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ples of manufacturing industries.

Manufacturing involves fabrication, assembly and testing in a


majority of situations. However, in process industries operations are of a different nature.
Manufacturing industries can be grouped into four categories: 13

i. Continuous Process Industries In this type of industry, the production process generally follows a
specific sequence. These industries can be easily automated and computers are widely used for
process monitoring, control and optimization. Oil refineries, chemical plants, food processing
industries, etc are examples of continuous process industries.
ii. Mass Production Industries Industries manufacturing fasteners (nuts, bolts etc.), integrated
chips, automobiles, entertainment electronic products, bicycles, bearings etc. which are all mass
produced can be classified as mass production industries. Production lines are specially designed and
optimized to ensure automatic and cost effective operation. Automation can be either fixed type or
flexible.
iii. Batch Production (Discrete Manufacturing) Batch Production (Discrete Manufacturing) The
largest percentage of manufacturing industries can be classified as batch production industries. The
distinguishing features of this type of manufacture are the small to medium size of the batch, and
varieties of such products to be taken up in a single shop. Due to the variety of components handled,
work centres should have broader specifications. Another important fact is that small batch size
involves loss of production time associated with product changeover.
As mentioned earlier, integration of computer in process industries for production automation,
process monitoring and control and optimization is relatively easy. In the case of mass production
and batch production computer integration faces a number of problems as there are a large number of
support activities which are to be tied together. These are discussed in detail later in this chapter.
Automation of manufacture has been implemented using different techniques since the turn of the
20th Century. Fixed automation is the first type to emerge. Single spindle automatic lathe, multi
spindle automatic lathe and transfer lines are examples of fixed automation. 14

Fixed automation using mechanical, electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic systems is widely used in
automobile manufacturing. This type of automation has a severe limitation - these are designed for a
particular product and any product change will require extensive modifications to the automation
system. The concept of programmable automation was introduced later.
These were electrically controlled systems and programs were stored in punched cards and punched
tapes. Typical examples of programmable automation are:
i. Electrical programme controlled milling machines
ii. Hydraulically operated Automatic lathes with programmable control drum
iii. Sequencing machines with punched card control /plug board control
Developme
nt of digital computers, microelectronics and microprocessors significantly altered the automation
scenario during 1950-1990. Machine control systems are now designed around microprocessors and
microelectronics is part and parcel of industrial drives and control.
The significant advances in miniaturization through integration of large number of components into
small integrated chips and the consequent improvement in reliability and performance have increased
the popularity of microelectronics. This has resulted in the availability of high performance desktop
computing machines as well as file servers which can be used for industrial control with the help of
application software packages.
ADAPTIVE CONTROL
Adaptive control is the ability to modify a program in real time, based upon sensory data. Robots can
make use of abilities such as orienting parts based on features, following a changed path, or
recognizing work pieces. Adaptive control requires sensory input and the ability to respond to that
input.
Adaptive control will greatly enhance role of the industrial robots in the computer integrated factory.
The robot endowed with ability to adjust to its environment, reduces scrap and rework, and a robot
equipped with adaptive control can perform quality - control functions integral with its tasks.
Adaptive control sensors for robots are found in the same general categories as the human senses:
touch, sound, vision and process related sensors (functionally similar to taste and smell). Sensor input
can be used at different levels in the robot hierarchy. Commonly, they are used for robot path or
position alteration. Sensors may be used to adaptively control processes being 15

performed by the robot. Sensor data may also send by the robot to other machines. The physical
integration of sensors into the robot structure has been dictated by the specific task to be performed
and the properties of the sensors.
ROBOT OPERATION
Robots are used for several applications. Each application requires a certain mode of operations.
These modes of operation can be classified into four types:
1 Pick-and-place: Pick-and-place: As the name implies, this mode involves a very limited sequence
of moves to a fixed position where it grasps a part (pick ), then moves to another position where it
places the part. Some applications may involve several move positions. The controls involved are
generally the simplest. A non-servo control system, with either mechanical stops or pneumatic logic,
is adequate. Because of the simplicity of the motion and the fixed positions involved, the pick-andplace mode can be accurate and capable of high speed. A typical application is placing the ICs on a
printed circuit board.
2 Point-to-point : Point-to-point: Point-to-point: This is used for more complex movements where
the arm is controlled in a series of steps that have been stored in memory. The programming is
usually performed by the use of teach pendant. Although the movement is normally under servo
control, there is no coordinated motion between the axes. Each axis operates at its maximum rate
until it reaches the desired endpoint position. The intermediate path, velocity, and relative motion
between axes are not controlled. This is adequate for many applications where only the activity at the
endpoint positions is important. Applications like spot welding are examples of point to point
operations.
3 Continuous path:: This mode is required when the control of the manipulators path is critical,
such as in a spray-painting application. The robots path is not determined by a series of preprogrammed points. The path and movement of each axis is stored during a walk through
programming session. Although this creates a continuous path, it is not precise. All the movements of
the operator intended or not, are recorded. A large amount of memory
11. Controlled path: Where the total control of the robots motion as in an arc welding desired, a
detailed control program and sophisticated servo-control system must be used. This provides
coordinated control of all the axes in terms of their position, velocity, and acceleration. The program
can optimize the movements of the manipulator to reduce cycle time, minimize forces, eliminate
jerky motions, and improve precision. Sensors provide the
16

necessary feedback to control the process. For example vision sensors provide feedback of progress
of a robotic welding operation.
PRODUC
T LIFE CYCLE OF CAD/ CAM 17 18

Design Morphology 19

Embodiment Design (or Detail Design)


Product Architecture
Configuration Design
Parametric Design
Detail Design 20

UNIT II CURVES & SURFACES AND 2D & 3D TRANSFORMATION


Analytic curves and surfaces, 2D homogenous transformations- translation, rotation, reflection,
scaling, shearing and combined transformation 3D homogenous transformation - translation, rotation,
reflection, scaling, shearing and combined transformation 3D viewing transformation panning,
rotation, reflection, shearing and zooming.

GEOMETRIC MODELING
Types of Curves and Their Mathematical Representation
Types of Surfaces and Their Mathematical Representation
Types of Solids and Their Mathematical Representation
CAD/CAM Data Exchange
TYPES
OF CURVES AND THEIR MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS
Wireframe Model ( 2D in 1960s for drafting, 3D in 1970s)
Wireframe Entities
s and Bezier curves)
, end points of existing entity, center point, intersection of two entities.
or perpendicular to a line, tangent to entity
point, a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point.
ter and axes lengths, four points, two conjugate diameters), parabola (vertex and
focus, three points). 21

slopes), Bezier curves (a set of data points), B-spline curves (interpolate a set of
data points with local control possible).
Curve Representation: Two types of representation are parametric and nonparametric representation. In parametric representation all variables (i.e.,
coordinates) are expressed in terms of common parameters. For example, a point
can be expressed with respect to a parameter as
Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as
Ex. Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2, parametric form: 1. This form
can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example.
PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES
The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM
system for part design and modeling.
es
LINE AND CIRCLE
A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter.
A circle for a center and the radius can be written as 22

ELLIPS

E
An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed
as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate
system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by 23

When the parabola is inclined at an angle relative to global x-axis, the equation
for the parabola is given by
Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points, p1(5,10), p2(3,4),
and p3(12,1). The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis.
Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5.
This is a set of nonlinear equations. The solutions and the graph are
,,
Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points , P(5,10), P1(3,4), and
P2(12,1). P is the vertex of the parabola. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u
from -5 to 5.
Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point), the equations to solve
become
24

Solving these equations for A, , u1, and u2 yields the solutions as


A = 0.543, = -4.372, u1 = -4.372, and u2 = 3.835
A hyperbola with the center (xy, xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the
figure below can be expressed as
x = xy + A coshu
y = yy + B sinhu, z = zy 25

A hyperbola and its asymptotes


Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2,1), and A=1, is the
vertex of the hyperbola. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2.
Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point), the equations to
solve become
A cosh( ) cos B sinh( sin x1 xy
A cosh( ) sin + B sinh( cos y1 yy
A cosh( ) cos B sinh( sin x2 xy
A cosh( ) sin + B sinh( cos y2 yy
The solution is B = 0.503, = 0.464, u1 = 2881, and u2 = -2.881. The graph of the
curve is shown as 26

The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections
that include the previously covered curves; lines, circles, ellipses, parabolas, and
hyperbolas. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes
the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to
complete it.
The conic parametric
equation can be described
if five conditions are
specified appropriately.
One case is specifying
five points on the curve.
L1 = 0, L2 = 0, L3 = 0, L4 =
0
L1L2 = 0, L3L4 = 0
L1L2 + a L3L4 = 0

1
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM
The design process Morphology of design, Product cycle Computer Aided Design, Benefits of CAD.
Basic concepts of CAD - principles of computer graphics. CAD/CAM data base development and
data base management systems. Programming and interface hardware computer aided process
monitoring - adaptive control, on-line search strategies.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification,
analysis, or optimization of a design.CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the
designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to
create a database for manufacturing.CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print,
machining, or other manufacturing operations.
Computer-aided design is used in many fields. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as
electronic design automation, or EDA. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design
automation (MDA) or computer-aided design (CAD), which includes the process of creating a
technical drawing with the use of computer software.
A COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING system uses CAD-generated data to create the code
needed to operate a CNC machine. CAM software facilitates the programming of machine tools. It
lets users define part geometry and set machining strategies, create and confirm toolpaths, and share
programming data with other shop-floor machines.
The two basic types of CAM systems are process-oriented and geometry-oriented. Process-oriented
CAM systems are geared toward the process part of manufacturing engineering, which includes the
effective use of tooling and machining operations, advantageous tool changes and the management of
complex processes. In contrast, geometry-oriented CAM systems lean toward the geometric aspects
of manufacturing engineering, including complex part geometries, sizeable CAD models, and
running process details through geometric conditions.
CAD/CAM
Many CAD vendors market fully integrated CAM systems, aptly called CAD/CAM systems. These
CAD/CAM packages deliver many advantages. For starters, they feature a common user interface
that allows CAD operators to quickly learn the software. Moreover, users can easily transfer CAD

data to the CAM system without worrying about translation errors or other difficulties. And finally,
some integrated systems provide full associativity, which means 2

that any modification to the CAD model will prompt the associated toolpath to be automatically
updated.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage
and retrieval of projects much easier. However, manual drawing is still very important and provides
the basics of learning to draw.
Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drawing are:
No need for scaling. All drawing is done full size.
Both two and three dimensional drawings can be produced.
The screen drawing area can be set to any size with the click of a button
work is copied and stored off the computer for security you may never lose your work again!
All of the tools needed are supplied by the program.
Drawings are stored on disk rather than in a bulky folder.
Absolute accuracy can be maintained.
Dimensioning is almost automatic.
Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing.
Parts of drawings can be saved and used in other drawings.
Eliminates the need for full size set outs.
Everything you learn about manual drawing technique applies to CAD/CAM drawing
development.
The images are displayed on the PC screen and, with the click of a button, can be put on paper
using printers or plotters.
top advantages to adding CAD-CAM software
1. Increase Programming Potential.
By adding CAD-CAM software to your CNC toolkit, you can open up possibilities for your business
that may not have been there before. An example of this is gaining the ability to take on harder, more
complex 3 Axis machining jobs. CAD-CAM can help a shop manage and create toolpath and NC
programs for complex machining projects such as mold work. These types of jobs are next to
impossible to calculate by hand or even through using machine canned cycles. A CAD-CAM system
completely automates the process. 3

2. Makes You More Accessible by Clients.


By having a CAD-CAM software product in your shop, you can receive CAD models from clients
faster and easier than ever before. You will be able to open CAD files easily, setup the toolpath for
machining and perform simulations that provide valuable information for you in the quoting process
such as the calculation of cycle times. Manufacturing can deliver products to market faster and more
affordable than ever before. This has a lot to do with technological advancements in CNC machining
and in CAD-CAM software. The software allows users to design faster, manage projects, test and
simulate as well as machine faster than ever.
3. Improved Control Over Job Programming.
Modern CAD-CAM functionality includes a CAM Tree Manager that allows you to track the job
from beginning to end. You have full control over post processing, stock, work coordinates, material
and tooling as well as access to machining operations that determine how the part will be machined
as well as the output of the NC Program. The CAM Tree has many built in benefits such as saving
and loading machining templates, copying and pasting machining operations, reordering how the job
is sequenced, toolpath associativity so that if a CAD edit is made to the part, all of the toolpaths are
updated and much more. Higher control capabilities lead to perfectly finished parts being completed
faster.
4. Machining Wizards Remove The Guesswork.
CAD-CAM provides the automation required to maximize programming efficiency. Machining
wizards remove the guesswork from programming as they step the operator through the process of
setting cutting depths, selecting tools, choosing toolpath styles, managing cutter lead-ins and leadouts, choosing compensation settings as well as many other important parameters that have to do
with creating machine toolpath. Wizards allow new programmers to be successful faster while still
providing advanced programmers with the utilities and confidence to program error free parts
regardless of their complexity.
5. Getting The Most Out of Your CNC Machine Tool.
CAD-CAM software provides high-speed machine toolpaths that deliver a host of benefits that all
equal up to reduced cycle times, less tool wear and a reduction in machine wear and tear over the
long term. High-speed toolpaths allow you to improve the quality of cutting by eliminating the stop
and go actions that traditional offset toolpath creates. The rounded more circular cutting motions at
higher speeds allow a constant tool engagement with the material, 4

deeper cuts and the ability to use more of the cutting tool itself. High speed machining can improve
CNC machine productivity by as much as 50%.
6. Eliminate Costly Mistakes & Waste.
CAD-CAM software provides powerful simulation features. Simulation allows you to visually
inspect the machining process, catch costly tool gouges and collisions before they reach the CNC
machine. This alone makes adding a CAD-CAM product to the shop a good decision. Simulation
also provides detailed information about the toolpath, cycle times, part deviation analysis, the ability
to create simulation presentations and much more. Higher levels of simulation will allow you to use
your machines kinematics to simulate machining with the actual machine tool visually.
Work holding can also be modeled and added to simulation to complete the visual inspection of the
part being machined as well as everything else involved.
7. Powerful 3 Axis CNC Programming Operations.
CAD-CAM software provides the ability create complex 3 Axis machine toolpath quickly and
efficiently. Without CAD-CAM, programming complex parts is practically impossible as often time
there are multiple toolpaths required from advanced roughing, semi-finishing and then multiple
finishing toolpath strategies. In addition, the latest releases of BobCAD-CAM provide Dynamic
Machining Strategies allowing the programmer to apply multiple roughing and finishing
operations to a single CAD feature.
8. Multiaxis CAM Technology Makes Complex Machining Simple and Cost Effective.
Simultaneous 4 and 5 Axis CNC machining can be the most difficult to create NC programs for.
CAD-CAM software provides the solutions to make these types of CNC jobs much easier than ever
before. This starts with 4th Axis indexing and rotary machining jobs that require toolpath and special
post processing that only a CAM system can offer. Posting can even be customized by the operator
with a little training for a wide variety of 4 and 5 Axis machines. Full 5 axis toolpaths include
surface-based machining operations that accommodate port milling, SWARF and undercutting type
toolpath strategies as well as 3+2 programming. Without a CAD-CAM system this level of CNC
programming is nearly impossible. CAM systems can also provide full 4 & 5 Axis simulation, which
is critical when programming these types of parts to visually inspect the machining process before an
NC program ever reaches the machine. 5

9. Turn Art Into CNC Programs & Finished Parts Easily.


Artistic CAD-CAM technology has evolved to support a wide range of custom applications. Two of
these specialized industries would be the custom woodworking and jewelry making industry. These
types applications require the ability to turn a picture into a 3D relief model that can be machined in a
variety of ways. This also includes the ability to turn a picture into 2D profiles that can be used for
engraving, pocket milling and profile milling. These industries have to then be able to create these
programs to me machined on a CNC Mill or Router in 2, 3 and 4 Axis. Some even require 5 Axis
CNC programming capabilities.
10. Seamless Integration with Popular CAD Design Products.
Some CAD-CAM providers have teamed up with highly popular CAD vendors such as SolidWorks
to create powerful CAM machining modules that integrate into the CAD software as a plug-in. This
allows existing CAD users to create the necessary machining for the part, simulate everything and
create the NC programs for them. This is highly beneficial, as the CAD users do not have to
completely re-learn a new CAD-CAM system; they only need to learn the machining side. By going
this way, a CAD Designer can acquire more value and seek more clients for being a full service
design and programming facility. Typically CAM products that plug-in to CAD systems can be easier
to learn and use after some training.
BASIC DESIGN PROCESS
The design process mainly consists of six phases is given by 6

Recognition of need: When someone realizes that problem exists, for which a product can be
designed.
Define the problem: Specify the item to be designed. This includes the cost, operating performance
and characteristics functions.
Synthesis: Each subsystem of the designed is thoroughly conceptualized and analyzed, and if some
shortcomings are there, improve this with the help of software like CAD.
Analysis and optimization: The product is redesigned and analyzed again and again. This process
will go on till the designed is optimized.
Evaluation of design: Measure and test the design as specified in the problem definition phase. Tests
are to be conducted on prototype model.
Presentation: Make the final drawing of the design by mentioning its material, size and assembly
list. It means a database of the design is created for manufacturing.
CAD/CAM Database
With the advent of the CAD and CAM software there has been integration of designing and
manufacturing processes. Just like computer aided designing (CAD) we have concept ofcomputer
aided manufacturing (CAM). CAD software enables direct link between CAD and CAM.
On its part CAD enables automation of designing, while CAM enables automation of manufacturing
processes. The combination of CAD and CAM enables automated transitionfrom designing to
manufacturing.
For the product that has been designed using the CAD software on computer, all the process planning
and management of the manufacturing operations for the manufacture of the product can be done by
the computer systems. All the data from the CAD systems can be directly used for the CAM systems.
The database created by the integration of CAD/CAM is also called as manufacturing database. It
includes all the data about the product generated during design like shape and dimensions, bill of
materials and part lists, material specifications etc. It also includes additional data required for the
manufacturing purposes.
Thus in the integrated CAD/CAM system the two processes of designing and manufacturing are
combined together. There is no time gap between the two processes and there is no duplication of
efforts required on the parts of designer and the production personnel. 7

Data base management


The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. The issues are complex
but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways, including schemes for organizing data,
standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. The standards for
product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere.
This chapter hence is devoted to the organization of data. 8

A major problem to be solved to implement CIM has always been that of distributing information
among different computer based systems. As indicated in earlier chapters CIM is typically integration
of islands of computer aided functions running on different computers using different databases.
Joining those islands into an effective CIM enterprise requires proper methods of processing
information. Information, if it is to be useful, must be appropriate, machine-interpretable, and
available when and where it is needed.
FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
A database management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to
access that data. Database management involves:
Organize a database.
Add new data to the database.
Sort the data in some meaningful order.
Search the database for types of information.
Print the data into formatted reports.
Edit the data.
Delete the data.
DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR
The person responsible for managing the database is often referred to as database administrator. His
functions include:
Creating the primary database structure
Backing up and restoring data in case of crash
Modifying the structure
Transfer data to external files
Allocate and control user access rights
Monitoring performance
COMPARISON OF DATABASE AND TRADITIONAL FILE SYSTEMS
File system represents a tight coupling between physical data and users program. They lack almost
all the flexibilities offered by DBMS. Most of the indispensable facilities of DBMS of are, therefore
forced to be absorbed by users program. 9

In other words besides the logic of the application the user has to provide logic for constructing the
logical view of data, has to interpret the operations on the logical view and translate them in to the
primitive file operations, and has to be responsible for maintaining the files that store the physical
data. The tight coupling and interdependence of between a users application and the physical data
would not allow sharing of the same data by other applications that may need to view and manipulate
them differently.
This then forces the data to be duplicated among various applications. File systems lack dynamism in
the sense that the application programs are designed, coded, debugged, and catalogued ahead of time
for the preconceived requests and applications. The following list summarizes the problems of file
systems that can be overcome by DBMS.
i. Data dependence
ii. Rigidity
iii. Static nature
iv. Lack of integration
v. Data duplication
vi. Inconsistency
vii. Difficulty in sharing information
viii. Inefficiency
ix. Inability to handle ado requests.
PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS
Traditionally drawings are prepared on plane drawing sheets. This has several limitations. The
sketches have to be made only in two dimensions. Though the depth can be represented by pictorial
projections like isometric and perspective projections, the projections have to be necessarily reduced
to two dimensions. Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the
designer. Some of them are listed below:
Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. Some of them are
listed below:
The object is represented by its geometric model in three dimensions (X, Y and Z).
The mathematical representation reduces creation of views like orthographic, isometric,
axonometric or perspective projections into simple viewing transformations. 10

Though the size of the screen is limited, there is no need to scale the drawings.
Drawings can be made very accurate.
The geometric models can be represented in color and can be viewed from any angle. Sections can
be automatically created.
The associatively ensures that any change made in one of the related views will automatically
reflect in other views.
Revision and revision control are easy.
Drawings (geometric models) can be modified easily.
More important than all, drawings can be reused conveniently.
Storage and retrieval of drawings are easy
Modern computer graphics displays are simple in construction. They consist of basically three
components.
i. Monitor
ii. Digital Memory or Frame Buffer
iii. Display Controller
Most of the computer graphics displays use raster CRT which is a matrix of discrete cells each of
which can be made bright. A graphic entity like line or circle is represented as a series of points or
dots on the screen. Therefore, it is called as a point plotting device. The video display screen is
divided into very small rectangular elements called a picture element or pixel.
This happens to be the smallest addressable screen element. Graphic images are formed by setting
suitable intensity and color to the pixels which compose the image. Depending upon the resolution
screens may have varying number of pixels. For example, an SVGA monitor with a resolution of
1024 x 768 will have 1024 pixels in every row (X - direction) and 768 pixels in every column (Ydirection). Monitors of larger size will have resolution of 1024 x 1024 or more.
A raster scan system displays the image on a CRT in a certain fixed sequence. The refresh rate is the
number of complete images or frames scanned per second. In the case of interlaced refresh cycle odd
numbered raster lines are refreshed during 1/60th of a second. Even numbered raster lines are
refreshed during the next 1/60th of a second. In non-interlaced displays, all lines are refreshed in
1/60th of a second. The quality of noninterlaced display is hence, superior. These systems, however,
require expensive frame buffer memory and display controller. 11

GRAPHIC PRIMITIVES
A drawing is created by an assembly of points, lines, arcs, circles. For example, drawing shown in
Fig consists of several entities. In computer graphics also drawings are created in a similar manner.
Each of these is called an entity. The drawing entities that a user may find in a typical CAD package
include : point line construction line, multi-line, polyline circle spline arc ellipse polygon rectangle.
POINT PLOTTING
The frame buffer display is an example of a point plotting device. The smallest unit accepted by such
displays is a single pixel. To construct a useful picture on a point plotting device, a picture must be
built out of several hundreds of pixel
DRAWING OF LINES
Straight line segments are used a great deal in computer generated pictures. The following criteria
have been stipulated for line drawing displays :
Lines should appear straight
ii. Lines should terminate accurately
iii. Lines should have constant density
iv. Line density should be independent of length and angle
v. Line should be drawn rapidly
The process of turning on the pixels for a line segment is called vector generation. If the end points
of the line segment are known, there are several schemes for selecting the pixels 12

between the end pixels. One method of generating a line segment is a symmetrical digital differential
analyzer (DDA)
COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS MONITORING
The advances in automation have enabled industries to develop islands of automation. Examples are
flexible manufacturing cells, robotized work cells, flexible inspection cells etc. One of the objectives
of CIM is to achieve the consolidation and integration of these islands of automation.
This requires sharing of information among different applications or sections of a factory, accessing
incompatible and heterogeneous data and devices. The ultimate objective is to meet the competition
by improved customer satisfaction through reduction in cost, improvement in quality and reduction
in product development time.
CIM makes full use of the capabilities of the digital computer to improve manufacturing. Two of
them are:
i. Variable and Programmable automation
ii. ii. Real time optimization
The computer has the capability to accomplish the above for hardware components of manufacturing
(the manufacturing machinery and equipment) and software component of manufacturing (the
application software, the information flow, database and so on).
The capabilities of the computer are thus exploited not only for the various bits and pieces of
manufacturing activity but also for the entire system of manufacturing. Computers have the
tremendous potential needed to integrate the entire manufacturing system and thereby evolve the
computer integrated manufacturing system.
TYPES OF MANUFACTURING
The term manufacturing covers a broad spectrum of activities. Metal working industries, process
industries like chemical plants, oil refineries, food processing industries, electronic industries making
microelectronic components, printed circuit boards, computers and entertainment electronic products
etc. are exam