PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DEL ECUADOR

FACULTAD DE COMUNICACIÓN, LINGÜÍSTICA Y LITERATURA

ESCUELA DE LINGÜÍSTICA

COMMUNICATION I

FINAL PAPER

WHY IS NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION A CRUCIAL FACTOR AMONG

ADOLESCENTS?

JEFFERSON IMBAQUINGO - DANIELA PEREZ MORA

QUITO, 31st JULY, 2017

Abstract

5. regulating. 3. substituting. Key words: 1. complementing. énfasis y engaño. complementación. De igual manera el estudio tratará de descubrir si el género influye al momento de decodificar el mensaje. Message: According to Cambridge Dictionary. Introduction: . such as gestures and facial expressions. etc). sustitución. Resumen El lenguaje no verbal es una parte fundamental en la comunicación al transmitir mensajes llenos de significados para luego ser decodificados convencionalmente. Conventional: According to Macmillan Dictionary. interlocutor is the person who takes part in a dialogue or conversation. El lenguaje no verbal obedece ciertas funciones como de repetición. Additionally. Interlocutor: According to Oxford Dictionary. Nonverbal communication: those aspects of communication. Kinesics: The study of the way in which certain body movements and gestures serve as a form of nonverbal communication. that do not involve verbal communication but which may include nonverbal aspects of speech itself (accent. message is a short piece of written or spoken information that is given or sent to someone. tone of voice. ( Collins Dictionary) [online] 2. Este estudio intenta descubrir si el lenguaje no verbal es lo suficientemente claro para interpretar y transmitir el mismo mensaje a todos. I. regulación. accenting and deceiving.Nonverbal language is an essential part of communication process as it can carry meaningful messages and be decoded conventionally. someone who is conventional follows the usual and accepted opinions and ways of behaving. (Oxford Dictionary) 4. especially without questioning them. speed of speaking. This study attempts to discover if non verbal language is clear enough to be interpreted and convey the same message to everyone. Nonverbal language abides by certain functions such as repeating. this study alse aims to discover if there is gender is a factor that influences the message.

Communication is a very important tool among that human beings use in order to interact with other and so to build up relationships and the society we currently have. According to Saussure. To communicate we use various resources from signs to complex utterances. Nevertheless this is not the case of non-verbal language which has not been studied as exhaustively as its counterpart verbal language.They purposed six functions: 1 Gascoigne. nonverbal language not only account for body language. Speech is a unique feature of our civilization and we have utilized it. Literature Review Non-verbal language has an obscure history as there are almost no records of it formally written. and currently languages have been sorted into formal multiple linguistic families. Non verbal language is fully composed of signs that we manage to interpret. Nonverbal language is a conventional system that have been established according to the society and culture. According to Larry Barker and Deborah Barker (1993). Actually it is easier to track verbal language. He establishes that signs are conventional as the true meaning of it can be only assigned by its the users. but the functions of it make the method to convey message nonverbally border. and they classify them in functions. these studies can date back to 3000 BC1. The purpose of this investigation is to discover how crucial and important is non-verbal language to transmit ideas and to discover if gender is a factor that can alter the message. semiotics is the study of the life of sign in society and how they relate with the everyday usage. The field of study this is namely called non-verbal language. which he called Semiotics. humans also make use of other resources that convey a lot without uttering a word. One reason of this might be the high degree of conventionality. II. Ferdinand de Saussure was the pioneer in the formal study of signs. History of Language . (2001). Nevertheless.

from https://www.d. 6. 3. Deceiving: When an speakes is declaring something that is not true. 2 Paul Ekman Group. not only his/her spoken words express such falsehood. in 1968. paralanguage. complete. smell and taste and environmental factor: Facial expressions It is probably the most obvious vehicle for nonverbal language as it is constantly emitting information to our environment.). they resort to the use of accenting gestures. 2Supporting Darwin's hypothesis. fear. touching. 4. we repeat the message with its nonverbal equivalent. Accenting: When the interlocutors feel the necessity to emphasize their spoken words. 1. Barker and Deborah A. 2017. kinesics and body language. traveled to Papua New Guinea to study the nonverbal behavior of the Fore people who were a grupo isolated since Stone Age. In fact. Repeating: When we transmit a message verbally. anger. Complementing: We utilize nonverbal language to complement. 5. eye behaviour. Retrieved July 29. He came to the conclusion that human nonverbal behavior is universal as he could identify seven emotions that can discerned universally: happiness. proxemics. 2. personal appearance and clothing.com/paul-ekman/ . Regulating: This helps the interlocutors keep with the conversation flowing through turn-taking system. Barker proposed various types of nonverbal behaviour such as facial expressions. we make nonverbal language take place for words. (n. Charles Darwin along his theory about universal behaviour deduced that many of human's facial expressions come from lower animals. disgust. but also his/her nonverbal language supply hints. Paul Ekman. Substituting: When hearing or speaking is impossible.paulekman. or accent a verbal language. contempt and surprise. Larry L. sadness.

They classify their functions as the following: 1. affect displays and body movement. illustrators. Barker and Deborah A. regulate intentions 3. Later on Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen detailed five specific body expressions: Emblems: These signs. even though they have no relationship with the ongoing conversation. Barker and Deborah A. defensiveness. Regulators: This signs such as gazes. 3 Proxemics 3 Larry L. reactions and attitudes. raised eyebrows help regulate verbal communication as they provide a way for a smooth transitions in conversations (speaking roles). provide information 2. Barker (1993) . regulators. express intimacy 5. mainly gestures. nods. Barker affirms eye behaviors are associated with definite moods. These gestures and movements can express openness and honesty or. . are commonly known and easy to perceive because they transmit messages that are not related to the ongoing conversation. Body movement: Gestures and movements can convey meaningful messages regarding our feelings. Affect displays: They are nonverbal messages that convey our emotional states. Body movements have to do with our spatial notion within society and how someone is expected to react in certain situation. on the contrary. He argued that this type of language can be learnt just like any other oral language. exercise social control 4.Eye Behavior Larry L. facilitate goal achievement Kinesics This term was coined by Ray Birdwhistell and it refers to the study of the body movement.

tone of voice and body language as in impact on our interlocutors while we are speaking. gestures and posture. People like family and close friends have access to this zone. etc. However. 38% through vocal elements (suprasegmental features) and 55% through nonverbal elements such as facial expressions. It goes from 4 ft to 12 ft. . He establishes the 7%-38%-55% Rule. averted glances etc. business people or even two people meeting for the first time would maintain during interaction. Social distance: This is the adequate distance that two acquaintances. rallies. If focuses on how we react to space around us. According to Hall. this is the appropriate distance to interact with friends or even teachers. This rules establishes that words. other mechanisms activate to counter such closeness such as silence. how we use that space and how our use of space communicates certain information. In 1966 Edward T Hall specified four distance zones which are commonly observed: Intimate distance: This contact goes from literal touching to 18´´. III.It is the study of spatial factors such as our relationship with our environment depending on our positions inside of it. He concluded that most of the communications process is carried out through nonverbal language. Public distance: This type of interaction goes from 12’ to 25’ and is widely used in formal address such as lectures. when strangers trespass this limit. Personal distance: This zone goes from 18´´ ‘to 4 ft. Referential Professor Arthur Mehrabian is recognized for his arguments on Relative Importance of Verbal and Nonverbal messages. He found that 7% of any transmitted message is through words.

The photographs were selected from an American sitcom. iCarly.Additionally in 1999 Peter A. As each picture was assigned in each category. The photographs were chosen depending on what nonverbal language aspect was wanted to be analyzed. Conclusions and recommendations The results that this study delivers were tabulated qualitatively and quantitatively. the study was aimed to discover if there was any distinction between men and women. . he says. the aim of the study is to see if the participants could tell what message were the people in each scene were conveying. Furthermore. The questionnaire consists of six questions which showed two different photographs that depicted two different situations situations each one. Methodology We applied questionnaires to 20 people: 10 women and 10 men. Andersen argued that non verbal language evolved so much earlier than verbal language. nonverbal language is universally accepted and interpreted while verbal language is conventional. V. as it is biologically enrooted. Furthermore. and that might be the reason why non verbal language is processed by the earlier evolved parts of our brains during childhood. IV.

As this graphics shows. on the other hand. as the questionnaire was applied to an equal number of men and women. 81% of women were more accurate when they selected an answer. However. only 74% of men chose the right answer. Also. but also in social background. For further studies concerning this topic. a distinction in gender appears. This proves that non verbal language plays a crucial role to decipher messages that are not expressed verbally because more than the half of the universe chose the right answer. but only 23% failed in their choice. as this study made use of an American sitcom and the participants were . It is also important to bear in mind that this 23% of participant chose the wrong answer as they interpreted the picture differently. had less accuracy when interpreting non verbal language. Additionally to this study. Men. These factors aforementioned may deliver different results from the ones of this study. The results aforementioned show that women seem to be more intuitive when it comes to understanding nonverbal language. 77% of the participants chose the right situation depicted in the photograph. age and even origin. whereas 23% of the participants chose the incorrect situation. we suggest classifying the universe of participants not only in gender.As the graphic shows. still basing on nonverbal language. a distinction in gender was found.

. i. the results are based on a universality of nonverbal language. regardless where participant or the nonverbal language is from.g.Ecuadorian. that the source of nonverbal language should be from the same culture as participants in order to avoid any cross cultural interference. However. for further studies the same cultural context should be applied to the participants.

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