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Wireless Communication

System and Network Part 1

Bobby Juan Pradana, ST., MT.


Akademi Telkom - Jakarta

Academic Course Description

Wireless Communication
This academic course will discuss and explore issues:
Roadmap of wireless technology
Network architecture of wireless communication
Network capacity and quality of wireless communication
Multiple access and duplex technique
Beyond of wireless communication technology

General Competence:
College student who takes this course will be able to understanding the
enhancement of wireless system communication in near future, including
network architecture, capacity, and quality of wireless system

Course Assessment and Scoring System

Scoring System
1. Presence

10%

2. Task / Quiz

30%

3. UTS

25%

4. UAS

25%

5. Eagerness

10%

Segmentation of Wireless
Communication System
|
History & Basic

History of Wireless Communication [1]

History of Wireless Communication [2]

Communication systems using electrical and electronic technology have a significant impact on
modern society.
Since 490 B.C. illustrate non-electrical communication techniques for transfer of information, there
are:
Courier, smoke signal, signal flag
Semaphore were made in the 1830s in France

Wireless Era
Telecommunication is defined by the International Telecommunication
Union (ITU) as the transmission, emission or reception of any signs,
signals or messages by electromagnetic systems
Important Date:
1864: James Clerk Maxwell proved the existence of electromagnetic waves
1887: Heinrich Hertz sent and received wireless waves, using a spark transmitter and a resonator
receiver
1895: Guglielmo Marconi sent morse radio signals over more than a mile
1901: Marconi received the morse message "s" (...) sent across the Atlantic
1904: J.A. Fleming patented the diode
1906: Lee DeForest patented the triode amplifier. First speech wireless transmission, by Fessenden
1907: Commercial Trans-Atlantic Wireless Service, using huge ground stations: 30 x 100m antenna
masts

History of Wireless Communication [3]


Beginning of the end for cable-based telegraphy:
WW I: Rapid development of communications intelligence, intercept technology, cryptography
1915: Wireless voice transmission NY to SF
1920: Marconi discovers short wave radio, with wavelengths between 10 and 100 meters

Long wave signals wavelength (larger than 1,000 meter) follow the contour of land, but require very high
transmit power (typically above 200 kW, sometimes even 2 MW). As short wave signals reflect against the
ionosphere, transmit powers can be kept small

1920: First commercial radio broadcast (in Pittsburgh)


1921: Police car dispatch radios, Detroit
1930: BBC began television experiments
1935: Frequency modulation (FM) demonstrated by Armstrong
WW II: Rapid development of radio technology
1946: First interconnection of mobile users to public switched telephone network (PSTN)
1979: NTT/Japan deploys first cellular communication system
1982: European GSM and Inmarsat established
1984: Breakup of AT&T
1984 Initial deployment of AMPS cellular system
1992 First GSM phones approved for sale
1992 Text messaging, or SMS, was designed as part of the GSM cellular system
1993 IS-95 code-division multiple-access (CDMA) digital cellular system deployed in US
1994 GSM system deployed in US, relabeled Global System for Mobile Communications

Types of Wireless Communication

Point-to-point communication: from one location to the other

Point-to-multipoint communication: from a single location to multiple locations


Broadcasting: from one location to all locations simultaneously
Cellular networks: this networks allows the user to wander about any where in
the country and stay connected

Basics of Wireless Communication [1]

Any wave can carry information in the form of energy.


Waves transmit energy through a material, often called a medium
Water waves carry energy through liquid water
Sound waves carry energy through air (and many other media), and
Seismic waves carry energy through the earth
It's important to note that the medium does not travel along with the waveonly energy
moves from one place to another on a wave.
The amount of energy carried or transmitted on a wave depends on the frequency (the number of
waves that pass a point in one second) and by the wavelength (the distance that the wave moves
the medium back and forth as it passes).
E
h
f
P

= Photons energy (J Joule)


= Plancks constant (J.sec)
= Frequency (Hz 1/sec)
= E/t = h.c/l.t

Higher frequency means


higher energy photons

Light is also a wave, also called an electromagnetic wave, and radio waves are
one of many types of light.
Light waves propagate through spaceeven empty spaceusing themselves as the
medium.

Basics of Wireless Communication [2]

RADIO WAVE
Pros: easily generated, omni-directional, travel long distance, easily penetrates building
Cons: frequency dependent, tightly licensed by government
MICRO WAVE
Pros: widely used for long distance communication, relatively inexpensive
Cons: dont pass through buildings, weather and frequency dependent
INFRARED AND MILIMETER WAVES

Pros: widely used for short range communication


Cons: unable to pass through solid objects, used for indoor wireless LAN (not outdoor)
LIGHT WAVE
Pros: unguided optical signal such as laser, easy to install, no license required

Cons: unable to penetrate rain or thick fog, laser beam can be easily diverted by air

Basics of Wireless Communication [3]

Since radio waves can carry energy, we use them to transmit information by varying
the frequency and/or the amplitude of the radio wave to encode a message.
Radio waves are useful because they travel at the speed of light and because they can travel
through many different materials (like the walls of your house) without being absorbed.
Unit measure:
v = speed of light (3 X 108 m/s)
f = hertz (1/s)
= lambda (m)

Basics of Wireless Communication [4]

Band/use
LW (Long wave)
AM/MW (Amplitude modulation / medium wave)
SW (Short wave)
VHF/FM (Very high frequency / frequency modulation)
FM (frequency modulation)
Aircraft
Cellphones
Radar

Wavelength
5km1km
600m176m
188m10m
10m6m
3.4m2.8m
2.7m2.2m
80cm15cm
100cm3mm

Frequency
60kHz300kHz
500kHz1.7MHz
1.6MHz30MHz
100MHz500MHz
88MHz125Mhz
108135MHz
3802000MHz
0.3100GHz

Electromagnetic Waves and Radio Propagation [1]

Source of electromagnetic waves:


1. Oscillation of electric and magnetic field create radio wave

2. Light of sun creates infra red


3. Mercury lamp produces ultra violet
4. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the anode, creating the X-rays
5. Atomic nuclei transition from a high energy state to a lower state, creating Gamma rays
When a high-frequency alternating current (AC) passes through a copper conductor it
generates radio waves which are propagated into the air using an antenna

Electromagnetic Waves and Radio Propagation [2]

Radio waves are propagate in all directions as a straight line


Radio waves travel at a velocity of 186.000 miles per second
Radio waves become weaker as they travel a long distance
The information from sender to receiver is
carrier over a well defined frequency band
(this is called a channel)
Each channel has a fixed frequency

bandwidth (in KHz) and Capacity (bit-rate)


Different frequency bands (channels) can be
used to transmit information in parallel and
independently

Advantage and Disadvantage of Wireless Comm


Advantages:
1. Mobility

2. Wireless communication network is a solution in areas where cables are


impossible to install (e.g. hazardous areas, long distances etc.)
3. Easier to maintain
Disadvantages:
1. Has security vulnerabilities
2. High costs for setting the infrastructure
3. Unlike wired comm., wireless comm. is influenced by physical obstructions,
climatic conditions, interference from other wireless devices

Segmentation of Wireless
Communication System
|
Fixed vs Mobile Wireless

Fixed and Mobile Clasification

W
i
r
e
l
e
s
s

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

Non-cellular

Communication using wireless systems


in fixed locations with non-distributed
network over land areas, called cell

WLAN
P2P microwave comm
P2P infrared comm

Cellular

Communication using wireless systems


in fixed locations with distributed
network over land areas, called cell,
and using different set of frequency

PHS Japan
DECT Europe
PACS USA
CDMA

Non-cellular

Communication using wireless systems


with high mobility and applied for nondistributed network over land areas,
called cell

Paging system
(ERMES, NTT, NEC)
Dispatching system
PAMR

Cellular

Communication using wireless systems


with high mobility and applied for
distributed network over land areas,
called cell, and using different set of
frequency

Fixed

Mobile

GSM
AMPS
UMTS
WCDMA
LTE

Comparison between Fixed and Mobile Wireless


Quality of Service

Voice quality nearly same as used wire line


High availability, no busy respond, and reliability > 99.99%

Propagation and Coverage


Fixed
Wireless

Easy to install network equipment to cover certain area only


Need Line of Sight between base station and terminal

Regulation and Standardization

Only has license to operate with frequency band same as other fixed

system (such as P2P radio relay, fixed satellite system)


No standardization for technology update

Economic

High cost for operator to provide terminal for subscriber

Quality of Service

Voice quality not as good wire line due to limited bandwidth


Grade of service is design to be lower than regular network
Reliability > 90%

Propagation and Coverage


Mobile
Wireless

Complex installation and distribute network to large areas


Cover any subscriber with high mobility and able to roaming

Regulation and Standardization

Have a license to operate with private frequency band (900 Mhz and

1800 Mhz)
Have complete standardization to interoperability with other operator

Economic

Low cost due to each subscriber can own their terminal

Segmentation of Wireless
Communication System
|
Roadmap of Wireless
(1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, Beyond)

Evolution of Wireless System

Mobility and Data Rate of Wireless System

Standardization of Wireless System

Content and Apps of Wireless Communication

Mark:
From 1 (low/worse) to 5 (high/best)

Comparison of Wireless Technology

Cost: cost
efficiency for
deployment
Coverage:
coverage by
single AP
User: current
number
user/terminal
Throughput:
max throughput
Range: max
distance to AP
Frequency:
licensed or not
licensed ,
regulated at
local or global
level

Roadmap Target

Next-GM Network
Target Next Generation Mobile Network is achieved higher bit rate or
peak transmission speed based on broadband technology in a mobility
multi-user or device environment towards one-integrated network

Challenges:
What kind of technology in Radio Access Network will be
How to interfacing and integrating between each technology
Need standardization and regulation from government, ITU-T, IEEE
What is product or application to be delivered to market to meet
customer requirement after achieved high date rate

Task #1 Wireless Communication

1. Mention and describe the technology roadmap of


Telco operator in other country or roadmap of Telco
vendor from beginning to now ?
2. What is product and service that booming in Telco
operator in other country ?

- Group Discussion -