Booklet on Basic Residential Alarms Louis Bertini -1 -2 Booklet on Basic Residential Alarms The aim of this book is to present

some knowledge to those who already know a li ttle electricity or electronics, to facilitate the acquisition, understanding an d installation of residential alarms. A practical part, which must be done by th e reader, it would help a lot. But this requires the purchase of sensors, centra l etc.. And this depends on money and time. But bounce, do some experiments to l earn more before installing alarms professionally. Always read all the manuals a nd test several times. Louis Bertini -3 -4 Before starting to show connections for alarms, etc. circuits., Should we talk a bit about the types of sensors, central, sirens, sources, floats etc. .. Sensors There are several types of sensors we can use as markers of the presence of some one in one place. Infrared Sensors There are basically two types: passive sensors and optical sensors aligned. Pass ive sensors are the most common and most widely used for protection and monitori ng indoors. This type of sensor can detect the heat released by the human body. When a person passes in front of such a sensor, the sensor detects the release o f heat and sends a signal to the plant. In this type of sensor, usually have a s ensitivity adjustment and scope. The range of the sensor is proportional to the height at which it was installed (within certain limitations). To secure a room, such a sensor is usually enough. Some sensors detect the invasion of the enviro nment, and pass through to the central wire, others by radio waves. There are ot hers who possess inside a siren that will sound after a few seconds if it is not disconnected with the use of a combination. Still others are powered by batteri es and others with direct voltage from a circuit itself. What all have in common is a lens opaque (white) and multifaceted, called Fresnel lens, and usually als o an LED that flashes when the internal sensor that captures a person or animal. An LED is a type of lamp made from semiconductor materials. The internal LED is usually red or green. -5 It is worth noting that if there is on site or move animals such as dogs or cats , where there is a sensor that will trigger it. Sites that use this type of sens or must be completely closed or be banned movement of animals. A passive sensor takes 30 seconds to two minutes to begin working properly after fed. Wires to connect Lens Figure 1 - Sensor Normally the sensor is about the size of a pack and rounded corners. The advantage of this type of sensor is that sensor will protect certain area. We will need less wiring and in nsors via RF (radio waves) do not need no wiring because it works and transmit the wireless signal to the central. Optical sensors of cigarettes with only one the case of se with batteries aligned work t

hrough the transmission and reception of infrared light. This type of light is n ot perceived by man. This sensor is widely used in doors, for protection in mach inery, etc. on walls. Basically consists of an infrared transmitter and an infra red receiver. The transmitter and receiver aligned can begin to operate. See Fig ure 2 next page: -6 Transmitter Receptor Spinning Infrared light Spinning Fig 2 - Example of infrared light If someone passes between the transmitter and receiver, the beam is interrupted and the receiver will send a signal to the cen tral fire alarm. They are called optical line just because they need to be align ed or directed at each other. Aseguir figures show some examples of connection: Open door Transmitter Receiver Fig 3 - Example of connecting a transmitter to a receiver -7 When someone through the door detects the receiver. The sensors can be installed on walls in the same way. The only disability is someone realize sensors and ju mp the beam of infrared light. Infrared light is the same we use in our remote c ontrols, be they TV, video or sound. There are sensors of this type with a range of up to 150m. I advise not to use them in a close distance to the maximum. If this is done, the alignment will be difficult and the beam can be interrupted by a heavy rain. There are optical sensors aligned using laser light. Its range is much larger and have better accuracy. Another way to use this type of sensor is through the reflection of a special mirror. See the following figure to underst and better: Transmitter Wiring Mirror Spinning Receptor Fig€4 - Example of using a sensor on the mirror this way we can put the transmi tter and receiver coming across and just a mirror. If someone break the beam ent ering the front of the mirror, the receiver will detect it and send a signal to the central. -8 See example below: Open door Transmitter Mirror Receptor Figure 5 - Example If somebody through the door interrupts the beam. Some transm itters and receivers are now sold together in one body, plus the mirror. Are cal led optical lined reflection.

Vibration Sensors This type of sensor is typically used in windows (sometimes on doors). Should an yone try to open the window, and make it vibrate, the sensor sends a signal to t he control unit that triggers the alarm. He needs to be connected to the central through wires. Has the size, approximate half of a matchbox. Should be placed o n the inside of the window at a point not visible. This type of sensor is not wi dely used because there is a magnetic sensor that has the same function and is e asier to install and find to buy. -9 Magnetic Sensors These sensors are also called sensors or reed reedswitch. Are formed by two dist inct parts. A key that opens or closes through the presence of a magnetic field and a magnet, which will create the magnetic field. While the magnet is close to key it will not send any signal to the central. If the magnet is removed, the s witch closes (or opens) a central contact and perceive and triggers the alarm. S ee figure below for clarification: Key Magnetic wires for central Imam Door stop Port 6 - sensors While the door is closed, the magnetic will not send any signal to t he central, because the magnet is close to it. When someone opens the door, the magnet will move away and advise the central key, triggering the alarm. This typ e of sensor can be used for common ports, windows, garage doors etc.. In some ca ses it is used only for verification if the door is open or closed. - 10 Other Types of Sensors Used Little Formerly conductive rubber mats or even thin wires were used as sensors for alar m. Here's how it was: Conductive rubber mat that showed resistance decreased whe n someone stepped on it. If it were placed in front of a door when someone stepp ed on it and passed, its ohmic resistance decreases and the central trigger the alarm. Lateral view of a rubber mat Wire to wire to the central core Wire for central Top view of a rubber mat Wire for central 7 - Carpet Yarn Thin conductive rubber two nails were fixed in a movable part of the window and the other on the fixed part. Between the two nails was placed a copper wire bare and thin. If someone opens the window and the central part of t he wire and triggers the alarm notice. Output wires to the central nail set in the window Window Nail wall mounted

Figure 8 - Alarm old - 11 There are several types of sirens sirens for alarm. Can be powered by DC voltage (12 volts continuous usually) or AC (110V or 220VAC), and may have different po wers. Remember that the higher the higher power range. Also there are sirens tha t do not play with just a continuous tone, but interspersed with many different sounds. The power of a siren is (usually) defined by a unit called decibels (dB) . We sirens 60dB, 70dB etc. The higher the dB number, the greater the volume or sound the siren that will do. In alarm systems, sirens normally use four differe nt sounds fed by voltage. All this has a reason, four different sounds and inter spersed call more attention and feeding voltage prevents the siren does not touc h the case electricity is cut. In alarm systems, central to the sensors, the sir en is fed through a system that allows it to continue working for hours, even if you run the electricity. The sirens should be placed in areas of difficult acce ss, but who are able to propagate the sound as far as possible. When buying a si ren, it is also important to note, whether it is suitable for external use, if t hat is desired. Power supplies Power supplies are electronic circuits that trans form the AC voltage from the power grid in the appropriate values of voltage in order to feed the central charge the battery for power outages etc.. They are no rmally 12 volts continuous. Batteries are components that, through chemical proc esses, store electrical energy in the form of voltage. The cars currently use 12 volt battery. - 12 Used batteries in alarms are sealed. (No need for water replacement. They have n o opening, so there is no leakage of liquids or gases from its interior.) Do not need maintenance. In the old car batteries was necessary to put distilled water . The batteries serve to keep the entire alarm system working, even though there is energy, or cut the mains power. During normal operation of the alarm, with m ains power, the battery is charged. If you miss the line voltage, it has autonom y to power the circuit. It is important to remember that, like any battery, it d ischarges, so after a few hours the alarm will not work anymore. There are batte ries with autonomy for six, 12 or even more hours. Normally we use 12 volt batte ries continuous (12Vdc). Floats / chargers are electronic circuits that, with th e source, are responsible for charging the battery, so I usually get the name of charger / float. Also cause the alarm to be powered by battery in the absence o f electric light on the network. Normally the source, the float and charger are mounted on a single box. In that box, that receives the font name with charger a nd float will connected to the battery, the control panel and sensors. (Note: th e sensors can be connected only with the center). Input supply voltage source with charger and float I + i i + 12 VDC 110VAC Output to the central + Battery Sealed Figure 9 - Source - 13 I = when there is voltage, the source provides current to charge the battery and provides DC voltage to power the plant. i = ends when the supply voltage, the b attery provides power to the central alarm circuitry through the charger / float . Central Alarm or Central is the central part of the alarm. Receives informatio n from various types of sensors and controls the firing of a siren, dialing a ph one number for a message with the invasion or even to call the police. We can di vide the core into two distinct types, the timer and remote control. Let's exami ne each one. Central Timer Are older plants. In this type of plant had a code or key that enabled or disable it and activate it. When one wanted to leave home l inked the central, or typed a specific code, and had some time (between one to t wo minutes) to exit. After that time, the plant began to operate and monitor the

sensors. Hence the question arises: But how a person could enter the house with out triggering the alarm? It's simple: when a person entered the house, the sens ors detected, but the central waiting some time (usually 30 seconds) to trigger the alarm and ring the siren. Before they finished those 30 seconds, the person should use his key to turn the central or enter your secret code to turn it off. Because they take a while to turn on and another to fire, were called timed. Th is type of plant is not used much lately, been replaced by plants with remote co ntrol. In only one case is such plants. There are passive sensors, powered by ba tteries 9Vcc, who have built the plant, the siren, the keypad code, ie, such a s ensor behaves as a full alarm, it is not necessary to use wires etc.. They are s old even in supermarkets. As shown overleaf: - 14 Keypad to enter the code to turn on or turn off the alarm Local output sound of the siren Figure 10 - Keyboards A sensor of this type is useful when you want to protect a specific area, like a room or garage. Digita is a code and, after some time, it is connected. This al lows the person to leave the scene. When she returns to the site will have a few seconds to enter the code that will switch off, otherwise it will ring. This ty pe of sensor (with built-central) should stay in a place of vision difficult for an intruder. But the Fresnel need to be directed to the area you want to protec t. Usually the instructions for installing and using this type of sensor attache d. Central Remote Control In this type of plant, you turn on or off outside the house, with a remote control (similar to car alarms) that sends the commands via radio waves (RF). These plants are more used lately by being more efficient and easy to find in commerce. Some plants with remote also need to be disconnected (or have that option) after entering the house. But for that? Suppose a burglar do you shut down the plant, via remote control, then he and you enter the house. The control unit waits for you to go to her entering a code on or off a key. If you do not do this, it does not ring a bell, but it automatically dials a numbe r,€you set, or to the police and can either send a - 15 recorded message on a chip, as a sign that informs the person across the line yo u're being robbed. But what if the number is busy or no answer? She can choose a nother number. But to respond better, let's talk about the dialers. Automatic di alers in the past, there were two kinds of dialers. A dialer activated the phone number and spent a beep or some kind of signal. The person on the other side sh ould recognize this sign, to know that the house was being invaded. Another type connected a tape recorder and spent a recorded message on tape. A common proble m occurred when the number had busy signals or were not met. They were not devel oped electronically to wait and dial again or dial a different number. Were diff icult to be found to buy. What we quote above does not apply to all dialers of t he past, but gives an example of features of some of them. Currently there diale rs much more developed and intelligent are able to store multiple phone numbers, recognize that the number is busy or wait and call another number, no answer or detects that and try other numbers. The current dialer can send recorded messag es by the user, send beeps, or just the ambient sound with the siren ringing. Ca n be embedded within the plant or be a separate unit connected. Remarks Before buying the equipment to install an alarm, you must know how many and what types of sensors are needed. If the plant will use dialer or not. How many entr ies will be central to the sensors. If these sensors will be connected to centra l via wires or via radio waves. The number of sensors will depend on the area to be protected. - 16 not. What type of wire used (usually with wires and a plastic cover many ways is

olated, alone, inside, plus a mesh surrounding these wires). There are several i ndications in the central and commands that are used according to the type of co nnection, with the number of sensors etc.. These signs and commands can change b rand, so should always read the instructions before you install and test everyth ing. Antenna Sensor 1 Sensor 2 You need to know if the person wants to use a system with battery (to work even without power in the network) or Central Sensor 3 DC Sensor 4 AC Source with charger and Float Remote Control to switch the central Sealed Battery Figure 11 - Wiring diagram of alarms - 17 The previous figure shows a core with four sensor inputs with battery, power cha rger and float controlled via remote control. (For many, regardless of the numbe r of sensors, this configuration is the minimum required.) Scheme Liaison Antenna Sensor 1 Central AC Sensor 2 Figure 12 - Wiring diagram example of connecting two central sensors. Controlled by RF (remote control), but only connected on the network. (Very simple setup, susceptible to failure due to not operate when AC power failure). - 18 Sensor 1 Antenna Sensor 2 Output for telephone line Central DC 12 Volt AC Power Charger and Float Dial modern DC Battery Sealed DC

Remote Control Figure 13 - Wiring diagram (Setting safer, because it has the battery, plus the dialer.) - 19 Appendix There are other types of sensors, we can cite as an example: sensors to indicate a gas leak, smoke detectors to indicate fire, temperature sensors etc. . These sensors can work individually or be part of a larger scheme with a centr al or several plants. Currently there are specialized companies that install sec urity alarms and dialers check quickly if a problem with the residence attached to them. - 20 -