This is more on quantum.

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

This is more on quantum.

© All Rights Reserved

- La montaña del movimiento Vol 4
- Exploring Quantum Physics
- Standards and Math Science Project Fair
- An Analysis of Dark Matter...Miles Mathis
- 0710.2361
- A model of epigenetic evolution based on theory of open quantum systems
- Syllabi-123
- What Happened to Modern Physics
- BS 4Years Physics Scheme Studies
- MagVectPot
- Hb 2006 Modelling Zdm
- Four Reasons Why You Dont Exist
- Your Brain Isn
- Without the Born Rule (WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)
- There are no particles, there are only fields.pdf
- John Ashmead- Quantum Time
- Interaction
- Electromagnetism
- Majorana费米子与拓扑量子计算
- RevModPhys.89.035002.pdf

You are on page 1of 9

including quantum field theory, is a fundamental

branch of physics concerned with processes

involving, for example, atoms and photons.

Systems such as these which obey quantum

mechanics can be in a quantum superposition of

different states, unlike in classical physics.

Quantum mechanics gradually arose from Max

Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body

radiation problem (reported 1859) and Albert

Einstein's 1905 paper which offered a quantumbased theory to explain the photoelectric

effect (reported 1887). Early quantum theory was

profoundly reconceived in the mid-1920s.

The reconceived theory is formulated in

various specially developed mathematical

formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical

function, the wave function, provides information

about the probability amplitude of position,

momentum, and other physical properties of a

particle.

Important applications of quantum

theory[1] include superconducting magnets, lightemitting diodes, and the laser,

the microprocessor, medical and research

imaging such as magnetic resonance

imaging and electron microscopy, and

explanations for many biological and physical

phenomena.[not verified in body]

Contents

[hide]

1History

2Mathematical formulations

3Mathematically equivalent formulations of

quantum mechanics

4Interactions with other scientific theories

o 4.1Quantum mechanics and classical physics

o 4.2Copenhagen interpretation of quantum

versus classical kinematics

o 4.3General relativity and quantum mechanics

o 4.4Attempts at a unified field theory

5Philosophical implications

6Applications

o 6.1Electronics

o 6.2Cryptography

o 6.3Quantum computing

o 6.4Macroscale quantum effects

o 6.5Quantum theory

7Examples

o 7.1Free particle

o 7.2Step potential

o 7.3Rectangular potential barrier

o 7.4Particle in a box

o 7.5Finite potential well

o 7.6Harmonic oscillator

8See also

9Notes

10References

11Further reading

12External links

History[edit]

Modern physics

Manifold

Dynamics: Schrdinger and KleinGordon equations

Founders[show]

Concepts[show]

Branches[show]

Scientists[show]

v

t

e

Scientific inquiry into the wave nature of light

began in the 17th and 18th centuries,

when scientists such as Robert

Hooke, Christiaan Huygens and Leonhard

Euler proposed a wave theory of light based on

experimental observations.[2] In 1803, Thomas

Young, an English polymath, performed the

famous double-slit experiment that he later

described in a paper titled On the nature of light

and colours. This experiment played a major role

in the general acceptance of the wave theory of

light.

In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode

rays. These studies were followed by the 1859

statement of the black-body radiation problem

by Gustav Kirchhoff, the 1877 suggestion

by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a

physical system can be discrete, and the 1900

quantum hypothesis of Max Planck.[3] Planck's

hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed

matched the observed patterns of black-body

radiation.

In 1896, Wilhelm Wien empirically determined a

distribution law of black-body radiation,[4] known

as Wien's law in his honor. Ludwig Boltzmann

independently arrived at this result by

considerations of Maxwell's equations. However,

it was valid only at high frequencies and

underestimated the radiance at low frequencies.

Later, Planck corrected this model using

Boltzmann's statistical interpretation of

thermodynamics and proposed what is now

called Planck's law, which led to the

development of quantum mechanics.

Following Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the

black-body radiation problem (reported

1859), Albert Einstein offered a quantum-based

theory to explain the photoelectric effect (1905,

reported 1887). Around 1900-1910, the atomic

theory and the corpuscular theory of light[5] first

came to be widely accepted as scientific fact;

these latter theories can be viewed as quantum

theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation,

respectively.

nature were Arthur Compton, C. V. Raman,

and Pieter Zeeman, each of whom has a

quantum effect named after him. Robert

Andrews Millikan studied the photoelectric

effect experimentally, and Albert Einstein

developed a theory for it. At the same

time, Ernest Rutherford experimentally

discovered the nuclear model of the atom, for

which Niels Bohr developed his theory of the

atomic structure, which was later confirmed by

the experiments of Henry Moseley. In

1913, Peter Debye extended Niels Bohr's theory

of atomic structure, introducing elliptical orbits, a

concept also introduced by Arnold

Sommerfeld.[6] This phase is known as old

quantum theory.

According to Planck, each energy element (E) is

proportional to its frequency ():

quantum theory.

Planck cautiously insisted that this was simply

an aspect of the processes of absorption and

emission of radiation and had nothing to do

with the physical reality of the radiation

itself.[7] In fact, he considered his quantum

hypothesis a mathematical trick to get the right

answer rather than a sizable

discovery.[8] However, in 1905 Albert

Einstein interpreted Planck's quantum

hypothesis realistically and used it to explain

the photoelectric effect, in which shining light

on certain materials can eject electrons from

the material. He won the 1921 Nobel Prize in

Physics for this work.

that an electromagnetic wave such as light

could also be described as a particle (later

called the photon), with a discrete quantum of

energy that was dependent on its frequency.[9]

established during the first half of the 20th

century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner

Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, Arthur

Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin

Schrdinger, Max Born, John von

Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang

Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David

Hilbert, Wilhelm Wien, Satyendra Nath

Bose, Arnold Sommerfeld, and others.

The Copenhagen interpretation of Niels

Bohr became widely accepted.

mechanics led to its becoming the standard

formulation for atomic physics. In the summer

of 1925, Bohr and Heisenberg published

results that closed the old quantum theory. Out

of deference to their particle-like behavior in

certain processes and measurements, light

quanta came to be called photons (1926).

From Einstein's simple postulation was born a

flurry of debating, theorizing, and testing. Thus,

the entire field of quantum physics emerged,

leading to its wider acceptance at the

Fifth Solvay Conference in 1927.[citation needed]

It was found that subatomic particles and

electromagnetic waves are neither simply

particle nor wave but have certain properties of

each. This originated the concept of wave

particle duality.[citation needed]

- La montaña del movimiento Vol 4Uploaded bymotionmountain
- Exploring Quantum PhysicsUploaded byAboSulieman
- Standards and Math Science Project FairUploaded byjbvhyiv
- An Analysis of Dark Matter...Miles MathisUploaded byOdessa File
- 0710.2361Uploaded bysgutier
- A model of epigenetic evolution based on theory of open quantum systemsUploaded byJoshua Wagner
- Syllabi-123Uploaded byAbhishek Upadhyay
- What Happened to Modern PhysicsUploaded byRizky Wirawan Pratama
- BS 4Years Physics Scheme StudiesUploaded byUsama Tariq
- Hb 2006 Modelling ZdmUploaded bysusan george
- Four Reasons Why You Dont ExistUploaded byAna Cvetinović
- There are no particles, there are only fields.pdfUploaded bySatkas Dimitrios
- MagVectPotUploaded byWaseem Beigh
- Your Brain IsnUploaded bykrishnan112
- John Ashmead- Quantum TimeUploaded byPocxa
- ElectromagnetismUploaded byCarlos Fight
- Without the Born Rule (WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)Uploaded byFausto Intilla
- InteractionUploaded byPRADYUT6
- Majorana费米子与拓扑量子计算Uploaded byYau Stein
- RevModPhys.89.035002.pdfUploaded by陳翊東
- GenChem_Lec_09.pdfUploaded bymaxxtorr723
- Photoelectric effect.pdfUploaded byShweta Sridhar
- Quantum QuestUploaded byJaro Neanderthalensis
- PhysRevLett.692Uploaded bythyagosmesme
- Quantum modelsUploaded byHans Marino
- NET questionsUploaded bySouvik Das
- ISEA2015-ClarissaRibeiroUploaded byRosana Martinez
- Msc physicsUploaded bySukhinderpal Singh
- What’s good and not so good about being persecuted and displacedUploaded byLandini Carlo Alessandro
- Molecular IndeterminancyUploaded byNamkay Tenzyn

- I Ching With ClarityUploaded byryondong
- ProtonicUploaded byryondong
- Catharsis.pdfUploaded byryondong
- pica trixUploaded byryondong
- AssertivenessUploaded byryondong
- Treatment of LonelinessUploaded byryondong
- Total Quality ManagementUploaded byryondong
- Mysticism KiUploaded byryondong
- BeefsteakUploaded byryondong
- RolasticsUploaded byryondong
- Astrology is the study of the movements and relati.docxUploaded byryondong
- abi ra niUploaded byryondong
- FashionistUploaded byryondong
- GuruUploaded byryondong
- KabbalahUploaded byryondong
- RosicrucianismUploaded byryondong
- The Workforce or Labour ForceUploaded byryondong
- AnalyticsUploaded byryondong
- PanagiaUploaded byryondong
- Byzantine RiteUploaded byryondong
- orthrosUploaded byryondong
- Orthodox FaithUploaded byryondong
- OrthodoxUploaded byryondong
- BarsanuphiusUploaded byryondong
- GeorgeUploaded byryondong
- daramaUploaded byryondong
- lamborghUploaded byryondong
- ReseUploaded byryondong

- SM_CS_V7,9,12BKPGUploaded byRedi Riyanto
- Electromagnetic Waves and Transmission Lines - MachacUploaded byRatish Kumar Dhiman
- Fundamentals of Physics Chap.21 solUploaded byCurtis Smith
- Year7SLG (1)Uploaded byMeetaDevi
- MicroprocessorsUploaded byKristine Abanador
- Windows HotkeysUploaded byMilindu Kasun Marasinghe
- Books Advert.pdfUploaded byGeoff
- GPS JLR 7700 MK II.pdfUploaded byVladimir
- Single Phase InverterUploaded byMind of Beauty
- At 25512Uploaded byChinotzcuintle Chicloso
- SPE-160886-MSUploaded byamramazon88
- gear train.docxUploaded byjibin
- Lisrel NotesUploaded byjonathanscottmorgan
- Different Ways of Hydrogen Bonding in Water - Why Does Warm Water Freeze Faster Than Cold WaterUploaded by陳琮方
- API IndexUploaded by전상문
- MCAT Physics UnitsUploaded byChris_Barber09
- LGH-RVX-E Service Manual U204 March 2015Uploaded byDamian Ovidiu
- states of matter assessment - google formsUploaded byapi-429470440
- D.F.I. Helical Presentation 7.pptUploaded byhiyeon
- Optical Textures in Liquid Crystal MixturesUploaded byjamonline
- CalcMaster Leaflet EnglishUploaded bysunil_lasker200
- API 653 - Section 577 Flashcards _ Quizlet (WPS-PQR)Uploaded byام يمنى ايمن
- emacs.pdfUploaded byIris Sanchis
- 084 HCR506ZX Tech SheetUploaded bypendexx
- HOOGWERK S65Uploaded byAlexialee83
- Ch 10 Acids & BasesUploaded byapi-3774259
- 10 - Sugeno-TSK ModelUploaded byAchu
- Dyeing With Polyester Using HTHP BEAM DYEING MACHINEUploaded bySivakumar K
- 10.1.1.85Uploaded byjaiesh
- Earth 3rd EditionUploaded byMichelle Loekman