Chapter 1


Background of the Study

Local governments are those governments citizens are quite literally are in touch with, a

local government is constituted by law as a political subdivision of the state. The creation of a

Local Government Unit (LGU) is determined by legislation, hence political in nature. It

exercises powers that directly affect the people’s lives. They are vested with powers to

implement laws, levy taxes and are responsible for the general welfare of its inhabitants.

It takes on a dual character one is a corporate character the other is a public character.

Philippine local governments are obliged by mandate to ascertain the preservation and

enrichment of culture, promotion of health and safety, and enhancement of the rights of the

people to balanced ecology. As agents of the national government, they act as a conduit to relay

verifiable reports on the progress of the nation. (Politics and Governance Theories and practice in

the Philippine context; 2010)

The LGPMS was instituted as way to monitor performance of LGUs and to assess their

development for the purpose of influencing national and local policy makers to make decisions

and actions to essential in the provision of quality basic services. Social governance is one of the

five benchmarks of governance. Social governance looks into four areas: Health Services,

Support to Education Services, Support to Housing and Basic Utilities, and Peace, Security and

Disaster Risk Management.


These factors are important indicators not only of governance but also of the general

well-being of the people. Given the importance of Social governance, the researcher intends to

compare and analyze the LGPMS scores of the municipalities of the 4 th District of the Province

of Iloilo year on year and municipality and municipality from 2009-2012.


Statement of the Problem

This study seeks to profile, compare and analyze the LGPMS scores of the 4 th District of

Iloilo in the area of Social governance and identify the good practices of the areas where a score

of not lower that 4.5 was gained.

Specifically it shall answer the following questions that will be divided across three major data.

1. What are the results of the LGPMS data of a municipality when individually profiled?

2. What are the highest and lowest scores of the municipalities on the dimensions of Social

Governance when taken together from 2009-2012 and compared individually?

3. What municipalities have the highest and lowest scores on Social Governance when

compared LGU on LGU on an average?

4. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on Health Services when

compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average?

5. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on Support to Education

Services when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average?

6. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on, Support to Housing and

Basic Utilities when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average?

7. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on and Peace, Security and

Disaster Risk Management when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average?


regular and direct services and effective governance of the inhabitants within its territorial jurisdiction. municipality and b) Operational: In this study. District 4 . Republic Act 7160) b) Operational: The same meaning shall of municipality shall be used. they are specifically categorized as region. consisting of a group of barangays.5to 5. What are the good practices that a particular municipality that made it rate itself a rating of 4. province. Municipality a) Conceptual: The municipality. city. serves primarily as a general purpose government for the coordination and delivery of basic. (Title 2 Chapter 1 Section 440. the definition of the term used shall be the same manner as used in its conceptual definition. gov. (NCSB.8.0 in any of the areas? Definition of Terms The following terms are defined to give the readers of this research the researchers’ common ground and effectuate clarity on the conceptual and operational understanding as used in this research: Local Government Unit a) Conceptual: Local Government Unit refers to any sub-national administrative unit established by law and endowed with powers delegated to it by law.

Governance a) Conceptual: All acts by which the intent of the government is carried out.2006) b) Operational: The provision of services such as education. Anilao. It is sub-divided into five component areas of good governance. (3) Economic Governance. b) Operational: The LGPMS is an on-line self-assessment faculty that allows Local Chief Executives to evaluate their key areas of improvement and the areas of their good practices. (4) Environmental Governance and (5) Valuing Fundamentals of Good Governance. health. country or municipality provided for judicial. Local Government Performance Management System (LGPMS) a) Conceptual: It is a self-assessment. Dingle. Scope and Delimitation 5 . (blgs. cities and municipalities – to determine their capabilities and limitations in the delivery of essential public services. peace and order and other basic utilities. management and development tool that enable local governments – provinces. a) Conceptual: A term often used to designate a geographical area having distinct character or location but without precise boundaries. Barotac Nuevo. San Enrique and Dumangas. political and administrative purposes. it refers to a determined subdivision of a state. (Encyclopedia Americana Volume (Encyclopedia Americana Volume 9. 2006) b) Operational: A political subdivision composed of Passi City. Dueñas. (2) Social Governance. (1) Administrative Governance.

hence they chose to focus on Social Governance. This research can also show them how they fare in Social Governance when compared with other municipalities as well as encourage them to continue the programs where they have a 5.0 rate for the same period or it has received an award. management and development tool that enable local governments – provinces.The results of this study can be used by DILG as an explanation of the raw data to acquire information on areas of improvement for Local Government Units and for policy diffusion purposes. The study shall provide useful facts to: DILG .0 score. Mayors . These scores shall cover the years 2009-2012.5-5. The researchers will only consider it a good if it has been practiced for at least two years and the obtained the same 4.This research can provide information on the areas where improvement is consistently needed so that they can take the warranted actions and improve future results. The researchers believe that Social Governance is the most direct manner of governance that affects the people in terms of general welfare. The study focuses on the profile. The results can also encourage Local Chief Executives to engage in intergovernmental relationships with those 6 . The researchers recognize that the LGPMS is a self-assessment. Significance of the Study This study aims to compare and analyze the LGPMS scores of the 4 th District of Iloilo on Social Governance and identify the good practices of the municipalities. cities and municipalities – to determine their capabilities and limitations in the delivery of essential public services. comparative analysis of the LGPMS scores on Social Governance of the 4th District of Iloilo and some good practices.

Through this research. Other Researchers. they can expand and further enhance the topic to a greater extent through a different approach. People of the 4th District. 7 . This can lead to them being able to find solutions to common problems.This study will be very helpful to Political Science and Public administration students because it focuses on two dimensions of the perspective fields.This research will allow people in the 4 th district to assess their governments with regards to the services provided to them and how their municipality fares when compared with other municipalities. Sangguniang Bayan – The product of this research can be used as a basis of identifying areas where local legislation is needed as an appropriate action.This study can open new doors to other researchers who are interested in conducting research in the field of Public Administration and Political Science.municipalities they have common problems with. Political Science and Public Administration Students. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature This chapter contains a review of related literature that will provide readers and researchers on further clarification about the study. the implication of the Social Governance scores in policy formulation and as indicators of good governance.

postal clerk. Davao. 2012 describes that the “Filipinization” of the government came after the Americans had arrived. they played a significant role in the welfare and order of a particular municipio. municipality and barrio levels. administration of justice. Through the General Order no. Bacolod. 357 which allowed women to vote for their local representatives. Zamboanga.Cebu. recruitment of laborers for polo y servicio. from the central or national. San Pablo. Corpuz et. Under the Commonwealth government of President Quezon. The gobernadorcillo. Among his multifarious administrative duties was the preparation of the pardon (tribute list). He was in charge of the town lands. the quinto (military conscription). The role Filipinos in voting for their representatives was institutionalized through the Maura Law of 1893. Literature about Local Government Units Local government units have its roots in the administration of Spain which lasted for over 300 years. 8 . was the highest position a Filipino could attain together with the parish priest.00 or less. the hierarchical political set-up of the Philippines during the Spanish regime may be seen in the political institutions established by said political power. finance and the Armed Forces. and judge in civil suit P44. 2000. al. Bureaucracy was divided into different levels of administration. 43 that recognized the structure of the local governments set up by the Spaniards and the notably historical Commonwealth Act No. the little governor or gobernadorcillo (later replaced by Capitan Municipal in 1894) headed the pueblo or municipio. According to Agoncillo. city. Quezon. Iloilo. On the municipal level. nine chartered cities were created. Cavite and Tagaytay. provincial.

salaries. responsibilities and resources and provide for the qualifications. 2004 ( Volume 52). “The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall.S. powers. Congress in Washington. initiative and referendum. appointment. functions and duties of local officials and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of the local units". Gen. Leviste. William Howard Taft was appointed as the first civil governor. Taft initiated the policy of “The Philippines for the Filipinos. as members of his Commission. The fundamental importance of local government units were later on recognized by the 1973 and 1987Constitution (Article 10). as head of municipal offices and as delegate-observers in the U. This proved to be national legislatures passed to respond to the clamor for self-rule. The implementation of the Local Government Code of 1991.” and encouraged Filipinos to take active participation in the country’s political activities. removal. has affected the entire structure of Local Government Units in that it has vested to these units decentralization of powers. If Spain had denied the ilustrados representation in colonial administration. functions. terms. and responsibilities to the region and lower 9 . election. Taft opened a place for them as provincial governors. The last 50 years of the 20 th century saw the emergence of the Local Autonomy Act of 1959 and the Barrio Charter and the Decentralization Act of 1967. cites Legaspi 1995 who points out that decentralization refers to the deconcentration of powers. allocate among the different local government units their powers.

Book III of the Local Government Code (Rodriguez 2000) specifies the following functions of the Municipal Mayor: a. programs. Enforce all laws and ordinances and implement all policies. A municipality is created. revenues and to see to it that the same will be applied in accordance with law and ordinance. merged. Porio1997. The municipality is a carryover of the pueblo or municipio during the Spanish period. Exercise supervision and control over all programs projects and services of his municipal government. Article I. divided. Initiate and maximize the generation of resources. Title II. 7160 defines a municipality as a group of barangays that serves primarily as a general purpose government for the coordination and delivery of basic regular and direct services and effective governance of the inhabitants within its territorial jurisdiction. abolished or its boundaries substantially altered only by an act of Congress and subject to the approval by a majority votes of plebiscite. services and activities of the municipality and exercise the corporate powers of the municipality. Tapales 1996) further states that decentralizing government functions affords local officials and other stakeholders’ relative autonomy in both administrative and political matters. Scholars (Karaos 1997. Republic Act no. This reflects the desire to involve the people.level political communities to facilitate the attainment of development goals and objectives. Chapter Three. 10 . c. Raynolds (2001) notes that the enactment of the LGC rests upon the fundamental premise that governance should be a shared undertaking among the national and local-level officials as well as private public stakeholders. projects. b.

corn and vegetables seed farms. Ensure the delivery of basic services and to provide adequate facilities. health services which include the implementation of programs and projects on primary healthcare. establishment of tree parks. implementation of community-based forestry projects which include integrated social forestry programs and similar projects. tourism facilities are provided by the Code as well. police and fire stations. iii. Accordingly Section 17 of the Local Government Code explicitly states that Local Government Units shall be self-reliant. Extension and onsite research services and facilities related to agriculture and fishery activities which include: dispersal of livestock and poultry. d. demonstration farms. preferably through cooperatives. access to 11 . control and review of the DENR. quality control copra and improvement and development of local distribution channels. appropriate and incidental to efficient and effective provision of basic services. management and control of communal forest with an area not exceeding 50sq. Subject to the provisions of Title V. information services. The basic services like social services. greenbelts. and enforcement of fishery laws and municipal waters including the conservation of mangroves. a similar forest development projects. fruit tree. basic services include: i. Pursuant to national policies and subject to supervision. ii. water and soil resources utilization and conservation projects. disposal of waste and infrastructures.. coconut and other kinds of seedling nurseries. health care. fingerlings and other seeding materials for aquaculture. palay. medicinal plant gardens. For Municipalities. they shall likewise exercise such other functions and such other powers and responsibilities as are necessary. Book I of this Code. public markets. km. inter-barangay irrigation systems. maternal and childcare and communicable and non-communicable disease control services.

Solid waste disposal system or environmental management system and services or facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation. xii. ix. clinic. cultural centers. rainwater collectors and water supply systems. tax and marketing information systems. dikes. scavengers. school buildings and other facilities for public elementary and secondary schools. playgrounds and sport facilities and equipment and other similar facilities. Public markets. x. vii. community based rehabilitation programs for vagrants. traffic signals and road signs and similar facilities. Public cemetery. regulation and supervision of business concessions. secondary and tertiary health services. Information services which include investments and job placements information systems. women’s welfare. Social Welfare services which include programs and projects on child and youth welfare. Sites for police and fire stations and substation in the municipal jail. sea walls. spring development. street children. small water impounding water projects and other similar projects. drainage and sewage and flood control. xi. medicinal supplies and equipment needed to carry out the services herein enumerated. viii. welfare of the elderly and disabled persons. beggars. livelihood and other pro-poor projects nutrition services and family planning services. vi. public parks including freedom parks. Tourism facilities and tourist attractions including the acquisition of equipment. Municipal buildings. v. slaughter houses and other municipal enterprises. family and community welfare. and maintenance of public library. fish ports. and security services for such facilities. purchase of medicines. health centers and health facilities necessary to carry out health services. communal irrigation. Infrastructure facilities intended primarily to serve the needs of the residents of the municipality of which are funded out of municipal funds including but not limited to municipal roads and bridges. iv. 12 . juvenile delinquents and victims of drug abuse. artisans wells.

The first gobernadorcillo was Juan Pagdalangon. Being covered with thick mangrove forest in the swamp gives this municipality an ecological niche for fishes and a natural barrier for storms. Don Alejandro Arandilla was named the first Capitan Municipal. When the Spanish revolution broke out in 1898. Revolutionary soldiers under the leadership of Pendoy were organized to fight against the Spaniards. 13 . the former site was located near the mouth of the western bank of the Anilao River from where the town derived its name. Brief Historical Profile of the Municipalities of the 4th District The following information was obtained by the researchers from the respective Local Government Websites and the Congressional Profile of the 4th district of Iloilo (1) Anilao The official website of Anilao describes it as a town along the coastal areas in Panay. Founded by a group of fishermen during the pre-Spanish period. Don Cipriano Montaño continued as Capitan Municipal. Today it is a 4th class municipality.

The elected officials of Banate in 1937 became the officials of the new municipality of Anilao. (2) Banate Data released by the Knowledge Division of the NEDA region 6 (2008) describes Banate as beautiful coastal town in the northern part of the province of Iloilo has a mysterious background. There is no historical record prior to 1865 when Andres Maningo was known to be 14 . assured the electorates of Anilao of the ultimate separation from the municipality of Banate. 220 issued by President Manuel L. Through E. the town supported the candidates of the party. Banate and Barotac Viejo were fused into one municipality in January 6. On January 1. became independent leaving the sister town of Anilao as its arrabal. Barotac Viejo became the mother municipality of Banate and Anilao. as party head of the present administration in the province and assemblyman. Anilao an independent municipality. 84 of the Governor General of the Philippines. Honorable Victorino Salcedo. the first Municipal President was elected on September 2nd. apart from her mother municipality (Banate) on November 1. Banate. Two key figures tower in this part of Anilao’s history Provincial Governor. in conformity with the mandate of the Civil Commission in the later part the municipalities of Anilao. 1939. This issue later on became the pivotal point for the elections. Within that year a new government was then set up under the mandate of American Military Officers. Honorable Tomas Confessor. Quezon.O.In 1919 the people of the municipality sent a petition Provincial Insular Authorities requesting the fusion of Anilao to either Barotac Nuevo or Dingle and were later turned down by the higher authorities to break away from the mother municipality.Don Alejandro Arandilla. 1904. by virtue of the Executive Order No. 1918.

(3) Barotac Nuevo The town was founded in 1811 by the recognized leader of the place during the Spanish Era. Its name Barotac Nuevo was derived from the acronym of the Spanish word 'baro' meaning mad and 'tac' the last syllable of the word malutac. The town was re-annexed to Dumangas. Like many areas in Iloilo the name was thought to be a result of a miscommunication between the people and the Spanish conquistadoresIt used to be a part of Pototan until 1611.. John the Baptist as its titular patron. declared Banate as an independent parish on 15 April 1850. Banate was only a “visita” of the town of Barotac Nuevo. at the same time as that of Anilao. (4) Dingle Newson (2009) points out that the establishment of Dingle is attributed to the Augustinian Friar Fr. Seven years later. an old man who did not understand the question of a Spaniard said that the name of the place was Banate. when it was declared again as an independent parish with St. On August 16. Later it became part of Lag-Lag. now Dueñas until 1825. Barotac Nuevo was famous for its well-bred horses. without doubt forgetting the earlier decree. The town’s name is reportedly attributed to a tree called Banate. 15 . Reportedly. Governor General Antonio Blanco. There was once a horse called Tamasak. Later it became a Visita of Barotac Nuevo until 1843. Blanco in 1593. a pure white stallion known for its strength. Local folklore.its first Teniente del Barrio. While such legend sounds too absurd to be true. Don Simon Raymundo Protacio Belen. it is the only explanation often given by people when asked why their town is called Banate.

During the term of Fr. A certain god named diwata Banog. In this place the people practiced pagan rituals and idol worshipping. Matagasing. Francisco de Mesa as Parish Priest of Laglag (1659-1663) he went to Barrio Malonor. was offered rituals and dances as peace offerings. 16 . (6) Dumangas Dumangas can be reached by cruising through the Monfort Coastal Road. the name of this municipality comes from a Latin word meaning dominion. to persuade Tapar and his followers to go back to the holy faith. It is home to the best agricultural and marine products. despite the opposition of some town officials. it has four majestic hills embracing it. the Spanish soldiers went to Malonor to recover and bury the body of the town’s first martyr. Ba-ong became an independent parish named Dingle. believed to delay or impede travelers. Sumandig was an annex of Sibucao. Binaobao and Elihan. Interestingly.1850 by order of Governor General Urbitondo. (5) Dueñas Dueñas was founded in 1590 with the name of Sumandig. it is in Ermita where one can find the remnants of the first stone church in Panay. Two days later. Ermita. Interestingly. only to face his death in the hands of the latter. Topographically.

which they had left. In 1569. The American years brought autonomy to the municipality. (7) San Enrique The data from About San Enrique. Several legends abound the manner by which the municipality got its name. it stood as a Pueblo with its own streets and church. July 12. The most probable version was about the verbal report of Legaspi's French officer who mentioned "Sitio du Mangas" as a place where they got replenishments. whose term was cut short when he died a year after. at. Hearsays are quite uniform in stating that the act of choosing San Enrique to be the town patron saint was intentionally done. (8) Passi City 17 . Araut was discovered by a group of Spanish soldiers led by Mateo del Sanz. One legend says that a Spaniard asked a native about the name of the mango tree and the native replied “Dos Manggas” while in another version it was “Duro Mangas”. Juan de Alva who accompanied Capitan Luis de Hoaya when they first came to Araut. They found and thought the natives were "the noble people in the old archipelago". 259. relates that it was popularly called Barrio Bontok before 1881. 1957 in the Province of Iloilo. The new Municipality of San Enrique. Monteclaro et. was appointed the first parish priest of Dumangas. Settler's called their new home "Araut" after the name of their old village. The elected Presidente in 1902 was Quiterio Paez. Garcia. President of the Philippines conferred a further degree of autonomy. by His Excellency Carlos P. was created by Executive Order No. the official website of San Enrique. (2000) relates that one tribe settled in the southeastern cost of Panay. in an area strewn with hills and streams. Fr.

According to the Congressional Profile of the 4 th district of Iloilo (2008) the Spanish conquistadores asked a woman what the name of the place was pointing to an the unhusked rice in her basket. the Spanish begun to call the place "Pasi" that later evolved to the present "Passi. 18 . private institutions. to the old woman’s surprise she replied "Pasi" which means the unhusked rice on her basket. Ramos. its population has increased. From that time on." The then municipality was officially recognized as a city on January 30. Since its creation as component city. housing and other social facilities have continued to proliferate. and other amenities such as banks. Passi is a rice and sugar rich area. commercial buildings/centers. the “Sweet city in the heart of Panay” for its pineapple plantations. Popularly called. the City is a fast emerging growth center. Today. 1998 through Republic Act 8469 signed by then President Fidel V.

accountable. it is clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. To simply put it. It is as old as human civilization. However. This characteristics assures that corruption is minimized. responsive. Yet. Since it is a process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented. 19 . actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality. The government is one of the actors involved while other actors vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. Literature about Governance The concept of good governance is not new. the view of the minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making and being responsive to the present and future needs of society. the analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors in decision-making and implementing decision made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision. transparent. only few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance. Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable time frame. equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It is participatory. UNDP reports that good governance has 8 major characteristics. Its opposite is bad governance which being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within the society. consensus oriented. to ensure sustainable human development. governance means the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not. effective and efficient.

and the contextual factors are determine when trying to modify the behavior of its constituents. 1999). devolution and modernization of the public service delivery. It is a multi-dimensional construct. measuring. and economic contributions. as well as being about the results achieved (Otley. system. modifying and rewarding performance. leadership. the measurement of which varies. framework and empowerment. Yet. identifying performance gap must be done by the top management as they are the frontiers that provide avenue. These factors such as the personal. Performance is referred to as being about doing the work. customer satisfaction. Traditionally. The emphasis is on decentralization. But others that it should be defined as the outcomes of work as it provide strongest linkage to the strategic goals of the organization. As defined above. depending on a variety of factors that comprise it. 20 . performance is affected by a number of factors which should be taken into account when managing. Service quality management may be described as the process of minimizing the performance gap between actual delivery and customer expectation. public services are described as non-productive and drain on wealth- producing part of the economy in developing countries. Current strategic management literature suggests that the PM model is place when there is a strong linkage between primary objectives and secondary objectives and between strategic plans and performance measures. However. team. it is important to determine whether the measurements objective is to assess performance outcomes or behavior. The model pinpoints appropriate performance measures of output from the customer viewpoint. The performance management model is a system based approach that cultivates the achievement culture in any economic entity linking primary objectives to the secondary ones.

Research provides evidence that organizations concentrate on measuring what is easily measurable and in local government this approach results in a prejudice against measuring performance in terms of economy and efficiency.. Ballantine and Modell. This is consistent with literature on performance in general (Kaplan and Norton. 1997). The PM model is systematic in approach and managers can adopt the principles of systems analysis theory (SAT) to link primary and secondary objectives of an organization (Burch. but also of ascertaining the best way to improve the functioning of the system (Skidmore. It is also defined within the context of private sector organization as a systematic. Literature on PM is now starting to address issues of strategic linkages with operational performance in the local government system (Atkinson et al.. 1998).). 1991. System analysis (SA) is described as the organized step-by-step study of detailed procedures for the collection. 1993). 1994 et. However. and to a lesser extent on effectiveness (Palmer. al. It is a novel concept in developing countries relative to the developed economies. The BS literature also indicates that it is as much the process of establishing a scorecard that yields benefit as the resultant measurement 21 . manipulation and evaluation of data about an organization for the purpose not only of determining what must be done.. data-oriented approach to managing people at work. It is a process by which the organization integrates its performance with its corporate strategies and objectives (Bititci et al. `The BS (balance scorecard) is potentially powerful tool by which senior managers can be encouraged to address the fundamental issue if effectively deploying an organizations strategic intent (Kaplan and Norton 1992. 1997). 1996. 1996). Fitzgerald et al/. 1993). literature is still largely grounded in operational concepts of the PM model.

The local legislation. It is intended by the Local Government Code that these will become principles that govern the local government’s development planning. The Rapid Field Appraisal (RFA) was developed as a monitoring tool which was conducted to capture and monitor the trends and progress of decentralization. resource generation. after 19 years since the implementation of Local Government Code. financial. PM systems requires the four dimensions of the BS. and other activities. accountability. The ultimate results of local legislation. Several findings were made on the decentralization process which is monitored by the RFA. resource allocation and utilization. Findings such as the topic under local governance and administration could be viewed as aspects of local political regime. the RFA no longer to monitor the trends. internal business processes. The performance of local government functions is encapsulated in development planning. i. However. community/customer. While all the four dimension of the BSA model are important. the focus in the local government system has been on the results of council work financial performance and to lesser extent on how the community views in performance. but to describe the progress. and innovations of local governments. and 22 . initiatives. local legislation.schema. and participation define local government’s “culture of doing things” with respect to administration. and the specific programs and projects to be implemented in order to address those needs and problems. which implies the whole development program planning cycle. This means that any local government plan is necessarily viewed in the context of an assessment of existing conditions to identify problems and needs.e. and growth/innovation and learning. Kloot and Martin (1998) argue that in practice. transparency. transparency.

particularly on revenue generation. however there are still limited and inadequate share to public and opportunities that should be address.participation could be seen in the quality and changes in the life of the people resulting from improved performance of local government functions. environment and social services. providing better incentives to local businesses. The 1987 Constitution explicitly states the government must adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health and development which shall endeavor to make essential goods. Transparency and participation are changing as local governments gradually opening and providing space for transparency. Findings of the RFA show the effectivity of decentralization had prompted a great increase in such as areas as in local legislation demonstrates an increase in local governments’ capacity to legislate. Literature about Health The government has the responsibility to provide for health of every Filipino. The health situation of a country’s people cannot be seen out of context of its socio-economic situation. Widespread poverty in the 23 . and use legislation as a tool to support local governments’ initiatives and innovations. health and other social services available to all people at affordable costs. Participation is still unmet due to Local Development Council failing to meet the required number of session and the participations of people as members of the civil society sector is only limited to their respective sectoral concerns.

Uchimura & Jütting (2006) describes that at present. no. Hence it is explicitly stipulated in the Local Government Code. (IBON Facts and Figures vol. Local health services also deteriorate because of lack of trained manpower. Local health systems operate either provincial. LGU’s are supposed to fund health services through their shares of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA). local government units. district or municipal units.Philippines has resulted in millions of Filipinos suffering from easily preventable health problems. Tordecilla (1997) under the devolved system there are two interdependent health policy processes at the Local Government level. are to provide for health services. clinical equipment or physical structures. However costs of devolved functions of services do not match the IRA budget. 16:2003) National Government although mandated to enhance health and promote welfare but the administration of such cannot be carried out by the government alone. Separate administrative control for 24 . 26. An article published by the Philippine Sociological Review (2007) discussed that health services delivery during the pre-devolution years was vastly centralized. with the exception of a few chartered cities. Noted policy in the provincial. Under the devolved principle the Local Government Unit is empowered to create and local health policies and programs according to the specific community demand. city or municipal level and health policy in the barangay level. Atienza (2004) points out that the Department of Health presided over the national delivery structure that catered to all local government units.

Falling health budget allocations also threaten the welfare of government health workers. in more cases without the prior knowledge of the Municipal Health Officer. leaving insufficient funds for other services as pointed out by Revala (2000). municipalities and cities 34% and 23% respectively and barangays receive 20%. The provision of health services is not a business and it is not something Local Chief Executives can take lightly. WHO discovered that the mayor hires more health staff. This resulted to the deterioration of integrative approaches to health care delivery system and quality of local services A World Health Organization (WHO) study on the impact of decentralization on health administration and services also revealed that under devolution. Lucas (2000) points out that the cost of the devolved functions of services to the LGUs does not match their IRA budget provided by the National Government. Yu (2003) states that access to health services it the right that every Filipino should have and it is the government’s responsibility to provide health services for all. Some districts have opted for corporatizations however this makes health services inaccessible. In the study. An attempt of the national government to put in the hands of private enterprise a public service duty implies that 25 . the delivery of health services became politicized. devolved health workers have no hazard pay and their subsistence and laundry allowances are sometimes cut-off.hospitals and local health systems under devolution has broken the chain of integration between these health systems. In areas where the budget for health is deplorably low. This led to the situation where 60% to 80% of the total municipal health budget went to personnel. Provinces obtain only about 23%.

the government is unwilling to spend for the health of the people. There are resources available

for public health services in the national budget; these resources are being misallocated. Peoples’

health needs are simple. When they get sick they want to be assured that they will have access to

health facilities and the services to make them well.

According to the Rapid Field Appraisal on Decentralization 2008 all LGUs claimed

improvement in the delivery of social services with decentralization because of the independence

in decision-making at the local level. Problems can be readily addressed. The various health

programs implemented by the LGUs such as the immunization program and the dengue

prevention program and intensive education and information dissemination campaigns resulted

to decrease in maternal death rates, infant death rate and fatal death rate. Health facilities in

Region 6 have been upgraded, which have contributed to the improvement of services and

enhancement of awareness and health-seeking behavior of the people. However there are still

some areas in the region where hospital bed and clinic to population ratio is still below standard,

and needs to be addressed.

The same report discusses health personnel. Accordingly A nurse in one LGU is serving

the municipality on a voluntary basis, receiving token honorarium depending on the availability

of municipal funds, because of lack of funds accordingly some LGUs do not have a human

resource development plan for its health personnel. Most municipalities comply with the

Municipal Investment Plan for Health (MIPH) approved by the Department of Health (DOH).

Compliance is closely adhered to in terms of health budget from the IRA. Other sources of funds

are mobilized to supplement the budget. Local Legislative bodies also provide support to

national health policies through ordinances.


A synopsis on the 2010th Rapid Field Appraisal on Decentralization downloaded from

the internet indicate that data obtained from different local government units point a decreasing

trend of spending for health over the last five years with provinces showing declining support.

Spending for local government expenditures are no longer for personal services alone but for the

operating cost to implement programs and improve health facilities. A proof of this is the

emergence of local government operated district hospitals.

In Health Services, the trend of local spending for health are now increasing as the local

government expenditures are no longer for personal services alone but also for operating costs to

implement health programs and improve health facilities. Investments in education are

considerably low because it is still not high on the priorities of local governments. However,

developments have taken proactive steps in improving education and sponsor special programs

for youth and children with special capabilities or needs. Other services are also provided by

local government such as housing, water and sanitation, peace and security and disaster

preparedness. These services are forms of local social governan.

Literature about Peace, Security and Disaster Risk Management

Over the past decades, the Philippines have been described and designated as one of the

most disaster-prone countries in the world mainly because of its geographical, geological

location and physical characteristics. It lies along several active fault lines and have active,

inactive and potentially active volcanoes all over the country. We record an average of 20

earthquakes per day and around 100 - 150 earthquakes felt per year.


In addition, the country lies within the Western Pacific Basin, which means, it is the

generator of climatic state of being such as monsoons, thunderstorms, inter-tropical convergence

zone or the ITCZ, typhoons (through the aggregation of others) making it a way of a ratio of 20

tropical cyclones annually, nine of which makes a landfall. Climate risks lead with it to exposure

to super typhoons; droughts, rainfall changes and projected temperature increase. Likewise,

flooding is another hazard facing of the country due to heavy rains.

Natural disasters are a threat to the society. The government has created measures to be

abided from the national level down to the local government units. A stratagem to counter said

threat highlights the role of both the government and the people at such time of emergency.

Disaster risk management has three goals: to prevent fatal injuries and deaths in times of

dangerous events, to prevent the delay of school and work and resume immediately and to

develop a community which can fend for itself during natural disasters.

A paradigm shift in the development sector, from income poverty to human poverty that

has been paralleled in the disaster management sector by a shift from seeing disasters as extreme

events created by natural forces, to viewing them as manifestations of unresolved development

problems. This has led to increased emphasis on integration of poverty reduction programs with

other sectorial issues such as environmental management, gender and public health. However,

examples of systematic long-term integration of such programs with the disaster management

sector are few. The fact that, over the past few decades, there was an exponential increase in

human and material losses from disaster events, though there was no clear evidence that the

frequency of extreme hazard events had increased. This indicated that the rise in disasters and


These approaches looked at disasters as exceptional events. reaction to the natural disasters that may occur and consistent progress. Disasters are no longer seen as extreme events created entirely by natural forces but as manifestations of unresolved problems of development. preparedness plans and a growing 29 . Few decades ago. Under RA 10121 or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010.As it is becoming clear that the nature of people’s vulnerability is complex and varied.their consequences was related to a rise in people’s vulnerability. disasters were viewed as one-off events and responded by governments and relief agencies without taking into account the social and economic implications and causes of these events. It has replaced the old disaster preparedness and response. the disaster risk and management was established. induced by human-determined paths of development. It is the guideline for mitigation of damage to society. a more technocratic paradigm came into existence which believed that the “only way to deal with disasters was by public policy application of geophysical and engineering knowledge”. not related to the ongoing social and developmental processes. such as stockpiling of relief goods. Gradually this attitude changed to an emphasis on preparedness measures. An evolution in approaches that from relief and response to vulnerability analysis to risk management that has started influencing how disaster management programs are now being planned and financed. linkages between poverty and vulnerability are being explored. With significant advancement in our understanding of the natural processes that underlie the hazardous events.

national legislation such as Republic Act. the preparation for disaster is given a special fund in the Internal Revenue Allotment of said LGU.role for relief agencies such as the Red Cross. Security and Decent Work via Local Development in Hazardous Areas of the Philippines was created to improve people's ability to withstand dangerous events as its main principle. The Department of National Defense of the Philippines is the Philippine's executive department under which the protection of the country from threats both inside and outside. They are susceptible to threats like natural calamities. Peace and security are fundamental for man and progress. militant warfare and inaccessible stable jobs and profit. According to UNESCO government must be taught to thrive and protect other humans to foster a balanced society. These areas deal with the basic problems of the Filipino but with even lesser opportunity to even a clean water supply. This “contingency planning” approach certainly improved the efficiency of relief agencies but left a lot to be desired in terms of appropriateness and effectiveness of relief. In dealing with disaster local government units are the most directly involved. One way to achieve such end is through education. In addition. The Local Government Units are mandated to respond to disasters. 10121 states that: 30 . (Bondoc LED) Inter-agency Programme aimed for Nurturing Peace. Under it is the national disaster risk reduction and management council that is liable for the people's security and well-being in times of natural disasters and dangerous events. Peace and security are inherent rights of citizens of a state and it cannot be taken from them.

land-use regulations that do not permit any settlement in high-risk zones and seismic engineering designs that ensure the survival and function of a critical building in any likely earthquake Disaster Mitigation – the lessening or limitation of the adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters. gender issues. it can respond as well as adapt to the situation at hand and create any changes to the plan there 31 . traditional practices and on the basis of rights. It aims to provide temporary housing and address other needs Cross-cutting Concerns – focuses on six subcategories: health. It expresses the concept and intention to completely avoid potential adverse impacts through action taken in advance such as construction or dams or embankments that eliminate flood risks. national resources protection.Section 3 of Republic Act 10121. They are factors that are considered in this program and the ends to meet Monitoring and Evaluation and Learning – the key elements of the DRRM program to effective and timely execution of policies and actions and regards learning from previous events are essential to the data gathered. man-created calamities. disaster prevention and disaster mitigation are defined as: Disaster Prevention – the outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters. By monitoring and evaluating. Mitigation measures encompass engineering techniques and hazard-resilient construction as well as improved environmental policies and public awareness Disaster Response – the giving of emergency support and aid during at the time of disaster and its aftermath to protect people. mitigate injuries and provide rations and relief.

Tracing its origins to the People's Homesite Corporation (PHC). Literature about Housing The most prominent resolution in the first UN conference on Human Settlements in 1976 was recognition of the role of governments. the 32 . Government policies and programs can solve problems of housing. on 17 September 1945. the first government housing agency established on 14 October 1938 and to the National Housing Commission (NHC) which was created seven years later. These two agencies.

Thus. the relocated squatters eventually went back to the cities to rebuild their homes on idle lands. However. However. In addition. were eventually merged on 4 October 1947 into the People's Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC). Until the middle of the 1960’s. the government introduced the low-cost housing such as medium-rise walk- up tenement buildings like the BLISS. Until the middle of the 1960’s. these projects only benefitted the middle-income families. the relocated squatters eventually went back to the cities to rebuild their homes on idle lands. these projects only benefitted the middle- income families. Republic act 7279 or urban development and housing act was passed.PHC and the NHC. The law is a wide- ranging urban development and housing program to be undertaken by the government in cooperation with the private sector. Thus. the government announced the low-cost housing such as medium-rise walk-up tenement buildings like the BLISS. In the 1970s. the local government units are directed as the 33 . squatters were punished and relocated to urban fringes. However. relocation did not have sources of livelihood and basic social services. In the 1970s. However. relocation did not have sources of livelihood and basic social services. The National Housing Authority (NHA) is the sole national agency mandated to engage in housing production for low income families. squatters were punished and relocated to urban fringes. In the 1950s squatting was viewed only as a legal problem. In the 1950s squatting was viewed only as a legal problem.

Said EO likewise reaffirmed HUDCC's administrative supervision over the housing agencies including the NHA. These translate to a ratio of 102 households for every 100 occupied housing units. The NHA was mandated to be the sole government agency to engage in housing construction.7 persons per occupied housing unit. Across the country. (www. NHA was placed under the policy and program supervision of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC).nha.695 occupied housing units and 20. the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) recorded the highest ratio of 108 households for every 100 occupied housing units. Under the said Executive Order.715. In 2000. there were 103 households per 100 occupied housing units and 5.lead implementing agencies. the umbrella agency for shelter charged with the main function of coordinating the activities of various government housing agencies engaged in production.899 households in the Philippines in 2010. 20 on 28 May 2001 reaffirmed mass housing as a centerpiece program in the poverty alleviation efforts of government. 34 . with an average of Statistics obtained from the National Statistics Coordinating Board points out that a total of 19.1 persons per occupied housing unit. Its primacy is the success of socialized housing for the underprivileged and the homeless. EO 90 recognized the key housing agencies to implement the National Shelter Program and defined their respective mandates. This was followed by the National Capital Region with a ratio of 105 households per 100 occupied housing units.171. finance and regulation. Executive Order No.

Literature about Performance Management Systems Human resources are the agency’s most valuable asset. The need to establish of an effective system that accurately evaluates the performance of its workers for the purpose of determining tenure. 35 . effectiveness and over-all quality of service in any industry. and appropriate incentives is of absolute urgency.1873. Based on the DILG website on LGPMS. city. regional. It ranges into national. It defines the efficiency. urban-rural scales Before the end of every census year for population figures from national down to barangay levels. the National Average of Social Governance is 4.4800. provincial.Census of Population and Housing is researched by the National Statistics Office every 10 years. 18 months after the reference year for other statistics . municipal. barangay. Iloilo has a score of 3. transfers or promotions. The government sector is in no exception.

National Government has also found it necessary to institutionalize and provide legislation on the Performance Management Process for Local Government. and Strategic Goals. Performance Management provides the mechanism to measure whether targets to meet its strategic goals. to revisit and. demand for public servants to produce tangible results by “making a difference” instead of “just keeping busy”. the need to correct the notion that a permanent appointment guarantees security of tenure. Use by the Civil Service Commission (CSC) as the central personnel agency of the government.e. governance. The PMS meaningfully and objectively links employee performance vis-à-vis its Organizational Vision. As defined. there has been an increasing demand to review the existing system.The development of the Performance Management System (PMS) was initiatedin 2003 by a re-assessment of the existing Performance Evaluation System (PES) and the development of a new tool/instrument that will establish a culture of performance and accountability in the bureaucracy. re-invent the performance management system of thebureaucracy. with economic development. While policies and systems for employee performance evaluation have long been in place in government. are met. as necessary. demand for increased accountability by performing the mandate of the organization. 36 . set by the organization and its employees. transformation. At Local Government level this has become an imperative. Performance Management is a process which measures the implementation of the organization’s strategy. i. Mission. and finance and service delivery being the critical elements in terms of Local Government Strategy.

This system will also be used as the basis for awarding any available performance increases in a fair and equitable manner to eligible employees. It also ensures that employees at all levels have a clear understanding of their job responsibilities and expectations. The PMS system is based on the belief that effective management and a positive work environment result from continuous communication and feedback between supervisors and employees. receive ongoing feedback regarding their performance. and are provided with opportunities for additional training and education as needed. the common standards for common outputs across divisions. By the second semester of 2005. In a similar manner. is the practice of linking pay to performance indicators mutually agreed upon by the contractor and the contractee. the Chairperson presented the OPES to all Central Office and Regional Office Directors for validation. At the time that the PMS was undergoing development. also known as pay-for-performance. which uses the concept of a points system to measure the collective performance of people under an office. In the private sector. CSC contemplates the institutionalization of performance-based security of tenure in government. In the 2005 Directorate’s Conference of the CSC. redeem the perverted notion of security of tenure as the shield and protector of incompetence in the bureaucracy. The PMS employs the concept of performance contracting. It endeavors to purposely link performance with one’s security of tenure in the service as a means of professionalizing the Civil Service and in so doing. performance contracting. the CSC was also developing the Office Performance Evaluation System (OPES). offices and regions were incorporated in the OPES Output Table. 37 .

namely. PMS is a tool that would manage the performance of every employee the four key areas. quantity and timeliness of the accomplishments. is a natural condition of the organization. and tools for ensuring fulfillment of the functions of the offices and its personnel as well as for assessing the quality. the Division Chiefs. It is a technology composed of strategies. the Commission uses the term PMS to denote the integrated evaluation system which composes a set of different sub- systems that measure the performance of the offices (collective performance of the individuals). the Directors. As the organization is usually plague by conflict which. Also. The CSC’s PMS is a system which would meaningfully and objectively link employee’s performance vis-à-vis the agency’s Organizational Vision. The PMS is a helping mechanism that would ensure that transparency and accountability will prevail with the staff management crew. Mission and Strategic Goals. development or the needs and aspirations of the individuals and finally diagnosis or sourcing problems with organizational and individual performance. and other office staff. methods. Strategy or a link between individual work and strategic goals. in fact. management and decision-making processes and to help address crucial management issues and constraints. evaluation or an assessment of goal achievement. . The system is also seen as a significant link in the entire process of attaining the Commission’s goals because it aims to produce information useful in planning. This areas of concern are address by 38 . The PMS hopes to successfully implement a contribution-based and accountability-based security of tenure and meet the ever increasing clients' demands and expectations for excellent service from the highly initiated corps of public servants. Currently.

Chapter 3 Methodology This chapter discusses the research approach employed in the conduct of the study.the PMS to make sure that individuals are doing there designated task and use their performance for the development of the organization. It includes the following: the research design. The Research Design 39 . and the procedure of the study.

the research will be a descriptive research. descriptive type of study is suitable to a research that seeks to find an answer to the questions what. we shall gather from said website the profiles of the Municipalities in the 4 th District of Iloilo from the year 2009- 2012. Generally. the researchers will conduct a Procedure The researchers will obtain. comparative analysis study and identification of good practice. an electronic copy of the LGPMS of the Municipalities in the 4th District of Iloilo from the year 2009-2012.blgs. In terms of research method. where and how. from www. the researchers will do a descriptive analysis of already existing data. when. The data from the municipalities shall be individually profiled through a graph showing their results on Social Governance from 2009-2012 40 . This method describes situations in terms of specified factors. After obtaining the copy. According to David 2002.

41 . the researchers will cite the municipality which ranks first in each dimension. This will be done by solving for the aggregate score using the formula with N representing the year. program. and Peace. awards garnered or accessibility to the researchers. problem. Support to Education Services. N1+ N2+ N3+ N4 /4=N After such ranking the researchers will provide a good practice using a simple good practice identification template that will look into the LGU profile. objective and benefits.The results will be graphed according to: a) The aggregate LGPMS score of the Municipalities from the year 2009-2012 on a specific component of Social governance. Security and Disaster Risk Management accordingly the score of five (5) ranks excellent whereas one (1) shall be the lowest score given. Support to Housing and Basic Utilities. The identification of this practice will depend on the score (aggregate and mean). Social Governance looks into four areas: Health Services. b) At the end of the compiled data.

Chapter 4 Presentation. It has an aggregate score of 19. The aim of the study was to make further sense of the raw data from the BLGS website by answering specific questions such as: 1. What are the highest and lowest scores of the municipalities on the dimensions of Social Governance when taken together from 2009-2012 and compared individually? 3.00 in any field of social governance or has an individual score of not lower than 4.Criteria for Good Practice identification The researchers will choose the municipalities to focus on good practice identification based on the following criteria: 1. 3. Analysis and Interpretation of Data This Chapter aims present the LGPMS data obtained from the BLGS website and from the researcher’s documentation of good practices. It is accessible to the researcher’s resources.00 to 20.5 2. It has received an award from an independent body. What municipalities have the highest and lowest scores on Social Governance when compared LGU on LGU on an average? 4. What are the results of the LGPMS data of a municipality when individually profiled? 2. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on Health Services when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average? 42 .

years and by municipality and city. is devoted to the good practice identification of some municipalities in a specific aspect of social governance. Data A. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on. The following graphs the profile of the LGPMS scores of the seven municipalities and one city on the four areas of social governance from 2009-2012.5to 5. Gathered data is described though tabular comparison (Data A to Data B) and descriptive presentation of good practices (Data C) Grouping of Data Data A. A perfect scale of 5 denotes excellent performance while performance scales of 1- 4 indicate areas for improvement. looks into the scores of the municipalities and city of the 4 th District of Iloilo on particular area of social governance when taken together from 2009-2012.0 in any of the areas? A Performance Scale is used to identify areas with excellent performance and areas for improvement. The following graphs will show the results of the LGPMS data of a municipality when individually profiled and the 43 . Support to Housing and Basic Utilities when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average? 7. Security and Disaster Risk Management when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average? 8. What are the good practices that a particular municipality that made it rate itself a rating of 4. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on Support to Education Services when compared year on year and LGU on LGU on an average? 6. Data B. What municipalities have the highest score and lowest scores on and Peace. Data C. shows the dimensions of social governance when compared by score. 5.

Anilao has a consistent self-assessment rating of 5. The mean score was 4. The Municipality has a high score of 5.99.00 in 2010 and 2012 while the low score is 4.00 in 2009 and the lowest score is 4.70.97 in 2009 and 2011. In the dimension of support to education services. With regard to support to housing services. highest and lowest scores of the municipalities on the dimensions of Social Governance when taken together from 2009-2012.66.40 in 2012. In the area of health services. 44 .00 and the lowest score was obtained in 2010 with 4. Anilao’s highest score is 5.00 from 2009-2012. security and disaster risk management the highest score of Anilao was obtained in 2012 with 5.00 and in the dimension of peace. the mean score of 4. and the mean score of 5.84. Anilao has a mean score of 4.

69.00. In the area of support to education Banate’s lowest score is 1. In this area of social governance Banate’s mean score is 4.39.94. peace. 2011 and 2012 it received a score of 5.00 the mean score of Banate for this dimension of social governance is 4.58. The municipality’s mean score is 3. security and disaster risk management Banate’s highest self assessment score was in 2009 with 4. Banate. Banate received its highest self- assessment score of 4.90 and its lowest scores with 4.80 in 2012 and its lowest score in 2011 with 4. 45 . With regard to support to housing services.30.60 from 2010-2011. in the dimension of health services obtained its highest score in 2009 with 4.45 and the lowest score was received in 2010 with 3. On the fourth dimension. The municipality’s mean score is 4.00 in 2010 while in the years 2009.

00 in 2011. Barotac Nuevo obtained its highest score in 2009 with 4.41 in that specific dimension. With regard to support to education services. its highest score was obtained in 2013 with 4. security and disaster risk management.60 and its highest score in 2011-2012with 5.65 in 2010 and its highest score is 5. The mean score of the municipality in this area is 4. In the dimension of support to housing services.94. Barotac Nuevo received its lowest score in 2009- 2010 with 2. In peace.97 and its lowest score in 2010 with 4.70.34. Barotac Nuevo obtained its lowest score in 2010 with 3.3 and has a mean score of 3.44. Barotac Nuevo’s lowest score is 3. it has a mean score of 3. In the area of health services. 46 .80 in that area of social governance. It obtained a mean score of 4.00.

the municipality’s mean score in this area is 4. In the dimension of support to housing services Dingle has a self- assessment score of 5.75 47 . 2011 and 2012 while the lowest score in this area was obtained in 2010 with 4.00 from 2009 to 2012 and a mean score of 5.58. With regard to support to education services Dingle also has perfect self. Dingle’s highest score in health services is 5.00 and the lowest score was in 2009 with 4.97.00 as well.assessment score from 2009-2012 and the mean score of 5. On the area of peace.00 obtained in the years 2009.99.00. The mean score of the municipality is 4. security and disaster risk management the highest score obtained by Dingle was in 2012 with a 5.

Dueñas has a mean score of 4. In the dimension of support to housing services it obtained a 5.70 in 2011. 48 . The municipality received its lowest score in the dimension of peace. The mean score is 4.40 and the highest score was obtained in 2009 and 2012 with 5.00 from 2009-2010 and the lowest score of the municipality in this area is was obtained in this area.45 in health services. the lowest score was obtained in 4. As regards to the dimension of support to education services Dueñas’ lowest scores was in 2010- 2011 with 3. a mean score of 4. security and disaster risk management in 2011 with 1. Dueñas received its highest LGPMS score in the area of health services in 2009 with 5. The mean score of Dueñas is 3.47 in 2010.60 and the highest score was obtained in 2010 with

In the dimension of peace. the highest score of Dumangas was received in 2010 with 4. The mean score of Dumangas is 4. The Municipality received its 5.00 in support to housing services as its highest score from 2009-2010 and 4.40. 49 . the highest score of Dumangas was obtained in 2009 and 2012 with 5. security and disaster risk management. Dumangas received its highest LGPMS score in 2009 with 5. In the dimension of health services. in this dimension the mean score of the municipality is 4.20. the mean score of the municipality in this area is 4.00 and its lowest score in 2012 with 4.58.60 obtained in 2012. The mean score of the municipality is 4. With regard to support to education services.00 and the lowest score was obtained in 2010-2011 with in 2011 as its lowest score in that area.88.67 while the lowest score in the same dimension in 3.

79 in this area.89 and the lowest score in 2010-2011 with 4.88 in 2009 and the lowest scocre is 4. Passi obtained its highest score in the area of support to education services in the years 2009. 2010 and 2012 with 5. security and disaster risk management is while the lowest score is 4.67 in 2012. the mean score of Passi City is 4.78.67. Passi has a mean score of 4. Passi obtained its highest score from 2009-2011 with 5. In the dimension of support to housing services. The city of Passi received its highest score in health serviced in 2012 with 4. Passi’ highest score in the dimension of peace.00 and its lowest score was obtained in 2012 with 4.90.60. the mean score of Passi is 4. 50 . As regards to support to housing services the mean score of Passi is 4.

the municipality obtained the lowest score in 2010 with 4.80 and the lowest score being 3.85 in 2011.67. The mean score of San Enrique is 4. security and disaster risk management.42.52 from 2011-2012. In the area of health services. but with the available date from 2010-2012 we can still identify their highest and lowest scores. San Enrique’s scores are incomplete as they have no data for 2009.40. With regard to peace.17 and he highest score with 4.00 from 2011-2012. the mean score of the municipality is 4. the highest score of San Enrique is 4. San Enrique obtained its highest score in 2010 with 4. the mean score being 3. For support to housing services. 51 .63.97 and the lowest is 4. San Enrique’s mean score in the aspect of social governance is 4. San Enrique’s lowest score was 1. On the dimension of support to education services.25.00 in 2010 and the highest score was 5.

the health system. The municipality that has a lowest mean score of 4. the area of improvement is the overall quality of the local health system which deserves a second look.99 and Dingle with the same mean score. and dynamism in. Charts showing the dimensions of social governance compared by scores. with the mean score of 4.45 was Dueanas with regard to support to health services with the score of 4.Data B. quality maternal care and quality child care. According to the LGPMS data. the charts will answer the question on what municipalities have the highest and lowest scores on a specific area of social governance when taken on year and on all seven municipalities and one city. years and Municipalities and City. Based on the chart above the municipality with the highest self-assessment score as regards to support to health services are Anilao. This is so because performance falls short in certain aspects. The principal support system on this matter is the 52 . According to the data obtained from the LGPMS. CSO-participated medical missions and health insurance for indigent families are innovations that add more luster to. both Anilao and Dingle has a highly functioning health system characterized by quality primary health care.23 in 2012.

improve the quality of primary health care or basic curative services. The chart above describes that the municipality with the highest self-assessment score as regards to support to education when compared year on year and LGU on LGU is Dingle with a mean score of 5. to innovate. The Local School Board is functional. the Special Education Fund is used where it should be utilized in the first place .Local Health Board. Provide health insurance to indigent families. Dingle has a truly effective support to basic education. Principally. 53 . If the latter is expensive. try providing food supplements like vitamins.00. mobilize medical missions. 20. the LGPMS suggested to mobilize the Local Health Board. additional classrooms and teachers. scholarship program. educational research. In addition. It might have to do more. While the Municipality of Dumagas and Dueñas has the lowest mean score with 4. Supplementary allocation from the General Fund is an added value in favor of the education sector. According to the facilities.

The Local School Board might have to do more to advance the cause of those in need of quality education. further assistance to matters such as the following is encouraged. Establish or improve the quality of the Alternative Learning System. is the mandate of another agency.As explained in the LGPMS. and (c) educational research. Dumangas in 2011-2012’s as with Dueñas the area of improvement states that a certain level of support to basic education is extended. However. establish a Scholarship Fund for the poor but qualified. and definitely not of the Department of Education or of the LGU. 54 . For Dueñas actions to take includes investingin the Special Education Fund in actions that improve the quality of the human capital such as (a) construction. repair or maintenance of school buildings and facilities. It is the essence of public service. whether at the district level or local government-wide. Be reminded that sports competition. (b) extension classes and extension teachers.

sites for potential socialized housing. While the Municipality that has the lowest mean score is Barotac Nuevo with 3. households with no access to potable water supply. The LGPMS describe that support to housing services is weak. 55 .80. Some actions suggested by the LGPMS was to conduct as complete an inventory of: informal settlers. and households with no access to electricity. or provide socialized housing or mass dwelling in partnership with the private sector.00 the LGPMS data describes that in Anilao an administrative mechanism dedicated to addressing the multiple requirements of housing services is in place. Assistance should be extended and sustained. cause the donation of a local government lot for socialized housing. makeshift houses. the Municipality that has the highest self- assessment score is Anilao with a mean score of 5. Mass housing project and donation of lots for socialized housing are twin- response to the housing backlog. In the area of Support to Housing Services.

the Municipality with the highest mean in the area of peace. Factors of performance such as the following should be addressed such as strengthening the Peace and Order Council and the Local Council for the Protection of Children. the LGPMS points out. and to manage the risks of attendant in a disaster. the LGPMS describes the area for improvement where here is low organizational capacity to ensure Peace and Security. Factors that have the ability to improve performance in this area have to be considered. The LGPMS pointed out that Anilao exerts efforts to ensure Peace. There a lot of creative ways to achieve such status. For a start.84 and the municipality with the lowest mean is Dueñas with 3. ensure an annual financial allocation to the KatarungangPambarangay. In the chart above. For Dueñas. including relief. and public safety initiatives. Security and Disaster Risk Management. security and disaster risk management is is Anilao with 4. 56 . But much more need to be done. other associated services and rehabilitation. ensure the provision of annual financial support to peace and order. strengthen the Local Disaster Coordinating Council and enhance local government readiness to manage the risks of disasters.78.

57 .Table. 1 This table shows the Municipalities or City which rank 1st in the different areas of social governance.

Good Practices of Selected Municipalities 58 .

but the women could not understand Spanish and thought the soldiers were pointing the bank where the soil was black and hard clay. One version is that Dingle came from the word “Dalipe” the soil found along the banks of the Jalaur River. Dingle is basically an agricultural community. 100 hectares of sugarcane . but because of the strangeness of the word to their tongue. the soldiers forgot the word Dalipe but instead gave the name “Dingle” which originated from the sedimentary rock commonly called in Visayan “Tampi”.Dingle Light Village ( Brgy. 7000 falls into this class. Region VI. Problem. on the North-west by the ton of San Enrique. Municipality of Dingle. The mainly agricultural set up has lead to low income labor sector way below the poverty line. Major agricultural activities includes 3. It jurisdiction is bounded on the North-east by the town of Anilao. The name “Dingle” traces its origin in legends. Licu-an Dingle. Western Visayas. Out of the population of 43. Program and Objective 59 . A roof over everyJuan’s head The PKF. Iloilo City) LGU Profile On the central plain of Iloilo lies the serene. The soldiers wanted to know the name of the town they were passing through. It was said that a group of young women was once upon a time bathing in the shallow waters of the Jalaur River when Spanish soldiers reconnoitering the different places in Iloilo came. They answered “Dalipe” and the soldiers nodded. Province of Iloilo.290 Dingleanons. Philippines. on the South-east by the town of Pototan and Barotac Nuevo and on the South-west by the town of Dueñas. 130 hectares of corn and 300 hectares of minor crops.997 hectares of rice land.

neither can they move well in 20 to 35 square meters of compacted soil. These creeks are often contaminated by wastes of farm animals like carabaos. Most of these houses are made of very light materials such as bamboo and nipa or coconut leaves shingles serving as roofs. . kitchen and dining room by day and sleeping quarters by night. These nipa huts are very simple and frugal structures with one room serving as living room. more than 400 families live in houses made of light materials. was felt by Mayor Palabrica. There are different grave implications of not having a decent home these include sanitation issues among others. The unsanitary way of disposing human waste is a source of microbes that can be a cause of infection and sickness of the family and of the immediate surroundings. The staggering effects of this issue. cattle manure and even human wastes. the municipality of Dingle thought deep and hard to remedy the 60 . From a far. Basically. these toilets are dug earth with a tube that connects to a seat and the excreta simply drop inside. Many families fetched water from a nearby creek and the safety level is not certain. Aside from this one problem that was identified was water and sanitation. At his influence and capacity as chief executive. to be able to live decently and with dignity though poor. We saw these huts stand on land not owned by the people in the house. Having a decent home is not only a dream but a right of a human being. the young ones and old ones are at risk of dengue. Of the 2000 identified families living below poverty line. these huts will serve at most as a cool shade during the summer but causes much more damage than protection during typhoon seasons. Another problem is the exposure of these families to mosquitoes. This results to stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cholera. Most if not all of these families have rudimentary toilets. A family of four or five cannot live decently in a structure as unsound as this.

and with the help of Gawad Kalinga the project came into realization.Dingle Light Village was borne. In terms of house design. the number of families who will be provided with homes in the village is one hundred families.A.S. With PFK Family Foundation of Orland Park. community playground and underground drainage system. As of the now there are only thirty-three family beneficiaries listed. Illinois U. the socialized housing project of Dingle aims to produce net benefits such as providing Dingleanons with dignified houses. Licu-an Dingle. Thus. this three (3) hectare lot was a product of a donation from the heirs of Ma. Bantay Bayan and Tanod Professionalization Program 61 . it is a single detached concrete and GI roofing house. a livelihood area of at least 4000 square meters that will feature high value fruit crops. candies. a socialized housing program located at Brgy. employment opportunities and a chance of owning a house they can call their home. Such area would be developed into a community complete with facilities and playground. Estrella Roces Dayot (2 heactares) and the remaining hectare was brought by the LGU of Dingle. Warriors of the Land and Sea Anilao’s Bantay Dagat. Other amenities and features of the house include paved roads. the PFK. a common processing facility that will accommodate a small bakery and processing center to make jellies.matter. snack food and other processed products to provide income and employment. Mass housing project and donation of lots for socialized housing are twin-response to the housing backlog. jams. Benefits and Gains Initially. small live stock and poultry raising. An administrative mechanism dedicated to addressing the multiple requirements of housing services is in place.

486 people. Understanding the vital importance of bodies of waters like rivers. a Government aide reveals that some fisher folks from neighboring municipalities practice illegal acts of fishing. marine estuaries and mangroves to the Municipality. Iloilo) LGU Profile Anilao. is a convergence of the land and sea. The municipality stands out in the area of Peace Security and Disaster Risk Management. Bodies of Water that have abundant marine resources became a source of squabble. Problem. Barotac Nuevo in the southwest and Guimaras strait in the south. this program also emphasizes an intense rehabilitation of mangroves. Anilao is a 4 th Class municipality with 1st Class dreams. Although having only 38. because its LGU injects the spirit of innovation and tradition in its programs. it is bounded by the Municipalities of San Enrique in the north. (Municipality of Anilao. Banate in the east. Founded by a group of fishermen during the pre-Spanish period. One of the main objectives of this program was to clean and to rehabilitate bodies of waters in the municipality. Dingle in the west. 62 . Based on the 2010 census. 73 square miles Anilao is an over achiever in its own right. though not having a garnered a perfect score. Known as the “Innovation Central” of Iloilo. the LGU implemented a Coastal and Marine Resources Management/ Protection Program. the former site was located near the mouth of the western bank of the Anilao River from where the town derived its name. Program and Objective This small Municipality has a lot of disputes with its neighboring coastal municipalities. Anilao has a population of 27. Being covered with thick mangrove forest in the swamp gives this municipality an ecological niche for fishes and a natural barrier for storms. In addition.

There is a clear delineation of their duties. according to it official website it has about 16 police officers. As of date there are 13 volunteers. This program deputized people. He does not deny that Anilao is not a drug-free municipality but is hopeful that with the Bantay-Bayan program. a modest patrol boat was purchased. on ordinary days.Bayan Program where a group of civilian volunteers have the task of helping the tanods in the maintenance of peace and order within their locality. the LGU created the Bantay. Aside from this. Manned by the Chief of Police of Anilao. The Municipality has a few police officers. It it’s the Chief of Police that conducts these seminars and orientations. To augment the police force and create a holistic rapport between the people of Anilao and the police force. The Tanod Professionalization was created to educate the newly appointed tanods of the baranggays of their duties and function. these civilian volunteers contributed greatly in keeping the peace and security of the Municipality. We had the opportunity to interview the Chief of Police of Anilao. 63 . the Municipality also launched a Bantay-Dagat program. they are given a specific area to help out in the implementation of safety plans but when there are activities they are stationed in the particular area of the activity. Thus ensuring the peace and security of the Municipality was entrusted not only to the police force but to force multipliers. and the Tanod Professionalization hand in hand with the Baranggay Drug Abuse Council. He pointed out in our interview that these tanods play a great role in campaign against criminality especially during man hunt operations because they know the area like the back of their hands. usually fisher folks. in the future Anilao will be free from drugs. to act as sea guardians with the duty of safeguarding coral reefs and sanctuaries against illegal fishing. To achieve this end.

these programs inculcate to the people as well the importance of valuing the environment and the integral role they play in their daily lives. In addition. through these programs the people have a sense of ownership of their means of livelihood and of the peace and order of their community. By creating these programs the LGU developed camaraderie and trust between the government and the people and strengthening the bond of the community. Giving quality health services (Municipal Health Unit. Tapping people from the grass roots produce results in small communities because everybody knows everybody. of Dingle Iloilo) 64 .Benefits and Gains The interplay of economic interest and sheer political will on the part of the LGU led them to create these programs with the ultimate goal of maintaining the calmness of Anilao.

a physician by profession and a public servant by vocation. As an agricultural community and belonging to the lower percentile income. Its population growing further each year. flat lands extend along the Jalaur River and roll upward from the Poblacion to the northwest. Although there are some opposition to the penalties. Thus. Based on the 2010 census. Librando clarifies there is no need to fear penalties because if the staff at the birthing center cannot handle the 65 . 2011-004 is the accompanying law entitled. Problem. from the Poblacion. including “hilot”. and prohibiting all medical health practitioners and traditional birth attendants to perform home deliveries and for other purposes. “An Ordinance requiring expectant mothers to deliver in health facilities under the care of skilled health attendants.306 households. Romeo L. the Municipality through Ordinance No. Though we are in the 21st century. Hilot and home delivery however possess serious threats to the health of mothers. Programs and Objectives A major concern in Dingle was the health of expectant mothers and their babies. access to health services is important. the Local Chief Executive recognizes the importance of health services to the people.” The aim of the ordinance is to prevent mothers from risking their lives and that of the baby during delivery. A bustling municipality headed by Dr. 290 people. the population of Dingle is 43. imposed by the ordinance.LGU profile The Municipality of Dingle is a land of sprawling hills and narrow plains. the Municipal Planning and Devopment Officer Mr. Palabrica III as Mayor. one of the bane is to get sick. a lot of people especially in the rural areas still believe in traditional medicine. Now with 9.

a labor room with three birthing beds and three incubation cribs. a comprehensive list of fees was made through Ordinance No.number of births. serology. based on the 2012 Annual Municipal Health Report data only one child died. These services. It offers diagnostic services such as X-RAY. by charging modest fees.G. In addition. the Dingle Municipal Health Center was upgraded with equipments. There was no maternal mortality recorded. Ultrasound and Laboratory examination. Data like these prove that. 66 . can be availed of at modest prices.C. they refer is to the hospital. usually costing thousands in hospitals. Through the efforts of the Sangguniang Bayan and Mayor Palabrica III. a laboratory that offers hematology. in the area of infant mortality. E. the LGU has dedication to make health services available and accessible to the Dingleanons. an Ob ward. In terms of physical setting the Dingle Municipal Health Center has an admitting area. an X- ray room. Librando adds that the Municipal Health Center is also PhilHealth accredited such that the Municipality receives part of the claim of patients. the Municipality also engages in local fiscal management. a scrub room. and an ECG/ Ultrasound room. 2009-006. Benefits and Gains Access to health services that are up to date can prevent death. The municipal health officer also submits a comprehensive report annually to the LCE. The center not only offers the services of safe child birth but offers amenities comparable to a first class private hospital. The income then goes back to the municipality which can be used for other purposes. and clinical chemistry.

Chapter 5 SUMMARY. AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter contains the summary. The summary and conclusion of findings recapitulate the data that answers the statement 67 . conclusion of findings and recommendations of the study. CONCLUSION.

2. Security and Disaster Risk management has the lowest mean score of 3. The Municipality of Dumangas. The Municipality of Dingle.88 and the area of Support to Education Services has the lowest mean score of 4.45 and the area of Peace. The Municipality of Banate. 4. The Municipality of Anilao. has the highest mean score of 4. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009-2012 shows that in the area of social governance. Security and Disaster Risk Management has the lowest mean score with 4. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009- 2012 shows that in the area of social governance.00 and the area of Support to Housing Services has the lowest mean score of 4. 68 . Health Services. The recommendations contain the researcher’s suggestions based on the summary and conclusion of finings. has the highest mean score of 4. 3.70. Security and Disaster Risk Management has the lowest mean score of 3. has the highest mean score of 4. has the highest mean score with 5. has the highest mean score of 5. For the purpose of clarity and brevity the results are laid out by municipality or city. Support to Housing Services and Support to Education Services. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009-2012 shows that in the area of social governance.of the problem. The Municipality of Dueñas. 5. has the highest mean score of 4.94. Health Services. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009-2012 shows that in the area of social governance. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009-2012 shows that in the area of social governance.20. Support to Education.69 and the area of Peace.00 and the area of Peace. Health Services. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009-2012 shows that in the area of social governance. Support to Housing Services.80. Summary and Conclusion of Findings 1.70 and the area of Support to Education Services has the lowest mean score with 3. The Municipality of Barotac Nuevo.75. 6.78.

the general supervision over local governments and the promotion of local autonomy and community empowerment and monitor compliance thereof. law enforcement and public safety. with aggregate scores from 13. in a specific component in Social Governance results show that Dingle and Anilao.00.00 and the lower ranking municipalities are Barotac Nuevo.67. to ensure effective and efficient delivery of basic services to the public. 8. appear as top two with an aggregate score of 19. Recommendation Under Republic Act 6975 or the Department of Interior and Local Government prescribes powers and functions of the DILG which includes to establish and prescribe rules.84. When ranked according to average. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009-2012 shows that in the area of social governance. to provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments. to establish a system of coordination and cooperation among the citizenry. Dumangas and San Enrique. has the highest mean score of 4. has the highest mean score of 4. The Municipality of San Enrique. regulations and other issuances implementing laws on public order and safety.63 and the area of Support to Education Services has the lowest mean score of 3. when profiled according to LGPMS scores from 2009- 2012 shows that in the area of social governance. The City of Passi. In addition the LGPMS should include a list of specific of areas 69 . The LGPMS as an assessment tool allows municipalities to see areas where they excel and areas where they need improvement.00 to 20. But there are dimensions of governance that require broader and more comprehensive data. 9.90 and the area of Support to Housing Services has the lowest mean score of 4. 7. These powers and functions allow for the following recommendations: 1. Health Services. Support to Education Services. local executives and the Department.00 to 17. Banate.

indicators and sub-indicators of the areas of should be included in the e-report. 3. support to housing services. Dimensions of Social Governance such as – health services. by including a summary of the other municipalities’ intergovernmental relationship in solving common problems can be encouraged. 2. this will allow greater transparency and accessibility to the people. 70 . For further improvement. are those directly affecting the people. 4. In this way an incentive to improve performance is produced. thus it would be further beneficial if the LGPMS scores were accompanied by a list of the programs and policies that were implemented in that year or are being consistently implemented so that the people would be more informed at the same time. where improvement can be done in a way that can help the DILG to track the performance of the municipality. support to education and peace and disaster risk management. those who wish to obtain the scores and conduct further studies on LGPMS can easily pin point policies and programs that they wish to focus on or use as a good practice. The LGPMS should include as well a summary of data that will allow the municipality to see how it fares when compared to other municipalities within its district. Aside from this.

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