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Grading

Product Rule for Derivatives

In Calculus and its applications we often encounter functions that are expressed as

the product of two other functions, like the following examples:

h(x)=xex=(x)(ex)

h(x)=x2sinx=(x2)(sinx)

h(x)=ex2cos2x=(ex2)(cos2x)

In each of these examples, the values of the function h can be written in the form

h(x)=f(x)g(x)

for functions f(x) and g(x). If we know the derivative of f(x) and g(x), the Product

Rule provides a formula for the derivative of h(x)=f(x)g(x):

Examples:

If h(x)=xex then

h (x) = (x) ex+x(ex)

= ex+xe^x

If h(x)=x^2sinx then

h (x) = (x^2) sinx+(x^2)(sinx)

=2xsinx+x^2cosx

Reflection:

The product rule for finding derivatives was quite easy. The concept is pretty much

understandable and easy to comprehend with. Although some exercises are hard to

answer, the lesson was quite enjoyable as well.

functions f(x) and g(x).

How is the derivative of h(x) related to f(x), g(x), and their derivatives?

Quotient Rule

[f(x)g(x)] =g(x)f (x)f(x)g (x)

[g(x)]^2

Examples

If f(x)=2x+1, then

x-3

f (x) = (x-3)d/dx[2x+1]-(2x-1)d/dx[x-3]

[x-3]^2

= (x-3)(2)-(2x-1)(1)

[x-3]^2

= 7__

[x-3]^2

Reflection:

Its a bit difficult compared to the product rule, but if you analyze the concept, you

will have no trouble understanding the lesson.

The following problems require the use of the chain rule. The chain rule is a rule for

differentiating compositions of functions. In the following discussion and solutions

are average. A few are somewhat challenging. The chain rule states formally that

.

However, we rarely use this formal approach when applying the chain rule to

specific problems. Instead, we invoke an intuitive approach. The chain rule tells us

to first differentiate the outer layer, leaving the inner layer unchanged (the

term f'( g(x) ) ) , then differentiate the inner layer (the term g'(x) ) . This process will

become clearer as you do the problems. In most cases, final answers are given in

the most simplified form.

Example:

= 2 (3x+1) (3)

= 6 (3x+1)

Reflection:

When we first took part in this lesson, its a bit confusing for me. But when I noticed

the pattern of the chain rule. It was then easy for me to execute this rule.

Formulas and examples of the derivatives of exponential functions, in calculus, are

presented. Several examples, with detailed solutions, involving products, sums and

quotients of exponential functions are examined.

But first, these are the formulas for finding the derivatives of exponential functions:

d/dx(a^u)= a^u ln a du/dx d/dx(e^u)= e^u

du/dx

Example:

Example 1: Find the derivative of f(x) = 3 x + 3x 2

Let g(x) = 3 x and h(x) = 3x 2, function f is the sum of functions g and h: f(x) =

g(x) + h(x). Use the sum rule, f '(x) = g '(x) + h '(x), to find the derivative of

function f

f '(x) = 3 x ln 3 + 6x

Example 2: Find the derivative of f(x) = e x / ( 1 + x )

Let g(x) = e x and h(x) = 1 + x, function f is the quotient of functions g and h:

f(x) = g(x) / h(x). Hence we use the quotient rule, f '(x) = [ h(x) g '(x) - g(x) h

'(x) ] / h(x) 2, to find the derivative of function f.

g '(x) = e x

h '(x) = 1

= [ (1 + x)(e x) - (e x)(1) ] / (1 + x) 2

Multiply factors in the numerator and simplify

f '(x) = x e x / (1 + x) 2

Reflection:

To be honest, I didnt understand the lesson at first because I was already used to

Sir Sebials way of teaching. Sir Mag-usara has a different approach to teaching, but

Ive managed to keep up with this lesson by reviewing.

First, let's look at a graph of the log function with base e, that is:

f(x) = loge(x) (usually written "ln x").

The tangent at x = 2 is included on the graph.

ln x at \displaystyle{x}={2}x=2 is \displaystyle\frac{1}{{2}}21. (We can observe

this from the graph, by looking at the ratio rise/run).

If we did many more examples, we could conclude that the derivative of the

logarithm function y = ln x is

Dy/dx= 1/x

Note 1: Actually, this result comes from first principles.

Note 2: We are using logarithms with base e. If you need a reminder about log

functions, check out Log base e from before.

Here are the formulas for finding the derivatives of logarithmic function:

1) d/dx(lnu)= du/dx

u

Example:

Find the derivative of

y = ln x2

the answer is:

d/dx(lnx^2)=2x

x2

u

Example:

Find the derivative of

y=log5(5x+2)^1/2

=log5 e 5/2(5x+2)^-1/2

(5x+2)^1/2

=log5 e 5(5x+2)^1/2

2(5x+2)^1/2

y= 5log5e

2(5x+2)

3) d/dx(log10^u)=log10 e du/dx

u

Example:

Find the derivative of

y=log10(5x+2)^1/2

=log10 e 5/2(5x+2)^-1/2

(5x+2)^1/2

=log10 e 5(5x+2)^1/2

2(5x+2)^1/2

y= 5log10e

2(5x+2)

Reflection:

I understood this lesson better compared to exponential functions. Maybe because I

started to get a hang on Sir Mag-usaras teaching style.

Trigonometric functions are useful in our practical lives in diverse areas such as

astronomy, physics, surveying, carpentry etc. How can we find the derivatives of

the trigonometric functions?

Here are the formulas to be used in finding the derivatives of trigonometric

functions:

d/dx (sin u)=cos u du/dx d/dx (cot u)= -csc^2 u du/dx

d/dx (cos u)= -sin u du/dx d/dx (sec u)= sec u tan u du/dx

d/dx (tan u)= sec^2 u du/dx d/dx (csc u)= -csc u cot u du/dx

Examples:

d/dx(sin 2x)= cos 2x d/dx(2x) d/dx(cot 5x)= -csc^2 5x d/dx(5x)

= 2cos2x = -5csc^25x

d/dx(cos 2x)= -sin 2x d/dx(2x) d/dx(sec 5x)= sec 5x tan 5x d/dx(5x)

= -2sin2x = 5sec 5x tan

5x

d/dx (tan 2x)= sec^2 2x d/dx(2x) d/dx(csc 5x)= -csc 5x cot 5x d/dx(5x)

= 2sec^22x = -5csc 5x cot 5x

Reflection:

Its a bit confusing compared to the last lessons, maybe because of the different

signs in each formula, and the insides of the formulas are nearly the same. But with

more practice given to this lesson I managed to catch up the lesson as well.

Here are the formulas for the Inverse Trigonometric Functions:

1 - Derivative of arcsin x.

The derivative of f(x) = arcsin x is given by

2 - Derivative of arccos x.

The derivative of f(x) = arccos x is given by

3 - Derivative of arctan x.

The derivative of f(x) = arctan x is given by

f '(x) = 1 / (1 + x 2) . du/dx

4 - Derivative of arccot x.

The derivative of f(x) = arccot x is given by

f '(x) = - 1 / (1 + x 2) . du/dx

5 - Derivative of arcsec x.

The derivative of f(x) = arcsec x tan x is given by

6 - Derivative of arccsc x.

The derivative of f(x) = arccsc x is given by

Example 1: Find the derivative of f(x) = x arcsin x

Solution to Example 1:

functions h and g: f(x) = h(x) g(x). Hence we use the product rule, f '(x) =

h(x) g '(x) + g(x) h '(x), to differentiate function f as follows

Solution to Example 2:

Let g(x) = arctan x and h(x) = x 2, function f may be considered as the sum of

functions g and h: f(x) = g(x) + h(x). Hence we use the sum rule, f '(x) = g

'(x) + h '(x), to differentiate function f as follows

f '(x) = 1 / (1 + x 2) + 2x = (2x 3 + 2x + 1) / (1 + x 2)

Reflection:

In all our lessons in 3rd Grading, I thought this lesson was the most difficult. The

process was a little bit confusing. But nevertheless, I understood the lesson well

enough to have a decent score.

Here are the formulas for finding the derivative of hyperbolic functions:

d/dx (sin h u)= cos h u . du/dx d/dx (cot h u)= -csc^2 h u. du/dx

d/dx (cos h u)= sin h u. du/dx d/dx (sec h u)= -sec h u tan h u . du/dx

d/dx (tan h u)= sec^2 h u. du/dx d/ dx (csc h u)= -csc h u cot h u . du/dx

Example 1: Find the derivative of f(x) = sinh (x 2)

Solution to Example 1:

Let u = x 2 and y = sinh u and use the chain rule to find the

derivative of the given function f as follows.

f '(x) = (dy / du) (du / dx)

dy / du = cosh u, see formula above, and du / dx = 2 x

f '(x) = 2 x cosh u = 2 x cosh (x 2)

Substitute u = x 2 in f '(x) to obtain

f '(x) = 2 x cosh (x 2)

Solution to Example 2:

Let g(x) = 2 sinh x and h(x) = 4 cosh x, function f is the sum of functions g

and h: f(x) = g(x) + h(x). Use the sum rule, f '(x) = g '(x) + h '(x), to find the

derivative of function f

Example 3: Find the derivative of f(x) = cosh x / sinh (x 2)

Solution to Example 3:

Let g(x) = cosh x and h(x) = sinh x 2, function f is the quotient of functions g

and h: f(x) = g(x) / h(x). Hence we use the quotient rule, f '(x) = [ h(x) g '(x) -

g(x) h '(x) ] / h(x) 2, to find the derivative of function f.

g '(x) = sinh x

Reflection:

Since it was nearly the same as finding the derivative of trigonometric

functions, I can now easily solve problems regarding this lesson. Although the

difference in signs between trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions, is

sometimes confusing as well.

Implicit Differentiation

- Sometime functions are given not in the form of y=f(x) but in a more

complicated form in which it is difficult or impossible to express y

explicitly in terms of x. Such functions are called implicit functions.

Example:

x^2+y^2-4x+5y-8=O

2x+ 2y dy/dx-4+5 dy/dx-0=0

2y dy/dx+5 dy/dx=-2x+4

Dy/dx (2y+5) = -2x+4

2y+5 2y+5

Dy/dx= -2x+4

2y+5

As you can see from our example above, you derive all the components existing in

the functions. But there is a twist, you leave dy/dx to the components in the

function that doesnt have the x value, since you only derive with respect to x

(except constant values) .if with respect to y, do the vice versa. After that, we

undergo the simplification of the derivatives that youve got from the function. So

we separate the ones with the dy/dx from the ones with none. Then we factor out

the dy/dx from the ones with this form. And lastly, divide both side of the with the

factored variables to find dy/dx

Reflection:

Arguably one of the easiest lessons in 3rd Grading. It was more on simple analysis of

the functions given. To be honest, It was too easy compared to the others. So I

didnt have much trouble in understanding the concept of this lesson.

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