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MilktestingandQualityControl

MilkProcessingGuideSeries
Volume2
Publishedby:
FAO/TCP/KEN/6611Project
TrainingProgrammeforSmallScaleDairySectorandDairyTrainingInstituteNaivasha
TABLEOFCONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION*
2.MILKTESTINGANDQUALITYCONTROL*
2.1WHATISMILKQUALITYCONTROL?*
2.2WHYHAVEMILKQUALITYCONTROL?*
2.3QUALITYCONTROLINTHEMILKMARKETINGCHAININKENYA*
2.4TECHNIQUESUSEDINMILKTESTINGANDQUALITYCONTROL*
2.4.1Milksampling*
2.4.2Samplingmilkforbacteriologicaltesting*
2.4.3Preservationofsample*
2.4.4.Labellingandrecordskeeping*
2.4.5Commontestingofmilk.*
3.QUALITYCONTROLOFPASTEURISEDMILK*
1.INTRODUCTION

Milktestingandqualitycontrolisanessentialcomponentofanymilkprocessingindustrywhethersmall,
mediumorlargescale.Milkbeingmadeupof87%waterispronetoadulterationbyunscrupulousmiddlemen
andunfaithfulfarmworkers.Moreover,itshighnutritivevaluemakesitanidealmediumfortherapid
multiplicationofbacteria,particularlyunderunhygienicproductionandstorageatambienttemperatures.We
knowthat,inorderforanyprocessortomakegooddairyproducts,goodqualityrawmaterialsareessential.A
milkprocessororhandlerwillonlybeassuredofthequalityofrawmilkifcertainbasicqualitytestsarecarried
outatvariousstagesoftransportationofmilkfromtheproducertotheprocessorandfinallytotheconsumer.
Thereareanumberofstandardmanualsandtextbooksonmilkqualitycontrol.Howeverthesemaynotbe
easilyavailabletotheemergingsmallscaletomediumscaleprocessorsinKenya.
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Forthesereasons,theTrainingProgrammefortheSmallScaleDairySectorunderproject
GOK/FAO/TCP/KEN/6611,hasassembledthisguideonMilkTestingandQualityControlsothatitmaybeused
fortrainingandbytheprivatesmallscaledairyprocessors.Themethodsselectedaresimpleandbasicandwill
sufficetherequirementsofmostmilkqualitycontrollaboratoriesofsmallscaleprocessingunits.Forthelarger
plantswithbiggerlaboratoriesmoretestsaretobefoundinthebibliographyattheendofthisbooklet.
2.MILKTESTINGANDQUALITYCONTROL
2.1WHATISMILKQUALITYCONTROL?
Milkqualitycontrolistheuseofapprovedteststoensuretheapplicationofapprovedpractices,standardsand
regulationsconcerningthemilkandmilkproducts.Thetestsaredesignedtoensurethatmilkproductsmeet
acceptedstandardsforCHEMICALCOMPOSITIONANDPURITYASWELLASLEVELSOFDIFFERENT
MICROORGANISMS.
2.2WHYHAVEMILKQUALITYCONTROL?
TestingmilkandmilkproductsforqualityandmonitoringthatMILKPRODUCTS,PROCESSORSand
MARKETINGAGENCIESadheretoacceptedcodesofpracticescostsmoney.Theremustbegoodreasons
whywehavetohaveaqualitycontrolsystemforthedairyindustryinKenya.
Thereasonsare:
i)TotheMilkProducer.
Themilkproducerexpectsafairpriceinaccordancewiththequalityofmilkshe/heproduces.
ii)TheMilkProcessor.
Themilkprocessorwhopaystheproducermustassurehimself/herselfthatthemilkreceivedforprocessingis
ofnormalcompositionandissuitableforprocessingintovariousdairyproducts.
iii)TheConsumer.
Theconsumerexpectstopayafairpriceformilkandmilkproductsofacceptabletoexcellentquality.
iv)ThePublicandGovernmentAgencies.
Thesehavetoensurethatthehealthandnutritionalstatusofthepeopleisprotectedfromconsumptionof
contaminatedandsubstandardfoodstuffsandthatpricespaidarefairtothemilkproducers,themilkprocessor
andthefinalconsumer.
Alltheaboveisonlypossiblethroughinstitutionofaworkablequalitytestingandassurancesystemconforms
tonationalorinternationallyacceptablestandards.
2.3QUALITYCONTROLINTHEMILKMARKETINGCHAININKENYA
i)Atthefarm
Qualitycontrolandassurancemustbeginatthefarm.Thisisachievedthroughfarmersusingapproved
practicesofmilkproductionandhandlingandobservationoflaiddownregulationsregarding,useofveterinary
drugsonlactatinganimals,regulationsagainstadulterationsofmilketc.
ii)AtMilkcollectionCentres
Allmilkfromdifferentfarmersorbulkedmilkfromvariouscollectingcentresmustbecheckedfor
wholesomeness,bacteriological,andchemicalquality.
iii)AttheDairyFactories
Milkfromindividualfarmersorbulkedmilkfromvariouscollectingcentres
iv)WithintheDairyFactory
Oncethedairyfactorhasacceptedthefarmermilkithastheresponsibilityofensuringthatthemilkishandled
hygienicallyduringprocessing.Itmustcarryoutqualityassurancetesttoensurethattheproductsproduced
conformtospecifiedstandardsastotheadequacyofeffectofprocessesappliedandthekeepingqualityof
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manufacturedproducts.Agoodexampleisthephosphatasetestusedonpasteurisedmilkandtheacidity
developmenttestdoneonU.H.Tmilk.
v)Duringmarketingofprocessedproducts
PublicHealthauthoritiesareemployedbylawtocheckthequalityoffoodstuffssoldforpublicconsumption
andmayimpoundsubstandardorcontaminatedfoodstuffsincludingpossibleprosecutionofculprits.Thisis
doneinordertoprotecttheinterestofthemilkconsumingpublic.
2.4TECHNIQUESUSEDINMILKTESTINGANDQUALITYCONTROL
2.4.1Milksampling
Accuratesamplingisthefirstprerequisiteforfairandjustqualitycontrolsystem.Liquidmilkincansandbulk
tanksshouldbethoroughlymixedtodispersethemilkfatbeforeamilksampleistakenforanychemicalcontrol
tests.Representativesamplesofpackedproductsmustbetakenforanyinvestigationonquality.Plungersand
dippersmeusedinsamplingmilkfrommilkcans.
2.4.2Samplingmilkforbacteriologicaltesting
Samplingmilkforbacteriologicaltestsrequirealotofcare.Dippersusedmusthavebeensterilisedinan
autoclaveorpressurecookerforatleast15mmat120Cbeforehandinordernottocontaminatethesample.
Onthespotsterilisationmaybeemployedusing70%Alcoholswabandflamingorscalinginhotsteamor
boilingwaterfor1minute.

Fig.1:Equipmentusedfortakingmilksamples
2.4.3Preservationofsample
Milksamplesforchemicaltests.
MilksamplesforbutterfattestingmaybepreservedwithchemicalslikePotassiumdichromate(1Tabletorml
14%solutioninalitresamplebottleisadequate.)Milksamplesthathavebeenkeptcoolingarefrigeratoror
iceboxmustfirstbewarmedinwaterbathat40C,cooledto20C,mixedandasamplethentakenfor
butterfatdetermination.OtherpreservativechemicalsincludeSodiumazidattherateof0.08%andBronopol(2
bromo2nitro1,3propanediol)usedattherateof0.02%.
Ifthelaboratorycannotstartworkonasampleimmediatelyaftersampling,thesamplemustbecooledtonear
freezingpointquicklyandbekeptcooltilltheworkcanstart.Ifsamplesaretobetakeninthefielde.g.ata
milkcoolingcentre,iceboxeswithicepecksareuseful.
2.4.4.Labellingandrecordskeeping
Samplesmustbeclearlylabelledwithnameoffarmerorcodenumberandrecordsofdates,andplaces
includedinstandarddatasheets.Goodrecordsmustbekeptneatandinadryplace.Itisdesirablethatmilk
producersshouldseetheirmilkbeingtested,andtherecordsshouldbemadeavailabletothemiftheyso
require.
2.4.5Commontestingofmilk.
2.4.5.1Organoleptictests
Theorganoleptictestpermitsrapidsegregationofpoorqualitymilkatthemilkreceivingplatform.Noequipment
isrequired,butthemilkgradermusthavegoodsenseofsight,smellandtaste.Theresultofthetestis
obtainedinstantly,andthecostofthetestarelow.Milkwhichcannotbeadequatelyjudgedorganoleptically
mustbesubjectedtoothermoresensitiveandobjectivetests.
Procedure:
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Openacanofmilk.
Immediatelysmellthemilk.
Observetheappearanceofthemilk.
Ifstillunabletomakeaclearjudgement,tastethemilk,butdonotswallowit.Spitthemilksampleintoa
bucketprovidedforthatpurposeorintoadrainbasin,flushwithwater.
Lookatthecanlidandthemilkcantocheckcleanliness.
Judgement:
Abnormalsmellandtastemaybecausedby:
Atmospherictaint(e.g.barny/cowyodour).
Physiologicaltaints(hormonalimbalance,cowsinlatelactationspontaneousrancidity).
Bacterialtaints.
Chemicaltaintsordiscolouring.
Advancedacidification(pH<6.4).
2.4.5.2ClotonBoiling(C.O.B)Test
Thetestisquickandsimple.Itisoneoftheoldtestsfortooacidmilk(pH<5.8)orabnormalmilk(e.g.colostral
ormastitismilk).Ifamilksamplefailsinthetest,themilkmustcontainmanyacidorrennetproducing
microrganismsorthemilkhasanabnormalhighpercentageofproteinslikecolostralmilk.Suchmilkcannot
standtheheattreatmentinmilkprocessingandmustthereforeberejected.
Procedure:
Boilasmallamountofmilkinaspoon,testtubeorothersuitablecontainer.Ifthereisclotting,coagulationor
precipitation,themilkhasfailedthetest.Heavycontaminationinfreshlydrawnmilkcannotbedetected,when
theacidityisbelow0.200.26%Lacticacid.

Fig2.EquipmentusedinC.O.B.test
2.4.5.3.TheAlcoholTest
Thetestisquickandsimple.Itisbesedoninstabilityoftheproteinswhenthelevelsofacidand/orrennetare
increasedandacteduponbythealcohol.Alsoincreasedlevelsofalbumen(colostrummilk)andsalt
concentrates(mastitis)resultsinapositivetest.
Procedure:
Thetestisdonebymixingequalamountsofmilkand68%ofethanolsolutioninasmallbottleortesttube.(68
%Ethanolsolutionispreparedfrom68mls96%(absolute)alcoholand28mlsdistilledwater).Ifthetestedmilk
isofgoodquality,therewillbenocoagulation,clottingorprecipitation,butitisnecessarytolookforsmall
lumps.Thefirstclottingduetoaciddevelopmentcanfirstbeseenat0.210.23%Lacticacid.Forroutinetesting
2mlsmilkismixedwith2mls68%alcohol.

Fig.3.Equipmentusedinalcoholtest
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2.4.5.4.TheAlcoholAlizarintest
Theprocedureforcarryingoutthetestisthesameasforalcoholtestbutthistestismoreinformative.Alizarin
isacolourindicatorchangingcolouraccordingtotheacidity.TheAlcoholAlizarinsolutioncanbeboughtready
madeorbepreparedbyadding0.4grammesalizarinpowderto1litreof61%alcoholsolution.
RESULTSOFTHETEST
Parameter

Normalmilk

SlightlyacidMilk

Acidmilk

AlkalineMilk

PH

6.66.7

6.46.6

6.3orlower

6.8orhigher

Colour

Redbrown

Yellowishbrown

Yellowish

Lilac

Appearanceof
milk

Nocoagulationno
lumps

Nocoagulation

Coagulation*

Nocoagulation**

Note:
*=Sourmilklooksyellowishwithsmalllumpsorcompletelycoagulated.
**=Alkalinemilklookslikelilacanditmaybemastitismilk.Clotsandflakestoo,indicatemastitismilk.
2.4.5.5Aciditytest
Bacteriathatnormallydevelopinrawmilkproducemoreorlessoflacticacid.Intheaciditytesttheacidis
neutralisedwith0.1NSodiumhydroxideandtheamountofalkalineismeasured.Fromthis,thepercentageof
lacticacidcanbecalculated.Freshmilkcontainsinthistestalso"naturalacidity"whichisduetothenatural
abilitytoresistpHchanges.Thenaturalacidityofmilkis0.160.18%.Figureshigherthanthissignifies
developedacidityduetotheactionofbacteriaonmilksugar.
Apparatus:
Aporcelaindishorsmallconicalflask
10mlpipette,graduated
1mlpipette
ABurette,0.1mlgraduations
Aglassrodforstirringthemilkinthedish
APhenophtaleinindicatorsolution,0.5%in50%Alcohol
NSodiumhydroxidesolution.

Fig.4.Apparatususedbeaciditytest
Procedure:
9mlofthemilkmeasuredintotheporcelaindish/conicalflask,1mlPhenopthaleinisaddedandthenslowly
fromtheburret,0.1NSodiumhydroxideundercontinuousmixing,untilafaintpinkcolourappears.
ThenumberofmlsofSodiumhydroxidesolutiondividedby10expressesthepercentageoflacticacid.
2.4.5.6Resazurintest.
Resazurintestisthemostwidelyusedtestforhygieneandthepotentialkeepingqualityofrawmilk.Resazurin
isadyeindicator.UnderspecifiedconditionsResazurinisdissolvedindistilledboiledwater.TheResazurin
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solutioncanlaterbeusedtotestthemicrobialactivityinagivenmilksample.
Resazurincanbecarriedoutas:

i.10mintest.
ii. 1hrtest.
iii.3hrtest.
The10minResazurintestisusefulandrapid,screeningtestusedatthemilkplatform.
The1hrtestand3hrtestsprovidemoreaccurateinformationaboutthemilkquality,butafterafairylongtime.
Theyareusuallycarriedoutinthelaboratory.
Apparatusandreagents:
Resazurintablets
Testtubeswith10mlsmark
1mlpipetteordispenserforResazurinsolution.
Waterbaththermostaticallycontrolled
LovibondcomparatorwithResazurindisc4/9

Fig.5.Apparatususedin10min.ResazurinTest
Procedure:
ThesolutionofResazurinaspreparedbyaddingonetabletto50mIsofdistilledsterilewater.Rasazurin
solutionmustnotbeexposedtosunlight,anditshouldnotbeusedformorethaneighthoursbecauseitlosses
strength.
Mixthemilkandwithasanitizeddipperput10mlsmilkintoasteriletesttube.
AddonemlofResazurinsolution,stopperwithasterilestopper,mixgentlythedyeintothemilkandmarkthe
tubebeforetheincubationinawaterbath,placethetesttubeinaLovibondcomparatorwithResazurindiskand
compareitcolourimetricallywithatesttubecontaining10mlmilkofthesamesample,butwithoutthedye
(Blank).
READINGSANDRESULTS(10MINUTERESAZURINTEST)
ResazurindiscNo.

Colour

Gradeofmilk

Action

Blue

Excellent

Accept

Lightblue

v.good

Accept

Purple

Good

Accept

Purplepink

Fair

Separate

Lightpink

Poor

Separate

Pink

Bad

Reject

white

Verybad

Reject

2.4.5.7TheGerberButterfattest
Thefatcontentofmilkandcreamisthemostimportantsinglefactorindeterminingthepricetobepaidformilk
suppliedbyfarmersinmanycountries.

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Also,inordertocalculatethecorrectamountoffeedrationforhighyieldingdairycows,itisimportanttoknow
thebutterfatpercentageaswellaswellastheyieldofthemilkproduced.Furthermorethebutterfatpercentage
inthemilkofindividualanimalsmustbeknowninmanybreedingprogrammes.
Butterfattestsarealsodoneonmilkandmilkproductsinordertomakeaccurateadjustmentsofthebutterfat
percentageinstandardisedmilkandmilkproducts.

Fig.6.EquipmentusedinGerberButterfattest
ApparatusforDFtest:
Gerberbutyrameters,06%or08%BF
Rubberstoppersforbutyrometers
10.94or11mlpipettesformilk
10mlspippetesordispensersforGerberAcid
1mlspippetesordispensersforAmylalcohol
standsforbutyrometers
GerberwaterbathReagents:
Gerbersulphuricacid,(1.82g/cc)
Amylalcohol
Treatmentofsamples.
Freshmilkatapproximately20Cshouldbemixedwell.Sampleskeptcoolforsomedaysshouldbewarmedto
40C,mixedgentlyandcooledto20Cbeforethetesting.
Procedure:
Add10mIssulphuricacidtothebutyrometerfollowedby10.94or11mlsofwellmixedmilk.Avoidwettingof
theneckofthebutyrometer.
Nextadd1mlofAmylalcohol,insertstopperandshakethebutyrometercarefullyuntilthecurddissolvesand
nowhiteparticlescanbeseen.Placethebutyrometerinthewaterbathat65Candkeepitthereuntilasetis
readyforcentrifuging.Thebutyrometermustbeplacedinthecentrifugewiththestem(scale)pointingtowards
thecentreofthecentrifuge.
Spinfor5min.atll00rpm.
Removethebutyrometersfromthecentrifuge.
Putthebutyrometersinawaterbathmaintainedat65Cfor3min.beforetakingthereading.
(Note:Whentransferringthebutyrometersfromthecentrifugeintothewaterbathmakesurethatthe
butyrometersareallthetimeheldwiththeNECKPOINTINGUP).
Thefatcolumnshouldbereadfromthelowestpointofthemeniscusoftheinterfaceoftheacidfattothe0
markofthescaleandreadthebutterfatpercentage.
Thebutyrometersshouldbeemptiedintoaspecialcontainerfortheverycorrosiveliquidofacidmilk,andthe
butyrometersshouldbewashedinwarmwateranddriedbeforethenextuse.
APPEARANCEOFTHETEST
Thecolourofthefatcolumnshouldbestrawyellow.
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Theendsofthefatcolumnshouldbeclearlyandsharplydefined.
Thefatcolumnshouldbefreefromspecksandsediment.
Thewaterjustbelowthefatcolumnshouldbeperfectlyclear.
Thefatshouldbewithinthegraduation.
PROBLEMSINTESTRESULTS
Curdytests:
Toolightlycolouredorcurdyfatcolumncanbedueto:
Temperatureatmilkoracidorbothtoolow.
Acidtooweak.
Insufficientacid.
Milkandacidnotmixedthoroughly.
Charredtests:
Darkenedfatcolumncontainingblackspeckatthebaseisdueto:
Temperatureofmilkacidmixturetoohigh.
Acidtoostrong.
Milkandacidmixedtooslowly.
Toomuchacidused.
Aciddroppedthroughthemilk.
2.4.5.8TheLactometertest
Additionofwatertomilkcanbeabigproblemwherewehaveunfaithfulfarmworkers,milktransportersand
greedymilkhawkers.Afewfarmersmayalsofallvictimofthisillegalpractice.Anybuyerofmilkshould
thereforeassurehimself/herselfthatthemilkhe/shepurchasesiswholesomeandhasnotbeenadulterated.
Milkhasaspecificgravity.Whenitsadulteredwithwaterorothermaterialsareaddedorbothmisdeedsare
committed,thedensityofmilkchangefromitsnormalvaluetoabnormal.Thelactometertestisdesignedto
detectthechangeindensityofsuchadulteratedmilk.CarriedouttogetherwiththeGerberbutterfattest,it
enablesthemilkprocessortocalculatethemilktotalsolids(%TS)andsolidsnotfat(SNF).Innormalmilk
SNFshouldnotbebelow8.5%accordingtoKenyaStandards(KBSNo05l0:1976).
Procedure:
Mixthemilksamplegentlyandpouritgentlyintoameasuringcylinder(300500).LettheLactometersink
slowlyintothemilk.ReadandrecordthelastLactometerdegree(L)justabovethesurfaceofthemilk.Ifthe
temperatureofthemilkisdifferentfromthecalibrationtemperature(Calibrationtemperaturemaybe=200C)of
thelactometer,calculatethetemperaturecorrection.ForeachCabovethecalibrationtemperatureadd0.2L
foreachCbelowcalibrationtemperaturesubtract0.2Lfromtherecordedlactometerreading.
EXAMPLE:Calibrationtemperatureoflactometer20C.

Fig7.Equipmentusedfordeterminationofmilkdensity
Sample

Milktemperature

Lactometer
reading

Correction

Truereading

No.1

17C

30.6L

0.6L

30.0L

No.2

20C

30.0L

Nil

30.0L

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No.3

23C

29.4L

+0.6L

30.0L

Forthecalculations,uselactometerdegrees,andfortheconversiontodensitywrite1.0infrontofthetrue
lactometerreading,i.e.1.030g/ml.Cleverpeoplemaytrytoadulteratemilkinsuchawaythatthelactometer
cannotshowtheadulteration.Butlooktoseeifthereisanunusualsedimentfromthemilkatthebottomofthe
milkcanandtastetofindoutifthemilkistoosweetorsaltytobenormal.Samplesofmilkfromindividual
cowsoftenhavelactometerreadingoutsidetherangeofaveragemilk,whilesamplesofmilkfromherdsshould
havereadingsheartheaveragemilk,butwrongfeeding,mayresultinlowreadings.Kenyanstandardsexpects
milktohavespecificgravityof1.0261.032g/mlwhichimpliesaLactometerreadingrangeof26.032.0L.If
thereadingisconsistentlylowerthanexpectedandthemilksupplierdisputesanywrongdoingarrangetotakea
genuinesamplefromthesupplier(i.e.inspectmilkrightfromsource).
2.4.5.9FreezingPointDetermination
Thefreezingpointofmilkisregardedtobethemostconstantofallmeasurablepropertiesofmilk.Asmall
adulterationofmilkwithwaterwillcauseadetectableelevationofthefreezingpointofmilkfromitsnormal
valuesof0.54C.Sincethetestisaccurateandsensitivetoaddedwaterinmilk,itisusedtodetectwhether
milkisofnormalcompositionandadulterated.

Fig.8.ACryoscopeisusedfordeterminationoffreezingpointofmilk.
2.4.5.10Inhibitortest.
Milkcollectedfromproducersmaycontaindrugsand/orpesticidesresidues.Thesewhenpresentinsignificant
amountsinmilkmayinhibitthegrowthoflacticacidbacteriausedinthemanufactureoffermentedmilksuchas
Mala,cheeseandYoghurt,besidesbeingahealthhazard.
Principleofthemethod:Thesuspectedmilksampleissubjectedtoafermentationtestwithstartercultureand
theaciditycheckedafterthree(3)hours.Thevaluesofthetitratableacidityobtainediscomparedwithtitratable
acidityofasimilarlytreatedsamplewhichisfreefromanyinhibitorysubstances.
Materials:
testtubes
Starterculture
lmlpipette
waterbath
materialfordeterminationoftitratableacidity(Fig.9)

Fig.9.Materialsusedtotestinhibitorysubstancesinmilk
Procedure:
Threetesttubesarefilledwithl0mlofsampletobetestedandthreetesttubesfilledwithnormalmilk.
Alltubesareheatedto900Cbyputtingtheminboilingwaterfor35minutes.
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Aftercoolingtooptimumtemperatureofthestarterculture(30,37,or42C),1mlofstartercultureisaddedto
eachtesttube,mixedandincubatedfor3hours.
Aftereachhour,onetesttubeisfromthetestsampleandthecontrolsampleisdetermined.
Assessmentofresults:
Ifacidproductioninsuspectedsampleisthesameasthenormalsample,thenthesuspectsampledoesnot
containanyinhibitorysubstances
Ifacidproductionassuspectsampleislessthaninthenormalmilksample,then,thesuspectsamplecontains
antibioticsorotherinhibitorysubstances.
3.QUALITYCONTROLOFPASTEURISEDMILK
Whenmilkispasteurisedat63Cfor30mininbatchpasteuriseror72Cfor15secondsinheatexchanger,
continuousflowpasteurisers,ALLPATHOGENICBACTERIAAREDESTROYED,therebyrenderingmilksafe
forhumanconsumption.Simultaneouslyvariousenzymespresentinmilk,andwhichmightaffectitsflavour,
aredestroyed.
Inordertodeterminewhetherornotmilkhasbeenadequatelypasteurised,oneoftheenzymesnormally
presentinmilkphosphatase,ismeasured.Anegativephosphataseresultindicatesthattheenzymeandany
pathogenicbacteriahavebeendestroyedduringpasteursation.Ifitispositive,itmeansthepasteurisation
processwasinadequateandthemilkmaynotbesafeforhumanconsumptionandwillhaveashortshelflife.
Testtubes
5mlspipettes
1mlpipettes
l00mlvolumetricflask
500mlvolumetricflask
waterbathat37C
Note:Allglasswaremustberinsed,cleaned,rinsedinchromicacidsolutionandboiledinwaterfor30min.
Reagent:
Buffersolution:
Ismixedby0.75ganhydroussodiumcarbonateandl.75gSodiumbicarbonatein500mldistilledwater.
Buffersubstratesolution:
Place0.l5gofdisodiumparanitrophenylphosphate(thesubstrate)intoaclean100mlmeasuringcylinder.
Addthebuffersolutiontomaketo100mlmark.
Storethisbuffersubstratesolutioninarefrigeratorandprotectedagainstlight.Itshouldnotbeusedafterone
week.Prepareafreshstock.
Procedure:
Pipette5mlsbuffersubstratesolutionintoatesttube,stopperandwarmthesolutioninthewaterbathat37C.
Addtothetesttube1mlofthemilktobetested,stopperandmixwellandplaceinwaterbathat37C.Prepare
ablanksamplefromboiledmilkofthesametypeasthatundergoingthetest.Incubateboththetestsamples
andtheblanksampleat37Cfor2hrs.Afterincubation,removethetubesandmixthemthoroughly.
PlaceonesampleagainsttheblankinaLovibondcomparator"ALLPURPOSES"usingA.P.T.W.discand
rotatethediscuntilthecolourofthetestsampleismatchedandreadthediscnumber.
Interpretation:
DiscReadingafter2hrsincubationat37C

Remarks

010

Properlypasteurised

1018

Slightlyunderpasteurised

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1842

UNDERPASTEURISED

>42

NOTPASTEURISED

REFERENCES:
ILCAManualNo.4,RuralDairyTechnology.ExperiencesfromEthiopia.
IDFDoc.No.9002,HandbookonMilkcollectioninWarmDevelopingCountries.InternationalDairyFederation,
Brussels,Belgium.
Marshall,R.T.1992.StandardMethodsforthedeterminationofDairyProducts.16thed.Publ.AmericanPublic
HealthAssociation.

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