUT
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

lEMPERATURE

MILLIVOLTS

32.0OC

. 1.279 rnv

77.0oC
122.0oC

3.222 mv
.5.325 mv
7.566 mv

167.0C
212.0oC

9.930 [l1v

.1:

258

12.

13.

Answers to Chapter Review Questions

What are the expected transmitter outputs for the following


simulated inputs?
% INPUT

OUTPUT (rnA)

0%

4.00

25%

8.00

50%

12.00

75%

16.00

100%

20.00

Indicate the correct test equipment hookup for calibration of TT-200.


Thermocouple
Silnulntor

24VDC
Pewee
Supply

14.

Assume a calibration tolerance of 1.0oP / 0.08 rnA. With the results


indicated, what must be done to bring the instrument to within
tolerance? adjust span
% INPUT

OUTPUT (rnA)

0%

4.00

25%

7.98

50%

11.96

75%

15.94

100%

19.92

15. Following adjustment, all as-left data is within tolerance. What steps
remain to complete the bench calibration?
Disconnect test equipment and restore transmitter to original condition.

267

Calibration

4.

Prom your answer to question 1 and the procedure selectedin


question 3, what are the correctinput values to simulate TY-300?
4.0 mA, 12.0 mA,and 20.0 mA .

5.

What are the expected output values for the inputs applied from
question 4?
3.0 psig, 9.0 psig, and 15.0 psig, respectively (assume direct acting IfP).

6.

Indicatethe corr~cttest equipment hookup for calibration of TY-300.


Pressure
Standard

UP Transducer
3.00

rv-soo

LP

rnA

Output

simulator

Supply'

L.3iJ

30 psig

Pressure
Source

7.

With the results indicated what instrument irt the loop requires
adjustment?
lIP

8.

.% INPUT

OUTPUT (PSIG)

VALVE POSITION

3.2

2%

50

9.5

54%

100

15.8

100%

How would the calibrationrequired in the previous step be


performed?
With 4 mA applied to the input adjust the zero for an output of 3.0 psig ..
Apply 20.0 mA to the input and adjust the span for 15.0 psig output. Repeat
zero and span until no further adjustment is required.

. !,

268

9.

Answers to Chapter Review Questions

If a control valve is being checked during an T/P calibration and the

liP is properly calibrated, what is the most likely cause of an


improper valve position (no positioner is installed)?

Bench set of the control valve spring is not matched with the output of the
liP.
10.

What is the purpose of a valve positioner?

Increase or decrease the air pressure from the liP to assure proper
positioning and finer control of the control valve.
11.

Is the action (direct or reverse) verified during a positioner


calibration?

Yes.
12.

What is the basic procedure for calibration of a positioner?

Apply pressure for the desired test points to the input of the positioner and
record corresponding valve position. This can be combined with the liP
calibration by teeing in the pressure standard and leaving the positioner
connected to the output loop.
13.

What is the basic procedure for calibration of a control valve?

Apply pressure for the desired test points to the input of the control valve
and record corresponding valve position. This can be combined with the lIP
calibration by teeing in the pressure standard and leaving the control valve
connected to the output loop.

CHAPTER 8 REVIEW QUESTIONS


1.

What are the ideal t1m V input values for a pH meter at 4,7, and 10
pH at 25C?

177.48 mV, 0 mV, and -177.48 mV, respectively.


2.

What buffer solution is used to standardize

7.0 buffer solution.

a pH meter?

Calibration

3.

269

What buffer is preferred for calibrationofthe slope? Why?


4.0 buffer solution because pH buffer solutions above 7.0 pH are less stable
and have a limited shelf life.

4.

What is the purpose of a pH diagnostictest?


To evaluate electrode performance.

5.

What are the basic steps of a pH


. diagnostictest?
.
Short the inputand adjust for reading of 0.0 mv
Insert pH electrode in 7.00 pH buffer solution and record this mv reading
as the asymmetnj potential (AP)
Insert pH electrode in 4.01 buffer solution and record mv reading
Calculate slope

6.

..;".:~. ',-'

.._," .."

What is the diagnostic-testacceptancecriterionthat determines. ,~~


whether the electrodeshould be replaced?
~

.~:s.?
~:;;;"?.

"2~~:

:"'1

if AP
7.

':~J:-:::~

is). 40 mV and/or the slope is < 91%.

. 1':

,I

How is the resistancevalue input for a conductivityinstrument


calibrationdetermined?
Resistance is the inverse of conductivity (Resistivity

9.

:~":'-:F

What test equipment is used to simulatea conductivity signal tO~tt


conductivitymeter?
..n.
Resistance simulator such tis a decade box.

8.

:~'1'" .

= 1T conductivity).

How is the 25Ctemperature simulated during'a tonductivitr or


resistivity instrument calibration?
A resistor of the specific resistance to simulate 2SOCfor the specific
conductivity instrument is connected in place of the temperature sensor
leads (or a separate decadebox could be connected set to the required
resistance).

270

Answers to Chapter Review Questions

10. Why is it important to know the cell constant for a conductivity


calibration?

The cell constant is used as a multiplication factor for the indicated


conductivity. If the cell constant is not knoum or accounted for, the
calibration will likely result in significant error.

INDEX

acceptance criteria 21
accuracy 2
ratio 3
actuator 94
air pressure 49
as-found data 23, 54,68,,69
as-left data 23,69
atmospheric pressure 49
bench calibration 11 Bourdon pressure gauge 53.

"

~~

"
..".

calibration 1
bench 11
control valve 97
dip transmitter 83.
data sheets 21
equipment combined accuracy 6
field 11
flowmeter 82
liP transducer 95
individual instrument 10
intervals 28
loop 11
pH 105
. procedure number 22
procedures, specific 19
range 1, 22
seal 38
status labels 30
tolerance 2, 22
valve positioner 96
capacitance 62
level instrument 71
probe 63
capacitor 62

cell constant 107


classification of instruments 12
conductivity 108
measuring 107
control system technician (CST) 8
characteristics 9
control valve 94
calibration 97
coriolis.mass flowmeter 81
correct fittings 51
critical 12

.1

I
.~,

~:

dip transmitter calibration 83 .


dial thermometer 36
differential pressure 61, 78
distributed control system (DeS) 42
documentation 17
dry legs 66
.."
elevated zero 64
EPA 13
error
combined zero and span 7
linearization 8
span 6
zero 7
field calibration 11
filled-bulb sensors 35
final control eiement 91
flow instrumentation 77
flowmeter
calibration 82
coriolis mass 81
differential pressure 78
magnetic 79
271

Index

272
turbine 81
vortex-shedding

pH 102, 108
80

generic procedure 18
gJ'avimetl'icmethod 87
gravity, specific 64
hysteresis 51
lIP transducer 91, 92
calibration 95
individual instrument calibration 10
instrument
identification number 21
range 2
specification forms 26
tag number 21
instrumentation
accuracy and reliability 17
interface 66
leakage 51
level instruments 61
linearization error 8
liquid head measurement 65
loop
calibration 11
diagrams 25
magnetic flowmeter 79
calibration 84
manufacturer's specifications 27
master meter 86
measurement by weight 87
motion-balance positioner 93
nameplate data 22
Nationallnstitute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 4
non-critical 12
normally closed (NC) 44
normally open (NO) 44
OSHA 13
out-of-tolerance standard 4
P&IDs23

calibration 105
electrode output 104
pneumatic signal 94
preliminary operating point check 41
pressure 49
air 49
atmospheric 49
calibrating 50
gauge, Bourdon 53
gauges 52
switch, calibrating 55
transmitter, calibrating 55
process instrument combined accuracy 6
programmable logic controller (PLC) 42
project specifications 27
prover 86
radio frequency (RF) 62
reference only 12
resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)34
resistivity 107
RID calibration check 38
safety 20, 29
considerations 52
signal conversion 35
span 2
error 6
standardize 103
suppressed zero 64
technical manual procedure 18

temperature 33, 103, 108


controller loop 42
sensors 34
switch 44
transmitter 40
test
equipment 36
procedure 21
standards 23
thermistors 35
thermocouples 34
tolerance 2
traceability 4, 5
trip 44

r .

273

Calibration
turbine flowmeter 81
ultrasonic 63, 64
level transmitter 72
.uncertainty 5
unit of measure 50
valve positioner
calibration 96
vapor 66
vortex-shedding flowmeter 80
wet legs 66
zero error 7
zero point 103

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