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Problem Set 2 Solutions

**PHY 4604 Problem Set #2 Solutions
**

Problem 1 (10 points): The time-dependent Schrödinger’s equation is ∂Ψ ( x, t ) h 2 ∂ 2 Ψ ( x, t ) ih =− + V ( x ) Ψ ( x, t ) , ∂t 2m ∂ 2 x where we take the potential energy, V, to be only a function of x (not of time). We look for solutions of the form Ψ ( x, t ) = ψ ( x)Φ (t ) . The time-dependent equation separates into two equations (separation constant E). h 2 d 2ψ ( x) dΦ (t ) − + V ( x)ψ ( x) = Eψ ( x) and ih = EΦ (t ) . 2 dt 2m d x Thus, Φ (t ) = e −iEt / h . (a) (3 points) For normalizable solutions, show that the separation constant E must be real. Solution: Following Griffith’s problem 2.1 we set E = Er + iΓ , where Er and Γ are real. Thus, Ψ ( x, t ) = ψ ( x)e −iEt / h = ψ ( x)eΓt / h e − iE r t / h and

+∞ −∞

∫ Ψ ( x, t )Ψ( x, t )dx = 1 = e

∗ +∞

2 Γt / h

+∞

−∞

∫ψ

∗

( x)ψ ( x)dx .

The second term is independent of time and hence Γ = 0 and E is real. One can prove E is real by noting that if V(x) is real then

−∞

∫ψ

∗

( x) H opψ ( x)dx =

2 ( px ) op

+∞

−∞

∫ (H

op

ψ ( x) )∗ψ ( x)dx ,

where

h2 d 2 + Vop = − + V ( x) . H op = 2m 2m d 2 x The time-independent Schrödinger equation is H opψ ( x) = Eψ ( x) which yields

+∞

−∞

+∞

∫ψ

∗

( x) H opψ ( x)dx = E ∫ψ ∗ ( x)ψ ( x)dx

−∞

+∞ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∫ (Eψ ( x)) ψ ( x)dx = E ∫ψ ( x)ψ ( x)dx −∞ +∞

+∞

Thus, E = E which means that E is real. (b) (3 points) Show that E corresponds to the total energy and that Ψ ( x, t ) = ψ ( x)Φ (t ) corresponds to a state with definite energy (i.e. ΔE = 0). Solution: < E >=< H op >= ∫ψ ∗ ( x) H opψ ( x)dx = E ∫ψ ∗ ( x)ψ ( x)dx = E

−∞ −∞ +∞ +∞

*

−∞

∫ (H

∗ opψ ( x ) ) ψ ( x ) dx =

−∞

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**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

+∞ +∞

Problem Set 2 Solutions

2 < E 2 >=< H op >= ∫ψ ∗ ( x)( H op ) 2ψ ( x)dx = ∫ψ ∗ ( x)( H op )( H op )ψ ( x)dx −∞ −∞

= E 2 ∫ψ ∗ ( x)ψ ( x)dx = E 2

−∞

+∞

**Thus, (ΔE) = <E > - <E>2 = 0. Also note that since Ψ ( x, t ) = ψ ( x)e −iEt / h we have
**

2 2

⎛ ∂⎞ ∗ ∗ ∫∞ Ψ ( x, t )⎜ ih ∂t ⎟Ψ ( x, t )dx = E −∫∞ψ ( x)ψ ( x)dx = E . ⎝ ⎠ −∞ − (c) (4 points) Show that the time-independent wave function, ψ (x) , can always be taken to be a real function. (Hint: take V to be real and see Griffith’s problem 2.1) Solution: If ψ (x) satisfies H opψ ( x) = Eψ ( x) we can take the complex conjugate of both sides < E >=< Eop >= ∫ Ψ ∗ ( x, t ) Eop Ψ ( x, t )dx =

∗ and get H opψ ∗ ( x) = E ∗ψ ∗ ( x) , but Hop* = Hop and E* = E and hence H opψ ∗ ( x) = Eψ ∗ ( x) . Thus,

+∞

+∞

+∞

**ψ independent equation and ( ( x) + ψ ( x) ) is real.
**

∗

H op ψ ( x) + ψ ∗ ( x) = E ψ ( x) + ψ ∗ ( x) and we see that ψ ( x) + ψ ∗ ( x) is a solution to the time-

(

)

(

)

(

)

Problem 2 (50 points): Consider an infinite square well defined by V(x) = 0 for 0 < x < a, and V(x) = ∞ otherwise. (a) (4 points) Show that the stationary states are given by 2 sin( nπx / a ) Ψn ( x, t ) = ψ n ( x)e − iE n t / h with ψ n ( x) = a n 2π 2h 2 , and n is a positive integer. and En = 2ma 2 Solution: For the region outside of 0 < x < a ψ ( x) = 0 and inside the region

d 2ψ ( x) h 2 d 2ψ ( x) h 2k 2 = Eψ ( x) or = −k 2ψ ( x) with E = 2m d 2 x d 2x 2m The most general solution is of the form ψ ( x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx) . The boundary condition at x = 0 givesψ (0) = B = 0 and the boundary condition at x = a gives ψ (a) = A sin(ka) = 0 which implies that ka = nπ with n = 1, 2, 3,… Thus, −

**ψ n ( x) = A sin(nπx / a) with En =
**

+∞ ∗ n a 2 2

**n 2π 2h 2 . The normalization is arrived at by requiring that 2ma 2
**

nπ nπ

aA2 aA2 ⎛ y sin(2 y ) ⎞ aA2 ψ ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = 1 = A ∫ sin (nπx / a )dx = sin 2 ( y )dy = ⎜ − ⎟ = ∫ nπ ∫ nπ ⎝ 2 4 ⎠0 2 0 0 −∞ Thus, A = 2 / a . These states are called stationary because the probability density and all the expectation values are independent of time. (b) (2 points) Show that the states, ψ n (x) , form an orthonormal set. Namely, show that

+∞ −∞

∫ψ

∗ m

( x)ψ n ( x)dx = δ mn .

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**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

Solution:

Problem Set 2 Solutions

2 2 ∫ sin(mπx / a) sin(nπx / a)dx = π ∫ sin(my) sin(my)dy = δ mn a0 −∞ 0 (c) (8 points) Calculate <x>, <x2>, <px>, and <px2> for the nth stationary state. ⎛1 a 1 ⎞ n 2π 2h 2 2 ⎟ , < px > n = 0 , < px > n = Answer: < x > n = , < x 2 > n = a 2 ⎜ − ⎜ 3 2(nπ ) 2 ⎟ a2 2 ⎝ ⎠ Solution:

∗ ∫ψ m ( x)ψ n ( x)dx =

+∞

a

π

**2 2⎛ a ⎞ < x > n = ∫ψ ( x)( x)opψ n ( x)dx = ∫ x sin 2 (nπx / a )dx = ⎜ ⎟ a0 a ⎝ nπ ⎠ −∞
**

∗ n a

+∞

2 nπ

∫ y sin

0

2

( y )dy

**2a ⎛ y 2 y sin( 2 y ) cos(2 y ) ⎞ a ⎜ − ⎟ = = − 2 ⎜ ⎟ (nπ ) ⎝ 4 4 8 ⎠0 2 2 2⎛ a ⎞ < x > n = ∫ψ ( x)( x )opψ n ( x)dx = ∫ x 2 sin 2 (nπx / a)dx = ⎜ ⎟ a0 a ⎝ nπ ⎠ −∞
**

2 ∗ n a 2 nπ +∞ 3 nπ

nπ

∫y

0

2

sin 2 ( y )dy

2 3 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 2a 2 ⎛ y 3 ⎛ y 2 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎜ − ⎟ sin(2 y ) − y cos(2 y ) ⎟ = 2a 3 ⎜ (nπ ) − nπ ⎟ = a 2 ⎜ 1 − 1 2 ⎟ 3 ⎜ ⎜ 3 2(nπ ) ⎟ ⎜ 4 8⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 6 ⎟ (nπ ) ⎝ 6 ⎝ 4 (nπ ) ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠0 There are two ways to calculate <px>n. The easiest is to take the time derivative of <x> as follows: d < x >n < px > n = m = 0. dt The more difficult way is to evaluate +∞ +∞ ∂ ⎞ ⎛ ∗ ∗ < p x > n = ∫ψ n ( x)( p x ) opψ n ( x)dx = ∫ψ n ( x)⎜ − ih ⎟ψ n ( x)dx ∂x ⎠ ⎝ −∞ −∞

=

= −i h

**2 nπ 2 ∫ sin(nπx / a) cos(nπx / a)dx = −ih a ∫ sin( y) cos( y)dy a a 0 0
**

a nπ

nπ

There are also two ways to calculate <px2>n . The easy way is to use the fact that since in this problem V = 0 we have ( p )2 2 H op = x op and H opψ n = Enψ n so that ( p x )opψ n = 2mEnψ n and hence 2m +∞ +∞ ⎛ n 2π 2h 2 ⎞ n 2π 2h 2 2 2 ∗ ∗ < px > n = ∫ψ n ( x)( px )opψ n ( x)dx = 2mEn ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = 2m⎜ ⎜ 2ma 2 ⎟ = a 2 . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −∞ −∞ The more difficult way is to evaluate

2 ⎛ sin 2 ( y ) ⎞ ⎟ =0 = −i h ⎜ a⎜ 2 ⎟0 ⎝ ⎠

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**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

+∞ +∞

Problem Set 2 Solutions ⎛ ⎝ ∂2 ⎞ ⎟ψ n ( x)dx ∂x 2 ⎟ ⎠

∗ 2 2 < px > n = ∫ψ n ( x)( px )opψ n ( x)dx = −∞

2a

−∞

∗ 2 ∫ ψ n ( x)⎜ − h ⎜ nπ

**2 ⎛ nπ ⎞ 2 2 2 ⎛ nπ ⎞ 2 =h ⎜ ⎟ ∫ sin (nπx / a )dx = h ⎜ ⎟ ∫ sin ( y )dy a⎝ a ⎠ 0 a⎝ a ⎠0
**

2

**n 2π 2h 2 2 ⎛ nπ ⎞⎛ y sin(2 y ) ⎞ =h ⎜ ⎟⎜ − ⎟ = a ⎝ a ⎠⎝ 2 a2 4 ⎠0 (d) (6 points) Compute Δx = σx and Δpx = σ p x for the nth stationary state. Is the product ΔxΔpx
**

2

nπ

consistent with the uncertainty principle? Which state comes closest to the uncertainty limit? a 1 2 nπh h (nπ ) 2 − , (Δpx ) n = , (ΔxΔpx ) n = −2 2 3 ( nπ ) 2 a 2 3 Solution: For From (c) we see that

Answer: (Δx) n =

⎛1 1 ⎞ a2 1 1 a 1 2 (Δx) n = < x 2 > n − < x > 2 = a 2 ⎜ − n ⎜ 3 2(nπ ) 2 ⎟ − 4 = a 12 − 2(nπ ) 2 = 2 3 − (nπ ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (Δp x ) n = < p > n − < px > =

2 x 2 n

n 2π 2h 2 nπh = a2 a

and

nπh a 1 h ( nπ ) 2 h 2 − = −2 ≥ . 2 a 2 3 ( nπ ) 2 3 2 The smallest ΔxΔpx is the ground state n = 1 where (ΔxΔpx ) n =

h π2 h − 2 = (1.136) 2 3 2 (e) (8 points) Suppose that particle in this infinite square well has an initial wave function which is an even mixture of the first two stationary states: Ψ ( x,0) = A[ 1 ( x) + ψ 2 ( x)] . ψ What is the normalization A? If you measure the energy of this particle, what are the possible values you might get, and what is the probability of getting each of them? What is the expectation value of the energy for this state? 5π 2 h 2 Answer: A = 1 / 2 , E1 with probability ½ and energy E2 with probability ½, < E >= 4ma 2 Solution: The normalization is arrived at by requiring that

(ΔxΔpx ) n =1 =

+∞ −∞ ∗ ∗ ∗ 2 ∫ Ψ ( x,0)Ψ ( x,0)dx = 1 = A ∫ ψ 1 ( x) +ψ 2 ( x) [ψ 1 ( x) +ψ 2 ( x)]dx −∞ +∞ +∞

[

]

∗ ∗ = A2 ∫ ψ 1∗ ( x)ψ 1 ( x) + ψ 1∗ ( x)ψ 2 ( x) + ψ 2 ( x)ψ 1 ( x) + ψ 2 ( x)ψ 2 ( x) dx = 2 A2 −∞

(

)

and A = 1 / 2 . Thus, Ψ ( x, t ) = c1ψ 1 ( x)e − iE1t / h + c2ψ 2 ( x)e − iE 2 t / h ,

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PHY4604 Fall 2007

Problem Set 2 Solutions

where c1 = c2 = 1 / 2 which means that you get energy E1 with probability ½ and energy E2 with probability ½. The expectation value of E is 1 ⎛ π 2h 2 4π 2h 2 ⎞ 5π 2h 2 ⎟= < E >= 1 E1 + 1 E2 = ⎜ + 2 2 2 ⎜ 2ma 2 2ma 2 ⎟ 4ma 2 ⎝ ⎠ (f) (10 points) Suppose that particle in this infinite square well has the initial wave function 0 ≤ x ≤ a/2 ⎧ Ax Ψ ( x,0) = ⎨ ⎩ A(a − x) a / 2 ≤ x ≤ a Sketch Ψ (x,0) and determine the normalization A. Find Ψ ( x, t ) . What is the probability that a measurement of the energy of this state will yield the ground state energy E1? What is the expectation value of the energy for the state Ψ ( x, t ) ?

Answer: A = 2 3 / a 3 , Ψ ( x, t ) =

4 6

π2

**2 ∞ 1 ∑5,L (−1) ( n−1) / 2 n 2 sin(nπx / a)e −iEnt / h , a n =1,3,
**

96

**the probability of measuring E1 is P1 =
**

2

π4

≈ 0.9855 , < E >=

Ψ(x,0)

6h 2 . ma 2

1

0 0.0 0.5 1.0

x/a

**Solution: First we normalize the distribution as follows:
**

+∞

1=

−∞

2 2 2 2 ∗ ∫ ρ ( x)dx = ∫ Ψ ( x,0)Ψ( x,0)dx = A ∫ x dx + A ∫ (a − x) dx

+∞

a/2

a

−∞

0

a/2

a/2

= 2 A2

3

∫ x dx = 12 A

2 0

a

3

2

**Thus, A = 12 / a = 2 3 / a 3 . We know that
**

∗ Ψ ( x, t ) = ∑ cnψ n ( x)e − iE n t / h with cn = ∫ψ n ( x)Ψ ( x,0)dx .

n =1

∞

+∞

−∞

Thus,

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**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

2 cn = A a =A 2 a

a/2 a/2 a

**Problem Set 2 Solutions
**

2 ∫ x sin(nπx / a)dx + A a a∫/ 2(a − x) sin(nπx / a)dx 0 2 a

a/2

∫ x sin(nπx / a)dx + A

0

∫ x sin(nπ − nπx / a)dx =

0

= 1 − (−1) n A

[ [

] ]

2 a

a/2

⎛ a ⎞ n ∫ x sin(nπx / a)dx = 1 − (−1) A⎜ nπ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 0

2

[

]

2

2 a

nπ / 2

∫ y sin( y)dy

0

⎛ a ⎞ 2 (sin(nπ / 2) − (nπ / 2) cos(nπ / 2) ) = 1 − (−1) n A⎜ ⎟ ⎝ nπ ⎠ a For even n cn = 0 and for odd n we have

cn = (−1) and 4 6

( n −1) / 2

2 3⎛ a ⎞ 2 3/ 2 ⎜ ⎟ a ⎝ nπ ⎠

2

2 4 6 = (−1)( n −1) / 2 2 2 a nπ

2 ∞ 1 n 2π 2h 2 (−1)( n −1) / 2 2 sin(nπx / a )e − iE n t / h where En = . ∑ 2ma 2 n π 2 a n =1,3,5,L The probability of measuring E1 is Ψ ( x, t ) = P = cn 1 The expectation value of the energy is ⎛ 4 6 ⎞ ⎛ n 2π 2h 2 ⎞ < E >= ∑ cn En = ∑ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2m ⎟ n =1 n =1, 3, 5 ,L ⎝ n π ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 2 ∞ 48h 1 48h ⎛ 1 1 1 1 6h 2 ⎞ 48h = = ξ (2) = ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + L⎟ = ∑ 2 2 7 ma 2π 2 n =1,3,5,L n 2 ma 2π 2 ⎝ 1 3 5 ma 2 ⎠ ma π where I used π2 1 1 1 . 1+ 2 + 2 + 2 +L = 3 5 7 8 (g) (12 points) Suppose a particle of mass m in this infinite square is in the ground state (i.e. n = 1). Now suppose that the well suddenly expands to twice its original size (the right wall moves from a to 2a) leaving the wave function (momentarily) undisturbed. If the energy of the particle is now measured, what is the most probable value and what is the probability of getting this value? What is the next most probable value, and what is its probability? π 2h 2 Answer: Most probable energy is E2 = with probability P2 = ½. The next most probable 2ma 2 32 π 2h 2 energy is E1 = , with probability P1 = ≈ 0.36025 . 2 8ma 9π 2 Solution: The new allowed energies are n 2π 2h 2 En = 2 m ( 2a ) 2 and the new wave functions are

∞

2 2

⎛4 6⎞ 96 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 4 ≈ 0.9855 . ⎜ π ⎟ π ⎝ ⎠

2

2

∞

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**PHY4604 Fall 2007 2 ⎛ nπ ⎞ sin ⎜ x ⎟ with Ψ ( x,0) = 2a ⎝ 2a ⎠
**

∞ +∞

Problem Set 2 Solutions 2 ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ x ⎟ a ⎝a ⎠

ψ n ( x) =

We know that

∗ Ψ ( x, t ) = ∑ cnψ n ( x)e − iE n t / h with cn = ∫ψ n ( x)Ψ ( x,0)dx .

n =1

−∞

For n ≠ 2 we get, a 2 ⎛ nπ cn = ∫ sin⎜ 2a a 0 ⎝

⎞ ⎛π x ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎠ ⎝a

a ⎛ ⎛ n ⎞ πx ⎞⎤ 2 ⎡ ⎛ ⎛ n ⎞ πx ⎞ ⎞ x ⎟dx = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ∫ ⎢cos⎜ ⎜ 2 − 1⎟ a ⎟ − cos⎜ ⎜ 2 + 1⎟ a ⎟⎥ dx = 2a 0 ⎣ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎝⎝ a

⎡ ⎛⎛ n ⎞ ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ ⎛ n ⎞ πx ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ n ⎞ πx ⎞ ⎤ ⎛⎛ n ⎞ ⎞⎤ ⎢ sin ⎜ ⎜ − 1⎟π ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎜ + 1⎟π ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ sin ⎜ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎢ ⎝⎝ 2 ⎢ ⎝⎝ ⎝ ⎠ a ⎠⎥ ⎠ a⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎠ ⎠ − ⎝ = − ⎝ = ⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎛n ⎞ 2a ⎢ ⎛ n ⎞ π ⎛n ⎞ ⎛ n ⎞π ⎜ + 1⎟π ⎥ ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎢ ⎜ 2 − 1⎟π ⎢ ⎜ 2 − 1⎟ a ⎥ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ a ⎦0 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎛ ⎛ n ⎞ ⎞⎡ 1 1 ⎤ 4 2 sin (( n + 1)π ) 2 sin ⎜ ⎜ + 1⎟π ⎟ ⎢ 1 −1 ⎥= 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ n −1 n −4 π 2π ⎠ ⎠⎣ 2 ⎝⎝ 2 n + 1⎦ For n = 2 we get, = 2 2 2 2 ⎛ y sin(2 y ) ⎞ 2 2 2 c2 = ∫ sin (πx / a)dx = π ∫ sin ( y)dy = π ⎜ 2 − 4 ⎟ 0 = 2 . a 0 ⎝ ⎠ 0

a

π

π

Thus,

Pn = cn

2

n=2 ⎧ 1 2 ⎪ 32 = ⎨ π 2 ( n 2 − 4 ) 2 n = 1,3,5,L ⎪ 0 n = 4,6,8,L ⎩

The most probable energy is E2 =

2ma 2

π 2h 2

(same as before the change) with probability P2 = ½. , with probability 32 ≈ 0.36025 . 9π 2

**The next most probable energy is E1 =
**

2

8ma 2

π 2h 2

P = c1 = π 2 ( n32− 4 ) 2 = 2 1

Problem 3 (50 points): Consider the one dimensional harmonic oscillator with potential energy 1 V ( x) = kx 2 . The Hamiltonian is given by 2 2 px 1 2 H= +V = p x + (mωx) 2 2m 2m where ω = k / m . We express the Hamiltonian in terms of the operators (px)op and (x)op, where ∂2 ∂ 2 ( px )op = −ih and ( x) op = x and ( p x ) op = ( p x ) op ( p x ) op = −h 2 2 . ∂x ∂x Namely,

(

)

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PHY4604 Fall 2007 1 (( px2 )op + m2ω 2 ( x 2 )op ), 2m and we define the two operators (a± )op as follows H op =

Problem Set 2 Solutions

1 (mωxop m i( px )op ). 2hmω (a) (2 points) Prove that the commutator of (px)op and (x)op is given by [( px )op , ( x)op ] = −ih , (a± ) op ≡ where [Aop,Bop] = AopBop – BopAop. Solution: The commutator is an operator and to figure out what it is equal to we must operate on a function as follows: [( p x )op , ( x) op ]ψ ( x) = (( p x ) op ( x)op − ( x) op ( p x )op ) ( x) ψ . ∂ ∂ ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ = −ih ( xψ ) + ihx (ψ ) = −ih ψ − ihx + ihx = − i hψ ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x Thus, [( px )op , ( x) op ] = −ih .

(b) (2 points) Prove that [(a-)op,(a+)op] = 1. Solution: We see that 1 [(a− ) op , (a+ ) op ] = [mωxop + i ( p x ) op , mωxop − i ( p x ) op ] 2hmω 1 = m 2ω 2 [ xop , xop ] − imω[ xop , ( p x ) op ] + imω[( p x ) op , xop ] + [( p x ) op , ( p x ) op ] 2hmω i = [( p x ) op , xop ] = 1 h (c) (2 points) Prove that H op = hω ((a+ )op (a− ) op + 1 ) = hω ((a− )op (a+ ) op − 1 ) . 2 2

(

)

**Solution: We see that
**

1 (mωxop − i( px )op )(mωxop + i( px )op ) 2hmω 2 ⎞ 1 1 ⎛ ( px ) op 1 1 2 2 2 ⎜ = m 2ω 2 xop + ( p x )op − imω[( p x )op , xop ] = + mω 2 xop − hω ⎟ ⎟ 2hmω hω ⎜ 2 m 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 = H op − hω 2 and hence H op = hω ((a+ ) op (a− )op + 1 ) 2 (a+ )op (a− )op =

(

)

Also,

= hω ((a− ) op (a+ ) op − 1 ) 2

H op = hω ((a+ ) op (a− ) op + 1 ) = hω ((a− ) op (a+ ) op + [(a+ ) op , (a− ) op ] + 1 ) 2 2

**(d) (4 points) Show that [ H op , (a± )op ] = ±hω (a± )op . Solution: We see that [ H op , (a± )op ] = hω[(a+ ) op (a− )op + 1 , (a± )op ] = hω[(a+ ) op (a− )op , (a± )op ] 2
**

= hω (a+ )op [(a− )op , (a± )op ] + hω[(a+ ) op , (a± )op ](a− )op = ± hω (a± ) op where I used [AB,C]=A[B,C]+[A,C]B.

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PHY4604 Fall 2007

Problem Set 2 Solutions

(e) (4 points) Show that if the state ψ E satisfies Schrödinger’s equation with energy E (i.e. H opψ E = Eψ E ), then the state ψ + = (a+ )opψ E satisfies Schrödinger’s equation with energy

( E + hω ) and the state ψ − = (a− )opψ E satisfies Schrödinger’s equation with energy ( E − hω ) . Solution: From (d) we see that H opψ ± = H op (a± )opψ E = ((a± )op H op + [ H op , (a± )op ]) E ψ

((a )

± op

H op ± hω (a± )op ) E = ( E ± hω )ψ ± ψ

(f) (4 points) Show that if the state ψ E satisfies Schrödinger’s equation with energy E (i.e. H opψ E = Eψ E ), then E ≥ 1 hω . (Hint: use the fact that the norm of all allowed stated is positive 2

definite) Solution: The norm of any state must be positive definite and we know that ψ − = (a− )opψ E is either zero or a stationary state and hence

+∞ −∞

∫ψ

∗ −

( x)ψ − ( x)dx ≥ 0

+∞

and

+∞ −∞ ∗ ∫ψ − ( x)ψ − ( x)dx = +∞ +∞ −∞

∫ ((a )

−

∗ ∗ opψ E ( x ) ) ( a− ) opψ E ( x ) dx = ∫ψ E ( x )( a+ ) op ( a− ) opψ E ( x ) dx −∞ +∞

∗ ∗ = ∫ψ E ( x)(h1 H op − 1 ) E ( x)dx = ( h1 E − 1 ) ∫ψ E ( x)ψ E ( x)dx = ( h1 E − 1 ) ψ ω 2 ω 2 ω 2 −∞ −∞

**Thus, Note that I used the fact that
**

+∞ −∞

( h1ω E − 12 ) ≥ 0

±

and E ≥ 1 hω . 2

+∞

∫ ((a )

∗ ∗ opψ E ( x ) ) ψ − ( x ) dx = ∫ψ E ( x )( am ) opψ − ( x ) dx −∞

**which comes from
**

+∞ −∞

∫ ((a )

±

∗ opψ E ( x ) ) ψ − ( x ) dx = +∞

1 2hmω

+∞

−∞

∫ ((mωx

op

m i ( px )op ) E ( x) ) ψ − ( x)dx ψ

∗ +∞

= =

1 2hmω

**⎛⎛ ∂ ⎞ ∗ ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ∫∞ ⎜ ⎜ mωx m h ∂x ⎟ψ E ( x) ⎟ψ − ( x)dx = 2hmω ⎠ ⎠ − ⎝⎝
**

+∞ +∞

−∞

∫ψ

∗ E

∂ ⎞ ⎛ ( x)⎜ mωx ± h ⎟ψ − ( x)dx ∂x ⎠ ⎝

1 ∗ ∗ ∫∞ψ E ( x)(mωxop ± i( px )op )ψ − ( x)dx = −∫∞ψ E ( x)(am )opψ − ( x)dx 2hmω − where I integrated by parts and dropped the I integrated by parts and dropped the boundary term. (g) (4 points) The ground state, ψ 0 , is defined to be the stationary state with the lowest energy (i.e. H opψ 0 = E0ψ 0 ). Show that E0 = 1 hω and 2 ⎛ mω ⎞ − 2h x 2 ψ 0 ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ e ⎝ πh ⎠ Solution: We know that (a− )opψ 0 = 0 and thus

1/ 4

mω

Department of Physics

Page 9 of 14

**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

+∞ +∞

Problem Set 2 Solutions

∗ ∗ < E >=< H op >= ∫ψ 0 ( x) H opψ 0 ( x)dx = hω ∫ψ 0 ( x)((a+ ) op (a− ) op + 1 ) 0 ( x)dx 2ψ −∞ −∞

= and also

hω ∗ ∫∞ψ 0 ( x)ψ 0 ( x)dx = 12 hω 2 −

+∞

1 (mωxop + i( px )op )ψ 0 = 1 ⎛ mωx + h ∂∂x ⎞ψ 0 ⎜ ⎟ 2hmω 2hmω ⎝ ⎠ Thus ψ 0 ( x) = 0 satisfies the following differential equation, ∂ψ 0 ( x) mω xψ 0 ( x) , = ∂x h with solution (a− )opψ 0 = 0 =

ψ 0 ( x) = Ae

+∞

−

mω 2 x 2h

. dx = A2

**The normalization A is determined by requiring that
**

−∞ 1/ 4 2 ∗ ∫ψ 0 ( x)ψ 0 ( x)dx = 1 = A ∫ e −∞ +∞ − mω 2 x h

πh mω

⎛ mω ⎞ and hence A = ⎜ ⎟ . ⎝ πh ⎠ (h) (4 points) Prove that (a+ )opψ n = n + 1 n +1 and (a− )opψ n = nψ n −1 , were ψ n is the nth ψ excited state and show that ψ n =

Solution: From (f) we have

+∞ −∞

1 n (a+ )opψ 0 . n!

∗ +∞

∫ ((a

± op

∗ ) ψ m ( x) ) ψ n ( x)dx = ∫ψ m ( x)(am ) opψ n ( x)dx −∞

From (g) we know that (a+ ) opψ n = cnψ n +1 and (a− ) opψ n = d nψ n −1 where cn and dn are constants. In addition we know that H opψ n = Enψ n = (n + 1 )hωψ n = hω ((a+ ) op (a− )op + 1 ) n ψ 2 2 and hence Similarly, and hence Thus, (a+ )op (a− )opψ n = nψ n . H opψ n = Enψ n = (n + 1 )hωψ n = hω ((a− ) op (a+ )op − 1 ) n ψ 2 2 (a− ) op (a+ ) opψ n = (n + 1)ψ n .

Department of Physics

Page 10 of 14

**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

+∞

**Problem Set 2 Solutions
**

∗ opψ n ( x ) ) ( a+ ) opψ n ( x ) dx = cn +∞

−∞

∫ ((a )

+ +∞ ∗ n −∞

2

−∞

∫ψ

∗ n +1

( x)ψ n +1 ( x)dx = cn

2

∗ = ∫ψ ( x)(a− ) op (a+ )opψ n ( x)dx = (n + 1) ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = (n + 1) −∞

+∞

**so that cn = n + 1 . Similarly,
**

+∞ −∞

∫ ((a )

− +∞ −∞

∗ opψ n ( x ) ) ( a− ) opψ n ( x ) dx = d n

2

+∞

−∞ +∞

∫ψ

∗ n −1

( x)ψ n −1 ( x)dx = d n

2

∗ ∗ = ∫ψ n ( x)(a+ ) op (a− )opψ n ( x)dx = n ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = n −∞

so that d n = n . We see that 1 1 1 1 2 ψ 1 = (a+ )opψ 0 , ψ 2 = (a+ ) opψ 1 = (a+ ) opψ 0 , ψ 3 = (a+ )opψ 2 = ( a+ ) 3 ψ 0 op 3 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 2 2 1 n (a+ )opψ 0 . and ψ n = n! (i) (8 points) Find <x>, <x2>, <px>, and <px2> for the nth stationary state. 1⎞ h 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2 Answer: < x > n = 0 , < x 2 > n = ⎜ n + ⎟ , < px > n = 0 , < px > n = ⎜ n + ⎟hmω 2 ⎠ mω 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Solution: We see that h ((a+ )op + (a− )op ) ( px )op = i hmw ((a+ )op − (a− )op ). ( x) op = 2mω 2 Thus, +∞ +∞ h ∗ ∗ < x > n = ∫ψ n ( x)( x) opψ n ( x)dx = ψ n ( x)((a+ ) op + (a− ) op ) n ( x)dx ψ 2mω −∫ −∞ ∞ = where I used

∗ (a+ )opψ n = n + 1 n +1 and (a− )opψ n = nψ n −1 and ∫ψ m ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = δ mn . ψ −∞ +∞

h h ∗ ∗ n + 1 ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n+1 ( x)dx + n ∫ψ n−1 ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = 0 2mω 2mω −∞ −∞

+∞

+∞

**We can calculate <px>n from <x>n as follows: < px > n = m or we can calculate it the long way
**

∗ < p x > n = ∫ψ n ( x)( px ) opψ n ( x)dx = i −∞ +∞ +∞

d < x >n =0 dt

hmω ∗ ∫∞ψ n ( x)((a+ )op − (a− )op )ψ n ( x)dx 2 −

+∞

+∞

=i Now

hmω hmω ∗ ∗ n + 1 ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n+1 ( x)dx − i n ∫ψ n−1 ( x)ψ n ( x)dx = 0 2 2 −∞ −∞

Department of Physics

Page 11 of 14

**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

+∞ +∞

**Problem Set 2 Solutions
**

h 2 ∗ ∫∞ψ n ( x)((a+ )op + (a− )op ) ψ n ( x)dx 2mω −

∗ < x 2 > n = ∫ψ n ( x)( x 2 )opψ n ( x)dx = −∞ +∞

= =

h ∗ 2 2 ∫∞ψ n ( x) (a+ )op + (a+ )op (a− )op + (a− )op (a+ )op + (a− )op ψ n ( x)dx 2mω −

+∞ +∞ ⎤ ⎛ 1⎞ h h ⎡ ∗ ∗ 0 + n ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx + (n + 1) ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx + 0⎥ = ⎜ n + ⎟ ⎢ 2mω ⎣ 2 ⎠ mω −∞ −∞ ⎦ ⎝

(

)

where I used

2 (a+ )opψ n = (a+ )op

(

n + 1 n +1 = n + 1 n + 2ψ n + 2 ψ

(a+ )op (a− )opψ n = (a+ )op (a− ) op (a+ ) opψ n = (a− ) op Also,

(

(

)

nψ n −1 = n nψ n = nψ n

n + 1 n+1 = n + 1 n + 1 n = (n + 1)ψ n ψ ψ

2 (a− )opψ n = (a− )op

(

)

)

nψ n −1 = n n − 1 n − 2 ψ

+∞

)

− hmω 2 ∗ < p > n = ∫ψ ( x)( p ) ψ n ( x)dx = ∫∞ψ n ( x)((a+ )op − (a− )op ) ψ n ( x)dx 2 − −∞

2 x ∗ n 2 x op

+∞

= =

− hmω ∗ 2 2 ∫∞ψ n ( x) (a+ )op − (a+ )op (a− )op − (a− )op (a+ )op + (a− )op ψ n ( x)dx 2 −

+∞

(

)

.

+∞ +∞ ⎤ ⎛ 1⎞ hmω ⎡ ∗ ∗ 0 + n ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx + (n + 1) ∫ψ n ( x)ψ n ( x)dx + 0⎥ = ⎜ n + ⎟hmω ⎢ 2 ⎣ 2⎠ −∞ −∞ ⎦ ⎝

(j) (4 points) Find Δx = σx and Δpx = σ p x for the nth stationary state and check that the

uncertainty principle is satisfied.

**h 1⎞ h 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ Answer: (Δx) n = ⎜ n + ⎟ , (Δp x ) n = ⎜ n + ⎟hmω , (ΔxΔpx ) n = (2n + 1) 2 ⎠ mω 2⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ Solution: From (h) we see that
**

1⎞ h ⎛ (Δx) n = < x 2 > n − < x > 2 = ⎜ n + ⎟ n 2 ⎠ mω ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 (Δpx ) n = < p x > n − < px > 2 = ⎜ n + ⎟hmω n 2⎠ ⎝

Thus,

1⎞ h ⎛ 1⎞ h h ⎛ (ΔxΔpx ) n = ⎜ n + ⎟ ⎜ n + ⎟hmω = (2n + 1) ≥ . 2 ⎠ mω ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 ⎝ th (k) (4 point) Compute <T> and <V> for the n stationary state, where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. What is sum <T> + <V>? 1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ Answer: < T > n = ⎜ n + ⎟hω , < V > n = ⎜ n + ⎟hω , (< T > + < V >) n = ⎜ n + ⎟hω = En 2⎝ 2⎠ 2⎝ 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎝

Department of Physics

Page 12 of 14

**PHY4604 Fall 2007
**

Solution: From (h) we see that

Problem Set 2 Solutions

2 1⎞ < px > n 1 ⎛ < T >n = = ⎜ n + ⎟ hω 2m 2⎝ 2⎠ 1 1⎛ 1⎞ < V > n = mω 2 < x 2 > n = ⎜ n + ⎟hω 2 2⎝ 2⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ Note that <T>n = <V> n and that < T > n + < V > n = ⎜ n + ⎟hω = En . 2⎠ ⎝ (l) (8 points) Suppose that a particle in the harmonic oscillator potential starts out in the state Ψ ( x,0) = A[3ψ 0 ( x) + 4ψ 1 ( x)] . What is <x> and <px> for this state? If you measure the energy of this particle, what are the possible values you might get, and what is the probability of getting each of them? What is the expectation value of the energy for this state? Answer: E0 with probability 9/25 and E1 with probability 16/25, 24 h 24 hmω < x >= cos(ωt ) , < p x >= − sin(ωt ) , and < E >= 57 hω . 50 25 2mω 25 2 Solution: The normalization A is determined by requiring that

+∞

−∞

∫ Ψ ( x,0)Ψ( x,0)dx = 1 = A ∫ [3ψ

∗

+∞

2

∗ 0

( x) + 4ψ 1∗ ( x) [3ψ 0 ( x) + 4ψ 1 ( x)]dx

]

−∞

+∞

= A2

−∞

∫ (9ψ

∗ 0

∗ ( x)ψ 0 ( x) + 12ψ 0 ( x)ψ 1 ( x) + 12ψ 1∗ ( x)ψ 0 ( x) + 16ψ 1∗ ( x)ψ 1 ( x) dx = 25 A2

)

Thus, A = 1/5 and 3 4 Ψ ( x, t ) = c0ψ 0 ( x)e −iE 0 t / h + c1ψ 1 ( x)e −iE1t / h = 5 ψ 0 ( x)e −iE 0 t / h + 5 ψ 1 ( x)e −iE1t / h

. 3 4 = 5 ψ 0 ( x)e − iωt / 2 + 5 ψ 1 ( x)e − i 3ωt / 2 which means that you get energy E0 with probability 9/25 and energy E1 with probability 16/25. The expectation value of E is 9 9 < E >= 25 E0 + 16 E1 = 25 1 hω + 16 3 hω = 57 hω . 25 2 25 2 50 The expectation value of x at time t is

< x >= ∫ Ψ ∗ ( x, t )( x)op Ψ ( x, t )dx

−∞ +∞

= = =

h ∗ 3 3 4 4 ψ 0 ( x)e + iωt / 2 + 5 ψ 1∗ ( x)e + i 3ωt / 2 ((a+ )op + (a− ) op ) 5 ψ 0 ( x)e − iωt / 2 + 5 ψ 1 ( x)e − i 3ωt / 2 dx 2mω −∫ 5 ∞ h h ∗ + iωt / 2 − i 3ωt / 2 ∗ + i 3ωt / 2 3 dx + (a+ )op 5 ψ 0 ( x)e − iωt / 2 dx ∫∞ 53ψ 0 ( x)e (a− )op 54 ψ 1 ( x)e ∫∞ 54 ψ 1 ( x)e 2mω − 2mω − h h 12 24 e − iωt + e + iωt = cos(ωt ) 25 2mω 25 2mω

+∞

+∞

[ [

]

[

]

]

[

]

+∞

[

]

[

]

(

)

The expectation value of px at time t is

Department of Physics

Page 13 of 14

**PHY4604 Fall 2007 < px >= ∫ Ψ ∗ ( x, t )( px )op Ψ ( x, t )dx
**

−∞ +∞

Problem Set 2 Solutions

=i

hmω 3 ∗ + iωt / 2 ∗ + i 3ωt / 2 ((a+ )op − (a− )op ) 53ψ 0 ( x)e−iωt / 2 + 54 ψ 1 ( x)e−i3ωt / 2 dx ∫∞ 5ψ 0 ( x)e + 54 ψ 1 ( x)e 2 −

+∞

[

]

[

]

hmω 3 ∗ h + iωt / 2 − i 3ωt 2 ∗ + i 3ωt / 2 3 (a+ )op 5 ψ 0 ( x)e − iωt / 2 dx = −i ∫∞ 5ψ 0 ( x)e (a− )op 54 ψ 1 ( x)e dx − 2mω −∫∞ 54 ψ 1 ( x)e 2 −

+∞

[

]

[

]

+∞

[

]

[

]

= −i

12 hmω − iωt 24 hmω e − e + iωt = − sin(ωt ) 25 2 25 2

(

)

Note that 24 24 hmω d < x > 24 h d h cos(ωt ) = −ω m sin(ωt ) = − m sin(ωt ) =< p x > . = m 25 2mω dt 25 2mω 25 2 dt

Department of Physics

Page 14 of 14

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