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TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – trainer’s notes

Description
This activity explores textual coherence in written and spoken texts. Participants examine a
range of texts for coherence and the features which make a coherent text. They also
practise a sample task.

Time required: 50–70 minutes (includes optional sections)
Materials ƒ Participant’s Worksheet 1 (one copy for each participant)
required:
ƒ Participant’s Worksheet 2 (one copy for each participant)
ƒ Participant’s Worksheet 3 (one copy for each participant)
ƒ Participant’s Worksheet 4 (optional) (one copy for each participant)
ƒ Participant’s Worksheet 5 (one copy for each participant)
ƒ Sample Task (one copy for each participant)
Aims: ƒ to introduce the different ways in which textual coherence is
achieved
ƒ to ensure participants’ understanding of features which provide
textual coherence
ƒ to explore the functions of discourse markers in written and spoken
text
ƒ to ensure understanding of the difference between textual
coherence and cohesion
Note: The activity TKT: KAL Part 4: Cohesion should ideally be done with participants before
this one.
Procedure
1. Write the following dialogue on the board:
A I wish I could fly.
B The roses are just starting to bloom.
2. Elicit what is ‘wrong’ with/ odd about this conversation: aim to elicit the term
‘coherence’. (The dialogue is not coherent/ doesn’t make sense.)
3. Give out Participant’s Worksheet 1. In pairs, participants look at the texts and
decide which are coherent and which aren’t. Feed back with the whole group (see
Key below).
4. Elicit whether all the texts are cohesive, i.e. whether there is a grammatical/lexical
relationship between parts of the text. (A, E and F are cohesive; there is some lexical
cohesion in B (restaurant/ price/ fish); C and D are not cohesive). Point out that
cohesion doesn’t always lead to coherence. Discuss briefly how coherence differs
from cohesion. Don’t expect or require exact answers at this stage.
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. For further
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org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – trainer’s notes www. Check answers (see Key below). and between the text and the world. Participants can work through Exercise 1 individually.) © UCLES 2009. 7. (Experience of these genres has taught us how they usually develop. 5. Using the checklist on Participant’s Worksheet 3. Feed back with the whole group (see Key below). answering the questions. In pairs. With the whole group. so it is clear and easy to understand. based on the grammar and/or lexis.) 6. Give out Participant’s Worksheet 4. Feed back with the whole group (see Key below). Give out Participant’s Worksheet 5.cambridgeESOL. Monitor and feed back as required (see Key below). At more advanced levels. Allocate one of the texts on Participant’s Worksheet 2 to each pair or small group of participants. participants tick the features of a coherent text.teachers. Give out the Sample Task. participants discuss how they would expect these texts to continue. You may prefer to ask participants to complete this at home and to discuss it in a subsequent session.) 11. Alternatively. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. 10.) • Would it be useful or not to teach learners the terms related to coherence used in this session? (There is no correct answer to this: teachers may have different and valid arguments either way. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. and enables them to design contexts and lead-ins which help relate learners’ knowledge of the world to the topic of the text. then complete Exercise 2 in pairs. which looks at discourse markers in more detail. Give out Participant’s Worksheet 2. then check with a partner. Feed back with the whole group (see Key below). Discuss how we know what to expect. learners’ ability to work with cohesion or lack of it allows them to recognise humour and communication breakdown in particular. (Coherence is the relationship or connection between ideas in a text. 12. Participants work in small groups to apply their understanding of coherence to the text. participants can complete the sample task at home. then check answers in pairs. 8. Cohesion is the relationship or connection between different parts of a piece of writing. 9.org Page 2 of 13 . Feed back with the whole group or by reorganising the groups so that in each new group of 4 there is one person to speak about each text. Give out Participant’s Worksheet 3. according to the context in which they teach. Elicit that all these texts are coherent. Feed back (see Key below). Participants complete the task individually in no more than 7 minutes (candidates have an average of 1 minute per question in the TKT: KAL exam).teachers. Individually. or speech. they should identify which of the ticked features can be found in their text. Review participants’ understanding now of the difference between coherence and cohesion. discuss the following questions: • How might knowledge of coherence help the teacher in the classroom? (Understanding of coherence helps teachers understand why their learners have problems relating to particular texts.cambridgeesol.

teachers. or it may work with a range of features. Some tasks will focus on genre. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. often by asking candidates to identify them in a text.Additional information TKT:KAL may test candidates’ knowledge of this area by focussing on one aspect of coherence. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www.teachers. coherence and cohesion within the same task.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – trainer’s notes www. as in the sample task.cambridgeesol. © UCLES 2009.org Page 3 of 13 .cambridgeESOL.

in which case they too would be considered coherent.cambridgeESOL. consistency of topic. consistent register. consistent register. consistency of function of text. C You’d expect arguments for and against cloning to be outlined. consistent register. logical progression. Experience of these genres has taught us how they usually develop. consistency of function of text. logical progression. fit with context Key to Participant’s Worksheet 1 • A and E are coherent. consistency of topic.teachers. and possibly of the other hotel facilities. Key to Participant’s Worksheet 3 Logical progression 9 Good use of conjunctions and discourse markers 9 Consistent register 9 A recognised text structure 9 Consistency of topic 9 © UCLES 2009. reader’s/listener’s D knowledge of topic. • Some participants may be able to make sense of B and/or F. D You’d expect a description of a place or of things the writers have done or maybe intend to do.cambridgeesol. consistency of function of text. consistency of function of text.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – answer keys www. recognised text structure. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. use of conjunctions and discourse markers. B You’d expect description and evaluation of the steam room. (consistency of topic).TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – answer keys Key to Procedure steps Step 7 recognised text structure. reader’s/listener’s knowledge of A topic. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. reader’s/listener’s B knowledge of topic.org Page 4 of 13 . • Coherent texts ‘make sense’ to the reader/listener. followed by a conclusion taking position on one side or the other. C consistency of topic.teachers. Key to Participant’s Worksheet 2 A You’d expect the steps in the recipe.

on the whole f) the start of a list .Reader’s/ listener knowledge of topic 9 Consistency of function of text 9 Fit with context 9 Key to Participant’s Worksheet 3 Exercise 1 All these words/ sets of words signal to the reader/listener what kind of information will come next.lastly c) a result or conclusion.so d) an example – for instance e) a generalisation .teachers.cambridgeESOL. but (contrast) unlike finally (a last as a result (a actually (a (something point) consequence) contrast/ dissimilar) confirmation/ clarification) generally what’s more I mean for example in conclusion speaking (a (additional (clarification) (an example) (a generalisation) information) conclusion) another point in fact first of all (the and after that (more (confirmation) first point on (additional (another information) a list) information) subsequent event) look well in other words oh OK (the (something (hesitation/ (a paraphrase) (something beginning of attention doubt) surprising) a discourse) worthy) Exercise 2 Possible answers a) an explanation/ clarification .cambridgeesol.org Page 5 of 13 .teachers.but i) the next thing to happen .next k) a summary – to sum up l) some new/ surprising information – listen © UCLES 2009.firstly g) more information on the same point – in addition h) contrasting information . This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www.what I mean is b) the last point to be made .then j) the next point from a list .org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – answer keys www.

cambridgeesol.teachers.cambridgeESOL. What discourse markers does it contain? according to. What might make parts of it incoherent to some readers? Maybe all the technical words in the third paragraph and readers’ lack of experience of the topic. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. Key to Sample Task 1B 2A 3B 4B 5C 6B 7A © UCLES 2009. it’s on a familiar topic. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. it keeps to one topic. in fact.org Page 6 of 13 . although How do discourse markers contribute to coherence? They help readers/ listeners know what to expect.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – answer keys www.teachers.Participant’s Worksheet 5 What helps it to be coherent? It follows an article structure.

D B The roses are just starting to Anna: Put the water in the pot. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made.teachers. A Are you coming to the B Yes. put the glue. E First. TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 1 Look at the texts.cambridgeesol. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. Which are them are coherent? Why? Why not? A B A I really love Paris. Anna: Hi guys. place all the pieces on a flat surface Then. an etymological study of texts reveals its consistent use of features.org Page 7 of 13 .teachers. However.cambridgeESOL. scissors. Put your gloves on at this point F It is deeply mystifying. The price of fish has gone through the ceiling. © UCLES 2009. Rob: Deserts are spreading on most continents. which would support a more contextualised approach. bloom.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 1 www. hammer and nails on another surface. it’s a fantastic city restaurant tonight? B. C A I wish I could fly.

For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. The 230ml/8fl oz sweetened soya milk steam room was ……………… 1 tsp vanilla extract C The practice of cloning can be used to benefit society and therefore should be  legalised. deep. D Dear all We’re loving it here. Dolly.. Many people are afraid of the  idea of cloning ……….org Page 8 of 13 . and 2 tbsp cocoa powder clean without the overpowering 170g/6oz caster sugar chlorine smell that usually goes 5 tbsp sunflower oil. How would you expect them to continue? A Ingredients B 170g/6oz self-raising flour salt The pool was large. The weather is ……. plus extra for greasing with the traditional hotel pool.cambridgeESOL.TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 2 Here are some more texts. the idea of cloning has  become a major issue and the subject of many debates. How do you know how to expect them to continue? © UCLES 2009. They are all extracts. Ever since the cloning of the first adult sheep.teachers.cambridgeesol. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 2 www.teachers.

cambridgeESOL.teachers.TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 3 Tick the items in the circle below which help make a text coherent.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 3 www. Logical progression Grammatically accurate sentences Good use of conjunctions and discourse markers Use of word families Consistent register A recognised text structure A wide range of lexis Consistency of topic Reader’s/ listener’s knowledge of topic Punctuation Consistency of function of text Use of collocations Fit with context © UCLES 2009.teachers. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www.cambridgeesol.org Page 9 of 13 .

a result or conclusion d. the next point from a list k. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. an explanation/ clarification b.cambridgeesol. the last point to be made c. the next thing to happen j. an example e. contrasting information i. some new/ surprising information © UCLES 2009. a generalisation f. more information on the same point h. • What function do they have in common? • What kind of information do they each introduce? but unlike finally as a result actually generally what’s more I mean for example in conclusion speaking another point in fact first of all and after that look well in other words oh OK Exercise 2 What discourse markers could be used for the following functions? To introduce: a. the start of a list g. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made.teachers.TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 4 Exercise 1 Look at these words and phrases.cambridgeESOL.teachers.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 4 www. a summary l.org Page 10 of 13 .

"There is still poor understanding as regards which aspects of memory function are affected by sleep and which processes underlie memory consolidation. "Recent studies in molecular genetics.teachers. In fact." wrote Giuseppe Curcioa. they found that a bad night's sleep could even result in worse grades. the clocks go back to herald Greenwich Mean Time . for students. say researchers Early tomorrow morning. although the extent of this role remains hotly debated.cambridgeESOL. 28 October 2006) © UCLES 2009. say researchers.teachers.org Page 11 of 13 .cambridgeesol." (slightly adapted from Stay in bed that extra hour: it aids thinking.and that extra hour in bed could do your brain a lot of good.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 5 www. according to a review of research on sleep. science correspondent. • What helps it to be coherent? • What might make parts of it incoherent to some readers? • What discourse markers does it contain? • How do discourse markers contribute to coherence? Stay in bed that extra hour: it aids thinking. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made.TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Participant’s Worksheet 5 Look at this extract from an article reporting on some scientific findings. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. neurophysiology and cognitive and behavioural neuroscience have strengthened the idea that sleep may play an important role in learning and memory. Michele Ferrara and Luigi De Gennaroa in the journal Sleep Medicine Reviews. Guardian. Psychologists at the University of Rome pulled together more than 100 studies of the effects of sleep on cognitive tasks and found that staying out of bed for too long can have serious effects on ability to remember and learn new information. by Alok Jha.

B introducing strong opposition.teachers. I suspect she already C introducing an example does © UCLES 2009. look at the underlined discourse markers in the dialogues and choose the function listed A. B or C which the discourse marker carries out. B introducing a disagreement Jan: Frankly. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www.TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Sample Task A teacher has prepared a task on the function of different discourse markers for his class and is writing the answer key. 2 John: It was a fantastic party A introducing a complaint Peter: A pity no one told me about it. B introducing bad news C introducing an apology 3 Dave: There’s nothing decent on TV A introducing a command tonight. why don’t we play cards? C introducing a routine 4 Lilly: What do you think of your new flat A introducing a conclusion then? B introducing a generalisation Will: On the whole I quite like it. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made.org Page 12 of 13 .cambridgeesol. B introducing a clarification Pat: Actually.teachers. 1 Ann: Hurry up. For questions 1-7. will you? It’s nearly time A introducing an excuse to leave. B introducing a new idea Bill: Listen. 6 Mat: I’m really sorry I didn’t ring A introducing a softener Rosie: Forget it.cambridgeESOL. I’ve got to go B introducing a new topic now C introducing a reservation 7 Judy: I really think she needs to work A introducing a different view hard. Anyway.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Sample Task www. I’d be horrified if they did C introducing a strong opinion that. C introducing an opinion 5 Mike: I wish they’d knock that old A introducing something true building down. Brian: No way.I’ve only just got out of C introducing a wish the shower.

cambridgeESOL.teachers.co.cambridgeesol. 28 October 2006 Every effort has been made to identify the copyright owners for material used.Acknowledgements Cambridge ESOL is grateful to the following for copyright permission: Guardian.org/ts/legalinfo TKT: KAL Part 4 Discourse: coherence – Sample Task www. but it is not always possible to identify the source or contact the copyright holders.uk Stay in bed that extra hour: it aids thinking. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom use provided no charge is made. In such cases. science correspondent. say researchers. For further information see our Terms of Use at http://www. © UCLES 2009.teachers. by Alok Jha. Cambridge ESOL would welcome information from the copyright owners.org Page 13 of 13 .