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Chapter 9: Bonding in Solids and Liquids

List ALL
Basic Questions
Basic Question 1
9.1.1 Identify the intermolecular forces present in a given element elements G

Specify the major intermolecular forces that exist in a crystal of each of the following elements:
H2 Van der waals forces of attraction
He Van der waals forces of attraction
O2 Van der waals forces of attraction
C Covalent forces of attraction
Na Metallic forces of attraction
P4 Van der waals forces of attraction
S8 Van der waals forces of attraction

Basic Question 2
9.1.2 Compare melting points / boiling points of elements using strength of G
intermolecular forces
Explain the following observation: Sulphur melts at a much lower temperature than graphite.
Sulphur has van der waals (VDW) forces of attraction between its molecules. Graphite has
covalent bonds between the carbon atoms. Covalent bonds are stronger and harder to break than
VDW so sulphur melts at a lower temperature than graphite.

Basic Question 3
9.1.2 Compare hardness of given elements according to strength of IMF -

Explain why phosphorous is a brittle element while diamond is hard.


Phosphorous has weak van der waals forces of attraction between its molecules which are easy to
break, so it is brittle. Diamond has strong covalent bonds between its atoms. These are strong and
difficult to break so it is hard.

Basic Question 4
9.1.3 Explain why metals conduct electricity and non-metals do not G

Explain the following observations:


Sulphur is a non-conductor element while sodium is a conductor of heat and electricity.
Sulphur is a non-conductor of electricity because it has no free ions or electrons that can move
and carry electric current.
Sodium us a conductor of heat and electricity due to its mobile sea of free delocalized electrons
that can move and carry electric current.

Basic Question 5
9.1.3 Explain why metals are shiny -

Explain why silver is a shiny element.

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Silver is a metal that has a metallic bonding, the delocalised electrons can absorb and re-emit
light energy which is visible as a shine.

Basic Question 6
9.1.3 Explain why metals are malleable and ductile and non-metals are not T

Explain why sulphur is brittle while copper is ductile and malleable.


Sulphur is a non-metal that has weak van der waals forces of attraction, so when a force is
applied it easily breaks.
Copper is malleable and ductile because:
The metallic bonds in copper are non-directional so it can be deformed without shattering its
structure.
OR
Copper is a metal with metallic bonding so when a force is applied the cations rearrange and
reform bonds, its like they slide past each other maintaining the bonds once rearranged.

Basic Question 7
9.2.1 Explain order of boiling points of given elements using strength of G
intermolecular forces
Explain why the boiling points of the halogens increase down the group.
As we go down the group, the number of electrons increases so Van der Waals forces of
attraction increase in number and strength. As a result higher temperature is needed to separate
them.

Basic Question 8
9.2.1 Compare melting points / boiling points of compounds using strength of G
intermolecular forces
a. Explain why CH4 has a lower boiling point than C2H4.
CH4 is smaller, it has less electrons, so its Van der Waals forces are weaker than C2H6.
Therefore, its boiling point will be lower.
b. Which has a higher boiling point HF or HCl? Why?
HF. The major intermolecular forces in HF are H-bonds while in HCl are dipole-dipole forces.
H-bonds are stronger than dipole-dipole forces, so more energy is required to break them HF
will have a higher boiling point.

Basic Question 9
9.2.2 Know structure of a network solid T

a) Germanium has a similar structure to that of diamond. Describe the structure of Germanium.
Germanium exists as a giant structure where each germanium atom is strongly and covalently
bonded to four other germanium atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The bonding is extremely
strong.
b) Silicon dioxide SiO2 has a similar structure to that of diamond. Describe the structure of silicon
dioxide. You may use a diagram if necessary.
Silicon (IV) oxide or silicon dioxide or SiO2 is a giant covalent molecule. Every silicon atom is
strongly and covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral structure. Every oxygen
atom is strongly and covalently bonded to two silicon atoms.

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The ratio is 2 Silicon atoms: 4 Oxygen atoms or simply 1 Silicon atom : 2 Oxygen atoms as
you can see from the structure below.

Basic Question 10
9.2.4 Identify IMF present between particles of different compounds G

Specify the major intermolecular forces that exist in a crystal of each of the following compounds:
CH4 Van der Waals forces of attraction
HCl Dipole-dipole forces of attraction
CO2 Van der Waals forces of attraction
NH3 Hydrogen bonding
HF Hydrogen bonding
NaCl Ionic bonding
SiO2 Covalent bonding

Basic Question 11
9.2.4 Know why solid ionic compounds do not conduct but when molten they do G

Explain why solid NaCl is a non-conductor of electricity, while when melted it becomes a good
electrolyte.
In solid NaCl ions are not free to move, but when molten ions are free to move. To carry an
electric current the charged particles must be free to move.

Basic Question 12
9.2.4 Explain the term lattice with respect to a specific ionic compound. GT

Magnesium reacts with chlorine to form magnesium chloride. In the lattice of magnesium chloride,
the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is 1 : 2
Explain the term Lattice.
It is the regular pattern of positive and negative ions (Mg2+ and Cl-)

Basic Question 13
9.2.4 Identify the type of solid a given substance is -

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Describe the structure of solid CO2, I2, KCl, diamond, H2O, Li, Xe and SiO2. Are they made of ions,
giant structures or separate molecules?
Substance Type of Solid Particles making up solid
CO2 molecular molecules
I2 molecular molecules
KCl ionic ions
diamond network solid atoms
H2O molecular molecules
Li metallic atoms
Xe atomic atoms
SiO2 network solid atoms

Basic Question 14
The following table is a list of the electron distribution of atoms of certain elements.
element electron distribution
A 2, 5
B 2, 8, 4
C 2, 8, 8, 2
D 2, 8, 18, 8
E 2, 8, 18, 8, 1
F 2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Note:
To be able to solve this question, check the last number in every electron distribution, this gives
the number of valence electrons which is equivalent to the number of the group
e.g Element A: 2,5 has 5 valence electrons so it is in group 5

7.5 Use the electron distribution to determine the group of an element T

a) From the above list, choose an element that:

i) is a noble gas. D
ii) is a soft metal with a low density. E
iii) can form a covalent compound with element A. B or F
iv) has a giant molecular structure similar to diamond. B
v) can forma negative ion of the type X3-. A

b) Elements C and F form an ionic compound.


8.3 Know how to draw the electron dot diagram for a given ionic compound T

Draw a diagram that represents the formula of this compound, the arrangement of the valency
electrons around the negative ion and the charge on the ions.
Use to represent an electron from atom C.
Use x to represent an electron from atom F.
C is Calcium F is Iodine

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CaI2 Ca 2+
2 I electron of Ca x electron of I

8.3 Know how to draw the electron dot diagram for a given molecular compound T

c) Draw a diagram representing the arrangement of valency electrons in the molecule of nitrogen
tirchloride.
Use to represent an electron from chlorine atom.
Use x to represent an electron from nitrogen atom.

Basic Question 15
9.2.6 Explain why electrolytic properties of given substances G

Explain why an aqueous solution of sugar is a non-electrolyte, while that of NaCl is a good electrolyte.
An aqueous solution of NaCl is a good electrolyte because the NaCl in water dissociates into ions
that can move and carry electric current.
While an aqueous solution of sugar contains no ions as sugar molecules do not dissociate into ions
and remain molecules so it is a non-electrolyte.

Basic Question 16
9.2.8 Explain states of given substances using strength of IMF -

Explain the following observation:


a) CO2 is a gas at room conditions, while CS2 is a liquid.
Both kinds of molecules are held by Van der waals forces. CO2 is a smaller molecule than
CS2 and it has smaller number of electrons so CO2 has weaker forces between its molecules
due to weaker van der waals forces of attraction so CO2 is a gas at room conditions while
CS2 is a liquid
b) H2S is a gas at room conditions while H2O is a liquid.
H2S has dipole-dipole forces of attraction between its molecules that are weaker than the
hydrogen bonding between water molecules, so H2S is a gas at room conditions while H2O
is a liquid.

Basic Question 17
9.2.8 Explain variation in boiling points between given substances using strength of -
IMF
Ether, CH3 O CH3 is a gas at room conditions, while ethanol, C2H5 O H boils at 78C.
Suggest a reason for the difference in boiling points of the two chemicals.
Ethanol molecules are held by hydrogen bonds that are stronger than the dipole-dipole bonds
between the ether molecules. So more heating and higher temperature is needed to vaporise
ethanol.

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Sample Questions
9.1 The Elements
9.1.1 Van Der Waals Forces

Sample Question 1

Physical properties caused by van Waals forces

Which of the following is/are correct properties of a substance that has Van der Waals forces between
its molecules?
a) It is hard
b) It has a low melting point
c) It is a good conductor of electricity
d) It has a low heat of vaporization
e) It has a high boiling point

9.1.2 Network Solids

Sample Question 2

Describing molecular elements

a) What particles make up the crystal lattice of a molecular substance like hydrogen chloride?
Molecules

b) Iodine is a molecular solid. A crystal of iodine is made of _____________


Discrete molecules

Sample Question 3

Identify elements with network structure

Which of the following substances are network solids?


a) Carbon in diamond
b) Helium
c) Hydrogen
d) Carbon in graphite
e) Silicon dioxide

Sample Question 4

Properties of bonds in diamond

What is diamond?

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It is a tetrahedral structure of linked hexagons where every carbon atom is strongly and
covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms.
What kind of bonds exists between its atoms? Covalent bonds
Does it have delocalized bonds? No
Can we speak of a molecule of diamond? No

Sample Question 5

Properties of bonds in graphite

What is graphite?
It is a layered structure of linked hexagons where every carbon atom is strongly and covalently
bonded to three other carbon atoms leaving one electron free that form a cloud of free electrons
between layers.
What kind of bonds exists between its atoms?
Covalent bonds
Does it have delocalized bonds? Yes
Can we speak of a molecule of graphite? No

Sample Question 6

Describing network solids

What particles make up the crystal lattice of a network solid?


Atoms

Sample Question 7

Explaining Lattice Structure

What is meant by the term Lattice structure?


Highly regular arrangement of atoms, ions, molecules.

9.1.3 Metallic Bonding

Sample Question 8

Identify substances that have metallic bonding

In which of the following substances are the intermolecular forces mainly metallic?
H2; Na ; O2 ; C.
Na

Sample Question 9

Review the chemical properties of metals

a) Where do you generally find metallic elements in the Periodic Table?

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To the left of the Periodic Table.
b) Is it easy for metals to lose electrons? Yes
c) As a result, can they act as oxidizing agents or as reducing agents? Reducing agents

Sample Question 10

Review the physical properties of metals

List five physical properties of metals.


a) High melting point and boiling point
b) Good conductor of heat and electricity
c) Malleable
d) ductile
e) Shiny and lustrous

Know which substance conducts electricity from a given list

Which of the following substances conducts electricity in the solid state?


a) sodium chloride
b) Diamond
c) Lead (II) chloride
d) Chlorine
e) Potassium (Any metal conducts electricity in the solid state)
f) Silver nitrate

Sample Question 11

Explaining the physical properties of metals

a) What model do we use in order to explain most of the physical properties of metals?
The lattice structure.

b) Many of the physical properties of metals can be explained using the idea of _____________
Delocalized electrons

Sample Question 12

Identify conducting elements from a list

List some elements that are conductors. What makes them conductors?
Most metals are conductors. They are conductors due to the presence of mobile or free or
delocalized electrons that can move and carry electric current.

Sample Question 13

Know what is meant by metallic bond

What is meant by metallic bonding?

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It is the electrostatic force of attraction between the delocalized electrons or mobile sea of
electrons and the regular array of positive metal ions (cations) within a solid metal.

9.2 Forces Between Particles in Compounds


9.2.1 Non-Polar Molecular Solids
9.2.2 Network Solids

Sample Question 14

Identify compounds with network structure

Which of the following substances are network solids? CH4 ;NaCl ; SiO2 and HCl, quartz.
SiO2 and quartz

9.2.3 Metallic Alloys


9.2.4 Ionic Solids

Sample Question 15

Properties of ionic solids

i. Which of the following is/are correct properties of ionic compounds?


b) Ductile
c) Brittle
d) Malleable
e) Lattice structure
f) Hard
g) Low melting points
h) High boiling points
i) Good conductors of electricity in all states
j) Form regularly shaped crystals

ii. List the properties possessed by this compound.

1. high melting point or boiling point


2. conducts when molten or in solution
3. brittle
4. hard
any correct chemical property.

9.2.5 Molecules with Molecular Dipoles


9.2.6 Solubility of Electrolytes in Water
9.2.7 Polar and Non Polar Solvents

Sample Question 16

Know which substances exhibit dipole-dipole forces

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What property must a molecule have in order to be able to exhibit dipole dipole forces?
It must have difference in electronegativity between its atoms and a nonzero net dipole.
Example NH3, HF, HCl, H2O

Sample Question 17

Know the definition of a hydrogen bond.

Complete the following:


Hydrogen bonds are special kinds of dipole-dipole interactions between a hydrogen atom,
( which is covalently bonded to a nitrogen , oxygen or fluorine atom ) in one molecule and a
nitrogen , oxygen or fluorine atom in another molecule .

Sample Question 18

Know which substances exhibit hydrogen bonds

What are hydrogen bonds? Between which atoms or molecules do they act?
Hydrogen bonds are special kinds of dipole-dipole interactions between a hydrogen atom
which is covalently bonded to a nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom in one molecule and a nitrogen,
oxygen or fluorine atom in another molecule .

Examples: HF, H2O, NH3

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