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CentrifugalPump

DeliveryFlange

DrivingShaft

VoluteCasing

SuctionFlange

Impeller

86

CentrifugalActionofC.P.Impeller

87

Figure12.1 Singlesuctionradialflowpump.

88

(a)impeller;

Idealizedradialflowimpeller
Idealized
radialflow impeller
(b)velocitydiagrams.

89

U2

Vr
2

v2

U2=v2+Vr2

90

VelocityTrianglesofliquid
Velocity
Triangles of liquid
duetoimpellerrotation
V

V1

Vr

Y1
U1

Vr1

OutletVel.Triangle

Q = YDB = Y1D1 B1
v =

DN
60
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Theoryofcentrifugalpumpimpeller
Todevelopthebasictheoryofcentrifugalpump,itis
assumedthat:
d th t
Theimpellerconsistsofinfinitenumberofuniformsmooth
vanesofzerothickness.Usingthefollowingsymbols:
q
p
T=torqueonimpellershaft.
=angularvelocityofimpeller.
H =Idealheaddevelopedbypumpimpeller.
Ideal head developed by pump impeller.
=istheoutletbladeanglemadebytherelativevelocity
vector with v
vectorwithv.
=istheinletbladeanglemadebytherelativevelocity
vectorwithv
i h 1.
r =radius,
=radius,B
B =widthofflowpassage
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Newton s 2nd law stated that; the torque


Newtons
=the rate of change of angular momentum.
i
i.e.
T = d[mV
d[ V r]/dt
T= m[
T
m [ V .r V1 .r1]
T = Q [ V .r V1.r1]
V is the liquids velocity component in tangential direction,
i e perpendicular to the radius( Whirl Component).
i.e.
Component)

W.D./unit wt =T
=T
T/ gQ =
T
[ V .R V1.r1]/g=(V v V1v1)/g
ForMaximumW.D./unitwt,V
W.D./unitwt,V1=0
0i.e.radialflowatinlet.
i.e.radialflowatinlet.

andtheMaximum W.D./unitwt= V .v /g

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Impellerhead
NeglectingWhirlvelocitycomponentatinlet,radial
N
l ti Whi l l it
t t i l t di l
inletflow,v1=0

W.D.onliquid=EoEi;
Vv/g=U2/2g+Himp U12/2g (neglect U12/2g)
U2 =v2+y2 =(vy.Cot
=(v y Cot )22 +y2
Himp.=(v
( 2yy2Cosec2)/2gg
Withv=DN/60&Y=Q/(DB)=flowvel.
thenHimp.=C1N2C2Q2
&H casing=k
&H
k U2/2g
/2
H pump=H
H
Himp
.+H casing
Loss in both
i .+H
i Lossinboth
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OTHER LOSSES:
Volumetric leakage through internal and external clearances
Mechanical rubbing, bearings, coupling, motor
The sum of ALL losses takes away from the available power
d li
delivered
d by
b th
the d
driver:
i

losses = Hydraulic
y
+ Volumetric + Mechanical
P
Pump
OVERALL efficiency
ffi i
is:
i
overall = wQHm / Psh

95

Th
Theoretical&RealPumpHeadCurve
ti l & R l P
H dC

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Speedratio

Flowratio:

SpecificSpeed (S.I.units)
DesignKeyofHydr.Mach.

v =

DN

60
Q
Y =
=
DB
N Po
Ns =
1 . 25
H

Hydraulic,ManometricEff.

Hyy .,, Manometric

Pump Efficiency
PumpEfficiency

pump , Overall

2 ggH ,
2 gH

gH m
=
V
Vv
wQH m
=
Psh
97

Effect of Ns on Pump Impeller Shape


98

Design Criteria for C P impeller


DesignCriteriaforC.P.impeller

Outletbladeangle
g
Inletbladeangle
Optimumnumberofblades:
Di/Do=
Bo/Do=
manometric
p

99

100

101

102

103

CentrifugalPerformancepumpCurves

104

105

RecommendedOperatingrange:60120%ofQBep

Shaftpo
owerkW
W

ExcessiveNoise&vibrationsatlowerflows
Excessive
Noise & vibrations at lower flows
Cavitationexpectedathigherflows

Recom.Range
Sh ft
Shaftpower

60%QBep

120%QBep

106

Cavation
n

Low Bearing and


L
eal Life
Se

B.E.P.
B

Discha
arge Recirculation

Su
uction Re
ecirculatio
on

Reduced Impeller L
R
Life

Low
w Bearing a
and Seal L
Life

Low Flo
ow Cavita
ation

High Temp. R
Rise

Head
d

Operating Off The B.E.P.

Flow

107

108

OperatingPointofC.P.incertainPipeline
Pi i S t
PipingSystemHead
H d :H
Hm=H
Hst+KQ
KQ2

Pumpcurve

Pipecurve
Pipe curve

Hm=Hst+KQ2

109

hlv

PartiallyClosed
valve

Hst

QMax.
110

FromDiagramatoperatingpoint(Qmax.)
Pshh =wQHm/pump
Fordeliverypartiallyopened
Hlv= Hpump Hpipe
Pshlv
pump
sh lv =wQHlv
lv /
Energy
Energywasteinvalve=
waste in valve=

Pshlv .Workinghrs/year;kWhr.
Deliveryvalvewastesenergywhenusedtocontrol
flow =excessrunningcost
flow
excess running cost
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