in CFS Load Bearing
Mid-Rise Design
Presented by:

Dawn Hopper
Design Manager

Benefits of Light Gauge Steel
o Light weight o Mold and mildew proof.
o High strength to weight ratio o Can be used in conjunction
o Economical with virtually any finish material
o Non-combustible and fire o Architecturally compatible
resistant without spray o Wall, Floor, and Truss UL Fire
fireproofing rating of 1, 1½, and 2 hours
o Will not rot or warp o STC rating of 58
o Termite, insect, and vermin o G-60 Hot Dipped Galvanized
proof coating for rust resistance (G-90
available upon request)


 Engineer of Record
 Standard Floor Systems
 Constructability
 Coordinating Trades
 Light Gauge Shop Drawings


Standard Building Codes Locally adopted State Building Code International Building Code ASCE 7 (Latest version) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures .

Standard CFS Codes S100 North American Specification for the Design of Cold Formed Steel Structural Members North American Standard for Cold Formed Steel Framing – S200 General Provisions S201 Product Data S202 Code of Standard Practice S210 Floor and Roof System Design S211 Wall Stud Design S212 Header Design S213 Lateral Design S214 Truss Design .

 A4  . the building  designer is responsible for  the overall stability and  integrity of the structure  when completed.” S202‐11.“ A key point of the Code of  Standard Practice and the  documents used in its  development is that  although design may be  delegated.

Engineer of Record Reference AISI S202 – Section A2 Definitions Reference AISI S202 – Section A4.2 Responsibility for Design .a.k. The Building Designer… a.

Ct: SDS: SD1: WIND LOADS: Seismic Design Category: Basic Wind Speed: Basic Seismic-force Resisting System(s): Wind Importance Factor. Is: Spectral Response Coefficients: Thermal Factor. I: Occupancy Category: ROOF SNOW LOADS Spectral Response Accelerations: Ground Snow Load.Design Criteria FLOORS DEAD LOAD: LIVE LOAD: ROOF DEAD LOAD: LIVE LOAD: EARTHQUAKE DESIGN DATA: (calculations include snow drift where required) Seismic Importance Factor. Pf: S1: Snow Exposure Factor. Pg: SS: Flat Roof Snow Load. CS: Wind Exposure: Response Modification Factor. I: Design Base Shear (kips): Occupancy Category: Seismic Response Coefficient. R: Internal Pressure Coefficient (GCpi): Analysis Procedure Used: Components and Cladding: *** Story Drift Limits: . Ce: Site Class: Snow Load Importance Factor.

ASCE 7-05 .

AISI S213-07 .

Diagonal Strap Bracing .

16’-0” Shearwall Resulting forces at the foundation of this •16’-0” long •5 story shearwall •designed to withstand 5 kips of story shear each floor Equals a total of 51. .56 kips.

75 kips.12’-0” Shearwall Resulting forces at the foundation of this •12’-0” long •5 story shearwall •designed to withstand 5 kips of story shear each floor Equals a total of 68. .

8’-0” Shearwall Resulting forces at the foundation of this •8’-0” long •5 story shearwall •designed to withstand 5 kips of story shear each floor Equals a total of 103.13 kips. .

78 kips.5’-4” Shearwall Resulting forces at the foundation of this •5’-4” long •5 story shearwall •designed to withstand 5 kips of story shear each floor Equals a total of 154. .

2 Responsibility for Design . Lateral Design Scope Reference AISI S202-11 – Section A4.

Any Special Requirements for Design of Transferring Elements The kitchen sink… . Magnitude Provide Shear Values for each shearwall frame for each floor – Story Shear. Bearing Material Connection Design that will accommodate the building calculated lateral loads. Load Path Identify types and locations on the structural framing plans for each shearwall frame at each floor level. 2.1. 3. 4.

Deflection Requirements In accordance with ASCE 7-05 maximum allowable drift of a 55’-0” type I or II occupancy is 1. This is over 2½” of deflection in one 11’-0” story!!! What is reasonable? Is there an expansion joint? .The Building Designer must also provide….1 feet. 1.

The Building Designer must also provide…. • Account for any gravity loads also shared by the post. Support and Anchorage • The Building Designer shall indicate the method of attachment to the foundation or transfer level. and embedment. . specify the bolt(s) size. • Do not use hooked cast in place anchor bolts with prefabricated panels! • If using epoxy anchors. 2. • Connection must resist Net Uplift forces. Will they be sufficient – are there edge of foundation limitations? • If steel embedment plates are provided the specialty engineer will design the necessary field weld connection.

Diagonal Strap Braced Shearwalls Shearwalls placed in the corridor walls and the unit demising walls of this apartment building provide lateral stability for seismic and wind forces. .

Overlapping shearwall? Depicted here is a shearwall built up from three overlapping shearwalls. . This occurs at the lowest level of an 8 story project to resist the cumulative story shear values and drift limitations of 3/8” per floor. The Engineer of Record is responsible for providing support for each of the 6 posts within the brace frame at the foundation or transfer level.

It is important the deflection is limited in order to not interfere with architectural finishes. Because the frame is a tension only system the deflection is not considered a structural problem.Strap Deflection It is very common in Light Gauge mid-rise construction the straps will deflect as seen here. .

NOT the Proper Way To Remove Strap Slack .


Composite Plank C-Joist Decking Wood Joist Weight Light Heavy Light Medium Light Depth 16”-24” 8”-12” 10”-16” 6”-8” 8”-24” Concrete Plywood Plywood Floor Concrete Topping Concrete Cement- Cement- Board Board Mechanical Open Soffit Partial Soffit Partial Ceiling GWB Popcorn GWB GWB GWB Spans 20’-34’ 24’-30’ 12’-26’ 12’-13’ 12’-26’ UL Ratings 1-2 2 1-2 1-2 1-2 (hours) .

2 and 3 hour assemblies . +/- • Spans up to 40’-0” • Strong Diaphragm • Accommodates MEP • Fire Ratings for 1.Composite Joist & Concrete Slab • Steel Distribution Member • Light Weight System – 3” Nominal Concrete Slab – Joists at 48” o.c.

Precast Hollow Core Plank • Shallow Floor System • Fast Installation • Drywall Ceiling is Optional • Heavy Loads • Seismic Controls Typically • Plank Cambers • Varying Thicknesses Occur • Shimming Required • Limited Connection Capacities. esp. in tension .

. C-Joist Floor Panels • Light Weight Assembly • No Distribution Tube Required • Must Align Joists and Wall Studs • C-Joists Have Limited Span Capabilities • Works best with consistent spans and panel repetition like hotels and dormitories.

Typical Exterior Bearing Wall – Hambro ® Floor Joist .

Typical Exterior Non-Bearing Wall – Hambro ® Floor Joist .

Typical Exterior Bearing Wall – EcoSpan ® Floor Joist An alternate detail with a flush shoe is available from Nucor. The detail is similar and uses a 3½” pourstop instead. .

Typical Exterior Non-Bearing Wall – EcoSpan ® Floor Joist .

when the typical joist has a flush shoe . the corridor deck is supported by a continuous light gauge Z-Closure.Typical Corridor Bearing Wall – EcoSpan ® Floor Joist As an alternate. .

Typical Exterior Bearing Wall – Precast Plank .

Typical Exterior Non-Bearing Wall – Precast Plank .

Alternate Exterior Non-Bearing Wall – Precast Plank Plank Camber requires shimming of each wall stud. .

Typical Interior Bearing Wall– Precast Plank .

Typical Interior Single Sided Bearing Wall – Precast Plank .

.Alternate Interior Single Sided Bearing Wall – Precast Plank Plank camber interferes with uniform bearing. Shims are required at different depths each face of the bearing stud.

Typical Exterior Bearing Wall – C-Joist Floor .

Typical Exterior Non-Bearing Wall – C-Joist Floor .


and field operations of a project to achieve the overall project objectives in the best possible time and accuracy at the most cost-effective levels. construction. . Define Constructability • The extent to which the design of the building facilitates ease of construction. design. subject to the overall requirements for the completed building. • The effective and timely integration of construction knowledge into the conceptual planning.

Room for Connections 7. Building Tolerances and Dimensions 4. Shearwall Locations 5. Stacking Structure 3. Floor System Characteristics 2. Shearwall to Foundation . Common Framing Elements 6. Ease of Construction 1.

– An exception to this is the typical recessed unit entries. . • Any required girders for “non-stacking” structure are centered under walls above when possible. • Make use of fire rated partitions that must go to the underside of the floor. • All studs must have full bearing. • Wall dimensions must meet minimum bearing requirements of floor system. Stacking Structure • All bearing walls and shearwalls should align. Coordinate this with the Architect.

Appendix F. Cold Formed Steel Framing Design Guide.Bearing Stress Distribution Between Track and Concrete Reference AISI D110-07. .

the Headers in the lowest level are designed to carry both gravity loads and shearwall loads from the walls above. . Does this work? Yes. Boundary element forces are transferred to the jamb posts and multiple connections are required to the foundation.Non-Stacking Structure Implications In this project. Is this cost effective? No! Work with the design team to accommodate the structure. Often the architect will gladly adjust the units and move doorways to save the client money.


• Structural Plan dimensions (if provided) should be to drawn to a 1/8” accuracy and coordinated with architectural plan dimensions. – A minimum of 1” should be allowed between systems. . not actual. • Steel. Concrete and CMU walls by others vary in placement. • Be aware of special requirements for rough openings such as oversized openings for welded door frames. Building Tolerances • Architectural drawings are often nominal dimensions to finish. – A minimum of 8” clearance is required each side of the door with a welded door buck frame.

however… preferably there are no shearwalls in exterior walls. • Shearwall lengths ideally match typical stud spacing. – Typically this is 16” or 24” on center. . • Make sure Shearwalls fit where indicated and at the lengths called for on the Structural Contract Documents. • Make sure all shearwalls engage the diaphragm fully. • Place Shearwalls away from the center of mass for efficiency. Shearwall Locations • All Shearwalls Should Align from the Roof to the Foundation.

– Use a shearwall post to support a girder typically. – Frame openings in shearwalls! You cannot put a door in an x- brace frame no matter how hard you try. – Segment long shearwalls into consecutive braces of same lengths • Do Not – Combine shearwall posts in different wall panels… especially at 90 degrees to each other. – Place shearwalls outside exterior shafts. The girder connection interferes with the strap to post connection.• Do – Design the shearwall post to support both the boundary element forces and the gravity loads for a single stud minimum. such as stairs. – Provide posts to “share duties” such as shearwall posts and jamb posts (if there is room for connections). It is not possible to attach the straps. .

Shearwall Design Doesn’t Fit? Example 1: Shearwall Type G Extends well into a door opening. Revising the lengths of brace frames effects the geometry and therefore the resulting forces. Example 2: Shearwall Type E clearly extends beyond the end of the wall it is indicated in on the right side. The shorter the wall in length the greater the boundary element force is to the foundation. Example 2 Example 3 . The left side of the same wall Example 1 extends into the adjacent wall as well which conflicts with Shearwall Type G at that location. Example 3: Shearwall Type H has a door located within the frame.

. Room for Connections • Prefabricated light gauge wall panels are welded together by people. • Allow room for finishes to pass between wall panels when required for fire ratings. • If welding connections. • Account for space between Shearwall posts and Gravity studs/posts to accommodate the dimension of the post and the connection through the diaphragm. • Place ends of Shearwalls at 16”+/.from ends of wall panels. not robots. exterior wall panels cannot weld on the outside face – weld 3 sides only maximum.

Typical Field Welded Connection at Shearwall Post This shearwall post connection is located in an exterior wall and the weld capacity must be checked for 3 sides of weld only at the post. .

Welded shearwall connections may be easier to accommodate than bolted connections. . After torching the angle to fit the panel they were required to grout fill the hole with non- shrink grout and add a weld plate to the horizontal leg with a standard sized hole again.Bolted Connections are Difficult to Align The Panel Installer here had an issue with aligning the hole in the angle for the threaded rod from the post below.

Do not bolt to steel beams below. Shearwall to “Foundation” • Connections to the foundation or transfer deck must allow for variations in the structure of 1” minimum. . • If bolting to the foundation use only epoxy adhesive anchors and account for concrete edge distances. provide detailed embed plates on the construction documents. Do not use cast in place hooked anchor bolts. • If welding to the foundation. • The Design Engineer should provide a detailed connection to the foundation that is capable of resisting the anticipated shearwall frame forces. • Weld to steel beams below with a filler piece such as a WT section.

The brace frame shown on the structural drawings was not properly coordinated with the plumbing drawings during design. . This particular connection is painted blue because it is located over a conduit in the slab on grade.Standard Double Angle Shearwall Connection Conflict There is a conflict with this shearwall post to foundation connection.

. in order to avoid conflict with hollow core plank. the engineer of record opted to use a steel plate welded to the top flange of the beam below into the HSS Shearwall post above. As you can see. All these straps required field splicing afterward. there is no room to access the welds therefore the installer cut the shearwall straps to make the connection.Shear Plate Used to Connect to Beam is a problem This particular project.

. The U-plate seen previously was necessary to allow for an oversized slot in the bottom of the HSS tube.Shear Plate Detail by Engineer of Record As detailed the shear plate connection does not allow for tolerances between the placement of the structural steel and the wall panel above.


.Edge of Slab As-Built Conflict The bearing wall stud overhanging the transfer deck is not acceptable. This is a costly repair in the field. When possible the Engineer of Record should allow for a slightly larger foundation or transfer level to ensure full bearing of the stud wall.

In prefabricated construction there is no time to wait for as-builts and adjust stud locations – the panels are fabricated generally several weeks prior to delivery.Provide Chases for Risers Whether risers for ductwork or risers for plumbing it is best to create fire rated chases for these. .

Provide Wet Walls! Plumbers are fast to burn through the stud web to fit their pipes. . As an Engineer of Record it is important this is expressed to the project architect when the bearing wall locations are determined. It is extremely important all measures are taken in the design phases to eliminate as much plumbing from the bearing walls as possible.

Electrical Conflicts?
Electrical wiring is not normally considered a problem with a load bearing structure. However when
laying out efficient use of apartment or dormitory space it is very common to see kitchen countertops
located adjacent to corridor walls. The electrical outlet placement at these areas are less forgiving and
sometimes can also cause conflicts with the shearwall straps.

MEP and Steel Conflicts!
Ductwork is often not coordinated with the structural drawings. Bearing walls and Shearwalls especially
should be avoided when laying out ductwork. In this wall an opening is being added after the panel is
In addition to the MEP conflict, you will notice the end stud has been compromised by the oversized
cap plate on the column. Bearing walls should be avoided by the steel detailer.


the Specialty Designer. or Light Gauge Engineer is contracted by the wall panel fabricator or the General Contractor.a. .k. Light Gauge Engineer Reference AISI S202 – Section A2 Definitions Typically. The Specialty Designer… a.

• Indicate value engineered framing components based on Design Criteria when possible. Light Gauge Engineering Plans and Calculations • Prepared and Signed and Sealed by the Specialty Engineer. • Provide details and schedules with framing member sizes. • Reviewed and Approved by the Engineer of Record and the Architect. • Schematic plans without dimensions. • All necessary shop and field connections are included for fabrication and installation. .


sections. This may done with notes. or with typical details as shown here.Specialty Engineer Connections The Light Gauge Engineering Shop drawings will indicate all necessary shop and field connections for fabrication and installation. .

Installation Drawings • Prepared by the Panel Fabricator. • Reviewed by the Architect for dimensional verification and coordination. • Initially may be submitted for general review and coordination of dimensions. . – Only installation dimensions may be shown. • Resubmitted with panel shop drawings and piece marks. • Reviewed by the Engineer of Record for compliance with the contract documents. • Plans include engineering sizes for reference only.



. locations.Partial Wall Layout Plan Wall Layout Plans are used for Panel Installation and at the very least clearly indicate panel identification marks. Dimensions on Wall Layout Plans are to face of structure and differ from architectural plan finish dimensions. and lengths of each prefabricated wall assembly.

• Indicate all framing sizes called for on the Light Gauge Engineering plans. . Wall Panel Shop Drawings • Prepared by the Panel Fabricator. • Drawings are not engineering drawings and are not signed and sealed or reviewed by the Specialty Light Gauge Engineer. • Detail Elevations of Each Wall Assembly drawn to 1/8” accuracy. • Fabrication dimensions accommodate tolerances for shimming and alignment.

. or sometimes referred to as shop tickets.Sample Wall Panel Shop Drawing Wall panel shop drawings. are used to identify lengths and locations of wall panel components for fabrication. but the information is all similar. Often details are included to clarify built up assemblies or special shop connections. Different software programs produce different looking wall panel shop drawings.

• Review shop drawings prepared by the CFS contractor. . • Indicate all Story Shear forces for each Shearwall. • Provide all Necessary Design Criteria. Indicate Floor Framing above including framing direction and girder locations. • Detail a proper connection to the “Foundation”. So Now What? • Select a floor system with the architect and the owner. • Produce Framing Plans identifying all bearing wall and shearwall locations clearly.