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KATARMAL DARSHAN J. 160153106013

KOTHARI MEET M. 160153106014

MANDALI SUMIT J. 160153106015

MATIYA KAMLESH D. 160153106016

MEHTA HET S. 160153106017


1.1 History of concrete
The time period during which concrete was first invented depends on how one interprets the term
concrete. Ancient materials were crude cements made by crushing and burning gypsum or
limestone. Lime also refers to crushed, burned limestone. When sand and water were added to
these cements, they became mortar, which was a plaster-like material used to adhere stones to
each other. Over thousands of years, these materials were improved upon, combined with other
materials and, ultimately, morphed into modern concrete.
Todays concrete is made using Portland cement, coarse and fine aggregates of stone and sand,
and water. Admixtures are chemicals added to the concrete mix to control its setting properties
and are used primarily when placing concrete during environmental extremes, such as high or
low temperatures, windy conditions, etc.
The precursor to concrete was invented in about 1300 BC when Middle Eastern builders found
that when they coated the outsides of their pounded-clay fortresses and home walls with a thin,
damp coating of burned limestone, it reacted chemically with gases in the air to form a hard,
protective surface. This wasnt concrete, but it was the beginning of the development of cement.


Concrete is made up of three main ingredients: water, Portland cement, and aggregates. The ratio
of the ingredients changes the properties of the final product, which allows the engineer to design
concrete that meets their specific needs. Admixtures are added to adjust the concrete mixture for
specific performance criteria.

The water in the concrete mix should be clean and free of impurities. The amount of water
relative to the amount of cement changes how easily the concrete flows, but also affects the final
strength of the concrete. More water makes for easier flowing concrete, but also makes for lower
strength concrete upon curing.

Portland cement
Cement hardens when mixed with water, which binds all of the ingredients together. Portland
cement is the most common cement used and is composed of alumina, silica, lime, iron, and
gypsum. Small amounts of other ingredients are also included.

The majority of a concrete mixture is made up of both coarse and fine aggregates, which help
increase the strength of the concrete beyond what cement can provide on its own. Sand, gravel,
and crushed stone are used as aggregates. Recycled materials, including blast furnace slag, glass
(mostly for decorative purposes), and ground-up concrete are starting to be used as concrete aggregates.

Admixtures accomplish a variety of goals. This can be as simple as adding a pigment to color the
concrete. Other admixtures are used for faster curing times in cold weather, creating extremely
high-strength concrete, or for increasing the flow able nature of concrete without compromising
the strength. Unfortunately, admixtures can generate unwanted results such as poor adhesion of
finish-flooring. For this reason, many structural engineers and architects are hesitant to use
admixtures. We have an article that covers a number of different admixtures.

1.3 Advantages of concrete as construction material

Advantages of concrete. Among all the construction materials used in the world, concrete is
most widely used due to its unique advantages compared to other materials. 10 major advantages
of concrete are explained below.
1. Concrete is Economical
Compared to engineered cementitious materials used for construction, the production cost
of cement concrete is very low. Again, it is inexpensive and widely available around the globe
when compared to steel, polymers and other construction materials. Major ingredients of
concrete are water . All of these are readily available in local markets at low cost.
2. Concrete Hardens at Ambient Temperature
Concrete sets, hardens, gain its strength at regular room temperature or ambient temperature.
This is because cement is a low-temperature bonded inorganic material. Thus concrete can be
used irrespective of ambient weather conditions and optimized with admixtures if required.
3. Ability to be Cast into Shape
Fresh concrete is flowable and is in liquid state. Concrete can be hence poured into various
formworks or shutteringconfigurations to form desired shapes and sizes at construction site.
Concrete can be cast into complex shapes and configurations by adjusting the mix.
4. Energy Efficiency in Production
The amount of energy required for production of concrete is low compared with steel. For plain
cement concrete only 450750 kWh/ton energy is required and that of reinforced concrete is
8003200 kWh/ton. Production of structural steel demands 8000 kWh/ton or more to make
which is almost 3-10 times the energy consumption.
5. Excellent Water Resistance Characteristics
Though chemical in water can induce corrosion in concrete and reinforced concrete. Compared
to wood and steel,concrete can withstand in water without serious deterioration. Due to this
property, it is ideal to underwater and submerged applications like for building structures,
pipelines, dams, canals, linings and waterfront structures Pure water is not deleterious to concrete
and not even to reinforced concrete, chemicals dissolved in water such as sulfates,chlorides and
carbon dioxide causes corrosion.
6. High-temperature resistance
Concrete can withstand high temperatures better than wood and steel. Calcium silicate hydrate,
C-S-H, which is the main binder in concrete can withstand until 910 deg C. Concrete is a bad
conductor of heat it can store considerable amount of heat from the environment. Concrete can
withstand heat for 26 hours enabling sufficient time for rescue operations in case of fire. It is
used to fireproof steel and used in high temperature and blast applications
7. Ability to Consume and Recycle Waste
Many industrial wastes can be recycled as a substitute for cement or aggregate. This includes fly
ash, slag also known as GGBFS or ground granulated blast-furnaces slag, waste glass, and even
ground vehicle tires in concrete. Thus concrete production can significantly reduce
environmental impacts due to industrial waste. Using these wastes improves theproperties of
concrete as well thus quality of the structure is not compromised.
8. Low or Zero Maintenance Required
Concrete structures do not require coating or painting for regular applications as protection
for weathering compared to steel or wooden structures where it is inevitable. Coating are to be
replaced and redone on a routine basis making the maintenance cost for concrete much lower
than that for steel or wood.
9. Multi-Mode Application
One of the major advantage of concrete is its ability to be used in different application
methodologies. Concrete is hand applied, poured, pumped, sprayed, grouted and also used for
advanced applications like shotcreting in tunnels.

1.4 Future trends of concrete

Ready-mix concrete
Ready-mix concrete is concrete that is manufactured in a factory or batching plant, according to
a set recipe, and then delivered to a work site by truck mounted intransit mixers. This results in
a precise mixture, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on
construction sites. The first ready-mix factory was built in the 1930s, but the industry did not
begin to expand significantly until the 1960s, and it has continued to grow since then.
Ready-mix concrete is often preferred over on-site concrete mixing because of the precision of
the mixture and reduced work site confusion.
Ready-mix concrete, or RMC as it is popularly called, refers to concrete that is specifically
manufactured for delivery to the customer's construction site in a freshly mixed and plastic or
unhardened state. Concrete itself is a mixture of Portland cement, water and aggregates
comprising sand and gravel or crushed stone. Ready-mix concrete is bought and sold by volume
- usually expressed in cubic meters (cubic yards in the US).
Ready-mix concrete is manufactured under controlled operations and transported and placed at
site using sophisticated equipment and methods

Self-Compacting Concrete

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a flowing concrete mixture that is able to consolidate under
its own weight. The highly fluid nature of SCC makes it suitable for placing in difficult
conditions and in sections with congested reinforcement. Use of SCC can also help minimize
hearing-related damages on the worksite that are induced by vibration of concrete. Another
advantage of SCC is that the time required to place large sections is considerably reduced.

When the construction industry in Japan experienced a decline in the availability of skilled
labour in the 1980s, a need was felt for a concrete that could overcome the problems of defective
workmanship. This led to the development of self-compacting concrete, primarily through the
work by Okamura1. A committee was formed to study the properties of self-compacting
concrete, including a fundamental investigation on workability of concrete, which was carried
out by Ozawa et al2. at the University of Tokyo. The first usable version of self-compacting
concrete was completed in 1988 and was named High Performance Concrete, and later
proposed as Self Compacting High Performance Concrete.

In Japan, the volume of SCC in construction has risen steadily over the years3. Data indicate that
the share of application of SCC in precast concrete industry is more than three times higher than
that in the ready-mixed concrete industry. This is attributable to the higher cost of SCC. The
estimated average price of SCC supplied by the RMC industry in Japan was 1.5 times that of the
conventional concrete in the year 2002. Research studies in Japan are also promoting new types
of applications with SCC, such as in lattice type structures, casting without pump, and tunnel

Fly ash concrete

Fly Ash in Concrete, by-product of the combustion of pulverized coal, electric power generation
plants, pulverized coal, combustion chamber, mineral impurities of clay, shale, feldspars, exhaust
gases cool, fused materials, spherical glassy particles, hollow cenospheres, plerospheres, Type I
Portland Cement, exhaust gases, electrostatic precipitators, bag filters, silicate glass, silica,
alumina, iron, calcium, ASTM C 618 Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash, ASTM C 618,
Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan, Mineral Admixture in Concrete, Class F Fly Ash, Class C
Fly Ash, anthracite coal, bituminous coal, pozzolanic, pozzolanic properties, subbituminous coal,
sub-bituminous coal, ready mixed concrete, PCA 2000, cementitious materials, Fly Ash is a
Pozzolan, aluminosiliceous material,