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Lab 1: Introduction and Orientation to the circuits Lab

Objectives

To become familiar with some of the basic components and equipments to be


used in the Lab.
To implement simple electric circuits.

Equipment

Bread Board
Digital Multimeter (Models: Extech- Multiview 110, True RMS Multimeter- 430 ;
GW Multimeter-GDM354A)
Resistors

Introduction to basic components and equipment

In this Lab we are going to be familiar with some of the components and equipments
you will be using in the Lab.

Components
Resistors
The resistor's function is to reduce the flow of electric current.

This symbol is used to indicate a resistor in a circuit diagram.

Color codes for resistors


Low-power resistors are color coded; that is the rated value and the tolerance of a
resistor is indicated by some standard color bands on its body. To read the color code
of a common 4 band resistor with a 5% tolerance, start at the opposite side of the
tolerance band and read from left to right.

Note: Additional information regarding resistors and other components like the
capacitor and inductors are given in the Reference Manual.
Resistor Color Code

Examples:
1) A Carbon 22000 Ohms or 22 Kilo-Ohms also known as 22K at 5% tolerance is identified
by:
Band 1 = Red, 1st digit
Band 2 = Red, 2nd digit
Band 3 = Orange, 3rd digit, multiply with zeros, in this case 3 zero's
Band 4 = Gold, Tolerance, 5%

2) A Precision Metal Film 19200 Ohms or 19.2 Kilo Ohms also known as 19K2 at 1%
tolerance:
Band 1 = Brown, 1st digit
Band 2 = White, 2nd digit
Band 3 = Red, 3rd digit
Band 4 = Red, 4th digit, multiply with zeros, in this case 2 zero's
Band 5 = Brown, Tolerance, 1%

Task 1: Learning color codes

Step 1: Learn the colors

Learning the "Color-Code" is COMPULSORY. The same color code is used for everything
else, like coils, capacitors, RF-chokes, etc. Again, just the color code associated with a
number, like: black=0 brown=1 red=2, etc.
To learn the code by memory, try this:
BB ROY Great Britain has a Very Good Wife

Step 2: Learn the tolerances.

Step 3: Do the exercises below.

1st band, denominator: Brown (1)


2nd band, denominator: Black (0)
3rd band, how many zeros (1)
4th band, tolerance in %: gold (5)
Answer: 100 ohm, 5% tolerance

1st band: _____


2nd band: _____
3rd band: _____
4th band, tolerance in %: _____
Answer: ___________________

1st band: _____


2nd band: _____
3rd band: _____
4th band, tolerance in %: _____
Answer: ___________________

1st band: _____


2nd band: _____
3rd band: _____
4th band, tolerance in %: _____
Answer: ___________________

1st band: _____


2nd band: _____
3rd band: _____
4th band, tolerance in %: _____
Answer: ___________________

Lab work:
1 Calculate (nominal value by the color code) and Measure the resistance of the
resistors given to you and Fill the Table 1.
2 Calculate the % difference using the formula below:

No min alValue Measuredvalue


% Diff 100
No min alvalue

3 Is your measured value within the nominal range of tolerance, if no write your
comments in the remarks.

Table 1:

Nominal Nominal Computed Measured % Difference Remarks


Value Tolerance Range value Between (A) &
(A) (B) (B)

Equipments

Breadboard:
What is a breadboard?
The bread board has many strips of metal (copper usually) which run
underneath the board. The metal strips are laid out as shown below.
These strips connect the holes on the top of the board. This makes it
easy to connect components together to build circuits. The holes are
made so that they will hold the component in place. Each hole is
connected to one of the metal strips running underneath the board. Each wire forms a node.
A node is a point in a circuit where two components are connected. Connections between
different components are formed by putting their legs in a common node. On the bread
board, a node is the row of holes that are connected by the strip of metal underneath.

Use of Breadboard
A breadboard is used to make up temporary circuits for testing or to try out an idea. No
soldering is required so it is easy to change connections and replace components.

Connections on Breadboards
Breadboards have many tiny sockets (called 'holes') arranged on a 0.1" grid. The leads of
most components can be pushed straight into the holes. ICs are inserted across the central
gap with their notch or dot to the left. Wire links can be made with single-core plastic-
coated wire of 0.6mm diameter (the standard size). Stranded wire is not suitable because it
will crumple when pushed into a hole and it may damage the board if strands break off.
The diagram shows how the breadboard holes are connected. The top and bottom rows are
linked horizontally all the way across. The other holes are linked vertically in blocks of 5
with no link across the centre. However a jumper (as shown by the green wire) can connect
the windows of horizontally short rows.

Bread board Digital Multi-meters

Digital multimeter
There are three models of digital multi meters (DMM) in the Lab. These are: Extech-
Multiview 110, Extech True RMS Multimeter- 430, and GW Multimeter-GDM354A

As their name implies, multi-meters can measure voltage, current and resistance. Some
multi-meters measure additional electrical parameters. The switch settings that you select
will define the function of the instrument at any time. The proper use of a DMM requires
knowing how to insert the meter into the circuit to make the measurement without altering
the basic parameters of the circuit. The function and use of each instrument is explained
briefly below. You can consult the instrument manuals for more details.

Voltage, Current and Resistance measurements using Multimeter

DMM as a Voltmeter:

The difference in electric potential (voltage) between any two nodes in a circuit is
measured by connecting the probes of the voltmeter to the two nodes in the circuit.
Note that this places the voltmeter in parallel with that portion of the circuit
between the measurement points as shown in the figure below. Because the
voltmeter is placed in parallel with the circuit element, you do not need to physically
alter your circuit in order to measure voltage.

An ideal voltmeter would have an infinite resistance so that no current is conducted


through it. Thus, it would not alter the voltages at the nodes to which the voltmeter
is connected.

In reality voltmeters are never ideal, but the input impedance (or internal resistance)
is so high that the meter functions in a nearly ideal manner.
An AC voltmeter generally measures and displays the RMS value of the time-varying
component of the voltage. This DMM provides a true RMS value (including harmonics
up to 50 kHz).

When used in DC, all voltmeters are designed to give a positive reading whenever
the red probe is placed on a potential higher than that of black probe.

Steps:
To measure voltage, select the V mode
To measure voltage across an element connect the voltmeter in parallel
For correct polarities make sure that the Red probe is connected to the positive terminal
(current entering terminal) and black probe to the negative terminal (current leaving
terminal)

Task 2: Try these circuits yourself in the Lab!

Example A: Example B:

Voltmeter connections to measure electric potential

Result: V= Result: V=

DMM as a Ammeter:

Ammeters measure the flow of charge through a branch of a circuit.

The meter must be inserted into the current stream, in series with the component or
circuit through which the current is flowing. Figure 2 illustrates this.

An ideal ammeter would have zero resistance so that no voltage is developed


(dropped) across it when the current flows through it. Thus, according to KVL, this
would not affect the loop currents in the circuit being measured.

A real ammeter has a small resistance that, sometimes, affects measurement.

An AC ammeter generally measures and displays the RMS value of the time-varying
component of the current.
Steps:
To measure current, select the A mode
To measure current through a particular loop of your circuit, connect the ammeter
in series with the other elements in the circuit loop by physically modifying your
circuit in the following way:
1. Create a gap in the segment where you want to measure the current.
2. Reconnect the gap using your ammeter as a jumper wire

Task 3: Try these circuits yourself in the Lab!

Example A: Example B:

Ammeter connections to measure current

Result: Current = Result: Current=

Note:
NEVER connect an ammeter directly across a voltage source the low resistance
of the ammeter will act as a short circuit causing a large current to flow, damaging
the meter.

DMM as a Ohmmeter:

An ohmmeter measures the net resistance of all components connected between its
two probes.
The ohmmeter works by forcing a small, known, and steady current to flow through
the measurement probes and the element being measured. The voltage developed
between the nodes connected to the ohmmeter is sensed, and (per Ohm's Law) the
equivalent resistance, V/I, is displayed.

When measuring the resistance of any circuit element, that element or elements
must be isolated from the rest of the circuit, i.e., isolated from any component that
can alter the small current delivered to the circuit by the meter or alter the voltage
developed across the element of interest.

Note:
ALWAYS ISOLATE THE RESISTANCE TO BE MEASURED: You cannot measure the
resistance of a resistor while it is in a powered circuit this may damage the ohmmeter.

Steps:
To measure resistance, select the ohms mode.
Isolate the element whose resistance is to be measured and place ohmmeter leads across
it. It is not OK to use your fingers to do this- Try it out!

Task 4: Try these circuits yourself in the Lab!

Part A: Measurement of a standard resistor


Use the multimeter to measure the resistance provided by the instructor.
Result: R=

Note:
It is not OK to use your fingers to do this Why??
Check it by doing the Lab-work given below and you will know for yourself!

Part B: Measuring the Resistance of Your Body


1 Holding one probe between the thumb and forefinger of each hand, measure the resistance
of your body between your hands. Squeeze the probes tightly so that good contact is
established. Record the value of your body's resistance.

Note: Details of other equipments like the Oscilloscope and the Function Generator
are included in the Reference Manual.

Each student is required to submit a report for this lab.


The report should be formal with all the schematics and results.