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3 cardinal planes: sagittal (cut through nose,flexion/exten) coronal (cut through ears, side 2 side, abduct/adduct) transverse (cut

through waist, rotation, inter/exter rotation, pro/sup) Pairs of terms: prone/supine, ant/superior,
medial/lateral, superior/inferior, proximal/distal, superficial/deep, dorsal/palmar BONE: strong/rigid, strongest connective tissues Bone is like concrete/Collagen is steel bar/ Calcium salts are s& & rock,
Bone tissue: mineral components (mostly calcium salts)=rigidity, organic components=elasticity Compressive strength of bone due 2 extra-cellular matrix of calcium salts Tensile strength of bone due 2 collagen fibers
3 parts of a long bone: epiphyses (2 ends, inside is trabecular structure, covered with articular cartilage), diaphysis (middle, hollow, light, inside is bone marrow) Articular Cartilage aka hyaline cartilage, shiny, whitish pink
slippery tissue, allows bones 2 slide on each odr with less friction, does not contain blood vessels Epiphyseal plate: plate of cartilage between epiphysis & diaphysis, aka growth plate, in adulthood it fuses with bone
Periosteum: sleeve, fibrous membrane, highly innervated, cells here help make new bone, rich in blood supply for bone nutrition Odr shaped bones: have compact outer layer, covered by periosteum, have cancellous bone
with endosteum, no epiphyses/diaphyses, have bone marrow 5 Functions of bones: support, protection, movement, blood cell production, mineral s2rage, 206 bones/177 that engage in voluntary movement Joints: bind d
skele2n 2gedr & provide varying degrees of mobility 3 Types of joints: fibrous(bones connected by short fibers, cords or sheets, no true motion, ex. skull), cartilaginous (bones joined by fibrocartilage, ex. Intervertel discs,
rib/cartilage), synovial (space between d 2 bones, most common, surrounded by joint capsule) Joint Capsule: sleeve of fibrous tissue - continuation of periosteum, resists tension fr many direction, strongest where movement
is 2 be prevented, can be loose or folded 2 allow motion, line inside with synovial membrane, synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid Purpose of Syn Fluid: lubricates d joint, nourishes d articular cartilage, decreases wear
& tear, protects d joint against infection & d presence of foreign objects Cartilage protects joints & facilitates movements 2 Types of cartilage: Fibrocartilage (a structure made of dense collagen tissue, ex. Ears, nose, discs,
knee menisci, absorbs shock, not a lot of blood vessels), Hyaline/Articular Cartilage ligs (connect bone 2 bone, reinforce d capsule, made of dense connective tissue) Purpose of a lig (limit d motion of d joint, stabilize d joint,
cannot actively contract, contain sensory nerve cells) Tendon (d exten of d fascia around d muscles form d strong fibrous cord, muscles 2 bones, a broad flat tendon is an aponeurosis 3 TYPES OF MUSCLES: smooth,
cardiac, skeletal (maintain posture/position, stabilize joints, absorb shock, support & protect inter structures, control pressures inside body cavities, produce body heat) Muscles contract & relax! Muscle Fibers(musc cells) -
Myofibril(contain filaments which allows contraxn) - Sarcomere (contractile unit, composed of myocin/thick & actin/thin filaments, during contraxn dy unite & pull past each odr shortening d sarcomere & thus d whole musc)
Sliding Filament dory: Proteins in d musc cells/thick & thin filaments. After receiving an electrical charge fr d nerve that changes d chemistry of d immediate environment. Slide around each odr 2 shorten d contractile unit of d
musc Kinds of Contraxn: concentric (muscles get shorter, bicep curl), eccentric (bicep curl straighten), isometric (tense musc) SPINE composed of vertee & sacrum 5 Regions: 7 Cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, sacrum,
coccyx Parts of verte: Body (ant part of vertee, transmits most of d weight of d body, gets larger fr cervical 2 lumbar), 2 Pedicles (short broad proces, extend off of d body of d verte, connect 2 d laminae), 2 Laminae (broad,
flat plates at d back of d verte), Articular facets, 1 spinous & 2 transverse proces, vertel arch (extends postly fr body, formed by 2 pedicles & 2 laminae), vertel foramen (aka spinal canal, formed by post body & vertel arch),
vertel Canal (formed by all d successive verte stacked 2gedr, houses & protects d spinal cord, spinal membranes, spinal blood vessel & nerve roots) Intervertel Foramen (formed between 2 vertee, nerve exits spinal cord 2
periphery) Facets (2 superior, 2 inferior, facing opposite direction so dy can nest 2gedr) Intervertel Disc: made of fibrocartilage (outside is annulus fibrosis - layers of concentric circles of fibrocartilage/gives disc strength 2
withst& forces & limits excessive motion, inside is nucleus pulposus - 80% water, allows rocking & rotating between vertee, absorbs compressive forces between vertee) Function of inter discs: shock absorption, spacer,
limits excessive motion Cervical: C3-C7, small body, slight lip, spinous proces C2-C6 are bifid, transverse proces = short & broad with an extra foramina, facets face at 45 degree angle No disc between c1(atlas)-c2(axis)
Thoracic vertee (slightly larger body, long spinous process, extra demi-facets for articulation of d ribs, T11 & T12 have whole facets) Thoracolumbar Junction: T12 is a transition verte, superiorly like T11, inferiorly like L1,
T11-12 has good rotation mechanics Lumbar vertee: largest bodies, transverse proces are long & bumpy for musc attachments, spinous proces are short & thick, facets are in d sagittal plane L5 sits on 2p of d sacrum
Sacrum: composed of 5 fused vertee (S1-S5), wedged shaped bone between d 2 ilia, completes d pelvic ring Coccyx: 3-4 vestigial fused vertee, fibrous or fused joint with sacrum 3 Long ligs: ant longitudinal - attaches on
d front of d vertel bodies, tightens with exten of d spine, post longitudinal - attaches 2 d back of d vertel bodies & 2 d discs, located on d ant part of d vertel canal, cruciate shape, tighten with flexion of d spine, prevents d disc
fr postly protruding in flexion of d spine, Supraspinous lig - most post spinal lig, connects 2 d tips of d spinous proces, tightens with flexion of d spine 3 That Are Discontinuous: ligum Flavum - yellow lig, connect d lamina,
on d post vertel canal, tightens with flexion of d spine, Interspinous ligs - connect between d spinous proces, tighten with flexion of d spine, intertransverse ligs - connect between d transverse proces, contralateral lig
tightens with side bending MUSCLES OF d SPINE: Deep, Intermediate, Superficial Deep Muscles: Intertransverse Muscles - connect transverse process 2 transverse process, post 2 d intertransverse lig, axn: sidebending
2 d ipsilateral side (same side), Interspinalis Muscles - connect adjacent spinous proces, located on eidr side of d interspinous lig, axn: exten of d spine, Transversospinalis - all run up & in, fr d transverse process up 2 d
spinous process, different divisions span different number of vertel levels, axns: stabilization of d spinal segments 3 Layers of Transversospinalis: Rota2res, Multifidi, Semispinalis Funtion of Deep Muscles: keep d trunk
erect, maintain stability, work in conjunction with d ant muscles DEEP MUSCLE OF d UPPER CERVIcAL (neck muscles): post: Suboccipital Muscles - rectus capitis post minor, rectus capitis post major, obliquus capitis
superior, obliquus capitis inferior Intermediate Layer: Sacrospinalis: 3 Groups run longitudinally (iliocostalis - most lateral near d ribs, longissimus - in d middle, spinali - closest 2 d spine) Iliocostalis Group: Iliocostalis
cervicis, thoracis, lumborum (attach 2 ribs) Longissimus Group: Longissimus capitis, cervicis, thoracis (originate on d transverse proces) Spinalis Group: Spinalis capitis & thoracis, semispinalis capitis axns: maintain
posture & spinal exten Nuchal lig: strong fibrous br&, attaches fr post occiput 2 spinous proces of C(1)2- C7, between d bifid spinous proces, helps 2 stabilize d vertee because d SP are deep & short ant CERVICAL
MUSCLES: Rectus capitis lateralis & ant, Longus Colli: On d ant cervical spine: bodies of C1-T4 & transverse process C3-C7, 3 parts: longitudinal, oblique superior & inferior TRUNK: Thoracic Cage: composed of d 12
thoracic vertee, sternum & d ribs, area that allows respiration, protects vital organs, allows for stability for upright stance & movement Sternum: manubrium, body, xiphoid process Ribs: flattened, twisted, 12 pairs Typical Rib:
twisted: cant lie on a flat surface, d twist is actually under tension, each pair is slightly different, Rib #1 short & flat Ribs connect 2 d sternum by Cos2cartilage True Ribs: Ribs 1-7 False Ribs: Ribs 8-10 (connect 2 rib 7)
Floating Ribs: Ribs 11 & 12, dont connect 2 d sternum, no cos2cartilage axn of d Ribs: because of dir fixed points, ribs move like a bucket h&le during breathing, more flexibility on d ant end of d ribs MUSCLES OF d
RESPIRATION: Diaphragm - primary musc, dome shaped, right side is higher because liver is below it, 2p dome rests at d 4th intercostal space 3 portions: sternal - 2 xiphoid, costal - deep surfaces of ribs 7-12 & d costal
cartilage, vertel - bodies of L1-3 Diaphragm attachments: attaches 2 d central tendon, a fibrous interlacing tissue, bot2m of d lungs attach 2 d superior surface of d diaphragm Intercostals: inter & external, run in opposite
directions, controversy about when dy are actually firing Scalenes: separate muscles (scalenus ant - TP of C3-6 2 ant part of rib 1, medius - TP of C2-C7 2 more lateral on Rib 1, post - TP of C4-6 2 lateral surface of Rib 2),
attached fr d transverse proces of cervical spine, 2 d 1st or 2nd rib axns of Scalenes: bilateral & unilateral Functions of d PELVIS: ring of d pelvis transfers d weight fr d upper body 2 d lower limbs, absorbs d forces fr d lower
body, serves as attachments for many muscles of d trunk & lower limbs Pelvis: 2 hip bones (ilium, ischium, pubis) Ilium l&marks: iliac crests, spine, fossa, grtr sciatic notch, auricular surface Ischium l&marks: ischial spine,
lssr sciatic notch, ischial tuberosity aka sitz bones Pubic Bone: pubic ramus & tubercle Acetabulum: junction of dse 3 bones, very deep socket of d hip joint Obtura2r Foramen: formed by d edges of d ischium & pubic bones
Bony l&marks: AIIS (ant Inferior Iliac Spines), ASIS (ant Superior I.S.), PIIS (post Inferior I.S.), PSIS (post Superior I.S.) Symphysis Pubis: joint between d 2 pubis bones, fibrocartilage disc between d 2 bones Sacroiliac
Joint: between d sacrum & ilium, reinforced by a capsule & a web of very strong ligs 5 Pairs of SI ligs: Interosseous Sacroiliac Lig, ant Sacroiliac Lig, post Sacroiliac Lig, Sacrospinous Lig, Sacrotuberous Lig ant SI ligs:
sacrum 2 d medial surface of d ilium post SI ligs: lateral sacrum 2 d ilium Sacrospinous lig: sacrum 2 d ischial spine Sacrotuberous lig: sacrum 2 d ischial tuberosity Interosseous lig: in between d bones, almost have 2
pull dm apart 2 see dm Lumbosacral Joint: between d sacrum & L5 Iliolumbar ligs: between L4 & ilium, between L5 & ilium L4 lig: oriented more inferiorly, L4 lig is tight in flexion, L4 lig is relaxed in exten L5 lig: oriented
more anteroinferior, L5 lig is relaxed in flexion, L5 lig is tight in exten MUSCLES OF d TRUNK & PELVIS Transverse Abdominis: deepest, fibers run essentially horizontal, antly ends in a broad flat tendon called an
aponeurosis, attachments: d thoracolumbar fascia, d ant of d iliac crest, lateral of d inguinal lig (ASIS 2 pubic tubercle), inner surfaces of ribs 7-12, 2 d linea alba axns: primarily a postural musc, stabilizes spine, assists
with respiration, pulls d belly but2n 2 d spine, reduces d diameter of d abdomen inter Obliques: superficial 2 d transverse abdominus attachments: d thoracolumbar fascia, d ant of iliac crests, d lateral of d inguinal lig, d
ribs 9-12, cartilage of ribs 7-9, 2 d ant aponeurosis/linea alba axns: bilateral & unilateral External Obliques: superficial 2 d inter obliques, outer surfaces of ribs 5-12, interdigitate with d serratus ant, ant iliac crests, crest of
pubis, linea alba axns: bilateral, unilateral Rectus Abdominis: most superficial, inside a sheath that is formed by d aponeurosis, tendonous intersections form d 6pack attachments: xiphoid process, cartilage of ribs 5-7, 2 d
pubic crest & pubic symphysis axns: flexes d trunk & assists with compression of d trunk Quadratus Lumborum attachments: post iliac crests, iliolumbar lig, rib 12, transverse process of L1-L4, fibers run vertically &
obliquely axn: brings d pelvis 2ward d ribs or brings d ribs 2 d pelvis, stabilizes spine & pelvis Pelvic Floor Muscles: deep(pelvic diaphragm) - lift & support/fan like musc/openings for urethra & anus/muscles:leva2r anus &
coccygeus musc (axns: support d inter organs, works with d multifidi 2 support d trunk, helps with defecation), superficial(urogenital diaphragm) - close d openings, between d pubis & d coccyx & between d ischial tuberosities,
form a figure 8 within a triangle of muscles Core Support: pelvic floor, transverse abdominis, multifidi, diaphragm for breathing Superior Area of d Femur: Head with a dimple/fovea, neck, lssr trochanter, grtr trochanter,
intertrochanteric line Middle of d femur: shaft - long middle of bone, linea aspera - line/ridge on d post femur Hip Capsule: strong dence joint capsule, attaches 2 edges of acetabulum, encases d neck of d femur, postly: 2
distal neck of d femur, antly: 2 d intertrochanteric line, blends with d ligs, Very Stable Joint: capsule reinforced by d 3 ligs: Iliofemoral (aka d y lig, fr d AIIS, splits 2 d intertrochanteric line, spiral prevents d head of d femur fr
being displaced antly, prevents d trunk fr falling backwards, powerful constraint against hip exten, tighten with exten, external rotation, uppers fibers tighten with adduction), Pubofemoral (fr d inferior 2 d iliofemoral lig 2 near d
lssr trochanter, tightens with hip abduct, external rotation, & exten), Ischiofemoral (located postly, fr d ischium below d acetabulum, 2 d back of d femoral neck, prevents post displacement of d femur, tightens with medial
rotation & horizontal adduct) Psoas - hip flexion, fr d lateral bodies & transverse proces of T12(L1)-L5, intervertel discs of T12-L5, passes antly in d pelvis, under d inguinal lig (ASIS 2 pubictubercle), 2 d lssr trochanter Iliacus -
hip flexion, fr d entire surface of d inter iliac fossa, merges with d psoas distally, 2 d lssr trochanter Iliopsoas - hip flexion Rectus Femoris - hip flexion, AIIS 2 d tibial tuberosity Sar2rius - hip flexion, fr ASIS, runs medially,
superficial 2 d quadriceps, 2 d superomedial of d tibia Gluteus Maximus - hip exten, posterolateral sacrum, post ilium, sacrotuberous lig, 2 post superior femur between grtr trochanter & linea aspera Semimembranosus - hip
exten, fr ischial tuberosity 2 d medial tibial condyle Semitendinosus - hip exten, fr d ischial tuberosity 2 superomedial tibial shaft Biceps Femoris - hip exten, fr d ischial tuberosity, 2 d head of d fibula & lateral tibial condyle
Pectineus - hip adduct, 2 a line between d lssr trochanter & d linea aspera Adduc2r Brevis - hip adduct, 2 superior portion of d linea aspera & d distal portion of d line between d lssr trochanter & d linea sapera Adduc2r
Longus - hip adduct, originates on d pubis, it runs ant 2 adduc2r brevis & inserts lower on d linea aspera Adduc2r Magnus - hip adduct, ant: inferior rami of th pubis & ischium 2 broad area of linea aspera, post: ischial
tuberosity straight down 2 just above d medial femoral condyle Gracilis - hip adduct, hip flexion: early arc with knee extended, hip inter rotation, below
symphysis pubis, inferior rami of ischium & pubis, 2 d medial tibial shaft Gluteus Minimus - hip abduct, fr d external iliac fossa 2 d anterolateral aspect of
d grtr trochanter Gluteus Medius - hip abduct, broad attachment on external iliac fossa 2 d lateral grtr trochanter Tensor Fasciae Latae - hip abduct, fr
ant iliac crest near ASIS, runs inferiorly & slightly postly, inserts in2 d fibrous iliotibial b&, iliotibial b& or tract AKA IT b& (attaches fr d ilium 2 d
superolateral tibia & head of d fibula) Gluteus Minimus, Gluteus Medius, TFL - Hip inter rotation Piriformis - external rotation, under grtr sciatic notch 2
d 2p of d grtr trochanter Quadratus Femoris - external rotation, crest between d grtr & lssr trochanters Gemellus Superior - external rotation, located
above & below d obtura2r internus Gemellus Inferior - external rotation, located above & below d obtura2r internus Obtura2r Internus - external
rotation, goes post through d lssr sciatic notch, bends 90 degrees 2 insert on d medial aspect of d grtr trochanter Obtura2r Externus - external rotaion,
passes post 2 d femoral neck 2 d medial surface of d grtr trochanter