Course of photovoltaic solar energy, electricity that comes from the sun I-Introduction II-physical composition and manufacture

of photovoltaic devices C oncepts III-IV-electrical characteristic curves of photovoltaic cells V-configur ation of production systems, photovoltaic VI-sizing of production systems, photo voltaic and battery banks VII-Connections and Sizing VIII-conductors and cables installation and maintenance I. Introduction A production system is an electro-solar energy source through the use of photovo ltaic cells, convert light energy directly into electricity. Key advantages: It does not consume fuel produces no pollution or environmental contamination is silent has a useful life exceeding 20 years is resistant to extreme weather con ditions (hail, wind, temperature and humidity) have no moving parts and therefor e requires little maintenance (only cleaning panel) allows to increase the insta lled capacity through the incorporation of additional modules Main applications: It is generally used in areas away from mains electricity and can work independently or in combination with conventional power production sys tems. Its main applications are: Electrification of rural properties: light, TV, radio, communications, water pum ps

Electrification of fences Outdoor Lighting Cathodic Protection Signalling boats, caravans System components: Direct current 12V: Panels and modules for photovoltaic cell panels Stands regulator battery chargin g and battery bank 110/220V AC: Beyond the foregoing, between the batteries and consumption will ne ed to install an inverter chain with adequate power. The inverter converts direc t current (DC) batteries into alternating current (AC). Most household appliance s use alternating current. SCHEDULE (Fig.1) This course was originally published by Panorama Energy. Translated, adapted and reproduced by AMERLIS with permission of the authors. The RETScreen, Canada, pr oduced a software to produce photovoltaic projects. If you want this software CL ICK HERE to make the download (1721 k bytes). It's free. If you prefer the softw are in French go directly to the website of RETScreen. Top of page Updated 05/Jun/01 II-physical composition and manufacture of photovoltaic devices Photovoltaic effect: The modules are composed of silicon solar cells. They are s emiconductors of electricity as silicon is a material with characteristics inter mediate between a conductor and an insulator. The silicon is presented usually a s sand. Through appropriate methods to obtain silicon in pure form. The crystal of pure silicon has no free electrons and thus is a poor electrical conductor. T o change this add up percentages of other elements. This process is called dopin g. By doping silicon with phosphorus is obtained a material with free electrons

or material with a negative charge carriers (N-type silicon). Performing the sam e procedure, but adding boron instead of phosphorus, one obtains a material with opposite characteristics, ie deficit of electrons or positively charged materia l free (P-type silicon). Each solar cell is composed of a thin layer of N type m aterial and one with a thicker P-type material (see Figure 2). Separately, both covers are electrically neutral. But by being united in marriage exactly PN, gen erates an electric field due to electrons from the N-type silicon that occupy th e voids of the structure of P-type silicon Figure 2 When you focus the light onto the photovoltaic cell, photons belonging to it are in conflict with the electron structure of silicon giving them energy and turning them into piles. Due to the electric field generated in the union PN , electrons are driven and flow layer "P" layer to the "N". Through an outer conductor, connects the negative to the positive layer. Geras t hus a flow of electrons (electric current) connection. As the light continues to focus on the cell, the flow of electrons will remain. The intensity of the curr ent generated will vary proportionately as the intensity of incident light. Each photovoltaic module is formed by a certain amount of cells connected in series. As seen above, to join the negative layer of a cell with the following positive , the electrons flow through the conductors from one cell to another. This flow is repeated until the last cell of the module, which flows into the accumulator or battery.€Each electron which leaves the module is replaced by another who ret urns the accumulator or battery. The interconnection between cable and battery m odule contains the flow, so that when an electron leaves the last cell of the mo dule and forwards to the battery another electron enters the first cell from the battery. That is why it is considered an inexhaustible photovoltaic device. Pro duces electricity in response to light energy that goes into it. It should be no ted that a photovoltaic cell can not store electricity. Cell types: There are th ree types of cells, according to the method of manufacture.

Monocrystalline silicon: These cells are obtained from cylindrical bars of singl e crystal silicon grown in special furnaces. The cells are obtained by cutting t he bars into discs square thin (0.4-0.5 mm thick). Their efficiency in convertin g sunlight into electricity is more than 12%. Silicon policristinalino: These ce lls are produced from blocks of silicon melt bits of pure silicon in special mol ds. Once the molds, silicon cools slowly and solidifies. In this process, the at oms are not organized in a single crystal. Form a structure with polycrystalline surfaces of separation between the crystals. Its efficiency in converting sunli ght into electricity is slightly smaller than in single crystal silicon. Amorpho us Silicon: These cells are obtained through the deposition of very thin layers of silicon on glass or metal surfaces. Its efficiency in converting sunlight int o electricity ranges between 5% and 7%. Production of photovoltaic modules: The photovoltaic module is composed of individual cells connected in series. Thi s type of connection allows you to add tension. The rated voltage of the module shall be equal to the number of cells that make up the voltage of each cell (app rox. 0.5 volts). Usually produce are composed of modules 30, 32, 33 and 36 cells in series, as the required application. It seeks to give the module stiffness i n its structure, electrical insulation and resistance to climatic factors. There fore, the cells connected in series are wrapped in plastic, elastic (Etilvinilac elato) which also makes the role of electrical insulating, tempered glass with l ow iron content in the face to the sun, and a multilayer plastic laminate (GRP)

in rear face. In some cases the glass is replaced by a sheet of transparent plas tic material. The module has a frame made of aluminum or polyurethane boxes and connections which reach the positive and negative terminals of the series of cel ls. The terminals of the boxes connect the cables connecting the module to the s ystem. Steps of the manufacturing process of the module:

Electrical testing and classification of cell-cell electrical interconnection of the whole assembly. Placement of cells between layers of welded plastic encapsu lant and the glass plates and plastic lamination module. The whole machine is re ndered in a semi-high-vacuum, through a process of heating and mechanical pressu re, as the laminate. Curing. The laminate is processed in a temperature controll ed oven in which to complete the polymerization of the plastic encapsulant and a ttains perfect adhesion of the different components. The assembly, after curing, is a single piece. Framing. Arises primarily an elastic sealant around the peri meter of the laminate and then the aluminum profiles that form the frame. They u se pneumatic machines to achieve the proper pressure. The polyurethane moldings are placed via injection machines. Placement of terminals, terminals, diodes box es and final Test connections Test the modules on the modules must be measured and noted: Electrical insulation characteristics operating tram (3000 Volt DC) Physical asp ects, defects in workmanship, etc. Impact Strength Tensile strength of the conne ctions

Resistance to saline mist and moisture behavior in high temperature environment for prolonged periods (100 degrees Celsius for 20 days) to changes in thermal st ability (-40 º C to +90 º C) in successive cycles Top of page Mounted 06/Abr/01 III-Electrical Concepts Voltage and current: Electricity is the flow of charged particles (electrons) fl owing through conductive materials (such as copper cables or bars). These partic les acquire a power source (generator, photovoltaic module, accumulator battery, etc.) and transferring this energy to a load (lamp, motor, communication equipm ent, etc..) And then return to the source to repeat the cycle. If you imagine a basic circuit as an accumulator battery connected to a lamp will have been indic ated in Figure 3: The accumulator battery is a source of electricity, or electromotive force (emf) . The magnitude of the WEF's what we call tension and is measured in volts. Thes e concepts can be better understood if one makes the analogy of a water pumping system. Thus, it will replace the flow of electrons by water, the source of tens ion for a water pump and cord by a tubing. It will have then: ELECTRIC MODEL Electricity is the flow of electrons through a wire is measured i n amps. The source of power supply voltage to the electron hydraulic model of wa ter flow is the flow of water through a pipe. It is measured in liters / sec. Th e pump delivers water pressure to it. The pressure is measured in kg/cm2 (or mm

column ie ability to perform work. The tension is measured in volts. The electrons lose their energy while passing through a load. This is where the work takes place. water). The water loses its pressure passing through a turbine. This is where the work t akes place. Series connection If the elements of a circuit connecting in series, this means that the entire flow (electron or water) must pass through each of its elements. Example: In the case of water pumping, if you want to raise it to a height of 2 0 m just after making it through a small turbine Should we connect the pump and turbine in series, as shown in fig. 5. The entire flow passing through the pump will also pass through the turbine and the pipes. Figure 5 Therefore, the flow is constant at any point of the circuit. If we wanted to rai se the same flow twice the height (40 m) should connect two pumps in series ment ioned. That is to say that a series connection pressures add up. Recalling the a nalogy of electricity, the equivalent pressure is stress. So if you have two pho tovoltaic modules in which each deliver 12 volts, 2 amps and is intended to impl ement a system of 24 Volts and 2 Amps duty would set up a circuit as shown in Fi g. 6. Figure 6 Conclusion: When connecting modules in series, the resulting voltage is the sum of voltages and each resulting current coincides with the smallest of the curren t delivered by the modules. Paralleling if need be to raise to 20 m tall double the flow rate mentioned above should connect two pumps, as shown in Figure 7. Th is is a parallel connection. Fig.7 Each pump will raise a similar flow, passing through the turbine the sum of both . There is no pressure difference between water pumped by the first and the seco nd bomb, so all the water will fall in the same time helping with equal pressure . Where electrical supply if the load need IN 12 volts, 4 amps, the circuit will be that of Fig.8. Fig.8 Conclusion: When connecting modules in parallel, the resulting current is the su m of the currents of each and the resulting tension coincides with the one deliv ered by each module. Power is the product of voltage by current strength. P = V x I where: P is the power measured in watts V is the applied voltage, measured i n volts I is the current flowing, measured in amps If you analyzed the cases see n in the series connection and parallel connection It will verify that both oper ate with identical values of power: 24 V x 2 = 48 W (eg series) 12 V x 4 = 48 W (eg parallel) A single power supply may be as high voltage and low current or lo w voltage and high current. Each application will determine the best choice. Los s of power to circulate water through a pipe to produce pressure losses by frict ion and turbulence. That is, the tubing offers a certain resistance to the flow Watercolors. Likewise, the electrical conductors offer some resistance to curren t flow of electrons and this translates into a loss power, which must be taken into account when designing a system. These power los ses are transformed into heat. The resistance of an electrical conductor is a pr operty that depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the conductor material a nd its geometry. Saying the same thing in other words, the resistance of a condu ctor varies in direct relation to its resistivity and its length and inversely w ith its section. Thus, R = x (l / s) where R = resistance in ohms (), = specific resistance or resistivity, in the Copper Example: = 2 ms = 0.017 mm section of the conductor in mm 2, l = length , m

mm x 2 meters It appears that V = I x R where: V is the system voltage in Volts "I" is the cur rent that is transmitted in Amps' R is the resistance of the conductor element,€ This expression is in Ohms Ohm's law and indicates that the applied voltage is p roportional to the resistance and the current flowing through the circuit. Thus, the power loss is proportional to the conductor resistance and the square of th e current that flows by it. P = I x R 2 because P = V x I and V = RXi In photovo ltaic systems working at low voltages interested to know that the voltage drop w ill occur when the current required drivers go a certain length and section. In chapter 7 gives some values of sections of conductor current and appropriate for certain distances. Amount of energy If you have to keep on for two hours a 60 w att bulb, the energy consumed is equal to: E1 = 60 Watt x 2 hours = 120 Watt hou rs If, furthermore, if you want food to the same source a TV that consumes 50 watts and that runs for 3 hours, the power consumption of the TV is: E2 = 50 watts x 3 hours = 150 Watt hours If E1 and E2 are the only energy consumption of the day , daily total energy demand will be: Etot = 270 Watt hours per day is important to become familiar with this concept of daily energy demand since, as pointed ou t below, will be used in sizing systems photovoltaic. Top of page Pg. revised 03/Mai/01 IV-characteristic curves of photovoltaic cells Current x voltage curve (IV curve) A typical representation of the characteristi c output of a photovoltaic device (cell, module, system) is called a current vol tage curve. The output current keeps almost constant within the range of operati ng voltage and thus the device can be regarded as a constant current source in t his area. The current and voltage that operates the photovoltaic device are dete rmined by solar radiation, temperature environment, and the characteristics of t he load connected to it. Fig 9 Transcendent values of this curve are: Short-circuit (Isc): Maximum current th at can deliver a device under specific conditions of radiation and temperature c orresponding to zero tension and consequently the power void. Open circuit volta ge (Vac): Maximum voltage that can deliver a device under certain conditions of radiation and temperature corresponding to zero current flow and consequently th e power void.

Peak Power (MPP): This is the maximum power that can deliver the device. Corresp onds to the point of the curve in which the product V x I is a maximum. Maximum power current (Imp): chain that delivers maximum power to the device under certa in conditions of temperature and radiation. It is used as the nominal current of the same. Maximum power voltage (Vmp): voltage device that delivers a maximum p ower under certain conditions of temperature and radiation. It is used as a nomi nal voltage of the same. Effect of environmental factors on the output characteristic of the device. Effect of intensity of solar radiation the result of a change in the intensity o f radiation is a variation in output current for any value of voltage the curren t varies with the way radiation directly proportional. The voltage keeps almost constant.

Fig.10 Effect of temperature The main effect caused by increases in temperature of the module is a reduction in voltage directly proportional manner. There is a secondary effect given by a small increase in current for low values of tension . All this is shown in Figure 11 is why for sites with very high ambient tempera tures are suitable modules that have higher amount of cells in series so that th ey have enough output voltage to charge batteries. Fig.11 Combinations of cells and the resulting strain curves at the maximum output powe r to a cell is approximately 0.5 volts in full sun. The chain that delivers una cell is proportional to the surface and in the same light intensity. That is why to get modules with lower output currents are used in their manufacture thirds, fourths, media, etc. cells. A photovoltaic module is a set of cells connected i n series (add to your stress) as a unit with enough voltage to power to charge a 12 volt battery rated voltage (This battery needs between 14 and 15 volts in or der to load up fully). To achieve this tension need between 30 and 36 monocrysta lline silicon cells connected in series. Interaction of the photovoltaic device with the load IV curve corrected for the prevailing environmental conditions, is only one piece of information needed to know what will be the feature of an out put module.€Other information is essential operative feature of charge to connec t. It is the load that determines the operating point on the curve IV Maximum po wer output during the day The characteristic IR module varies with environmental conditions (radiation, temperature). This means that there will be a family of IV curves we show the output characteristics of the module during the day at a t ime of year. Fig 12 The maximum power curve of a module depending on time of day has the form shown in this diagram load: Fig 13 The amount of energy that the module is able to deliver during the day is repres ented by the area lying under the curve of Fig.13 and is measured in Watt hours / day. Observe that it is not possible to speak of a constant amount of energy d elivered by the module in Watts hours since it varies depending on time of day. It will then need to work with the values of the daily amount of energy delivere d. (Watt hour / day). Interaction with a resistive load In simplest example, if you connect the termin als of a module to an incandescent lamp (which behaves as an electrical resistan ce) the operating point of the module will be the intersection of their characte ristic curve with a straight line graphically represents the expression I = V / R, where R is the resistance of the load to connect. Fig.14 Interaction with a battery A battery has a voltage that depends on its charge state, age, temperature, load ing and unloading, etc.. This tension is imposed on all elements that are relate d to it, including the photovoltaic module. Figure 15 It is incorrect to think that a module with a maximum output voltage of 20 volts will raise a battery of 12 volts to 20 volts and damage. It's the battery that determines the operating point of the module. The battery voltage varies its amp litude between 12 and 14 volts. Since the output of the photovoltaic module is i nfluenced by variations in radiation and temperature throughout the day, this wi ll mean a varying current entering the battery. Figure 16 Interaction with a DC motor A DC motor also has an IV curve. The intersection of

that with the IV curve of the module determines the operating point. Figure 17 When you connect a motor directly to the PV system without battery or the interm ediary reduces the components involved and thus increasing reliability. But, as shown in Figure 18, do not take advantage of the energy generated in the early m orning and dusk. Figure 18 V-configuration of production systems Directly connected to a load is the simplest system of all. The photovoltaic gen erator connects directly to the load, usually a DC motor. It is mainly used in w ater pumping. Because there are no batteries or accumulators electronic componen ts improves system reliability, but it becomes difficult to maintain an efficien t performance throughout the day. System-accumulator battery module can be used to reset a photovoltaic module sim ply the self-discharge of a battery that is used for starting an engine, for exa mple. To do so may use the building blocks of amorphous silicon or single crysta l. Another important application where the PV system is connected directly to th e battery is in rural electrification systems of low power. These cases are used one or two modules of 30 monocrystalline silicon cells, each connected in paral lel to achieve the desired power Photovoltaic, battery and regulator setting is used with modules of 33 or 36 cel ls in which the photovoltaic generator is connected to a battery through a regul ator to prevent it from overcharging. Accumulator batteries feed DC loads. Battery, Inverter When you need energy into alternating current may be included in an inverter. The power generated by the photovoltaic system could be fully tr ansformed into alternating current or may feed on both charges of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) Regulators charge batteries of several types of regulatory burden. The simplest design is that of a one-step control. The regulator constantly monitors battery voltage of batteries. When the said voltage reaches a value to which it is consi dered that the battery is charged (approximately 14.1 volts for a lead acid batt ery 12 volt nominal) regulator stops the charging process. This can be achieved by opening the circuit between the photovoltaic modules and battery (type contro l series) or shorted the photovoltaic modules (control shunt type). When the con sumer makes the battery starts to discharge and thus lower their stress,€Governo r reconnect the generator to the battery and the cycle begins again. In the case of regulators whose load step control operates in two steps, the voltage Load the bottom of the battery may be something more than 14.1 Volts. The regula tor is set to specify the level of tension (coinciding with the value of system voltage) and maximum current debera handle. To illustrate with a simple example, suppose that one has to feed a rural housing consumption at 12 VDC. and for tha t we utilizen two photovoltaic modules. The maximum current of these modules is Imp = 2.75 A and the short circuit current Icc. = 3 A. When the modules are in p arallel the total current maximum that should control the regulator will I total = 2 x 3 = 6 is considered a short circuit current to contemplate the worst. The regulator has to choose, therefore, should be designed to operate at a voltage of 15 volts (working voltage of the modules) and handle a current of 6 A. Storag e batteries The primary function of the batteries in a photovoltaic generation s ystem is to accumulate the energy that is produced during the hours of light to be used at night or during prolonged periods of bad weather. Another important f unction of the batteries is to provide a current intensity higher than the photo voltaic device can deliver. This is the case of an engine, that at boot time may require a current 4-6 times their rated current for a few seconds. Interaction between PV modules and batteries Normally the battery bank of batteries and PV m odules work together to feed the loads. The figure below shows how to distribute

the delivery of energy to the load throughout the day. During the night all the energy required by the load is supplied by the battery bank. In the morning hou rs the modules begin to generate, but if the current supply is less than one tha t requires the load, the battery should contribute. From a certain hour of the m orning the energy generated by photovoltaic modules exceeds the average energy d emand. The modules not only meet the demand and also the excess will be stored i n the battery will begin to carry themselves and recover from the night before h is discharge. Finally during the afternoon, the current generated is reduced and no difference in relation to demand will be delivered by the battery. During th e night, the production is zero and all consumption comes from the (s) battery ( s) accumulators. Types of Batteries, Accumulators Lead-acid liquid electrolyte The lead-acid batteries are widely applied in photovoltaic generation systems. W ithin the category lead-acid, the lead-antimony, lead, selenium and lead-calcium are the most common. The basic construction unit of a battery cell is 2 volts. Inside the cell, the actual voltage of the battery depends on its state of charg e, if it is to load, unload or open circuit. In general, the voltage of a cell v aries between 1.75 volts and 2.5 volts, the average being about 2 volts, voltage is usually called the nominal cell. When cells bind to two volts in series (pos itive to negative) the tensiões cells are added to, obtaining in this way four b atteries, 6.12 Volts, etc.. If the batteries are connected in parallel (positive to positive and negative to negative) strains do not change, but will add to th eir skills current. Should only be connected in parallel batteries of equal volt age and capacity. You can do a sort of batteries based on its energy storage cap acity (measured in Ah at rated voltage) and its life cycle (number of times the battery can be charged and discharged before the fund runs out its useful life). The energy storage capacity of a battery depends on the speed of downloading. T he nominal capacity that characterizes it corresponds to a discharge time of 10 hours. The bigger the discharge time, the greater the amount of energy that the battery provides. A typical discharge time in PV systems is 100 hours. For examp le, a battery that has a capacity of 80 Ah at 10 pm (nominal capacity) will have 100 Ah capacity at 100 pm. Within the lead-acid batteries, the so-called statio nary low content of antimony is a good option in photovoltaic systems. They have about 2500 life cycles when the depth of discharge is 20% (ie, the battery will be 80% of its charge) and about 1200 cycles when the depth of discharge is 50% (battery with 50% its load). Stationary batteries are also a low self-discharge (3% versus a monthly approximately 20% of a battery of conventional lead-acid) a nd reduced maintenance.€Within these characteristics also fit the lead-calcium a nd chumboselenio, which have a low internal resistance, negligible values for ga sification and a low self-discharge. Sealed batteries These gelled-electrolyte batteries incorporate a gel type consistency which can vary from one state to very dense consistency similar to a jelly. Do not shed, c an be mounted in almost any position and do not tolerate deep discharge. Electro lyte-absorbed electrolyte is absorbed in microporous glass fiber or a braided po lymer fiber. Like its predecessors do not shed, are mounted in any position and permit moderate discharges. As far as these batteries require no maintenance gel led with additions of water and do not develop gas, avoiding the risk of explosi on, but both require shallow discharges during its lifetime. Nickel-Cadmium The main features are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The electrolyte is alkaline admitted deep d ischarges of up to 90% of rated capacity Low self-discharge coefficient High per formance under extreme temperature changes the nominal voltage per cell is 1.2 v olt High performance load absorption (above 80%) 7. Very high cost compared to acid batteries As the lead-acid batteries, these c an be obtained in two versions: standard and sealed. We use the most convenient

as the need to maintain acceptable for a given application. Given its high cost, not justified its use in rural applications. VI-sizing of photovoltaic generation systems and battery banks Data needed to scale a system rated voltage system. Refers to the typical operat ing voltage charges to connect. It should be further distinguish whether that vo ltage is alternating or continuous. The power required by the load requires powe r that each load is an essential piece. Communication equipment require major po wers when operating in transmission and this often occurs only during a few minu tes a day. During the rest of the time require a small power maintenance. This d ifferentiation should be taken into account in designing the system. Hours of us e of cargo along with the power required by the load must be specified hours of daily use of that power. Multiplying power for hours of use, shall obtain the re quired hours for the load watts after a day. Geographical System (Latitude, Long itude and height relative to sea level site installation) These data are needed to determine the angle suitable for the photovoltaic module and the radiation le vels (average monthly) of the place. This provided for autonomy refers to the nu mber of days is expected to decrease generation or there will and should be cons idered in the design of accumulator batteries. Systems for rural household to ta ke 3-5 days, and communications systems for remote 7-10 days of autonomy. The fo llowing shows a spreadsheet to determine the watts per hour daily (Wh / day) of all charges of direct and alternating currents that want food. a) Loads DC Consu mption of hours used per unit of watts day (A) (B) Apparatus Total Watt hours / day (A x B) Lamp Low Power 7 W 2 Lamps Lamp Low Power 9 W 9 W low-power transmission equipme nt Citizen Band Transmission Listener 1 1A3 1 08/05 October 10 5.8 60 10 0.5 3 March 12 Subtotal 1 June 9 93.5 Appliance color TV 14 " b) Loads in AC Hours of use per day consumption of the appliance Total Watt hour s / day (A) W (B) (A x B) 2 60 120 18 138 231.5 Add 15% to take into account the yield of two inverter Subtotal Total demand for energy in Watts-hora/dia (1 +2) 1) Identify each load current, its consumption in Watts and the amount of hours per day that must operate. In the example considered are energy-saving lamps fro m 7:09 to W, with its ballast, respectively 8.5 and consume 10 W. It was also a communication equipment such citizen's band where he identified his consumption in both transmission and listening. 2) Multiply the column (A) by (B) to obtain the Watts hours per day of consumption for each unit (column [The xB]). 3) Add t he Watts hours per day for each unit to obtain Watt hours / day total loads in d irect current (Subtotal 1). 4) Proceed similarly with the loads on AC power with the addition of 15% additional power to take into account the income of the inv

erter (Subtotal 2). To choose the appropriate drive,€duty will be clear what lev els of tension that wield both in terms of alternating current as of remains. Fo r example, if a rural dwelling to install a solar generator at 12 VDC. and wheth er to feed a color TV that runs on 220 Vac and consumes 60W, the inverter is 12 Vdc to 220 Vac and man at least 60 W. If there are other loads AC duty will be a dded all those who wish to feed simultaneously. The result of that sum, plus a s afety margin of approximately 10%, will determine the power inverter. 5) Obtain the total energy demand. Subtotal 1 + Subtotal 2. Calculating the number of modules required Simplified approach should be known l evels of solar radiation typical of the region (see map). As we have seen, the p roduction capacity of the modules varies with radiation. To make a rough calcula tion of the quantity of modules required for an installation can proceed as foll ows: 1) Calculate based on leaf scaling total energy demand of the installation (Subtotal1 + Subtotal 2) 2) Determine which zone is perform the installation. 3) The values of radiation should be calculated for serving adequately in winter c onsumption. To this should reduce to the average values of radiation that the pe rcentage shown in Table 1. AHEAD OF THE GENERATOR MODULES MUST BE BACK TO THE SOUTH GEOGRAPHIC (POSITION OF THE SUN THROUGH THE DAY). THE PLAN OF MODULES MUST INSTALL TO sloping, forming with the horizontal an angle of 45 °. Calculation of accumulator battery bank's capacity battery bank is given by the formula: Ch = 1.66 x x Aut Dtot Where: 1.66: correction factor of accumulator ba ttery that takes into account the depth permitted discharge, aging and a tempera ture factor. Dtot: Looking total energy of the system in Ah / day. This is obtai ned by dividing the Wh / day total that arise from the sheet by scaling the syst em voltage. Aut: days of autonomy as seen in the planned item Autonomy. In the e xample will be adopted: Cap Bat. = 1.66 x ((231.5 Wh / day or 12 Volts) x 5 days ) = 160 Ah will take the value to the next higher standard resulting from this c alculation shall pitch and series-parallel combinations appropriate for each cas e. VII-Links and sizing of conductors and cables Links To ensure proper operation of cargo shall be made by the appropriate selec tion of conductors and cables, both those that connect the solar generator to th e batteries as those of the interconnect with the charges. In the case of a rura l housing, basic wiring diagrams are as follows: A) Installation on 12 VDC with a photovoltaic module of 33 cells and regulator 12 VDC B) Installation on 12 VDC with PV modules of 33 cells and regulator 12 VDC To supply of communications equipment may be required voltages above 12 VDC. Ten sions are typical of work 24, 36 and 48 VDC. To achieve proper sizing should ref er to Annex A. Here are shown only a few basic links to the tensions mentioned. a) Installation of 24 photovoltaic modules with four DC 24V DC b) Installation of 36 photovoltaic modules with six Vcc 36 Vcc c) Installation of 48 photovoltaic modules with eight Vcc 48 Vcc Sizing of conductors and cables Cable whose routes are mainly in areas of weathe r should be appropriate to this condition. In these cases it is recommended to u se the cable FVV (European designation AO5VV-F). The cable H07RN-F (NP-2357) cor responds to the following figure. It is a flexible, fit for the storm to be inst alled in a PVC pipe that will serve as a mechanical protection. Their level of i solation is 500 V.

To install drivers insulated fire-as be mounted inside olation is 1000 V.

within a dwelling or a building is used copper cable with PVC the NP-2356. This cable, unsuited to outdoor facilities, must PVC pipes with 16, 20 or 25 mm in diameter. Their level of is The drawing below shows a slice of it.

To ensure the proper functioning of the loads (lamps, TV, communication equipmen t, etc.) there should be no more than 5% of voltage between both the modules and batteries as between the batteries and the load centers. The selection process of the cable becomes more simplified when using the table below, indicating the appropriate section of cable to use for a voltage drop of 5% in 12 V systems In the left column to select the desired chain.€Along the same lines looking to dis tance the cable will go through that section and read up on the top of their sec tion of the column corresponding cable. If the installation of 24, 36 or 48 VDC will proceed the same way, but in this case partly caused will break the section obtained by 2, 3 or 4, respectively. If the value that result from this divisio n does not coincide with a normalized value of the duty section will adopt the s ection immediately above. Maximum distance in meters, for a voltage drop of 5% o n systems of 12 volts Section (mm 2) Current (A) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 35 25 16 10 6 4 2.5 39 19 13 10 8 6 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2 1.5 22 11 7 5 4 3 2.8 2.5 2 1.8 1.5 1 540 270 180 135 108 90 77 67 60 54 45 36 389 194 130 97 78 65 55 49 43 39 32 26 246 123 82 62 49 41 35 31 27 25 20 16 156 78 52 39 31 26 22 19 17 16 13 10 93 46 31 23 18 15 13 12 10 9 8 6 62 31 20 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 April 18 21 24 27 30 30 26 22 20 18 22 18 16 14 13 14 12 10 9 8 9 7 6.5 5.5 5

5 4 3.5 3 2.5 March 3 2.5 2 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.5 1 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.5 VIII-Installation and maintenance Location and orientation of the modules for the proper installation is important to select the best possible location for PV modules. The location must meet two conditions: 1) Being as close to the battery (to minimize the section of the ca ble), and 2) have optimal conditions for the receipt of solar radiation. The mod ules should be far enough away from any object to project a shadow over them in the best period of radiation (usually from 9 to 17 hours) on the shortest day of the year. Figure 8.1 helps to calculate the minimum distance (in meters) at whi ch an object may be the modules in order to not cast shadows on them during the winter, three hours before and three hours after solar noon. Based on the latitude of the installation we get the figure 8.1 and the spacing factor. Thus, the minimum distance that can be located on the subject will be: D istance = Fe x (Ho - Hm) where Fe = spacing factor obtained from Figure 8.1 Ho = Height of the object Hm = Height above ground level where the modules are insta lled modules should be oriented so that its front look at the geographic South ( or North, while in the southern hemisphere). When the sun reach the highest poin t of its trajectory (Noon) position coincides with the geographical South. To achieve a better use o f sunlight, the modules should be tilted in the horizontal plane at an angle tha t will vary with the latitude of the installation. BP Solar recommends the adopt ion of the following angles of inclination: Latitude 0-4 degrees 50-20 degrees 21-45 degrees 46-65 degrees 66-75 degrees Tilt angle 10 degrees latitude 5 degrees latitude + + + 10 degrees latitude 15 d egrees 80 degrees Example: how Lisbon is at latitude 39 °, the angle of the panel may be 49. Small changes in angle do not significantly affect the efficiency of the installation . In the northern hemisphere plates will be directed to the geographic South (wh ich has a 17 º to the magnetic South). In the southern hemisphere boards will be devoted to the geographical North. Location of other equipment The battery charge regulator may be located in the s tructure (the case of solar generators of only one or two modules) or somewhere near the battery bank (if the generators with the highest number of modules). Ba tteries should be installed in a compartment separate from the rest of the dwell ing and with adequate ventilation, because of lead-acid gases emanating from exp losives. In rural facilities is advisable to have a switchboard with an entry fo r the battery bank and one or two outputs (with their guards) in which they allo cate the consumption of housing. In this framework can also be an indicator of s ystem state of battery charge. For this it is convenient to place the frame on a dwell ing place of easy access to maintain proper control. Maintenance of photovoltaic modules One of the great advantages of production systems is that photovoltaics do not need any maintenance. That is why we are the ideal places where you need to autonomous operation. The front of the modules consists of a tempered glass with 3 to 3.5 mm thick, which makes them resistant to the hail. Moreover, they a dmit any kind of climatic variation. They are self-cleaning due to the inherent

bias that the module would be, so that dirt can drain. Anyway, wherever possible , there should be cleaning the front of the modules with water mixed with deterg ent.€You should check periodically that the angle of inclination obeys specified . Should be confirmed that there is no projection of shadows of nearby objects i n any sector of the modules between 9 and 17 hours at least. One should periodic ally check the electrical connections are well adjusted and no signs of rust. Ma intenance of the batteries periodically observe the water level in each of the c ompartments of all batteries. If the level is low, complete with demineralized w ater. Inspect the terminals to verify that they are secure and free of corrosion . If spec obser sulfation, as this could indicate gas in the battery and therefo re a system failure of regulation.