You are on page 1of 19

Proc. of 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop, EUCENTRE, Pavia, Italy 18 - 20 April 2007.

SELECTION OF TIME-HISTORIES FOR BRIDGE DESIGN
IN EUROCODE 8

IUNIO IERVOLINO, GIUSEPPE MADDALONI, EDOARDO COSENZA AND
GAETANO MANFREDI
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Abstract: Eurocode 8 (EC8) allows the use of real earthquake records as an input for
time-history analysis of structures. In its Part 2, the code discusses the
preparation of seismic input for bridge structures; although referring to the
same design spectral shapes of Part 1, the prescriptions for bridges are
somewhat differently specified in respect to those for buildings. The main
requirement the chosen record set should satisfy, is the compatibility of the
horizontal average SRSS spectrum with the design spectrum in a broad range
of periods. The set has to be made of at least three recordings, but seven is
the minimum set size to consider the mean structural response as the design
value. The code seems to indicate real records as the principal source of
ground motions the practitioner should rely on, however the selection of
real records is not straightforward and requires searching of large databases
to find sets compliant with the code spectrum. In another study, the authors
discussed the record selection prescriptions in EC8 Part 1, herein these
issues are reviewed in respect to the specific requirements given in EC8 Part
2, and the European Strong-motion Database is searched to identify real
record sets matching the design spectral shapes for several site conditions.

Key words: Time-history, Eurocode 8, Records, Bridges.

1. INTRODUCTION
The availability of on-line, user-friendly, databases of strong-motion recordings and the
rapid development of digital seismic networks worldwide have increased the accessibility
to natural accelerograms. This is the main reason why they currently seem to be the most
attractive option to define the seismic input in order to assess seismic structural

25g. Norms are similar worldwide. in preparation of seismic input. Moreover. and to obtain sets which are independent of the anchoring value of the code spectrum.25g and 0. in many seismic codes the guidelines about preparation of ground motion input for dynamic analysis are poor. Eurocode 8 (EC8) Part 1 [CEN. 0. Therefore. The ESD dataset has been investigated in order to find un- scaled (original) record sets respecting as much as possible the spectral matching requirements. EC8 does not provide anchor values for its non-dimensional spectral shapes. 0. however the spectral shapes given are related to the hazard only via the anchoring value (ag). 0. 2007] the authors discuss the EC8 Part 1 requirements for real accelerograms in respect to the best current practice in record selection. Herein the EC8 Part 2 prescriptions are considered. requires consistency of the chosen record set with the specific features of the seismic sources the site of interest is subjected to. 0. or ]0. In the same study. especially in those cases when bi-directional loading is required [Beyer and Bommer. 2004]. 2005]. In fact. the European Strong-motion Database (ESD) is investigated to find real record sets complying as much as possible with EC8 spectra. the if the peak ground acceleration (on rock) with a 10% exceeding probability in 50 years falls in one of the intervals ]0. earthquake engineering research has focused lately on the selection of real ground motions for non-linear structural analysis. Other particular conditions about near source and spatial variability of seismic motion are also specifically considered in Part 2. where the seismic territory is divided into four zones representing different hazard levels. 2 and 3 are 0. Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi performance. prescriptions are given about other features of the signal. but it specifies that the matching with the design spectrum should be carried out considering the square root summation of squares (SRSS) of the two horizontal spectra independently of the vertical component. then the site is classified as Zone 1. In another study [Iervolino et al. Little. where seismic resistant design is mandatory only in the upper three zones1.25g]. if any. it refers to the same spectral shapes and site conditions given in Part 1 and still requires three-dimensional seismic input. the minimum set size is typically 3 to 7 records.2 Iunio Iervolino. sets of scaled code-compatible accelerograms were also considered in order to reduce the record-to-record variability of the spectra. This is partially because research on the topic is developing fast and at least a few years are required by regulations to take it in. The ag values considered herein correspond to the Italian case. ]0. and relatively simple procedures have been developed to link records to the hazard at the site [Cornell.15g. 2 or 3 respectively [OPCM 3519. EC8. has similar prescriptions but more detailed.35g respectively. In spite this effort. Giuseppe Maddaloni.. referring to bridges. sets are found and some examples are shown herein. 2006]. EC8 Part 2 [CEN. and the main prescription is the compatibility with the design spectrum in a specified range of periods.05g. . 1 The ag values for the Zone 1.35g]. 2007]. Finally. 2003] asks that the average spectral ordinates of the chosen set should match the design spectrum with some tolerance.15g].15g.

appropriate modified recordings or simulated accelerograms may replace the missing recorded motions. The chosen set of accelerograms. Section 3.2. EC8 Part 2 refers to the same spectral shapes in order to define the seismic input for time-history analysis of bridges.1 General requirements and spectral matching The requirements for the seismic input for dynamic analysis are given in section 3.9. otherwise the former should be used.22 gives two spectral shapes defined as type 1 and type 2. When the required number of pairs of appropriate recorded ground motions is not available. at least three pairs of horizontal ground motion time- history components shall be used. The anchoring value for the vertical elastic spectrum (avg) is defined by the suggested ratio avg/ag=0. The pairs should be selected from recorded events with magnitudes. SEISMIC INPUT FOR NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS IN EUROCODE 8 PART 2 In EC8 the seismic input for time-history analysis is defined after the elastic response spectrum. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 3 2. In Part 1 the spectral shapes are given for both horizontal and vertical components of motion.3: when a non-linear time-history analysis is carried-out. The design spectral shape for the vertical component has the same distinction. The latter applies if the earthquake contributing most to the seismic hazard has surface waves magnitude not grater that 5.5.2. In Figure 1 the 5% damped elastic spectra for the five main site classes are given as normalized in respect to ag. . Figure 1. EC8 horizontal and vertical type 1 spectral shapes 2. and mechanisms consistent with those that define the design seismic action. should match the following criteria: 2 In the rest of the paper all calls and verbatim citations of Eurocode 8 will be simply indicated in italic. source distances.

the SRSS spectrum shall be established by taking the square root of the sum of squares of the 5%-damped spectra of each component.4.4. modification of the recorded accelerogram may be carried out. rather then the maximum. . when non-linear dynamic analysis is performed for at least seven independent ground motions. scaling of the horizontal pairs of components may be carried out in accordance with previous step. independently from the scaling of the vertical components. b) the spectrum of the ensemble of earthquakes shall be formed by taking the average value of the SRSS spectra of the individual earthquakes of the previous step.2. in terms of participating mass).5Tv.4 Iunio Iervolino. where T1 is the natural period of the fundamental mode of the structure in the case of a ductile bridge. In section 4.5T1. Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi a) for each earthquake consisting of a pair of horizontal motions. for equal spectra in the two directions.3. so that the SRSS spectrum of the modified components is in closer agreement with the elastic response spectrum of the design seismic action. The prescription of EC8 Part 2 seems to be equivalent because the SRSS. The independent scaling of the pairs of horizontal recordings and of the vertical recordings shall be carried out. e) When three component ground motion time-history recordings are used for nonlinear time- history analysis. is exactely one of the two spectra times 1. c) The ensemble spectrum shall be scaled so that it is not lower than 1.2T1 and 1. or the effective period (Teff) of the isolation system in the case of a bridge with seismic isolation.2Tv and 1. in the period range between 0. The latter shall be effected so that the average of the relevant spectra of the ensemble is not lower by more than 10% of the 5% damped elastic response spectrum of the vertical design seismic action in the period range between 0. the code allows the consideration of the mean effects on the structure. d) When the SRSS spectrum of the components of a recorded accelerogram gives accelerations the ratio of which to the corresponding values of the elastic response spectrum of the design seismic action shows large variation in the period range in (c). is also allowed. f) The use of pairs of horizontal ground motion recordings in combination with vertical recordings of different seismic motions. Giuseppe Maddaloni.g.3 times the 5% damped elastic response spectrum of the design seismic action3. 3 EC8 Part 1 specifies that the chosen set should not underestimate the code spectrum more than 10%. where Tv is the period of the lowest mode where the response to the vertical component prevails over the response to the horizontal components (e.

which is often provided by the national authorities and it is not common for engineers involved in design to have source parameters to match. The additional criteria considered are: a) the deviation of the average spectrum in respect to the code spectrum (δ). In particular.1. These special cases were not considered in the present study. Selecting a record set with a low δ may allow to obtain an average spectrum which is well approximating the code. (1). (d) the effects of the vertical seismic component on bearings and links shall always be taken into account. and indicated as δH and δV respectively. or when soil properties along the bridge are approximately uniform. EC8 Part 2 has specific prescriptions for special cases as near-source conditions.2 Vertical component of seismic action and other issues in record selection As specified in section 4. and N is the number of values within the considered range of periods. which gives a measure of how much the mean spectrum of a records’ combination deviates from the spectrum of the code.3 [1. Sas (Ti ) is the value of 1. where: Sao.med (Ti ) is the ordinate of the average spectrum corresponding to the period Ti. the code prescribes that site-specific spectra considering near source effects shall be used. but the length of the continuous deck exceeds the distance beyond which the ground motions may be considered uncorrelated. while in zones of high seismicity these effects need only be taken into account in the following conditions: (a) if the piers are subjected to high bending stresses due to vertical permanent actions of the deck.3): when the soil properties along the bridge vary to the extent that more than one ground types correspond to the supports of the bridge deck. The deviation δ was computed separately for the horizontal SRSS and the vertical components of motion. However. when the site is located horizontally within 10 km of a known active seismotectonic fault that may produce an event of Moment Magnitude higher than 6. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 5 2.5. (c) for a prestressed concrete deck. The code also prescribes when the spatial variability of ground motion has to be considered (section 3. Definition of δ is given in Eq. because this study does not refer to any site-specific case. 3.7. the effects of the vertical seismic component on the piers may be omitted in cases of low and moderate seismicity. SELECTION CRITERIA CONSIDERED Herein it was not possible to select natural records from events having source features consistent with those that define the design seismic action as prescribed in section 2. (b) when the bridge is located within 5 km of an active seismotectonic fault. .0] times the ordinate of the code spectrum at the same period horizontal [vertical] spectrum. it has to be noted that the design spectrum is related to the seismic hazard at the site only through the ag value. Other spectral matching requirements given in section 2 were considered along with additional criteria. which allowed to rank the record sets found.

very soft soil. for all five site classes. c) The number of different events within a set. Stations without all three translational components were discarded. [2000. Table 1. and therefore being narrowly distributed around it. med ( Ti ) − Sa s ( Ti ) ⎞ 2 N 1 δ= N ∑ ⎜⎜ i =1 ⎝ Sa s ( Ti ) ⎟⎟ (1) ⎠ b) The maximum deviation of a single spectrum within a set in respect to the code spectrum (δmax).ac. The resulting numbers of horizontal records are given in Table 1. 4. see Ambraseys et al. 2004] for further information.0 for site class A) have been retained. whose URL is http://www.uk. Selecting the recording stations by the site class (rock.ic. WAVEFORM DATABASE AND ANALYSES The investigated database is the European Strong-motion Database. (1) replacing Sao. For D site class.6 Iunio Iervolino. no reduction to the initial record list was made because of the shortage of stations for that geological condition. soft soil. and the 7 vertical components). Y and Z respectively.med (Ti ) with the ordinates of a single spectrum of the combination.cv. in order to find sets that consist of 7 earthquakes (sets made of 7 pairs considering the SRSS of the 5% damped spectra of both horizontal components. only events characterized by a Moment Magnitude equal or larger than 5. Giuseppe Maddaloni. Moreover.8 (6. The website was accessed in April 2005 (April 2007 for A site class). Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi ⎛ Sa o . and alluvium) allows to download all the spectra of accelerograms recorded on each ground category. Input dataset considered in the study Local Geology X Y Z A (rock) 134 134 134 B (stiff soil) 134 134 134 C (soft soil) 122 122 122 D (very soft soil) 28 28 28 E (alluvium) 29 29 29 The identified database of records was investigated. where the two horizontal and vertical components are conventionally indicated as X. This criterion corresponds to the identification of combinations of records featuring the largest number of different events possible. Controlling this parameter may allow choosing combinations characterized by records having the individual spectra relatively close to the reference spectrum. stiff soil.isesd. The code analyzed all possible combinations of . via a specifically developed computer code. which is defined as in Eq.

The compatibility interval was chosen to be 0. again. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 7 spectra of the input list checking the match with the code shapes. For those combinations found and listed in Table 2. These intervals. sets found may be linearly scaled to comply with the code spectrum. In the following the total number of sets compatible with EC8 spectra is presented and selected results. the lower bound was relaxed. for any site class and seismic zone for which combinations exist. The upper bounds have been chosen arbitrarily to obtain a significant number of resulting record sets. by taking the square root of the sum of squares of both X and Y components of seven recording stations. sets found in this case may be linearly scaled to comply with the code spectrum. . It should also be noted that for the higher hazard levels of soil C. Results of this search were manually 4 ranked with respect to the additional criteria given in the previous section. it has been verified whether the sets made of vertical components match the code spectrum. For each combination. the larger number of results corresponds to the lower hazard levels. obtained from 14 original records. 20% and 10% respectively. It has to be anticipated that for D and E soil types. In other words it was not possible to find suitable results using 30%.1 Sets of un-scaled (original) spectra The chosen dataset has been investigated for sets made of 7 un-scaled SRSS horizontal spectra. These levels have been obtained iteratively reducing (with a 10% step) the lower bound in the analyses.2 sec – 1. the software also computes the deviation of each single spectrum within the set.7 sec and for structures with vertical fundamental period Tv in the range 0. it was not possible to find results satisfying the EC8 prescriptions5. A summary of results is given in Table 2.139 sec . without scaling. For this reason.04 sec – 2 sec for vertical components. The average has been calculated on seven spectra. 5 The compatibility lower bounds for Zone 1 of C site class are given in Table 2. [2004]. render the record sets found suitable for structures with horizontal fundamental period T1 in the range 0. according to condition (c) and (e) of section 2. referring to both un-scaled (original) and normalized (non-dimensional) records are displayed.3 sec. 4.7 sec – 2.4 sec for horizontal and 0. which shows. and also the deviation of the average spectrum from the code spectrum. For A and C ground types. In fact. the lower bound had to be relaxed. As it is expected. the number of spectrum- compatible sets found and the corresponding tolerance in matching the average spectrum imposed in the analyses (it is to recall here that the compatibility lower bound assigned by EC8 is 30% above the code spectrum). no results were found. This is primarily due to the shortage of earthquake recordings on these soils in the database. it was not possible to find results satisfying the spectral matching requirements. 0% above the code spectrum is the minimum tolerance to find results. 4Another more refined option to carry out this job via genetic algorithms is that proposed by Naeim et al. Results of this analysis are given in Table 3. The compatibility upper bound was adjusted adaptively find more Eurocode spectra compatible sets.

They correspond to all three hazard levels of all site classes. 7 Expressed in terms of underestimation of the code spectrum.8 Iunio Iervolino. For details about the records displayed see the Appendix. also reports the value of scale factors to comply with EC8 spectra. 6 Expressed in terms of overestimation of the code spectrum. Giuseppe Maddaloni. In the legend of any figure the seven digits station code. as well as the earthquake code (EQ) from the ESD database. . In the figures the rough thick curve represents the average spectrum and the thick smooth curve represents the code spectrum. Compliant horizontal SRSS sets found Ground Zone Compatibility Lower Bound6 Compatibility Upper Bound6 Sets Found A 1 30% 1000% 4 2 30% 100% 127177 3 30% 70% 380385 B 1 30% 1000% 53 2 30% 80% 4179 3 30% 80% 838263 C 1 0% 1000% 10 2 30% 100% 167 3 30% 80% 115307 Table 3. selected results are given from Figure 2 to Figure 10. The legend. thin lines are the individual spectra within a set. Vertical components’ sets found Ground Zone Compatibility Lower Bound7 Compatibility Upper Bound6 Sets Found A 1 25% 1000% 3 2 30% 1000% 18 3 40% 1000% 226 B 1 10% 1000% 7 2 10% 1000% 41 3 10% 1000% 8207 C 1 55% 1000% 3 2 30% 1000% 1 3 30% 1000% 99 As an example. is given. Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi Table 2. The dashed line is the compatibility limit prescribed by the code. when needed.

513) and minimum average deviation from the vertical target spectrum (δV = 0.2 0.5 000182 EQ:87 000198 EQ:93 000200 EQ:93 001228 EQ:472 Sa [g] 1 004674 EQ:1635 007142 EQ:2309 0.5 1 1.65 0. δVmax = 0.4 1. Set with minimum average deviation from the horizontal target spectrum (δH = 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000055 EQ:34 SF:1. Site class A – Zone 2. Set with minimum single-record deviation from the horizontal and vertical target spectrum (δHmax = 0. SF is the individual scale factor.235).65 007142 EQ:2309 SF:1.65 1.5 3 3.6 0.2 1.8 1 1.35 001228 EQ:472 SF:1.5 0 0 0. Horizontal SRSS 000055 EQ:34 1.2 0.5 000182 EQ:87 000198 EQ:93 000290 EQ:146 006332 EQ:2142 Sa [g] 1 006349 EQ:2142 007142 EQ:2309 0.5 0 0 0.65 000198 EQ:93 SF:1.35 Sa [g] 1 004674 EQ:1635 SF:1.35 000198 EQ:93 SF:1.4 0.4 0.5 000182 EQ:87 SF:1.8 1 1.4 1.6 0. SF is the individual scale factor.6 1. Site class A – Zone 1.35 1.5 000182 EQ:87 SF:1.5 2 2.65 006332 EQ:2142 SF:1.5 0 0 0.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 3.65 Sa [g] 1 006349 EQ:2142 SF:1. .65 000290 EQ:146 SF:1. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 9 Horizontal SRSS 000055 EQ:34 1.2 1.5 0 0 0.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 2.35 0.35 007142 EQ:2309 SF:1.6 1.808.5 1 1.35 000200 EQ:93 SF:1.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000055 EQ:34 SF:1.5 3 3.231).5 2 2.

. Site class B – Zone 1.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000187 EQ:87 1.5 001255 EQ:472 SF:1.2 0.8 1 1.5 1 1.4 0.5 3 3. δVmax = 0.5 000196 EQ:93 000197 EQ:93 000199 EQ:93 000228 EQ:108 Sa [g] 1 006263 EQ:1635 006334 EQ:2142 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.5 2 2.799). Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi Horizontal SRSS 000052 EQ:34 1.5 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000052 EQ:34 SF:1. Site class A – Zone 3.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 5.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.336.5 2 2.171). Set with minimum average deviation from the horizontal and vertical target spectrum (δH = 0. δV = 0.6 1.5 1 1.5 0 0 0.4 0.5 006335 EQ:2142 SF:1. Set with minimum single-record deviation from the horizontal and vertical target (δHmax = 1.5 1.5 000198 EQ:93 SF:1.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 4. Giuseppe Maddaloni.6 1.5 0 0 0. Horizontal SRSS 000187 EQ:87 1.5 000200 EQ:93 SF:1.5 000196 EQ:93 000197 EQ:93 000199 EQ:93 000228 EQ:108 Sa [g] 1 006263 EQ:1635 006334 EQ:2142 0.2 1. SF is the individual scale factor.5 000182 EQ:87 000198 EQ:93 000200 EQ:93 001255 EQ:472 Sa [g] 1 004679 EQ:1635 006335 EQ:2142 0.221.5 3 3.5 Sa [g] 1 004679 EQ:1635 SF:1.4 1.10 Iunio Iervolino.5 000182 EQ:87 SF:1.

4 1.175).4 0.5 3 3.6 1. Site class B – Zone 2.4 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0 0.5 000199 EQ:93 000228 EQ:108 000231 EQ:108 004673 EQ:1635 Sa [g] 1 006263 EQ:1635 006334 EQ:2142 0.2 0. Set with minimum average deviation from vertical target spectrum (δV = 0.5 000199 EQ:93 000228 EQ:108 000231 EQ:108 004673 EQ:1635 Sa [g] 1 006263 EQ:1635 006334 EQ:2142 0.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 6.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 7.4 1.5 000197 EQ:93 000230 EQ:108 000536 EQ:250 002015 EQ:169 Sa [g] 1 004673 EQ:1635 006328 EQ:2142 0. Horizontal SRSS 000181 EQ:87 1.5 3 3.2 1.8 1 1.5 0 0 0. .6 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000197 EQ:93 1.8 1 1.6 1. Site class B – Zone 3.338) with records belonging from seven different events.5 000197 EQ:93 000230 EQ:108 000536 EQ:250 002015 EQ:169 Sa [g] 1 004673 EQ:1635 006328 EQ:2142 0.5 1 1. Set with minimum average deviation from the vertical target spectrum (δV = 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000181 EQ:87 1.5 2 2.5 2 2.2 1.5 1 1.2 0. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 11 Horizontal SRSS 000197 EQ:93 1.6 0.5 0 0 0.

5 2 2.6 0.5 0 0 0. Horizontal SRSS 000879 EQ:349 1.5 000879 EQ:349 SF:1 007329 EQ:2343 SF:1.4 1.5 0 0 0. Giuseppe Maddaloni.4 0.125).6 1.5 2 2.8 1 1.5 1 1. Site class C – Zone 1.85 007329 EQ:2343 SF:1.85 1. Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi Horizontal SRSS 000042 EQ:30 SF:1.5 007329 EQ:2343 SF:1 001226 EQ:472 SF:1 001257 EQ:472 SF:1 006959 EQ:473 SF:1.5 0 0 0. Unique un-scaled set found.4 1.5 000879 EQ:349 SF:1.2 1.525) and minimum average deviation from the vertical target spectrum (δV = 0.8 1.5 1 1.5 3 3. SF is the individual scale factor.4 0.2 1.85 001257 EQ:472 SF:1.5 007329 EQ:2343 001226 EQ:472 001257 EQ:472 006959 EQ:473 Sa [g] 1 001560 EQ:497 001703 EQ:497 0. Site class C – Zone 2.85 001226 EQ:472 SF:1. Set with minimum single-record deviation from the horizontal target spectrum (δHmax = 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000879 EQ:349 SF:1.85 Sa [g] 1 001560 EQ:497 SF:1.3 Sa [g] 1 001560 EQ:497 SF:1 001703 EQ:497 SF:1 0.75 1.5 0 0 0. SF is the individual scale factor.8 001703 EQ:497 SF:1 0.5 3 3.85 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000042 EQ:30 SF:1.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 8.85 001703 EQ:497 SF:1.8 1 1.7 Sa [g] 1 001560 EQ:497 SF:1.2 0.5 001257 EQ:472 SF:1.6 1. .6 0.4 001226 EQ:472 SF:1.12 Iunio Iervolino.2 0.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 9.

3 007329 EQ:2343 SF:1 001226 EQ:472 SF:1 Sa [g] 1 001230 EQ:472 SF:1.5 000479 EQ:230 001726 EQ:561 007329 EQ:2343 001226 EQ:472 Sa [g] 1 001230 EQ:472 006959 EQ:473 0. 4.2 0. this entails scaling the records. the same analyses discussed above have been repeated.2 1.8 006959 EQ:473 SF:1. Site class C – Zone 3.5 2 2.5 0 0 0. in the analyses presented in the previous sections.8 1 1. From Figure 11 to Figure 13 some results for the horizontal SRSS components are given for A. δVmax = 1.4 1.5 000479 EQ:230 SF:2 001726 EQ:561 SF:1. In fact.274. which should allow to select records having a spectral shape similar to that of the code.6 0. Table 4.2 Normalized (non-dimensional) sets The input database has also been examined for records normalized.04 sec (assumed to be an approximation of the peak ground acceleration). the records have been rendered non-dimensional by dividing the spectral ordinates by their spectral acceleration at T = 0. Number of normalized (non-dimensional) compliant sets found Ground Compatibility Lower Bound7 Compatibility Upper Bound6 Sets Found A 10% 100% 9053 B 10% 100% 53465 C 10% 100% 8139 . As expected normalization of spectra reduces the spectral variability within a set while keeping a good average matching with the code if large scale factors (given in Table 5) are allowed. and then the results (summarized in Table 4) may be considered country-independent because they’re independent of the ag values. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 13 Horizontal SRSS 000151 EQ:65 1.75 1.147). Set with minimum single-record deviation from the horizontal and vertical target spectrum (δHmax = 1.163) and minimum average deviation from the horizontal target spectrum (δH = 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1. SF is the individual scale factor.8 2 Period [sec] Figure 10.6 1. which was avoided. if possible. B and C site classes. Here. However. combinations of these spectra have been compared to the non-dimensional code spectra.4 0.5 4 Period [sec] Vertical 000151 EQ:65 SF:1. After normalizing the spectra.5 3 3.45 0.

066) with records belonging from seven different events. Set with minimum average deviation from the horizontal target spectrum (δH = 0.25 8.5 1 1.3 B-3 0. Set with minimum average deviation from the horizontal target spectrum (δH = 0.092) with records belonging from seven different events.Non−dimensional 4 000172 EQ:81 000286 EQ:146 001255 EQ:472 3 002553 EQ:239 Sa [adim] 004674 EQ:1635 005821 EQ:1888 2 007115 EQ:2302 1 0 0 0.3 A-3 0. Set with minimum average deviation from the horizontal target spectrum (δH = 0.5 2 2.5 3 3.15 5.5 1 1.4 .079).2 B-2 0.5 3 3.5 2 2.35 11.5 4 Period [sec] Figure 11 – Site class A.0 B-1 0.25 17.35 24. Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi Horizontal SRSS. Horizontal SRSS.5 4 Period [sec] Figure 12 – Site class B. Giuseppe Maddaloni.5 4 Period [sec] Figure 13 – Site class C.15 10. Average scaling factor to match the code spectra of non-dimensional records Site/Zone ag SF A-1 0.5 1 1.14 Iunio Iervolino.5 2 2.Non−dimensional 005673 EQ:83 4 000175 EQ:83 000555 EQ:264 3 001251 EQ:472 Sa [adim] 006961 EQ:473 006963 EQ:473 2 006967 EQ:473 1 0 0 0.5 3 3.6 A-2 0. Table 5.Non−dimensional 4 000232 EQ:108 000500 EQ:239 002019 EQ:709 3 002030 EQ:169 Sa [adim] 005809 EQ:1887 006142 EQ:559 2 007143 EQ:2309 1 0 0 0. Horizontal SRSS.

Suhadolc. R.. some of which are presented herein. and Smit. Douglas. J. European Commission. Rinaldis. . CD- ROM Collection. Berardi. [2000]. D. Research and Development.. Berge-Thierry.15 4. Rinaldis.. [2004]. P. 2. distance and mechanism because this study do not refer to any site-specific application. Dissemination of European Strong-Motion Data (CD-ROM collection). C.. distance and faulting mechanism driving the seismic hazard. Dissemination of European strong-motion data. and hazard disaggregation parameters are not always available to engineers.9 times the vertical code spectrum in a certain range of periods. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The study presented in this paper was developed within the activities of Rete dei Laboratori Universitari di Ingegneria Sismica – ReLUIS for the research program founded by Dipartimento di Protezione Civile. United Kingdom.25 7. (2) records to be scaled to comply with the code spectral prescription. N. Vol.. Ambraseys. N.8 C-2 0. C. Smit. DGXII. Costa. Science.. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. P. Cotton.. The chosen record set should have the average of the SRSS larger than 1. which reduces the variability within a set at the price of eventually high scaling factors..35 10. F.6 5.. P. Bruxelles.3 times the code spectrum. and Berge. Sigbjornsson. The code requires the use of real records consistent with magnitude. R. however it has to be noted that the code spectrum is only indirectly related to seismic hazard at the site. G. REFERENCES Ambraseys. The analyses performed did not try to match any specific magnitude. The sets are of two types: (1) combinations made of records which do not require scaling to match the code spectrum compatibility requirement. The exercise performed allowed to find results. while the average of the vertical components (to be considered in special cases only) should be not lower than 0..N.7 C-3 0. D. CONCLUSIONS In the presented study the EC8 Part 2 prescriptions for selection of the seismic input for non-linear time-history analysis of bridges have been reviewed. The European Strong-motion database was investigated to search for record sets matching the EC8 Part 2 spectral requirements. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 15 C-1 0.

” Journal of Earthquake Engineering.. in press. European Committee for Standardization. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center University of California Berkeley. J. PEER Report 2004/05. Belgium.A. Pezeshk S. Giuseppe Maddaloni. Part 1: General rules. CA. European Committee for Standardization.. Final Draft prEN 1998. A-type site class: record information for the un-scaled type sets (Figure 2 to Figure 4) Site/Zone Code Event Name Country Date Station Name A-1 000055 Friuli Italy 06/05/1976 Tolmezzo-Diga Ambiesta 000182 Tabas Iran 16/09/1978 Dayhook Serbia & 000198 Montenegro 15/04/1979 Ulcinj-Hotel Albatros Montenegro 000290 Campano Lucano Italy 23/11/1980 Sturno South Iceland 006332 Iceland 21/06/2000 Thjorsartun (aftershock) South Iceland 006349 Iceland 21/06/2000 Thjorsarbru (aftershock) 007142 Bingol Turkey 01/05/2003 Bingol-Bayindirlik Murlugu A-2 000055 Friuli Italy 06/05/1976 Tolmezzo-Diga Ambiesta 000182 Tabas Iran 16/09/1978 Dayhook 000198 Montenegro Serbia & 15/04/1979 Ulcinj-Hotel Albatros . Naeim F..” Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana.” Journal of Earthquake Engineering.. Table 6. Ordinanza del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri (OPCM) n. Cosenza E. C. 3519 [2006] “Criteri per l’individuazione delle zone sismiche e la formazione e l’aggiornamento degli elenchi delle medesime zone. Final Draft prEN 1998-2. Belgium. USA. 16 Iunio Iervolino. Maddaloni G. Iervolino. [2004] “Selection and scaling of ground motion time histories for structural design using genetic algorithms. I.. seismic actions and rules for buildings. 11(Supplement 1). “Eurocode 8 compliant real record sets for seismic analysis of structures. 20(2): 413–426. 13-45. [2004] “Hazard. Cornell. Bommer. CEN [2005] Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi Beyer.” Earthquake Spectra. [2007]. [2007]. “Selection and scaling of real accelerograms for bi-directional loading: a review of current practice and code provisions.J. Part 2: Bridges”. Brussels. Ground motions and Probabilistic assessment for PBSD. Alimoradi A.” In Performance based seismic design concepts and implementation. 108. Brussels. CEN [2003] Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. K. APPENDIX In this appendix the details about the records presented in the paper are given as they come from the European Strong-motion Database website.

D. 000200 Montenegro 15/04/1979 Montenegro Pavicic School 001255 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Heybeliada-Senatoryum 004679 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Hveragerdi-Retirement House South Iceland 006335 Iceland 21/06/2000 Selfoss-City Hall (aftershock) Table 7.S.S. B-type site class: record information for the un-scaled type sets (Figure 5 to Figure 7) Site/Zone Code Event Name Country Date Station Name B-1 000187 Tabas Iran 16/09/1978 Tabas 000196 Montenegro Yugoslavia 15/04/1979 Petrovac-Hotel Oliva 000197 Montenegro Yugoslavia 15/04/1979 Ulcinj-Hotel Olimpic 000199 Montenegro Yugoslavia 15/04/1979 Bar-Skupstina Opstine 000228 Montenegro (aftershock) Yugoslavia 24/05/1979 Bar-Skupstina Opstine 006263 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Kaldarholt 006334 South Iceland (aftershock) Iceland 21/06/2000 Solheimar B-2 000197 Montenegro Yugoslavia 15/04/1979 Ulcinj-Hotel Olimpic 000199 Montenegro Yugoslavia 15/04/1979 Bar-Skupstina Opstine 000228 Montenegro (aftershock) Yugoslavia 24/05/1979 Bar-Skupstina Opstine 000231 Montenegro (aftershock) Yugoslavia 24/05/1979 Tivat-Aerodrom 004673 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Hella 006263 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Kaldarholt 006334 South Iceland (aftershock) Iceland 21/06/2000 Solheimar B-3 000181 Tabas Iran 16/09/1978 Boshroyeh 000197 Montenegro Yugoslavia 15/04/1979 Ulcinj-Hotel Olimpic .D. 1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 17 Montenegro Serbia & Hercegnovi Novi-O. 000200 Montenegro 15/04/1979 Montenegro Pavicic School Gebze-Tubitak Marmara 001228 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Arastirma Merkezi 004674 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Flagbjarnarholt 007142 Bingol Turkey 01/05/2003 Bingol-Bayindirlik Murlugu A-3 000052 Friuli Italy 06/05/1976 Feltre 000182 Tabas Iran 16/09/1978 Dayhook Serbia & 000198 Montenegro 15/04/1979 Ulcinj-Hotel Albatros Montenegro Serbia & Hercegnovi Novi-O.

Giuseppe Maddaloni. C-type site class: record information for the un-scaled type sets (Figure 8 to Figure 10) Site/Zone Code Event Name Country Date Station Name C-1 000042 Ionian Greece 04/11/1973 Lefkada-OTE Building 000879 Dinar Turkey 01/10/1995 Dinar-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu 007329 Faial Portugal 09/07/1998 Horta 001226 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Duzce-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu 001257 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Yarimca-Petkim Bolu-Bayindirlik ve Iskan 001560 Duzce 1 Turkey 12/11/1999 Mudurlugu 001703 Duzce 1 Turkey 12/11/1999 Duzce-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu C-2 000879 Dinar Turkey 01/10/1995 Dinar-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu 007329 Faial Portugal 09/07/1998 Horta 001226 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Duzce-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu 001257 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Yarimca-Petkim 006959 Izmit (aftershock) Turkey 13/09/1999 Adapazari Bahtiyat Topcu Evi Bolu-Bayindirlik ve Iskan 001560 Duzce 1 Turkey 12/11/1999 Mudurlugu 001703 Duzce 1 Turkey 12/11/1999 Duzce-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu C-3 000151 Friuli (aftershock) Italy 15/09/1976 Buia 000479 Manjil Iran 20/06/1990 Rudsar 001726 Adana Turkey 27/06/1998 Ceyhan-Tarim Ilce Mudurlugu 007329 Faial Portugal 09/07/1998 Horta 001226 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Duzce-Meteoroloji Mudurlugu 001230 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Iznik-Karayollari Sefligi Muracaati 006959 Izmit (aftershock) Turkey 13/09/1999 Adapazari Bahtiyat Topcu Evi . Edoardo Cosenza and Gaetano Manfredi 000230 Montenegro (aftershock) Yugoslavia 24/05/1979 Budva-PTT Tercan-Meteoroji 000536 Erzincan Turkey 13/03/1992 Mudurlugu 002015 Kefallinia (aftershock) Greece 23/03/1983 Argostoli-OTE Building 004673 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Hella 006328 South Iceland (aftershock) Iceland 21/06/2000 Kaldarholt Table 8. 18 Iunio Iervolino.

1st US-Italy Seismic Bridge Workshop 19 Table 9. Record information for the non-dimensional type sets (Figure 11 to Figure 13) Site Code Event Name Country Date Station Name A 000172 Basso Tirreno Italy 15/04/1978 Messina 1 000286 Campano Lucano Italy 23/11/1980 Arienzo 001255 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Heybeliada-Senatoryum 002553 Racha Georgia 29/04/1991 Toros 004674 South Iceland Iceland 17/06/2000 Flagbjarnarholt 005821 Strofades (aftershock) Greece 18/11/1997 Koroni-Town Hall (Library) 007115 Pulumur Turkey 27/01/2003 Bingol-Bayindirlik Murlugu B 000232 Montenegro (aftershock) Yugoslavia 24/05/1979 Kotor-Naselje Rakite 000500 Racha Georgia 29/04/1991 Bogdanovka Off coast of Magion Oros 002019 peninsula Greece 06/08/1983 Ierissos-Police Station 002030 Kefallinia (aftershock) Greece 23/03/1983 Zakynthos-OTE Building 005809 Strofades Greece 18/11/1997 Argostoli-OTE Building 006142 Aigion Greece 15/06/1995 Patra-San Dimitrios Church Elazig-Bayindirlik ve Iskan 007143 Bingol Turkey 01/05/2003 Mudurlugu C 005673 Volvi Greece 20/06/1978 Pehcevo-Duvanski Kombinat 000175 Volvi Greece 20/06/1978 Thessaloniki-City Hotel 000555 Kallithea Greece 18/03/1993 Patra-OTE Building 001251 Izmit Turkey 17/08/1999 Bursa-Tofa Fabrikasi 006961 Izmit (aftershock) Turkey 13/09/1999 Adapazari A.Babalioglu Evi 006963 Izmit (aftershock) Turkey 13/09/1999 Akyazi Gebes Koyu Imam Lojmani 006967 Izmit (aftershock) Turkey 13/09/1999 Ambarli-Termik Santrali .