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SSC TIER 3 ESSAYS Prepared By Singh Bhupi

1. Digital India
2. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
3. Global warming
4. Demonitization
5. Goods and Services Tax (GST
6. Make in India Campaign
7. Role of media in democracy
8. Women Empowerment
9. Cashless Economy
10. Terrorism
11. Uniform civil code
12. Environmental pollution
13. Skill India
14. Startup India Standup India
15. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY
16. Child Labor
17. surgical strike
18. India as an emerging superpower
19. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana
20. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
21. The Indian space programme

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1. Digital India Essay

Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India on

1st of July, 2015 in order to transform India into a complete digital
country. The main purpose of digitizing this country is to make
available all the government services at easy reach to the citizens
of India.

Through Digital India Programme the Indian Government aims to

create jobs for 18 lakh people and bring investment of around Rs.
4.5 lakh crore in the country. The programme will be supervised
and managed by the Digital India Advisory group which will be lead
by India's Ministry of Communications and IT.

The cost of This program is estimated about RS. 1.13,000 crore .

it is one of the most expensive campaigns carried out by the
government in digital setor
For effective implementation of the Digital India initiative, the
program has been divided into following three parts:

The creation of digital infrastructure

Delivering services digitally
Digital literacy

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Through the Digital India package the Indian Government looks to
bring about nine different revolutions in the country. These are
expounded below in the following paragraphs:
2 Government intends to lay national optical fibre network in all 2.5
lakh gram panchayats. The government plans to provide nationwide
information infrastructure by March 2017.

3 Digital India initiative aims to enhance the processes and delivery

of different government services through e-Governance with payment
gateway, UIDAI, EDI and mobile platforms. It also intends to deliver
the school certificates, voter ID cards, etc. online.
4 The initiative also looks to provide internet services to almost 2.5
lakh villages by March 2017 and 1.5 lakh post offices in the coming
two years.

5 The programme also focuses on providing electronic services to

people related with education, health, farmers, security, justice and
financial inclusion through e-Kranti services.
6 Through Digital India initiative Indian Government aims to increase
network penetration and mobile connectivity in all villages by 2018.
7 As a part of the drive the Government is focusing on zero
imports of electronics by setting up smart energy meters, mobile,
micro ATMs, consumer and medical electronics.

8 Establishing Wi-Fi facilities in all universities across the nation is

also a part of the Digital India Programme. Under the programme e-
mail would be made the main mode of communication.

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9 The Government looks to make all information easily available to
the citizens through online hosting of data.

10 Another important initiative of Digital India is to establish BPO

sectors in North-Eastern States. By 2020 the programme intends to
train around 1 crore students from villages and small towns for the
IT sector.

Top CEOs from within the country and also abroad fully welcomed
and supported the Digital India initiative of Prime Minister Narendra
Modi by committing to invest a whopping US$68 billion (Rs 4.5 lakh
crore) towards the cause. Even the people of India welcomed this
initiative whole heartedly by making Digital India Tricolour DP as
their profile picture in a social media.

2. What is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a national cleanliness campaign
established by the Government of India. This campaign is covering
4041 statutory towns in order to clean roads, streets, and
infrastructure of the India. It is a mass movement has run to create
a Clean India by 2019. It is a step ahead to the Mahatma Gandhis
dream of swachh Bharat for healthy and prosperous life. This
mission was launched on 2nd of October 2014 (145th birth
anniversary of Bapu) by targeting its completeness in 2019 on
150thbirth anniversary of Bapu. The mission has been implemented
to cover all the rural and urban areas of the India under the

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Ministry of Urban Development and the Ministry of Drinking Water
and Sanitation accordingly.
The first cleanliness drive (on 25th of September 2014) of this
mission was started by the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi
earlier to its launch.

Need of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Below I have mentioned some points proving the urgent need of
swachh bharat abhiyan in India:

It is really very essential to eliminate the open defecation in

India as well as making available toilets facility to everyone.
It is needed in India to convert the insanitary toilets into
flushing toilets.
It is necessary in order to eradicate the manual scavenging
It is to implement the proper waste management through the
scientific processes, hygienic disposal, reuse, and recycling of
the municipal solid wastes.
It is to make India a clean and green India.
It is to bring the dream of Bapu to really come true.

Swachh Bharat cess: Swachh Bharat cess is an improvement in

the service tax by .5% on all the services in India. It was started
by the Finance Ministry to collect some fund from each and
every Indian citizen for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in order to

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make it a successful campaign. Everyone has to pay extra 50
paise for each 100 rupees as service tax for this cleanliness

We can say swachh bharat abhiyan, a nice welcome step to the
clean and green India till 2019. As we all heard about the most
famous proverb that Cleanliness is Next to Godliness, we can say
surely that clean India campaign will really bring godliness all over
the country in few years if it is followed by the people of India in
effective manner.

3. Global warming

Introduction and meaning: The rise in earths surface temperature

as a consequence of greenhouse effect is called Global Warming.

The greenhouse gases such as carbon-dioxide and other pollutants

absorbs more heat from the sun then it radiates back. This causes
an increase in the intensity of heat in atmosphere.

The thickening of earth atmosphere because of presence of

increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is called
greenhouse effect.

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What causes Global Warming?

1. Deforestation and industrial emissions result to an increase

greenhouse gases (such as carbon-dioxide) around earths

2. These greenhouse gases traps and absorbs atmospheric

heat and ultimately causes Global warming (an increase earths
surface temperature).

Effects / Impact of Global Warming

If Global warming continues the world would be in danger. The

major effects and impacts of Global Warming are:

1. Climate Change: Global warming is causing climate change. The

worlds is becoming warmer and warmer. There is also prediction of
regional climate changes along the ecosystem.

2. Sea Level Change: One major consequence of global warming

arising out of greenhouse effect is the rise in sea level. Four major
changes take place prior to this. They are: Thermal expansion,
mountain glacier melting, Greenland ice sheet melting and Polar
(Arctic and Antarctic) ice sheet melting. Thus, the coastal cities and
ports may be submerged under sea-water. Many islands may vanish
from the earth surface as well as from the world map.

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3. Water Balance: Although changes in sea-level have received
much publicity, problems of water availability are likely to be more
serious and perhaps more expensive to solve. In future, warmer
world will face water crisis in some parts while in other regions it
will be wetter than it is now.

There is uncertainty regarding regional forecasts of future

precipitation as warming of globe makes it difficult to predict. Also,
pattern of agricultural changes, or effects on ecosystems in general
are fairly unpredictable.

4. Human Health: The human health is put at risk because of

Global warming. In recent years, there have been newer reports of
spread of major tropical diseases with changing climate. As the
earth becomes warmer, more and more people are likely to be
affected by tropical diseases.

How to prevent Global Warming?

The problem of Global Warming can be controlled by minimizing the

emission of greenhouse gases into the environment. The following
preventive steps would help save the earth from the harmful effects
of Global Warming.

1. Laws. The Laws that governs pollution and greenhouse gases

should be followed.

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2. Reduction in thermal power generating stations. Reduced
dependence on thermal power for our electricity need would
help towards reducing the quantity if carbon dioxide in the
environment. The use of fossil fuels for generating conventional
energy is a major of greenhouse gases.
3. We should not waste paper. We can save paper by keeping
documents in electronic format and by not printing emails.
4. Planting Trees. Trees absorb carbon dioxide and releases
oxygen. Trees are helpful in reducing the problem of global
5. Sharing our car. We can share our car while going to office or
performing other scheduled activities. On one hand, we will
save money, and on the other, we will emit less greenhouse

4. Demonitization--(Imp Topic- SSC CGL Tier-3)

1-What Is Demonetization ?
Demonetization is a process by which a series of currency will
not be legal tender. The series of currency will not acceptable as
valid currency. The same thing happens with the Rs. 500 and Rs.
1000 note demonetization in india. The main objective of this move
was to curb the black money, corruption and fake money menace.

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2->What are the causes of Demonetization?

There can be many causes of Demonetization in any economy
some of them are : Introduction of New Currency ,Black Marketing,
Currency Storage, Corruption and others.
There will be excess fake currency in the economy is main
reason of demonetization..

3->What Happened on Demonetization?

On 8th November 2016, Government of India had announced that
from today onward rupees 500 and 1000 rupee note will not be a
legal tender.
This means that 500 and 1000 rupee note will be accepted by
anyone except the organization declared by government.
They can change the currency from the banks and post offices till
30th December 2016

>Impact of Demonetization and Pros and cons ---

There is huge impact of Demonetization of Indian Economy .
These 500 And 1000 Notes Contribute more than 84 % of Money
Circulation .
This Decision Has A direct impact on Money Circulation

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Attack On Black Money Holders-
End Of Terrorist Funding
End of Huge Donations
Towards A Cashless Economy
Hawala Transactions End


Rush At Banks
Shortage of Money To Common People
Problem For House Wives
Short Term Inflation
Effect on Marriage Seasons.

Conclusion- Central governments recent decision to demonetize the

high value currency is one of the major steps towards the
eradication of black money in India. The demonetization drive will
affect some extent to the general public, but for larger interest of
the country such decisions are inevitable. Also it may not curb black
money fully, but definitely it has major impact in curbing black
money to large extent.

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5. Goods and Services Tax (GST)-
Introduction:- The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value
added tax that will replace all indirect taxes(VAT/Sales Tax,
Entertainment Tax, Entry tax,State cess, Central Excise Duty,
Service Tax, Additional Excise Duty, Additional Customs Duty)
levied on goods and services by the Government, both
Central and States, once it is implemented.The GST is a
consolidated tax based on a uniform rate of tax fixed for both
goods and services. All goods and services, leaving aside a
few (alcohol, tobacco, petroleum products), will be brought
into the GST and there will be no difference between goods
and services

Some Facts about GSt

1- Constitutional Amendment bill number is 122 (one hundred
twenty two). This bill introduced in lokSabaha by Finance
Minister Sri. Arun jaitheli on 19 dec 2014 and passed by
the house in 6 May 2015. The bill was passed by Upper
House Rajya Sabaha on 3 August 2016 and amended bill
was passed By lock sabaha on 8 august 2016.
The proposed model of GST and the rate
GST system is planned to be implemented in India as proposed by
the Empowered Committee under which the GST will be divided
into three parts:
State Goods and Services Tax (SGST)
Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST)

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Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST)
Both SGST and CGST will be levied on the taxable value of a
The GST rate is expected to be around 18-20 per cent. After the
combined GST rate is fixed, the States and the Centre will decide
on the SGST and CGST rates. At present
Advantages of GST Bill
1- This model is a single Tax model and Tax on Tax will be
removed. Many Indirect Taxes will be merged as Single Tax.
2- All the products and services will be provided at same price in
all the states. As the rate of tax will be same in all over
India.This is the Biggest advantages of gst bill in India.
3- After This the tax is not applicable on manufacturing hand. So
for manufacturers it is easy to grow their business and
develop it. Now Excise and some other taxes are applicable at
the manufacturing Point. After this these will applicable at
consumption point.
4- All the Products where multiple taxes where applicable will be
cheaper like excise duty and vat both will come to about 30%
of Tax but in GST it is assumed to be 18-20%.
5- According to a study by the National Council of Applied
Economic Research (NCAER), full implementation of the
GST could expand Indias growth of gross domestic product
by 0.9-1.7 percentage points. By implementing the GST,
India will gain $15 billion a year. It will promote more

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exports, create more employment opportunities and boost

Disadvantages of GST Bill in India

The Service Tax in India is now 15% but the proposed GST is
about 18-20%. All the services will be Costlier and this one of
the Disadvantages of GST Bill on Common Person.
GST is also having three type of taxes and all have to be
maintained and this not going too easy for small Businessman

Conlcusion- GST will not only improve ease of doing business,

reduce the burden of taxes on people but also make One Nation,
One Tax a reality.

6. Make in India Campaign

Make in India is an ambitious campaign launched by the Prime

Minister Narendra Modi on 25th of September in 2014 in New Delhi

Ultimate objective to make India a renowned manufacturing hub for

key sectors. Companies across the globe would be invited to make
investment and set up factories and expand their facilities in India
and use Indias highly talented and skilled manpower to create
world class zero defect products. Mission is to manufacture in India
and sell the products worldwide.

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This campaign has targeted to make a call to top companies of
well identified countries. Some selected domestic companies who
are leading in the field of innovation and new technologies have
also been invited. There is a special unit in the Commerce Ministry
named Invest India which helps in guiding all the top foreign
investors in terms of regulatory and policy issues as well as assists
in obtaining the regulatory clearances.

The government of India is making a huge effort in order to reduce

any type of burden on the investors. There is an arrangement of a
dedicated team ready to answer all the queries from business
entities through the web portal ( There is a back-
end support team also in order to response specific queries within
72 hours of duration. Almost 25 key sectors (such as aviation,
chemicals, IT, automobiles, textiles, ports, pharmaceuticals, leather,
hospitality, tourism, wellness, railways, etc) have been identified by
the government to work for the investors and become a world

Note-India is a nation which ranked 130th on the ease of doing

business scale

How this would be achieved

Skill development programs would be launched especially for

people from rural and poor ones from urban cities

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Individuals aged 15-35 years would get high quality
training in the following key areas such as welding,
masonries, painting, nursing to help elder people

Over 1000 training centres would be opened across India in the

next 2 years


This will help in creating job market for over 10 million people
in India
Manufacturing done here would boost Indias GDP, trade and
economic growth
Fortify the Rupee
Development of Rural Areas
Ease of Business
Up-gradation of Technology
Negligence of Agriculture
Loss for Small Entrepreneurs
Depletion of Natural Resources

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7. Role of media in democracy essay
Introduction- Media came into existence in 1780 with
the introduction of a newspaper namely The Bengal Gazette and
since then it become the integral part of our life. It is not only the
source of information which may affect the normal human being in
his day-to-day functioning, but also keep them informed of
developments, national and international. Though media played the
role of a watchdog of the government functionaries.

Role of media

India has the largest democracy in the world and media has a
powerful presence in the country. It has now becoming the
backbone of a democracy which makes us aware of various social,
political and economical activities happening inside the country and
around the world.Media act like a mirror in which we can see the
bare truth and harsh realities of life clearly. Its also an eye opener
and reminds politicians about their unfulfilled promises at the time of
elections time to time. Mass media has become the lifeline of
country. Its almost difficult to live without newspapers and T.V news
channels in todays scenario. Not only in the metro cities but the
population live in villages also get benefitted by media presence.

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Impact of media

Impact of media cannot be rules out. It has some positive as well

as negative impacts on our society. Sometimes excessive
coverage or hype of sensitive news has led to communal riots and
constant repetition of the news, especially sensational news, breeds
apathy and insensitivity. Media should take utmost care in airing or
publishing such sensational news. Media has big responsibility
towards nation and their every news or move is closely followed by
the people so they must have to make sure about the


No one is perfect in this world and so is the media. Here I am not

degrading the media, rather I would say there is still a lot of scope
for improvement by which media can raise upto the aspirations of
the people for which it is meant. The present media revolution has
helped people in making an informed decisions and this has led to
beginning of a new era in a democracy.

8. Women Empowerment
Women Empowerment refers to increasing and improving the
social, economic, political and legal strength of the women, to
ensure equal-right to women, and to make them confident enough
to claim their rights.
The most famous saying said by the Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru is To
awaken the people, it is the women who must be awakened. Once

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she is on the move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation
moves. In India,

Why Need of Women Empowerment in India and some steps

taken by Gov
As we all know that India is a male dominated country where males
are dominated in every area and females are forced to be
responsible for only family care and live in the home including other
many restrictions. Almost 50% of the population in India is covered
by the female only so the full development of the country depends
on the half population means women, who are not empowered and
still restricted by many social taboos. In such condition, we cannot
say that our country would be a developed in the future without
empowering its half population means women. If we want to make
our country a developed country, first of all it is very necessary to
empower women by the efforts of men, government, laws and
women too.

Socio-political rights (right to work, right to education, right to decide

for themselves, etc) for the women were completely restricted by
the male members of family. Some of the ill practices against
women have been eliminated by the open minded and great Indian
Through the continuous efforts of the Raja Ram Mohan Roy,
Britishers were forced to eliminate the ill practice of Sati paratha.
Later, other famous social reformers of the India (Ishwar Chandra

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Vidyasagar, Acharya Vinoba Bhave, Swami Vivekananda, etc) also
had raised their voices and worked hard for the upliftment of
women in Indian society. In India, the Widow Remarriage Act, 1856
was initiated by the continuous efforts of Ishwar Chandra
Vidyasagar in order to improve the conditions of widows in the

Some of the acts passed by the Parliament are Equal Remuneration

Act-1976, Dowry Prohibition Act-1961, Immoral Traffic (Prevention)
Act-1956, Medical termination of Pregnancy Act-1971, Maternity
Benefit Act-1961, Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act-1987,
Prohibition of Child Marriage Act-2006, Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal
Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act-
1994, Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention,
Protection and) Act-2013, etc in order to empower women with legal
In order to provide safety to women and reduce crime against
women in India, government has passed another act Juvenile
Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2015 (especially after
Nirbhaya case when an accused juvenile was released).

9. What is a Cashless Economy?

In a cashless economy most of the transaction will be done by
digital means like e banking, debit and credit cards, PoS (point of
sales) machines, digital wallets etc.In simpler words no liquid money
or paper currency will be used by the people in a given country.In

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a cashless economy the third party will be in possession of your
money.He will allow you to transact that money whenever it is
needed. If it is not needed then the third party can use that
money.Third party can be a government or any other public or
private sector bank.

Pros of a Cashless Economy

Positive Impact on Society- There is a decline in the crime rate in

india during demonetization. According to Union defense minister
after demonetization the crime rates in Mumbai and in India has
dropped to half.

Attack on Parallel Economy

This is one of the most important reasons why a cashless society

is must.People who hoard money under their bed (also known as
black money), people who launder money bypassing banking
channels, terrorist who need money to finance their terror etc will
run out of business now.Size of Parallel economy will reduce

Financial Inclusion

Digital economy will help to enhance our current banking system.

There will be increased access to credit for people who did not fall
in any banking network.Financial inclusion will automatically reduce

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Increase the Tax Net

All the transactions that are done can be monitored and traced
back to a given individual.If officials from tax department smell
something fishy then they can trace the money transaction back to
the individual.

Security and Convenience

Last but not the least is security and convenience. You dont have
to carry a wallet with money in it.You just use your mobile phone
or credit card for transaction. It is very hassle free and already
going on in urban areas of the country.

Cons of a Cashless Economy

Security Cyber Attack, Fraud and Power Outages

Have to Trust Government or Third party

As I said earlier there is no money in your hand. All the money is

digital so either they are in control of banks or government or any
other third party.You have to trust government or bank blindly
because everything is under their possession. This is could be
scary because if tomorrow something happens you will be left with
no hard cash.

Reduced Liquidity means Bad for Certain Sectors

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There are certain sectors which depend upon high level of
transaction.Sectors like Real Estate, jewelry, retail industry,
restaurants and eating joints, cement and other SME will be
affected badly because of cashless society.It means a lot people
who are employed by these sectors are also going to be affected.

10. Terrorism

Introduction --Terrorism is the use of fear and acts of violence in

order to intimidate societies or governments. Many different types
of social or political organizations might use terrorism to try to
achieve their goals. People who do terrorism are called terrorists. It
is difficult to explain terrorism. Terrorism has no official criminal
law definition at the international level. Common definitions of
terrorism refer to violent acts which are intended to
create fear (terror). They may be done for a religious, political,
or ideological goal, and often target civilians.

A threat to the World --Terrorism has become a big national and

international problem all over the world. It is a global issue which
has affected almost all the nations throughout the world directly or
indirectly. Opposing terrorism has been tried by many countries
however; terrorists are still getting support by someone. India had
faced lots of challenges such as poverty, population growth, hunger,
illiteracy, inequality, and many more however, terrorism is highly
dangerous till now affecting the mankind and humanity. It is more
than dangerous and frightening disease which is affecting the
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people mentally and intellectually. Some of the examples of Terror
attacks are 1993 Bombay bombings, attack the Akshardham
temple in Gujarat 2002, 2008 Mumbai attacks[,2016 Uri attack

According to data from the Global Terrorism Database, more than

61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, claiming over 140,000 lives,
have been recorded from 2000 to 2014.In India from 2005 707
people died and 3200 injured due to terror attacks.

Types of terrorism --There are many kind of terrorism in the world

like State terrorism, Religious terrorism(Al-Qaeda), Left Wing
Terrorism, Right Wing Terrorism, Issue Oriented Terrorism, Narco-
Terrorism etc and Terrorism found in India includes ethno-nationalist
terrorism, religious terrorism, left wing terrorism and narco terrorism.
Some of the dangerous group named as Al-Qaeda, ISIS, Hizb-ul-
Mujahideen , Lashkar-e-Taiba, Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE), Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) etc.

Conclusion - Terrorism is a Potential Threat to the Humanity so

all the nation in the world should unite against terrorism and take

some strict measures prevent from terrorist

11. Uniform civil code

Uniform civil code is the proposal to replace the personal

laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious
community in India with a common set governing every citizen.

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Article 44 of the Constitution of India lays down an important
directive principle of state policy, namely, that the State shall
Endeavour to secure for its citizens, a uniform civil code throughout
the territory of India. However, as clarified by Art. 37, directive
principles are not enforceable by any court, although they are
fundamental in the governance of the country.

Why do we need a Uniform Civil Code in India?

India is a secular country which is known to inhabit and cater to

the interest of varying communities, accounting for a diverse nation
that we have been a part of. Right from the time of gaining
Independence, the thinkers and political philosophers of the nation
thought that the Uniform Civil Code is essential to fully function as
a secular nation. But even after the 66 years of gaining
Independence, the nation has not been able to implement the idea.

Here are some of the basic reasons that would make you think
about the importance of the Uniform Civil Code in the nation

It will execute the true meaning of being Secular:

Currently, with different personal laws existing in the country, we

are secular in selective ways. The uniform civil code, if,
implemented would ensure that all the diverse communities of India
will follow a single set of laws, which will unite us a nation.

It will give more rights to Women:

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The old religious and personal laws have made our society to be
extremely patriarchal. The uniform civil code, will reject the existing
archaic laws related to womens right and will give a new life to our
female population specially Muslim women where divorce laws and
marriage related laws are men favoured. This will be followed by all
the communities to ensure equal and safe right for the females of
our nation.

It will reject the vote bank politics:

With the uniform civil code in practice, the politicians will succumb
to a more logical and organized method of asking for votes than to
bid one religion against each other.

It will integrate India:

In lots of ways, it will truly unite the nation. We will feel united as
one regardless of caste, religion and other social evils that seems
to differentiate one person from another.


UCC will promote justice, Gender equality and national integration

and it will simplify the cumbersome legal matters governed by
personal laws. The objective of unity and integrity of India enshrined
in the preamble could be achieved only when Article 44 is
transformed into enforceable Uniform Civil Code. Moreover the
problem of opposition of UCC can be resolved by resolving doubts
relating to the problems of the minority group like insecurity,
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complete loss of identity and marginalization within Indian society.
The benefits of UCC certainly outweigh its limitations and its high
time that India should incorporate Uniform Civil Code for all its

12. Environmental pollution

Environmental pollution refers to the introduction of harmful

pollutants into the environment. It has a hazardous effect on the
natural world and on the activities of living beings.

The major types of environmental pollution are air pollution, water

pollution, noise pollution, thermal pollution, soil pollution and light

Deforestation and hazardous gaseous emissions also leads to

environmental pollution. During the last 10 years, the world has
witnessed severe rise in environmental pollution.

Sources and Causes

Industrial activities: The improper disposal of industrial wastes is

the sources of soil and water pollution. Chemical waste resulting
from industry can pollute lakes, rivers and seas and soil too as well
as releasing fume

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Dumping solid waste: Household and commercial waste pollutes the
environment when not disposed of properly.

Vehicles-The smoke emitted by vehicles using petrol and diesel and

the cooking coal also pollutes the environment. The harmful smoke
of these vehicles causes air pollution. Further, the sounds produced
by these vehicles produces causes noise-pollution

Rapid urbanization and industrialization:

Combustion of fossil fuels: The combustion of fossil fuels pollutes

the air, the soil and the water with noxious gases such as CO2 and

Agricultural waste: Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture are

key causes of environmental pollution.


Environmental pollution has negatively affected the life of both

human-beings and animals. Almost all of our gains in the fields of
industrial progress, science and technology had so far been realized
at the cost of our health. Even our flora and fauna were found to
be threatened with extinction.

The worst industrial environment tragedy occurred at Bhopal on

December 3, 1984 as a result of toxic and poisonous leakage of
methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a multi-national Union Carbide

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pesticides manufacturing plant. Over 2000 people including woman
and children were killed, and hundreds were severely hurt.


The Government can at least see that future factories are set
up at a distant place, an industrial complex far away from the
Researcher may find out how to avoid harmful smoke from
running vehicles.
Deforestation should be stopped and Forestry should be
Discharge of Factory wastes in rivers should be banned so as
to make the river-water free from pollution.
Recycle the sewage or in all events it can be disposed of in
such a way as to prevent it from polluting the environment.

Organic farming could be one solution for reducing

environmental pollution levels.
In conclusion, pollution is really a big problem in the world
beacuse it is causing ozone depletion, nature dying and many
different illnesses. People are creating new projects that will be
good for the humanity. But If we dont take conscience about
these problems, maybe in the future we will have more
problems. So we need to try to avoid pollution.

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13. Programme - Skill India

Skill India is a campaign launched by Prime Minister Narendra

Modi on 15 July 2015 with an aim to train over 40 crore (400
million) people in India in different skills by 2022. The main goal
is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development
of the talents of the Indian youth and to develop more of those
sectors which have already been put under skill development for
the last so many years and also to identify new sectors for skill
development. It includes various initiatives of the government
like "National Skill Development Mission", "National Policy for Skill
Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015", "Pradhan Mantri
Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)", the "Skill Loan scheme" and
Rural India Skill

Features of Skill India

The emphasis is to skill the youths in such a way so that they

get employment and also improve entrepreneurship.
Provides training, support and guidance for all occupations that
were of traditional type like carpenters, cobblers, welders,
blacksmiths, masons, nurses, tailors, weavers etc.
More emphasis will be given on new areas like real estate,
construction, transportation, textile, gem industry, jewellery
designing, banking, tourism and various other sectors, where
skill development is inadequate or nil.

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The training programs would be on the lines of international
level so that the youths of our country can not only meet the
domestic demands but also of other countries like the US,
Japan, China, Germany, Russia and those in the West Asia.
Another remarkable feature of the Skill India program would
be to create a hallmark called Rural India Skill, so as to
standardize and certify the training process.
Tailor-made, need-based programs would be initiated for
specific age groups which can be like language and
communication skills, life and positive thinking skills, personality
development skills, management skills, behavioral skills,
including job and employability skills.
The course methodology of Skill India would be innovative,
which would include games, group discussions, brainstorming
sessions, practical experiences, case studies etc.

Conclusion-- Development of skills, at a young age, right at the

school level, is very essential to channelize them for proper job
opportunities. Skill development will enable the youths to get blue-
collar job Skill India mission is not merely to fill pockets but to bring
a sense of self-confidence among the poor: PM Modi

14. Startup India Standup India

In order to put some direct emphasis on the youth entrepreneurship

and new job creation opportunities for the youths, Prime Minister
Narendra Modi has announced the complete action plan of this
initiative on 16th of January in 2016. According to this scheme,
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companies will be given incentives so that they can generate more
employment. Start up India, Stand up India campaign is launched to
promote the bank financing for starting business by the youths
(especially women, Dalit or Adivasi). PM had announced about this
campaign in his speech on Independence Day 2015.

According to this scheme, each of the bank branches will support at

least one Dalit, Adivasi and women entrepreneur in order to easily
encourage them. It will be proved very effective scheme in the
development of India as it encourages and enables start-ups of the
country who have strong mind and innovative ideas (necessary to
bring nation on the new track).

The Action Plan is divided across the following areas:

o Simplification and Handholding

o Funding Support and Incentives
o Industry-Academia Partnership and Incubation

Main features of Startup India campaign

1. Single Window Clearance even with the help of a mobile

2. 10,000 crore INR of funds
3. 80% reduction in patent registration fee
4. Modified and more friendly Bankruptcy Code to ensure 90-day
exit window
5. Freedom from mystifying inspections for 3 years

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6. Freedom from Capital Gain Tax for 3 years
7. Freedom from tax in profits for 3 years
8. Eliminating red tape
9. Self-certification compliance
10. Innovation hub under Atal Innovation Mission
11. Starting with 5 lakh schools to target 10 lakh children for
innovation programme
12. New schemes to provide IPR protection to start-ups and
new firms
13. Encourage entrepreneurship.
14. Stand India across the world as a start-up hub.

Start Up India" is a revolutionary scheme that has been started to
help the people who wish to start their own business. These people
have ideas and capability, so the government will give them support
to make sure they can implement their ideas and grow. Success of
this scheme will eventually make India, a better economy and a
strong nation.

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15. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)

In his first Independence Day(15th of August in 2014) speech, Prime

Minister of India had announced the National Mission on Financial
Inclusion titled, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY).

Main motto of this scheme is to attach each and every Indian

citizen to the Bank account so that every citizen can avail the
benefit of various scheme or subsidised program run by Indian
Government. This scheme provides an Overdraft facility of Rs 5000
after six months and Rupay debit card with an inbuilt accident
insurance cover of Rs 1 lakh and Rupay Kisan Card to the account
holder. On the day of Inauguration Mr. Modi said that today is the
day of financial freedom in India. Other state government also
flagged off this scheme. The main purpose of this scheme Mera
Khata Bhagya Vidhata which means my account is divine.

Current status and success --This scheme is Run by Department

of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance, on the inauguration day,
1.5 Crore (15 million) bank accounts were opened under this
scheme. By 1 February 2017, over 27 crore (270 million) bank
accounts were opened and almost 665 billion (US$10 billion) were
deposited under the scheme

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Under the scheme:

1. Account holders will be provided bank accounts with no

minimum balance.
2. RuPay debit cards will be issued.
3. Accidental insurance cover of 1 lakh (US$1,500).
4. After six months of opening of the bank account, holders will
be eligible for 5,000 (US$74) overdraft from the bank.[8]
5. With the introduction of new technology introduced by National
Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), a person can transfer
funds, check balance through a normal phone which was
earlier limited only to smart phones.
6. Mobile banking for the poor would be available through
National Unified USSD Platform (NUUP) for which all banks
and mobile companies have come together[4]

Conclusion- This is one of the best step taken by the Indian

government for the upliftment of the poor people. On the day of
Inauguration Mr. Modi said that today is the day of financial
freedom in India. Other state government also flagged off this
scheme. The main purpose of this scheme Mera Khata Bhagya
Vidhata which means my account is divine.

16. Child Labor

Child labor has been an international concern because it damages,

spoils and destroys the future of children. The problem of child
labor is a serious matter not only in India but also in other
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developing countries. It is great social problem. Children are the
hope and future of a nation. Yet, there are millions deprived
children in our country who have never known a normal, carefree

Child Labor In india-- the Constitution of India prohibits child labour

in hazardous industries (but not in non-hazardous industries) as a
Fundamental Right under Article 24. UNICEF estimates that India
with its larger population, has the highest number of labourers in
the world under 14 years of age.The 2011 national census of India
found the total number of child labourers, aged 514, to be at 4.35
million,[5] and the total child population to be 259.64 million in that
age group.[6] The child labour problem is not unique to India;
worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time

truly speaking child labor is frequently utilized in India in various

places of production and service e.g., small scale industry,
restaurant service, domestic aid, shopkeepers assistant, stone
breaking, book binding, in fact in every house-hold industry.

Causes of Child Labor

To have or increase the income of a poor family

To reduce the labor cost in a production organization
Misc. reasons for engaging as domestic aid as the children are
less doubtful about dishonesty or less liable to misbehave or be

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Solutions to Child Labor

The Child labor laws need to be strictly enforced by the

The general public need to be made aware of the severe
consequences of Child labor.
An increase in employment opportunity for adults would help in
overcoming the problem of poverty and child labor.
Government should ensure that every child gets the opportunity
to go to school.
The owners of factories and mines should take the pledge of
not engaging child in their place of business.


If the boy or girl takes up a small job as a domestic help or

restaurant boy against a nominal salary of Rs. 750-1800 per month,
he does not get enough time time for primary and secondary
education and is most likely to remain completely illiterate, unskilled,
perhaps with a weak health and will have to remain unemployed or
be engaged as an unskilled labor when he is grown up. Hence in
his own benefit and interest no child should be engaged as labor
both from legal point of view as well as the childs future interes

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17. What is a surgical strike? How is it carried out?

A surgical strike is essentially a swift and targeted attack on

specific target that aims to neutralise them while ensuring minimum
collateral damage to the surrounding areas and civilians.

These attacks can be carried out via air raids, airdropping special
ops teams or a ground operation. All three Indian armed forces
have their separate special ops teams. The details of the surgical
strikes have understandably not been revealed by the Indian
authorities.External intelligence is vital to carrying out these attacks
and these special operation teams work closely with the service
intelligence departments, Intelligence Bureau and R&AW hawks.

Indian Surgical Strike on Pakistan- Nearly 10 days after the Uri

attack that claimed 18 jawans, India carried out surgical strikes on
Sep 29, 2016 at 12.30 am in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, inflicting
heavy casualties on terrorists and 'those protecting them" and
indicating a change of stand on the rules of engagement on the
disputed line of control.. in this operation paratroopers from Special
Forces were involved. Indian commandos entered three kilometres
across the Line of Control to conduct the 'surgical strike. 38
terrorists and 2 Pakistani soldiers were killed in Indian Army surgical
strikes, no Indian casualties. Those killed included terrorists, their

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guides and handlers. Helicopters were used. Mission, according to
reports, ended at 4.30 am.

Conclusion- Surgical strikes gain importance in Indias case as

Pakistan has repeatedly shown its intention to use tactical nuclear
weapons on Indian Forces, even risking the collateral damage to its
own troops, to stop Indian military operations .the covert surgical
strikes are a powerful weapon for the Indian armed forces to carry
out the necessary dirty work while ensuring the status-quo between
the opposing armies on the LoC

18. India as an emerging superpower

The Republic of India is considered as one of the

possible emerging superpowers of the world. This potential is
attributed to several indicators, the primary ones being its
demographic trends and a rapidly expanding economy and by GDP
India became world's fastest growing economy in 2015 with 7.3%
GDP rate. The country must overcome many of the economic,
social, and political problems before it can be considered
a superpower. It is also not yet as influential on the international

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stage when compared to the United States or the former Soviet

Reasons India will become a superpower

Indias economy is already much larger than many think- In 2016

India Is at the 7th rank in the word in terms of GDP and 3rd rank in the
world at PPP purchasing power parity. if it will continue India will be
super power till 2050.

Indias economy is growing faster than Chinas

India now has the best growth of all large economies, with a rate
of GDP growth of 7.3 last year and a projected growth rate of 7.6%
this year. China grew more slowly, at a rate of 6.9% last year, and
a lower rate of growth is expected this year.

India has a young population

Due to its high birth rate India has a young population compared to
most aging nations. It has approximately 65% of its population
below the age of 35. In the coming decades, while some of the
powerful nations will witness a decrease in workforce numbers, India
is expected to have an increase. For example, while Europe is well
past its demographic window, the United States entered its own in

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1970 (lasting until 2015), China entered its own in 1990 (and will
last until 2025), India would not enter its own window until 2010
(and it will last until 2050)

India has a diverse and democratic society

Bollywood could be bigger than Hollywood

in terms of the number of films produced each year, Bollywood is

firmly on top of the pile with 1,602 in 2012 alone. The U.S.
churned out 476 films that year while the Chinese managed 745. In
the same year, Hollywood sold 1.36 billion tickets compared to
Bollywoods whopping 2.6 billion.

Clearly, India has immense and growing cultural influence, a key

factor for any potential superpower.

If challenges are overcome, India will become a superpower

19. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana is a welfare program of the

government of India, launched by Indian Prime Minister Narendra
Modi on 1st May 2016 from Ballia in Uttar Pradesh. The stated
objective of the program is providing 50,000,000 LPG connections to
women from families below the poverty line(BPL households). The
scheme is aimed at replacing the unclean cooking fuels mostly used
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in the rural India with the clean and more efficient LPG (Liquefied
Petroleum Gas).As of 8 November 2016, ten million LPG
connections had been completed.

Some of the objectives of the scheme are

1. Empowering women and protecting their health.

2. Reducing the serious health hazards associated with cooking based

on fossil fuel.
3. Reducing the number of deaths in India due to unclean cooking
4. Preventing young children from significant number of acute
respiratory illnesses caused due to indoor air pollution by burning
the fossil fuel.

How to Apply for Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

The eligible women candidates from BPL families can apply for
the scheme by filling up the Ujjwala Yojana KYC application form
(in prescribed format). Applicant must a woman above the age of
18 and a citizen of India and BPL card holder.

The interested candidates require filling the 2 page application form

and attaching required documents along with the form.

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Implementation of PM Ujjwala Yojana

The scheme will be implemented by the Ministry of Petroleum &

Natural Gas. The government has already allocated Rs 8,000 for
this scheme and Rs. 2000 crore for the Ujjwala Yojana
implementation for the financial year 2016-17. Government will
distribute LPG connections to about 1.5 Crore BPL families within
the current financial year.

This Scheme would be implemented over three years, namely, the

FY 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19.

Conclusion- This is first time in the history that Ministry of

Petroleum & Natural Gas is implementing such an enormous welfare
scheme which will benefit Crores of women belonging to the
poorest households.

20. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana

(Save girl child, educate girl child) Prime Minister Modi launched the
programme on 22 January 2015 from Panipat, Haryana. it is
a Government of India social campaign that aims to generate
awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services meant for
girls. The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme was introduced
in October, 2014 to address the issue of declining child sex ratio
(CSR) This is implemented through a national campaign and
focused multi-sector action in 100 selected districts with low CSR,
covering all States and UTs. It is a joint initiative of the Ministry of

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Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare and the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

According to census data, the child sex ratio (06 years) in India
was 927 girls per 1,000 boys in 2001, which dropped drastically to
918 girls for every 1,000 boys in 2011. A 2012 UNICEF report
ranked India 41st among 195 countries.

In August 2016, Olympics 2016 bronze medalist Sakshi Malik was

made brand ambassador of the 'Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao' initiative
in Haryana


The objectives of the scheme are.

1. Preventing sex selective abortion
2. Ensuring survival and protection of a girl child
3. Ensuring education of the girl child

21. The Indian space programme

The Indian space programme has its genesis in the Indian National
Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) that was formed under the
chairmanship of Dr Vikram Sarabhai by the Department of Atomic Energy in
1962. ISRO, a unit of ISP was established in 1969 with the aim of boosting
Indias capability in space programme. ISP was formally reorganized in 1972
when department of space was established.

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India Space programme has many units which work day in and day
out to use space program in the service of mankind like physics
space laboratory. Liquid Propulsion Systems,ISRO, DRDO, etc.
Indias first satellite Aryabhatta was launched in 1975 from USSR,
make a way towards India enters into space. Launch of Bhaskar-I
and Bhaskar-II made information access regarding oceanography,
forests and in other areas. Indias revolution started with the
invention of INSAT satellites, INSAT-1A,1B,1C and 1D. Today, Insat
1B has been used for many purposes like mars telecommunication,
weather report etc. Furthermore, India Remote Sensing satellite has
added another feather in its cap and helps in mapping the Indian
Geography limits and provides inputs related to cyclones areas
threatened to wildlife diversity.

Apple was the 1st geostationary satellite and with the launch of
Rohini-I, India became only 7th nation in the world to conquer
space orbital capability. Indias mission on MARS draw huge
applaud across the world with the cheapest cost and execution
ability. Recently, India has surprised the whole world with the
launch of 104 satellites in one go. Making the invention of PSLV
made India not only sufficient in launching rockets and satellites
bust also financing for her projects. Conclusion: India has a bright
future ahead in space p[programmes but ISRO needs to invent
even more in science missions that could eventually lead to more
technology development.

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***********************THANK YOU****************************

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