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Even though the indicators for the health and health-related
SDG targets are still at the proposal stage, it is possible to
provide an overview of the current situation broken down
by country, region and globally. This not only provides initial
information on the challenges ahead but also allows for
assessment of the data gaps that exist for the proposed
that have been adopted by the WHA in recent years, or are
under development. Given that there are 13 health targets
covering most national health concerns and the majority of
international programmes, any approach to national health
development that focuses on individual programmes in
isolation will be counterproductive, and risk causing even
greater fragmentation and competition than has been seen
in the past. More crucially, it will fail to address the many
cross-cutting issues that do not fit neatly into programme
6.1 Health targets – 13 targets and 26 areas. The emphasis on UHC as a cross-cutting goal for
proposed indicators the health sector should contribute to overcoming these
The health goal (SDG 3) comprises 13 targets, including four
listed as “means-of-implementation” targets. Each target The need for cross-cutting approaches to the health
has one or two proposed indicators, with the exception challenges faced should also inform the monitoring of
of SDG Target 3.3: “By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, individual targets; which needs to be done in a way that
tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases keeps the broader issues in focus. This includes very broad
and combat hepatitis, waterborne diseases and other elements such as UHC and health systems, as well as
communicable disease” which has five indicators; and SDG the links to risk factors and determinants that are often
Target 3.9: “By 2030, substantially reduce the number of considered external to the health sector. The SDGs provision
deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, of a framework for more-integrated action is of considerable
water and soil pollution and contamination” which has importance in this regard.
three. With a total of 26 indicators, the health goal has the
largest number of proposed indicators of all the 17 SDGs. Robust, reliable monitoring of progress and performance is
of fundamental importance to all major programmes. The
SDG 3 targets cover a great deal of ground. Almost all of
them can be linked to strategies and global action plans 1 Health in 2015: from MDGs to SDGs. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 (http://, accessed 10 April 2016).


Annex it is also impacted by issues such as transport. gender etc. annexes. Further information is available from the multisectoral nature of health determinants.1 Selected SDG targets and proposed indicators linked to reproductive. newborn and child health synergies and avoids harmful health impacts in order to Multiple targets in SDG 3 and other goals refer to improve population health and health equity. dependent upon progress in many others. 21–26 May 2012. accessed 10 April 2016).8. maternal. Examples include targets related to nutrition. trade and foreign policy. as well as “integrated and indivisible” – progress in one area is variations in the pattern for each indicator. maternal. risk factors targets in other goals can be considered to be health related and health determinants (Table 6. (d) injuries and violence. Helsinki. in many policy arenas to achieve health-sector goals.3 Situation in 2016 – a sketch based on critical information. drawing on the health and health-related indicators of-care measures. areas.3 to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions. sustainable energy. maternal. Translating this idea into practical action is going to be one of the key A more-extensive analysis is presented for the main challenges for the new agenda. the SDG declaration underlines the importance 3. Geneva. but more information is often needed global data to understand why progress is or is not being made. (b) infectious diseases. While much of the Coverage 3. For example. agriculture. the equity dimension and the data gaps. for suspected child pneumonia) While the integrated nature of the SDG agenda presents 37 (22) Model life table systems opportunities for new approaches to old problems. (c) NCDs many targets linked to health and mental health. migration. maternal. newborn and child health. 10–14 June 2013 (http://www. accessed 10 April 2016). The 8th Global Conference on Health Promotion. the health full database and SDG sections of the Global Health sector should promote “Health in All Policies” – an approach Countries in this “dashboard” are grouped by WHO region.pdf.8 UHC: RMNCHa tracers (family planning. The Global Strategy for and should be given special attention in strategies.1 Access to safely managed drinking-water source and reshaping the architecture for global health. sanitation and hygiene. there are marked The SDGs are founded on the principle that they are differences both between and within regions. Mortality due to air pollution (household and ambient) consumption and production.7 Adolescent birth rate inequality. http://apps. education. service coverage.6 Ambient air pollution public goods. These the social determinants of health. 30 WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS: 2016 . food security. 2 Outcome of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health.1 Births attended by skilled health personnel attention on governance for health has focused on global 3.2 Neonatal mortality trade and intellectual property. child overweight determinants presents challenges.who.1 Maternal mortality to influence governance in other policy arenas to promote 3.1 Clean household energy in relation to health security and the development of global conferences/8gchp/8gchp_helsinki_statement. antenatal and delivery care. REC1-en. maternal. with each country represented by a circle. presented in Fig. more data are often needed on direct programme This section provides a brief overview of the situation in key performance using coverage indicators and related quality. environmental risk factors and violence. newborn and child health. 6.2 Under-five mortality and protect health. The areas of focus are: (a) reproductive. a RMNCH = reproductive. Resolutions and decisions. and sustainable 3.2 Health-related targets in other goals – newborn and child health.1. In: Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly. 2016–2030 is and plans to achieve the health goal. See: http://www.2 Well over a dozen include targets for mortality. accessed 16 April 2016. indicators in the form of a series of two-page summaries deliberate action will be required to influence governance (Annex A). target.9 Mortality due to unsafe water. newborn and child health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Other Part of targets in goals on poverty. Table 6. child wasting. The a brief discussion of what is needed to achieve the 2030 health of people is not solely a health-sector responsibility. Areas of particular relevance include 3.2 Access to safely managed sanitation 7. In analyses for monitoring the global health situation. and in monitoring fully aligned with the SDG targets. by type of indicator The SDGs provide a new and exciting opportunity to strengthen governance for health – the underlying Type of SDG indicator target Proposed indicator assumption of which is that deliberate action is needed Impact 3. it also Risk factors/ 2. With regard to health.1).2 Child stunting. To address the the indicators. Resolution WHA65. These summaries cover the current situation. 6.sets of indicators proposed for the SDG targets provide 6. 1 The Helsinki Statement on Health in All Policies. policies Women’s.7 Family planning coverage issues. full immunization coverage.who. particularly 6. and (e) health systems. and address reproductive. Children’s and Adolescents’ Health. health-seeking behaviour of governance for health at national and regional levels. seeks Reproductive.pdf. B then provides the latest country-level estimates for housing. income 3.who. and is organized around progress. it will require revisiting 6. 2012:15–17 3 The Global Health Observatory (GHO) is WHO’s portal providing access to data and (WHA65/2012/REC/1. As the dashboard clearly shows.1.

psychosocial and NTDs age 30 and exact age 70 rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders 600 40 500 30 400 30 per 100 000 population people (millions) 20 300 (%) 200 20 10 100 0 10 0 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR a Each circle represents a country value. See Annex B for more details on each indicator.4 3.2 Proportion of births attended by Maternal mortality ratio Under-five mortality rate Neonatal mortality rate skilled health personnel 50 150 20 40 1000 40 per 100 000 live births 100 per 1000 live births per 1000 live births 30 (%) 60 20 500 50 80 10 0 100 0 0 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR 3.4 3.3 3.3 3. CRD between Suicide mortality rate (pharmacological. by proposed indicator and WHO regiona Health indicators 3.1 Dashboard of SDG health and health-related indicators.2 3. cancer.3 New HIV infections among adults Infants receiving three doses of TB incidence Malaria incidence 15-49 years old hepatitis B vaccine 20 20 800 400 40 15 per 1000 uninfected population 600 per 1000 population at risk per 100 000 population 300 (%) 60 10 400 200 5 200 80 100 0 0 0 100 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR 3.3 3.1 3.3 3. diabetes.1 3.Figure 6. horizontal lines indicate the median value for each group. MONITORING HEALTH FOR THE SDGs 31 .5 Reported number of people Probability of dying from any of Coverage of treatment interventions requiring interventions against CVD.

1 Healthandindicators Dashboard of SDG health and health-related indicators. in litres of pure alcohol per 1000 women aged 15-19 years per 100 000 population 150 40 10 40 (%) 100 60 5 20 50 80 0 0 0 100 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR 3.9 3.8 3. by proposed indicator WHO regioncontinued continueda 3.6 3.9 Mortality rate attributed to Mortality rate attributed to UHC service coverage index Financial protection household and ambient air pollution exposure to unsafe WASH services 300 20 100 80 200 per 100 000 population per 100 000 population 40 60 100 40 60 20 80 0 0 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR 3.a 3. See Annex B for more details on each indicator. horizontal lines indicate the median value for each group.b 3.5 3.7 3.b Age-standardized prevalence of Proportion of population with access Total net official development Mortality rate from unintentional tobacco smoking among persons 15 to affordable essential medicines on a assistance to the medical research poisoning years and older sustainable basis and basic health sectors 50 10 40 per 100 000 population 30 (%) 5 20 10 0 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR a Each circle represents a country value.8 3.7 Proportion of married or in-union women Total alcohol per capita (> 15 years of reproductive age who have their need Road traffic mortality rate for family planning satisfied with Adolescent birth rate of age) modern methods 0 15 200 60 20 consumption.Figure 6.9 3. 32 WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS: 2016 .

1 16.d 2.1 Annual mean concentrations of Average death rate due to natural Estimated direct deaths from major fine particulate matter (PM2.6 13.2 Average of 13 International Health Prevalence of stunting in children Prevalence of wasting in children  Skilled health professional density Regulations core capacity scores under 5 under 5 0 60 0 50 20 20 50 40 15 per 10 000 population 40 100 (%) (%) 30 60 10 150 20 80 5 200 10 250 100 0 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR 2.1 Prevalence of overweight in Proportion of population using Proportion of population using Proportion of population with children under 5 improved drinking-water sources improved sanitation primary reliance on clean fuels 25 40 20 20 20 15 60 40 40 (%) (%) (%) 10 60 (%) 60 80 5 80 80 0 100 100 100 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR 11.c 3.1 6.2 6.5) in Mortality rate due to homicide urban areas disasters conflicts 0 100 300 6 80 per 100 000 population per 100 000 population per 100 000 population 200 50 4 60 (µg/m3) 40 100 2 100 20 0 0 0 AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR AFR AMR SEAR EUR EMR WPR MONITORING HEALTH FOR THE SDGs 33 .2 7. Health indicators continued Health-related indicators 3.2 2.1 16.

with about low-resource settings and could have been prevented. such deaths. antenatal care (four mortality was 3.pdf. with a global under-five mortality rate of 42. there Asia Region were not attended by skilled health personnel.1 and 3. 76% of women of reproductive age who were have reached 73% in 2013. Report_7_17_LR. for example.7 on universal access to sexual and an example of how a range of health and health-related reproductive health-care services is to be monitored by goals and targets must be addressed to improve health two proposed indicators: the adolescent birth rate. and this rate of improvement would need to or 156 million children) were affected by stunting.everywomaneverychild. accessed 13 April 2016). accessed 21 April 2016).2 on ending all forms of overall child mortality. Population Division.9% between 2000 and 2015. World Bank and United 2015 (http://www. esa. such 1990 and 2015. accessed 25 March 2016). Geneva: World Health 5 World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. Attaining that rate intimate partners or others. Between 2000 and Nations. Children’s and Adolescents’ Health.2 In order to achieve the SDG target of 70 as female genital mutilation/cutting. New York (NY): United Nations Washington (DC): World Health Organization and World Bank. (DC): United Nations Children’s Fund. compared with less than half of those in the An estimated 5. Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015.1 It is SDG Target 3. World Health Organization.7 2015.who. with. With regard to modern family planning services. 2015 (http:// maternal-mortality-2015/en/. (33%). 4 Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. Almost all of these deaths occurred in had been married before their 18th birthday. 2015 (http://www. accessed 26 March 2016).un. Child mortality is highest in sub-Saharan Reproductive.1% decline in 2015. The indicators for SDG targets 3.pdf. accessed 9 April 2016). Geneva and 6 Ending child marriage. As with other indicators. newborn and child health is Africa. 250 million of these entering into marriage or union before The global MMR declined by 44% during the MDG era. World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division. but is five times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Globally. requires a marked acceleration in progress in this area.3 However. and and well-being of women.shtml . To reflect the importance of neonatal mortality as part The indicators for SDG Target 2. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. reproductive health per 100 000 live births by 2030.unicef. The coverage of modern family planning services. Table 4. if the momentum established during the MDG among disadvantaged populations. the world will meet the 2030 target. Much of 2015. born in rural areas. a specific target of 12 neonatal of malnutrition are focused on stunting. Both of these monitoring framework for this global includes proposed were also part of MDG global monitoring.6 Other targets and indicators related to sexual and representing an average annual reduction of 2. and 24 suspected child pneumonia. children and adolescents. and health-seeking behaviour for target of 25 under-five deaths per 1000 live births. This category includes four reaching 5 cp_model. Population Division. especially However. WHO Western Pacific Region having their family planning needs met. New York (NY). (http://www. Children’s Fund.un. was considerable regional variation.1 also includes skilled attendance at birth. aged 15–19. 9 out and within countries large access disparities associated with of 10 married or in-union women of reproductive age in the differences in socioeconomic status persist.5 per 1000 live births. era can be maintained. Estimates by WHO.1). wasting and deaths per 1000 live births in 2030 was included in the overweight among children under 5 years of age. New York agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. 79 visits or more) with skilled attendance at birth.. within LMIC. Globally. accessed 11 April 2016). World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division. more than 700 million women alive in 2014 at 216 with the be maintained in order to achieve the child mortality target. Major coverage gaps for all countries have rates that are three times higher than that. SDG Target 3. New York (NY): United Organization. Report 2015. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Special tabulations were prepared for Web_9_Sept_15. there was a 3.2 include the the adolescent birth rate was four times higher among the MDG indicators of maternal and under-five mortality. full child countries have under-five mortality rates above the SDG immunization coverage. followed by the WHO South-East Asia Region 1 The Global Strategy for Women’s. the global annual rate of decision-making and sexual or other types of violence by reduction will need to be at least 7.pdf. where 1 child in 12 dies before their fifth birthday. The annual rate of reduction in under-five coverage indicators: family planning. Estimates Developed by the UN Inter. Globally in SDG. In poorest quintile than among the richest quintile. 3 Tracking universal health coverage: first global monitoring report. globally coverage of skilled attendance at birth was estimated to in 2015.4 Currently. 2015 (http://www. age 15. UNFPA. estimates by WHO region. one of the four categories of the UHC coverage index followed by South-East Asia where 1 in 19 dies before (see section 4. The global SDG indicators and further expands the set of indicators adolescent birth rate is estimated at 44 per 1000 women to provide more Nations. highest prevalence observed in the WHO African Region (38%). almost one in four children under 5 years of age (23%.5 In addition. more than 40% of married or in a union had their need for family planning with births in the WHO African Region and WHO South-East a modern method satisfied. 34 WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS: 2016 .3% between reproductive health are included in SDG 5 (gender).org/pdf/ EWEC_globalstrategyreport_200915_FINAL_WEB. four of these indicators persist in many countries. UNICEF. maternal.who.the broad themes of “Survive – Thrive – Transform”. poor households or to mothers denied 2 WHO.3).org/media/files/Child_Marriage_ int/healthinfo/ universal_health_coverage/report/2015/en/. 2016–2030. Progress and prospects. the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) – the number of early childbearing is related to early marriage (SDG Target maternal deaths per 100 000 live births – was estimated 5. 2014 (http://www. accessed 10 April 2016). 7 Model-based Estimates and Projections of Family Planning Indicators 2015. UNFPA. DVD Edition.9 million children under 5 years died in WHO African Region. 2015 (http://globalstrategy.3%. 2015. UNICEF. Geneva and Washington (NY): United Nations. Children are at greater risk of stunting if they are Every Women Every Child.

basic education. In emergency preparedness Risk factors/ 6. by type Progress towards the target of ending the epidemic of of indicator neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is monitored through the SDG indicator: “People requiring interventions against Type of SDG indicator target Proposed indicator NTDs”.2 Target 3. use of insecticide-treated nets. with an estimated 214 million cases communicable diseases. HIV incidence children under 5 years of age in 2015. including climate and climate change.unaids.2). and air pollution • In 2014.3 and global health risks ( newborn and child health. who. including water and sanitation. malaria and neglected tropical diseases. there were 9. education.3 Hepatitis B incidence depending on socioeconomic determinants such as poverty 3. with 281 The main target relating to infectious diseases is SDG cases per 100 000 population. the WHO South-East Asia Region and WHO Western Pacific Region.6 per 1000 prevalence observed in the WHO European Region. cities. tuberculosis (TB). The targets on improving water and sanitation under SDG 6 are also relevant.9. 2 Global tuberculosis report documents/2015/MDG6_15years-15lessonsfromtheAIDSresponse. 2015 (http://apps. with the highest was highest in the WHO African Region at 2.1 to 0. as are the • For viral hepatitis no estimates of incidence are available targets under SDG 1 (poverty). accessed 10 April 2016) and UNAIDS/WHO estimates. sex (for million new TB cases (133 (discussed below). reduction of mortality due to environmental Africa has the highest burden. accessed 11 April 2016). Geneva: UNAIDS.html). Mortality managed drinking-water source and sanitation) caused by exposure to unsafe water. water-borne diseases and other persons at risk. access to safely factors. Africa carried the most severe burden. sanitation and hygiene. or 24 million children). • In 2015. which refers to ending the epidemics of AIDS.4 Table 6.who.1 Access to safely managed drinking-water source immunization/monitoring_surveillance/routine/coverage/en/index4. and household air including 0. prevalence increased globally and in 15–49 years was 0. maternal.7 billion people in 185 countries Impact 3. In 2014. risk reduction and management of national 90% of all cases and deaths globally. at least 1.3 People requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases and housing conditions. uninfected population in 2014. most regions between 2000 and 2015. 2015 (http://www. 1 How AIDS changed everything.5 per 1000 uninfected population. Sub-Saharan target (3. who. MDG 6: 15 years. malaria and under 5 years of age (around 7%) globally in 2015. an estimated 871 000 deaths (mostly from infectious determinants 6. Geneva: World Health Organization. the global HIV incidence rate among adults aged Regarding overweight. Global coverage of hepatitis B vaccination was 82% (cities). 15 lessons of hope from the AIDS response.4 million deaths among HIV-positive people. in 2014. July 2015 (see: http://www. 4 WHO/UNICEF coverage estimates 2014 revision.3 Tuberculosis incidence 3. Infectious diseases However. • In 2014. HIV infection in women. and strengthening of country capacity for 246 per 1000 persons at risk. tuberculosis. 2015 (http://www. pollution is estimated to cause half of all pneumonia deaths In 2014.8). climate change etc.1 relevant to reproductive. accounting for 58% of new cases globally. tuberculosis system treatment.3 HIV incidence required mass or individual treatment and care for NTDs. SDG 13 (climate change) and others (Table 6.9 Mortality due to unsafe water.8 UHC: infectious diseases tracer (ART coverage. sanitation and hygiene 3. Several other SDG targets address and 438 000 deaths (more than two thirds of which aspects of infectious disease control. as compared with other WHO regions where incidence among adults aged 15–49 Several environmental targets and indicators are also years ranged from 0.d).d International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health (WASH) services is an indicator under SDG Target 3. the largest number of new TB cases occurred in among the same group. with an incidence rate of factors (3. and tuberculosis in men) and mortality due to air pollution (household and ambient) environmental conditions which are influenced by different Coverage/ 3.9). Wasting affected 50 million children The incidence rates for HIV.2 Selected SDG targets and proposed indicators linked to infectious diseases. 2015.4 per 1000 uninfected. 3 World Malaria Report 2015. the malaria incidence rate was 91 per 1000 and combating hepatitis. accessed 10 April 2016).pdf?ua=1. accounting for roughly early warning.2 Access to safely managed sanitation diseases) were caused by the contamination of drinking- 7. MONITORING HEALTH FOR THE SDGs 35 . including the UHC occurred in children under 5 years of age). Geneva: World Health Organization. 3. SDG 11 yet. The hepatitis are SDG indicators: highest prevalence of wasting was observed in the WHO South-East Asia Region (13. Diarrhoea is among the leading causes per 100 000 population) and 1. in the case of 3. to 6% or 42 million with 2 million people becoming infected.1 Clean household energy Other Part of targets in goals on poverty.3.5 million TB deaths. of deaths in children under 5 years of age.3 Malaria incidence The risk of acquiring infectious diseases varies greatly 3. SDG 4 (education).5%.

risk to suicide. available when needed and free from faecal (and 3. Preliminary estimates for safely managed water coverage are low and suggest that such coverage will be much lower than that Mental disorders occur in all regions and cultures of the for improved drinking-water sources. focus on the use of a safely managed drinking-water service. there were over 800 000 estimated reduction and management of national and global health suicide deaths worldwide. Even though the Over three quarters of those premature deaths were caused prevalence of smoking is declining worldwide and in many by cardiovascular diseases. int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp-2015-update/en/.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/en/. tobacco use) defined as an improved water source which is located on 3. tobacco/publications/surveillance/reportontrendstobaccosmoking/en/index4. 6 Global Health Observatory [website]. of NCD-related mortality and promotion of mental health with 16% of them engaged in heavy episodic drinking. and Type of SDG indicator target Proposed indicator to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene. including through the situation in 2015 is still far from satisfactory. The costs of meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals 8 WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000–2025 (http://www.who. Almost 2012. etc. Geneva: World Health Organization.4 Suicide mortality water source and 68% used an improved sanitation facility. for early warning.who. At its worst. premature mortality from soil. bodies of water (such as rivers and reservoirs) and respiratory disease. it appears to be increasing in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region and the WHO African Region. risk factors diabetes treatment coverage.2 Table 6. 3. accessed 3 April 2016). accounting for 68% of all deaths worldwide. and Coverage/ 3. Impact 3. which includes access Other Part of targets in goals on poverty. In 2015. 2014 (http://www. 2014 (http://www.9). depression can lead in particular developing countries. 2015 (http://www. Varughese M. and by inadequate hand-washing facilities and practices these four main NCDs declined by 15% between 2000 and resulting from inadequate or inappropriate services. the significant public health Tobacco use premises. to a hand-washing facility with water and soap.a addresses the implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).5% of all deaths capacity and health emergency preparedness index. estimates for 2 Preventing diarrhoea through better water.5 This rate of decline is insufficient to meet the 2030 half (45%) of these deaths occurred in the WHO African target of a one third reduction. among young adults of this target is the International Health Regulations (IHR) aged 15–29 years suicide accounts for 8.1 Clean household energy determinants 11. an estimated 52% were due to NCDs. 4 Hutton.who.5). sanitation and hygiene. The IHR and is the second leading cause of death in this group after require countries to report certain disease outbreaks and road traffic injuries. Globally.9 Mortality due to air pollution (household and ambient) The SDG targets and indicators are more ambitious. SDG 3 includes targets for the reduction aged 15 or older had drunk alcohol in the past 12 months.html). by type of indicator indicators for monitoring progress towards universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking-water. who. Globally. with far more males (945 million) as premature deaths.6 In 2010.pdf? 3 Progress on sanitation and drinking water – 2015 update and MDG assessment.and middle-income countries. 2016. NCDs were responsible for around 38 million tobacco use selected as the indicator of progress. Geneva: World Health Organization. Region. diabetes and chronic countries. Geneva: World Health Organization. use is a leading risk factor for NCDs. Geneva: World Health Organization. Washington (DC): World Bank.3 litres of pure alcohol per person Noncommunicable diseases and mental health aged 15 or older.water. New 7 Global status report on alcohol and health 2014. the planet (676 million). of alcohol (3. harmful use of alcohol. accessed 19 April 2016). sanitation and hygiene.1. which are estimated to affect nearly one in 10 people on SDG Target 3. In 2015. G. accessed 29 March 2016). and for tobacco control (3. where 13% of the global population lived. 2015 (http://apps.5 other public health events (such as those related to chemical and radio nuclear hazards) to WHO. including the harmful use is considerable global variation in alcohol use.5 Substance abuse (harmful use of alcohol) priority chemical) contamination. cervical cancer screening. York (NY) and Geneva: UNICEF and World Health Organization.a).8 1 Preventing disease through healthy environments. education. 5 Global Health Estimates 2013: deaths by cause.1 billion Of deaths under the age of 70 years.6 Ambient air pollution safely managed sanitation coverage. accessed 5 April 2016). Despite progress in the Substance use and substance-use disorders cause a implementation of IHR core capacities in recent years. A global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks. over 1. (http://www. Geneva: World Health Organization.4 world with the most prevalent being depression and anxiety. The indicator people under the age of 70.who. age and impacts in low. Tobacco deaths per year. for the reduction of deaths and illnesses from air pollution (3. global_burden_disease/en/).int/ targets on drinking water. with 86% of these occurring in risks” concerns more than infectious diseases. commonly referred to people used tobacco. pdf?ua=1&ua=1. Exposures and 2000–2012.who. cities. 38% of the world’s population As shown in Table 6.8 UHC: NCDs tracers (hypertension treatment coverage. SDG 3.d: “Strengthen the capacity of all countries.who.3 Selected SDG targets and proposed indicators linked to noncommunicable diseases SDG 6 on water and sanitation provides the targets and and mental health.4). The SDGs also target Risk factors/ 7. cancer.7 There (3.3. 2016 (http:// apps.4 NCD mortality 91% of the world’s population used an improved drinking. 36 WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS: 2016 .int/iris/bitstream/10665/204585/1/9789241565196_eng. with In 2012. In 2012. for reducing substance abuse. Worldwide alcohol consumption in 2015 was projected to be 6.3 3. than females (180 million) smoking.

some Forthcoming.9 Mortality due to unintentional poisoning caused 3 million deaths. Geneva: World Health Organization (http://www. Both the Injuries and violence are included in multiple SDG targets. Geneva: World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization. In 2014. by age 2000 and 2013). number of reported disasters and total number of people Road traffic injuries and unintentional injuries are included affected have been declining over the last 15 years. 4 Global status report on road safety 2015. MONITORING HEALTH FOR THE SDGs 37 . education. Four fifths of homicide Worldwide in 2012. which is a proposed 5 Global Health Estimates 2013: deaths by cause. In 2012. stroke. estimates for 2000– 2015 8 The International Disaster Database [online database].5 pneumonia.emdat. registered vehicles. 2 Global Health Observatory [website]. up to 90% of the population in cities risk factors/ physiological violence were exposed to fine particulate matter in concentrations determinants 16. 2014 (http://www. 6 The same indicator is also proposed for the following two SDG targets relating to disasters: (a) SDG Target Women and girls subjected to physical. Brussels: Centre for Research (http://www. In addition. suggesting that interventions to improve There are very large differences between different regions of global road safety have had some impact on mortality. ambient (or indicator SDG target Proposed indicator outdoor) air pollution (for example. for early warning. The proposed indicator indicator on the reliance on clean fuels and technologies at for SDG Target 13. with exposure rates Other Part of targets in goals on peaceful and inclusive varying considerably by region. reliable and countries.6) is an ambitious goal given the indicator proposed for this target is: “Number of victims dramatic increase in vehicle numbers (up by 90% between of intentional homicide per 100 000 population. industrial Impact 3. and the Haiti people died from road traffic injuries in 2013.1 addresses access to affordable. and is to be monitored with an of national and global health risks”. the capacity of all countries.1: “Strengthen resilience and adaptive cooking. by type cardiovascular disease. and relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters. sexual or PM10) in cities. chronic obstructive of indicator pulmonary disease and lung cancer. risk reduction and management modern energy services. with in the health goal (SDG 3) with targets related to violence 2014 witnessing the lowest number of deaths due to and disasters part of other goals (Table 6.2 In 2014. accessed 3 7 This indicator may be revised to reflect the future revision of indicators for monitoring April 2016). in particular developing SDG Target 7. there were an estimated 475 000 murders. cities. Geneva: World Health Organization.1 Deaths due to disasters environmental risks and includes an indicator on the annual indicator for SDG Target 3. number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses 3 Burning opportunity: clean household energy for health. heating all countries”. However. including water-related wellbeing of women and children.d to: “Strengthen and lighting is laced with health-damaging pollutants. causing Injuries and violence 22 662 deaths and affecting 90. the past decade has shown that group and sex”. solid fuels and kerosene) for SDG Target 13. Geneva: World vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related Health Organization. However. the Myanmar cyclone in 2008. poverty. age and sex.Air pollution is a major risk factor for NCDs. causing Table 6. In 2012. accessed 11 accessed 3 April 2016).who.5 and Coverage/ 5. 331 natural disasters were registered in 2015. The highest mortality rates global_burden_disease/en/). sustainable development. extreme events and other economic. natural disasters.6 focuses on urban 1. significantly reduce the number of deaths and the who.5: By 2030.25 million in 2004.who. build the resilience of the poor and those in 1 Air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. as well as increasing the Type of risks for acute respiratory infections. in the context of the Sendai Framework.5. persons affected by disaster per 100 000 people. from traffic.4 Halving the number SDG Target 16.2 million people. 11.6 is linked to the SDG Target 3. with the highest rates occurring in the WHO Region of the Americas. 13. such as the Asia tsunami According to the latest WHO estimates around 1. an estimated 193 000 deaths were caused by unintentional poisonings.6 Deaths due to road traffic injuries sources.1 aims to: “Significantly reduce all forms of of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents violence and related death rates everywhere”.8 20–50 million people sustained non-fatal injuries as a result of road traffic collisions or crashes. It is estimated that homicide and collective the increase in numbers of deaths due to road traffic injuries violence account for around 10% of global injury-related has been much smaller than the increase in number of deaths.5. household air pollution caused by cooking with from unintentional poisonings occur in children under 5 unclean fuels or using inefficient technologies caused an years of age and adults over 55 years.1 Population subjected to physical.5: By 2030. the world in this respect. apps.3 The smoke or household air pollution arising from capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in this inefficient energy use in the home for cooking.1 Conflict-related deaths mean levels of fine particulate matter (such as PM2.1 is the number of deaths. 2016 (http:// disasters. and another earthquake in 2010. The first by 2020 (SDG Target 3. etc. sexual or physiological violence exceeding WHO Air Quality Guidelines.7 Globally.1 billion people relied primarily on polluting fuels (that is. waste burning or residential fuel combustion) 3.1 societies.4 Selected SDG targets and proposed indicators linked to injuries and violence.who.3 million deaths from NCDs and childhood also 50% higher in men than in women. on the Epidemiology of Disasters – CRED (http://www.1 Homicide 16. February 2016). social and environmental shocks and disasters. with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations.pdf. the long-term mortality trend is dominated by major events. and (b) SDG Target 11. The mortality rate is estimated 4. missing and the household level. SDG Target 11.9.

Strub-Wourgaft N. accessed 10 April neglected diseases (2000-11): a systematic FULLREPORT_EN.b and 9.8 UHC index: tracer indicators on service access (hospital fall globally (from 8. rapidly developing development. evaluate the amount and proportion of public. and 65% of victims are males aged 15–49 Table 6. Among women.6 times in private With its focus on coverage of quality essential health-care facilities. 2015 Health Organization.5). Lancet Global Health.6 health targets (notably 3. explanation. accessed 23 April 2015). age and 8 Pedrique B. Between 2000 and 2012. private and not-for-profit research and development investments In order to move towards the UHC goal.5 Selected SDG targets and proposed indicators linked to health systems.004% technologies and changing public 6 The World Bank. Chapman N. 2014 (http://www. 3 Human security report 2013. accessed 6 April 2016).4 services with financial protection for all. 2014 (http://www. there was a statistically significant average decline communicable diseases and NCDs that primarily affect during the period 1990–2010 of 2% per year. medical Health systems products are not necessarily affordable to patients. the prices of some overall health goal as set out in the SDG declaration. The decline in global violence: evidence.b aims to account the interconnectedness of health with risk factors capture the level of research and development investments. the availability of essential medicines at public health facilities is often poor.c and 3. it is System 3.19 Coverage of birth and death registration. as compared with 6% of all murders of men.3% of global deaths.victims are global_burden_disease/GlobalCOD_method_2000_2012.8 UHC: financial protection (catastrophic and impoverishing A second proposed indicator for SDG Target Office on Drugs and Crime. assistance (ODA) corresponding to about 0. In 2014. health workforce density by specific cadres. access protection to medicines and vaccines. GDP ranking (http://data. and was directed at medical product and epidemiological transitions. Geneva. Some C et al.who. and takes into A second proposed indicator under SDG Target 3.worldbank. 5 Moran M. there was a Type of SDG indicator target Proposed indicator marked decline in homicide rates.b Access to medicines and vaccines provisionally estimated that 152 000 people (uncertainty 3.pdf.3 Although WHO estimates of global direct conflict deaths (injury deaths) vary substantially by and on the affordability of medicines and vaccines for year. New York (NY): United Nations. and is generic medicines are on average 2.18 Data disaggregation 17.b. there was a decline in the number and intensity of wars and conflicts. Despite improvements in recent genocide of 1994 is excluded. have shown that in some LMIC where patients have to This is reflected by the fact that UHC is central to the pay for medicines in the public sector.b Research and development on health issues that primarily affect developing countries. Several of the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2014.5 targets (Table 6. 4 Millennium Development Goal 8: taking stock of the global partnership for 1 Global status report on violence prevention 2014. 3. UHC underpins the achievement of the other health targets. chemical entities between 2000 and 2011 were primarily intended for tackling developing country health problems. which focuses on support for research and development.c Health workforce density and distribution estimates do not include deaths due to the indirect effects 3. out-of-pocket health spending) related deaths per 100 000 population. 38 WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS: 2016 . 2013. mostly focusing on strengthening health such issues in 2012 and only 1% of 336 newly approved systems in least-developed and developing countries.pdf.d) address health Furthermore.5 This constitutes approximately 0. is also an important factor. IHR capacities) 3. and determinants of health that are part of many other SDG By combining the indicators under targets 3. poor nutrition 17. Between around 1990 and regular population census 2011. by type of years. United Nations Development Programme and United Nations (http://www. 2016). Lancet. completion of and collapse of health services. country health directed towards health problems that primarily affect systems need to be strengthened as well as adapted to meet developing countries. Mapping available health R&D data: what’s there. intimate partner homicide accounts indicator for almost 38% of all murders.b. Vancouver: Human Security Press. international reference prices.7 per 100 000 population). 2015 using methods and data sources found at: http://www.382:1286–307. Eide M et al.2 These 3. less than 2% of all clinical trials addressed system issues. New York and Vienna: World development. Studies Health systems strengthening is a core focus of the SDGs.1 is conflict. February 2016). violence/status_report/2014/en/. including official development range: 89 500–234 600) were killed in wars and conflicts.4 billion. it is possible to provided in section 4. More details on the UHC indicators are (research and development in general).hsrgroup.7. 2015. accessed 22 ranking-table. Even when available. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2015. In 2015. with provisional update to development: the ebola effect. Abela-Oversteegen L et al.un.8) under the SDG health goal.0 to 6. and 4. if the Rwandan developing countries. Data. and contestation. Regmi S. such funding reached the shifting health priorities associated with demographic US$ 3. accessed 22 February 2016).who. with an estimated 17% Coverage/ 3.8 Access to affordable medicines and vaccines on The lack of research capacity in many developing countries a sustainable basis is an indicator for SDG Target 3. Neglected disease research and 2 Global Health Estimates: deaths by cause.d IHR capacity and health emergency preparedness of war and conflict on the spread of diseases.pdf?ua=1 .9 times higher than assigned a specific target (3. The drug and vaccine landscape for docs/Publications/HSR2013/HSRP_Report_2013_140226_Web. decades. 2013. 7 Røttingen J-A. Policy Cures.1 financial access. what’s missing and what role for a Global Observatory.1:e371–9.

including access to medicines in statistical modelling and a demand for up-to-date and vaccines. Major shortages of physicians and nurses/ includes many indicators with considerable measurement midwives are a matter for concern in most countries in issues. will elsewhere in the world. less than 5%. MONITORING HEALTH FOR THE SDGs 39 . data. however.4 Data gaps – need for strong country and the recruitment. An indicator is classified as having “good” data protection. For risk reduction and management of national and global example.2 million).4 million health workers communication efforts. due to the investments made in monitoring the health MDGs.c: “Substantially increase health financing 6. It is important to distinguish real terms between 2000 and 2013. This is partly million) followed by Africa (4. global OOP health spending global monitoring. cause-of-death information generated by CRVS health risks” has obvious implications for health system systems is considered more reliable for NCDs and road strengthening. and partly due to the general emphasis placed on Statistics on health financing show that total health the importance of data and evidence in the health sector. which contains short sections on health expenditure globally increased by about 40% in data gaps for each indicator. Per capita government provided in Annex A. driven by advances effective service delivery. which suggests an improvement in financial purposes. mortality due to air pollution involves not only establishing mortality rates due to specific causes of death (such as respiratory conditions). the The monitoring of the health and health-related targets is largest deficit of health workers was in South-East Asia (6. and many the ability to track global progress. In 2013. of the underlying data. However. accessed 11 April 2016). and require: (a) strong health systems with good information and surveillance Comparable estimates are now produced for every country infrastructures. addressing the emphasis per 1000 population are only a fraction of what they are on disaggregation of all indicators. This does not take into account data quality. This may simply reflect economic growth. in 2013 – of which almost 2. (b) an adequate health workforce. analysis and was a deficit of approximately 17.6 million were physicians and over 9 million were nurses and midwives. 1 Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030.1 It has been estimated that there be a major challenge for all data collection. making them less comparable. As noted above. issues related to health security. Regionally. and (c) on a regular basis for most indicators. with major increases between the availability of global estimates and the strength in all regions. there are still major data gaps for most health countries. development. Uncertainty is also greater if more steps are involved in the estimation process. despite progress in the comparable statistics at the global level.d: “Strengthen the capacity of all countries. where the indicator is relevant have recent data for the indicator (2010 or later). where densities adequately monitored.9 fairly robust. data. across countries. WHO South-East Asia Region that the most relevant aspects of the goals and targets are and WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. More detail is trends are discernible. the estimates have considerable uncertainty which is greater situation in 2015 remains far from satisfactory. where relevant.who. full implementation of the IHR. per capita total health expenditure at average exchange rate was less than US$ 50 in 27 Table 6. Most developing countries spent less than 8% indicators that need to be addressed in order to improve of their gross domestic product (GDP) on health. All national and global health risks require traffic injuries than for suicide and unintentional poisoning. These global implementation of IHR core capacities in recent years.pdf?ua=1. especially in least-developed countries and small island developing The SDG agenda presents a major monitoring challenge States” has one proposed indicator for workforce density for all countries. “fair” if 40–74% had recent SDG Target 3. and “poor” if less than 40% of countries had recent in particular developing countries. The global set of indicators is large and and distribution. Countries will also have to add indicators to ensure the WHO African Region. For example. The table also presents an assessment of is down slightly (from 35% of THE in 2000–2004 to 31% the availability of disaggregated data for global monitoring in 2010–2013). Country data availability was but in several countries is also the result of an increased assessed based on the underlying data available to WHO prioritization for health in government budget allocations. Draft December 2015 (http://www.6 presents a summary of country data availability countries and less than US$ 100 in 46 countries. the core capacities of Some indicators may have different definitions in different which are basic health system functions that focus on countries. training and retention health information systems of the health workforce in developing countries. but also requires data on the proportion of deaths attributable to this risk factor. relative to many other targets. for early warning. expenditure per capita is still low in many developing However. average levels in low-income countries availability/disaggregation if more than 75% of countries remain high (42%). if data availability is poor.SDG Target 3. or other international agencies producing estimates for On average. Positive for a selection of the proposed indicators.

was launched in March 2016. Washington.5 People requiring interventions against NTDs Good Poor Annual WHO 3.3. WHO a Country data availability and disaggregation were assessed based on the data available to WHO or other international agencies producing estimates for global monitoring.2 ODA for medical research Good Not applicable In preparation OECD.2. WHO 3.1.4.c.6. WHO 3.2 Financial protection Poor Poor In preparation WHO.d.2.4.2 Suicide mortality rate Fair Poor Every 2–3 years WHO 3.1. using advances in information based on this call to action.6. WHO.1.1. and “poor” if data were available for less than 40% of countries.1 IHR capacity and emergency preparedness Good Not applicable Not applicable WHO 2.2 Adolescent birth rate Good Fair Annual UN Population Division 3.1 Health workers Fair Poor Not available WHO 3. regular and Accountability for Health. and communication technology.1 Treatment substance use disorders Poor Poor Not available UNODC. WHO 16.7.1 Mortality due to NCDs Fair Poor Every 2–3 years WHO 3. World Bank 3.3.5. standardized household surveys on health. well-functioning and by global health agency leaders. WHO 7. “fair” if data were available for 40–74% of countries.1 Sanitation services Good Good Every 2–3 years UNICEF.1 Air pollution Good Good Annual WHO 13.1.1 Mortality due to disasters Good Poor Every 2–3 years UNISDR.3.1 Coverage index UHC Fair Poor In preparation WHO.1 Maternal mortality Fair Poor Annual UN MMEIG 3. An indicator is classified as having “good” data availability/ disaggregation if data were available for more than 75% of countries where the indicator is relevant (2010 or later). WHO. WHO 16.1 Clean household energy Good Good Every 2–3 years WHO 11. World Bank 3. It is clear that investments in data generation.1 HIV incidence Fair Fair Annual UNAIDS.3.2 Wasting and overweight among children Fair Fair Annual UNICEF. World Bank 6.9. analysis. WHO 6.1 Under-five mortality rate Good Fair Annual UN IGME 3.1. and comprehensive administrative data for better data systems in support of health-related SDG sources such as NHAs and health workforce accounts. Innovative approaches. June 2015.3 Malaria incidence Fair Fair Annual WHO 3.9.a.3.9. This includes investing in CRVS systems. Box 6.2.6 Summary of the availability and degree of disaggregation of country data on proposed health and selected health-related SDG indicatorsa Country data Comparable Indicator topic availability Disaggregation estimates Source estimates 3.5.2 Neonatal mortality rate Good Fair Annual UN IGME 3.1 Drinking-water services Good Good Every 2–3 years UNICEF. progress.4 Hepatitis B incidence Poor Poor In preparation WHO 3.2 Skilled birth attendance Good Fair In preparation UNICEF.2 Mortality due to conflicts Fair Poor Every 2–3 years OCHCR. The workplan of the Health Data Collaborative.2.1 Access to medicines and vaccines Poor Poor Not available WHO 3. corresponding five-point call to action with a set of targets facility surveys. WHO 3. DC.1 Stunting among children Good Good Annual UNICEF. WHO 3.2 Harmful use of alcohol Good Fair Annual WHO 3.1 Mortality due to air pollution Fair Poor Every 2–3 years WHO 3.1.7.b.3 Mortality due unintentional poisoning Fair Poor Every 2–3 years WHO 3.1 shows the routine health facility reporting systems with regular health.b. World Bank 2.1 Tobacco use Good Fair Every 2–3 years WHO 3.1 Road traffic injury deaths Good Poor Every 2–3 years WHO 3.8.2 Mortality due to WASH Fair Poor Every 2–3 years WHO 3.2.1 Family planning Fair Fair Annual UN Population Division 3. can also greatly facilitate 40 WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS: 2016 .2 Tuberculosis incidence Fair Poor Annual WHO 3. Priorities for such investment were agreed upon communication and use are needed for almost all by the participants of the Global Summit on Measurement indicators.8. monitoring.1 Homicide Fair Poor Every 2–3 years UNODC.Table 6.

analyse. • By 2017. 2 Strengthen country capacity to collect. in line with international standards. civil society organizations in countries are actively and meaningfully participating in country reviews of progress and performance at all levels. causes of death are reported using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) by all hospitals. countries have health information flows that include regular feedback and local use of data locally to improve services and programmes. and use data at all levels of the health system: • By 2020.Box 6. 3 Ensure that countries have well-functioning sources for generating population health data in line with international standards: • By 2025. countries have annual transparent reviews of health progress and system performance. real-time systems in place. disaggregated data to review progress against national plans and report on progress against health-related SDGs. MONITORING HEALTH FOR THE SDGs 41 . up-to-date system of health and workforce accounts using international standards.healthdatacollaborative. • By 2030. all births are registered by civil registration as soon as possible. and facility levels. subnational. and disaggregated by age and sex. subnational. • By 2025. national. countries have in place electronic systems for real-time reporting of health statistics from at least 80% of facilities and communities. with verbal post-mortem ascertaining causes of death in communities. countries have high quality.1 Five-point call to action on strengthening country health information systems. countries are investing adequately in health information and statistical systems. comprehensive. including the capacity to analyse and link data using interoperable. 5 Promote country and global governance with citizen and community participation for accountability through inclusive. at least 90% of countries have complete. transparent reviews of progress and performance at facility. based on open standards. with targets1 1 Increase the level and efficiency of investments to strengthen country health information system in line with international standards and commitments: • By 2030. • By action. • By 2020.pdf. disseminate. compile. countries have established mechanisms to make health data available to users through electronic dissemination and easy access to a central data repository. 1 1 Health measurement and accountability post 2015: Five-point call to action (http:// www. and have completed the 2020 round of census. medically certified. interconnected electronic reporting systems within the country. 4 Maximize effective use of the data revolution. disaggregate. regional and global levels. • By 2020. based on high-quality data and analyses led by country institutions. accessed 10 April 2016). countries have regular maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response mechanisms at the national. registered. • By 2025. share. countries are compliant with IHR national core functions for surveillance and response and have effective. • By 2020. 80% of deaths are reported. countries have in place a regular. comprehensive programme of health surveys tailored to country needs. to improve health facility and community information systems empowering decision-makers at all levels with real-time access to information: • By 2020. including data quality assurance. linked to the health-related SDGs: • By 2016. government and development partner investments are fully aligned with a single country platform for information and accountability. a global coordination and accountability mechanism produces regular reports and reviews the progress of the health measurement roadmap and action plan. • By 2030.