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University Duisburg Essen

Bismarckstrae 81, 47057 Duisburg

Germany

tobias.neumann@uni-due.de

Abstract: The grid integration of renewable energies is more and more influencing the short circuit

capacity (SCC) of power systems all over the world. The behavior of renewable energy sources, e.g.

wind or solar energy, is different from that of classical synchronous generators during symmetrical or

unsymmetrical short circuits. The response of renewable energy generation units to short circuits is more

or less controllable by the power electronics used in the converter system and the corresponding control

algorithms. These differences have to be taken into account during planning grid extensions by the power

system operator and designing protective or security functions for the network and its components.

In this paper the authors describe the short circuit current contribution of a photovoltaic power plant. For

a 3 MW photovoltaic system equipped with several generation units and connected to a medium voltage

power system, three different short circuit scenarios (single-line-to-ground, line-to-line and three-phase

faults) and the corresponding short circuit current contribution of the power plant were calculated and the

results illustrated and discussed.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, Inverter, Fault Ride Through, Control, Short Circuit Current, Unbalanced Faults

1. INTRODUCTION

of a three-phase photovoltaic central inverter system is

The short circuit current in power systems is still dominated derived in detail. In chapter four the structure of the test

by classical synchronous generators of conventional large power system is illustrated and explained and the fault

scale coal or nuclear power plants. As a result of the ever- scenarios are introduced. Chapter 5 shows the EMT

increasing share of renewable energy sources the short circuit simulation results for the three case studies. Hereby the

current in the future will differ from the status quo. The fast different grid faults (single-line-to-ground fault, two-phase

control of the power electronics in wind and photovoltaic fault and three-phase fault) and the response of the PV power

power conversion systems has the capability to control the plant are described, and this is followed by some concluding

current injection during balanced as well as unbalanced grid remarks.

faults.

2. TECHNICAL REGULATIONS

Large scale photovoltaic (PV) systems are one part of the

efforts to increase the share of renewable energy sources in The past few years saw the publication of grid codes spelling

the energy mix. Different configurations are available to feed out new requirements for generation units in many countries.

in power to the grid. In Germany the majority of existing The German grid code distinguishes between conventional

photovoltaic systems are installed in households and are generation units with directly connected synchronous

connected to the low voltage level with string or multi string generators and renewable energy units like wind power, PV

inverters. By contrast large scale PV units are connected to or biomass. The regulations contain requirements concerning

the medium or even to the high voltage network using central the active and reactive power control, the power quality, the

inverters. As a consequence large scale PV systems affect the protective/security functions and the behaviour during grid

power flow in the interconnected network and so they have to disturbances. In this chapter the focus is on the requirements

fulfil certain requirements regarding their electrical properties regarding the dynamic behaviour during grid disturbances.

which are usually described in grid codes.

The grid code stipulates that generation units should stay

In this paper the authors describe the behavior of a connected to the power system during disturbances.

photovoltaic power plant equipped with central inverters Additionally, the reactive current control of the generation

during different types of short circuits. The next chapter unit can be used to support the grid voltage in case of short

explains the currently applicable performance requirements term voltage drop or increase.

for renewable energy sources in Germany regarding the

Fig. 1 shows the Fault Ride-Through (FRT) requirements in 3. CONTROL OF A THREE-PHASE INVERTER

the German grid code which currently forms the basis for

testing. It is required that the unit stays connected to the Three-phase PV central inverters usually consist of an IGBT-

power system for 150 ms in case of a voltage dip down to 0 based two-level inverter. Fig. 3 shows the basic configuration

p.u. (so called Zero Voltage Ride-Through). of a two-level inverter system. The inverter and its control are

mainly responsible for the electrical behaviour of the unit.

Line-To-Line Functionalities which need to be performed by the inverter

Voltage [p.u.] are the Maximum Power Point Tracking and the decoupled

control of active and reactive current and thus active and

1 reactive power. In the following subchapter a classical two-

0.9 dimensional current control aligned to the grid voltage for the

0.75 positive sequence with an outer (superordinate) DC voltage

controller is described. Since there are no requirements for

No Tripping the negative sequence current the target of the control is to

0.5 suppress the negative sequence current totally.

Tripping is allowed under

0.25 definite circumstances

requires the support of grid voltage during fault by the

generation units. Fig. 2 describes the required behaviour

during voltage drop or increase. In case of overvoltage the

unit has to inject inductive reactive current while during

voltage drops the unit has to feed in capacitive reactive Fig. 3. Principle arrangement of a PV inverter

current. The voltage U is defined as the difference between

the pre-fault voltage and the voltage during the fault. The From the loop equation for the voltages in the circuit

voltage control may include a dead band of 0.1 p.u. and has described in Fig. 3 the follows equation (1).

adjustable range for the gain ranging from 0...10 p.u. with a

default value of 2 p.u. There are no requirements regarding ug,L1 ig,L1 uLSC,L1

the positive sequence active current, implying that the active d

u

g,L2 = L ig,L2 + uLSC,L2 (1)

current can differ from zero to its nominal value taking the u d t i u

g,L3 g,L3 LSC,L3

current limitation of the generation unit into account. The

requirements for symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are The quantities in any 3-phase system (voltages, currents or

related to the positive sequence of the current. Concerning flux) can be described by a space vector, consisting of two

the negative sequence current injection there are no orthogonal components. Therefore the well-known Clarke

requirements. Hence the negative sequence current is usually transformation converts the abc-components into the alpha,

suppressed to zero. beta-components. In equation (2) the space vector of the

Required positive sequence

positive sequence grid voltage is illustrated exemplarily.

reactive current deviation I Q ,+ 0

u g,+ = u g,,+ + ju g,,+ (2)

[p.u.]

Dead band

1 Rewriting equation (1) in complex form, the following

inductive equation (3) for the positive sequence with the index + can be

-- = Transmission

Code 2007 0.5 derived, where the reference frame is chosen arbitrarily with

k

-- = SDL Wind 2009

Voltage drop

the notation 0 and transformed into the per-unit system.

or increase U +

0 d 0 0

-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 [p.u.] u g,+ = l i g,+ + u LSC,+ (3)

dt

1

capacitive -0.5 U + = 1 + Ts U + U +

The reference frame of the control system to be described is

I Q aligned to the grid voltage. The phase angle of this voltage g

Gain: k =

1 U is calculated from the space vector in equation (4).

k = 0 10 p.u.

u

g = arctan g,,+ (4)

Fig. 2. Dynamic voltage control characteristic u

g,,+

The calculated phase angle can be used to transform the

space vector in a stationary reference frame into a space

ucur,+ 1 uref,+ u+ k ig,q_ref_dyn,+ ig,q_ref,+

vector where the reference frame rotates synchronously with

1 + Ts

the grid voltage. The transformation is illustrated in equations

(5) where the notation ug describes the reference frame

ucur,+ ig,q_ref_sta,+

rotating with the phase angle g.

u u u 0 0 j g

u g,+g = u g,d,+g + ju g,q,+g = (u g,,+ + jug,,+ )e (5) Fig. 5. Block diagram of the dynamic voltage control

In equation (6) and (7) the equation (3) is transformed in a In order to suppress the negative sequence current in

reference frame aligned to the grid voltage. Here the unbalanced steady state or dynamic conditions the negative

orthogonal components are already separated into the direct sequence grid voltage has to be detected and separated

and quadrature axis components. 0 is the radian frequency quickly. The space vector of the negative sequence voltage is

of the grid voltage. rotating with the grid frequency in the opposite direction. The

negative sequence space vector is described by equation (10).

u

u dig,d,+g u u

ug,d,+g = l 0l ig,q,+g + uLSC,d,+

g

(6) 0

u g,- = u g,,- + ju g,,- (10)

dt

u

The entire space vector of the grid voltage consists of

u dig,q,+g u u

ug,q,+g = l + 0l ig,d,+g + uLSC,q,+

g

(7) positive and negative sequence components. Equation (11)

dt describes the entire space vector in a stationary reference

It follows from (6), (7) that the reference voltages of the frame consisting of the positive sequence space vector and

inverter can be described by the following equations (8) and the conjugate complex negative sequence space vector.

(9) including the two PI current controllers. 0 0 * 0 u *u

u g = u g,+ + u g,- = u g,+g e j(0t +u ) + u g,- g e- j(0t +u ) (11)

ug u 1 ug u u

uLSC,d,+ = ug,d,+g K P 1 + (ig,d_ref,+ ig,d,+g ) + 0l ig,q,+g (8) Finally the output reference voltage of the inverter consists of

Ts

the positive sequence reference inverter voltage introduced

by (8) and (9) and the conjugate complex negative sequence

ug u 1 ug u u

uLSC,q,+ = ug,q,+g K P 1 + (ig,q_ref,+ ig,q,+g ) 0l ig,d,+g (9) grid voltage (10) and can be written as

Ts

0 0 * 0 u *u

u LSC = u LSC,+ + u g,- = u LSC,+

g

e j(0t +u ) + u g,- g e - j(0t +u ) (12)

The corresponding block diagram of the inner positive

sequence current control loop of the inverter is given in Fig. The corresponding block diagram is introduced in Fig. 6 and

4. represents the merger of positive sequence inverter and

ug,d,+ conjugate complex negative sequence grid voltage.

j

ig,d_ref,+ 1 uLSC,d,+ uLSC,q,+ j

g

uLSC,,+

K P 1 + e g

Ts

ig,d,+

ug,,-

0l ug,,- uLSC,

0l

ig,q_ref,+ 1 uLSC,q,+ Fig. 6. Calculation of the reference inverter voltage

K P 1 +

Ts

ig,q,+

ug,q,+ The basic sketch of the complex phasors of a three-phase PV

inverter system is illustrated in Fig. 7.

ug

j 0

jl i g d

ug

current injection is calculated according to Fig. 5. In this u LSC

block diagram the actual positive sequence voltage is ug 0

ig ug,

compared to the pre-fault positive sequence voltage filtered g

by a PT1 element with time constant of roughly 60 seconds. 0

In the voltage control block the gain of the reactive current

u

j ig,q g ug, 0

u

injection and the dead band can be modified. The output is ig,d g

the dynamic positive sequence reactive current setpoint

which is added to the stationary reference value.

Fig. 7. Phasor diagram of the PV inverter system

4. PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT 5. SIMULATION RESULTS

The electrical behaviour of PV application basically depends The EMT type simulation is performed using the software

on the control of the inverter system. Large scale PV power Matlab/Simulink, and realistic controller settings for the

plants are equipped with a certain amount of central inverter inverters are assumed. The duration of each fault is 150 ms,

systems. In this case study a test PV power plant with a correlating with the standard fault clearance time in

nominal power of 3 MW equipped with 30 inverters and the Germany.

corresponding PV array was simulated. Each inverter has a

nominal power of 100 kW operating at the nominal voltage Fig. 9 illustrates the behaviour of the generation units during

of 270 V and a nominal current of 214 A. For connecting a single-line-to-ground fault at the medium voltage (MV) bus

these inverters from the low voltage (LV) level to the bar. This unsymmetrical fault leads to a positive sequence

medium voltage (MV) level of 20 kV a three winding MV drop of 0.33 p.u. while negative and zero sequence

transformer is used. The primary winding of the transformer increase correspondingly to 0.33 p.u. Due to the vector group

is delta connected while the secondary and tertiary are star of the transformer the zero sequence of MV is eliminated at

connected. The total nominal apparent power of each the low voltage (LV) terminal. The LV only consists of a

transformer is 1.25 MVA while the short circuit impedance positive and negative sequence component. Although the LV

between the primary-to-secondary and primary-to-tertiary contains a negative sequence voltage the generation units are

windings are both 0.12 p.u. Core saturation as well as the only injecting a positive sequence current during the

feeder cable of the low voltage connections are not taken into disturbance. The positive sequence current is a capacitive

account (in this simulation study but may influence the reactive current due to requirements and its value is following

behaviour during faults). Five inverters are connected in the dynamic voltage control characteristic (Fig. 2).

parallel to one low voltage terminal of the step up The results of a two-phase fault at the MV bus bar are shown

transformer. This means that the nominal total current in the in Fig. 10. This unsymmetrical fault leads to a positive

secondary and tertiary windings is roughly 1 kA. The MV sequence MV drop of roughly 0.5 p.u. while only the

windings of the transformers are connected via a bus bar to negative sequence increases correspondingly to

the MV power system. The star point of the MV power approximately to 0.5 p.u. The inverter systems are only

system is directly grounded which has to be taken into feeding a positive sequence capacitive reactive current. This

account during unbalanced earth fault scenarios. Fig. 8 current is increasing the positive sequence voltage level at the

illustrates the schematic arrangement of the PV power plant. low voltage terminal by some percent.

5 x 100 kW

In Fig. 11 a symmetrical three-phase short circuit is

described. The fault leads to a voltage collapse at the MV.

5 x 100 kW The short circuit impedance of the transformer leads a

residual voltage of roughly 0.1 p.u. at the LV terminal

5 x 100 kW corresponding with the rated impedance of the transformer.

Although the LV drops to only 0.1 p.u. the generation units

5 x 100 kW inject a positive sequence current during the disturbance

5 x 100 kW

according to the voltage control characteristic. The injected

positive sequence capacitive reactive current is limited to 1

p.u.

Regarding the short circuit contribution of the PV power

MV Power System

plant in the presented three case studies, it is obvious that the

with directly grounded

generation units equipped with the corresponding control can

neutral point Dyy Transformer PV Power Plant

U nom = 20 kV U p / U s / U t = 20 / 0.27 / 0.27 kV

only inject a positive sequence current fulfilling the timing

U nom = 0.27 kV

S k = 120 MVA

''

S ps = S pt = 625 kVA PTerminal = 5 x 100 kW restriction. Due to the missing requirements regarding

X /R=3 zps = zpt = 12% Ptotal = 6 x 500 kW = 3 MW negative sequence current injection during unbalanced grid

Fig. 8. Principle configuration of PV power plant faults the negative sequence current is usually suppressed to

zero. It can also be seen from all three simulations that the

The location of the selected short circuits is between the MV inverter reduces the active current to zero during the short

busbar and the MV network. Three different fault scenarios term disturbances due to the missing requirements for the

were considered, namely a single-line-to-ground fault, a two- active current injection in German grid codes.

phase fault and a three-phase fault. All inverters were In principle the PV inverters are able to supply more short

operating with nominal active power and a power factor of 1 circuit current during fault scenarios than only 1 p.u. reactive

at the medium voltage level prior to fault. So the inductive current due to current reserve margin of the inverter system.

reactive powers of the three transformers are compensated by The control is able to limit the current injection during faults

the reactive power control of PV inverters. The gain of the to the nominal but also to an overload current limitation of

dynamic voltage controller of the inverters is set to 2 p.u. the generation system. Regarding the peak current during the

with a deadband of 0.1 p.u. transient periods of the faults the maximum peaks are slightly

small and have a duration of only some ms.

Line-To-Ground Voltage M V Line-To-Ground Voltage M V

20 20

10 10

Voltage / kV

Voltage / kV

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Currents M V Currents M V

200 200

100 100

Current / A

Current / A

0 0

-100 -100

-200 -200

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Voltage M V Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Voltage M V

1.5 1.5

U+ U+

Voltage / p.u.

Voltage / p.u.

1 1

U- U-

0.5 0.5

U0 U0

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Voltage LV Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Voltage LV

1.5 1.5

U+ U+

Voltage / p.u.

Voltage / p.u.

1 1

U- U-

0.5 0.5

U0 U0

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Current M V Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Current M V

0.5 0.5

I+ I+

0 0

Current / p.u.

Current / p.u.

I- I-

-0.5 -0.5

I0 I0

-1 -1

-1.5 -1.5

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Positive Sequence Active & Reactive Current M V Positive Sequence Active & Reactive Current M V

0.5 0.5

IP+ IP+

0 0

Current / p.u.

Current / p.u.

IQ+ IQ+

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

-1.5 -1.5

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Time / s Time / s

Fig. 9. Simulation results of a single-line-to-ground fault in Fig. 10. Simulation results of a two-phase fault in the

the medium voltage network and the response of the medium voltage network and the response of the generation

generation unit unit

Line-To-Ground Voltage M V 6. CONCLUSIONS

20

This paper has presented simulation results of the short

10 circuit current contribution of a PV power plant to the MV

Voltage / kV

0 response of inverter control systems the behaviour of large

scale PV applications is controllable even during the worst

-10

case fault scenarios. Consequently the current injection of PV

-20 and other renewable energy generation units differ from the

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 response of synchronous generators regarding the peak

Currents M V currents as well as the steady state fault current.

200

Nowadays the positive sequence voltage support due to the

100

Current / A

0 priority. Also nowadays the negative sequence current and

the positive sequence active current is usually suppressed to

-100 zero by the inverter control. Regarding the control algorithms

of the protection components in the power system the

-200 different behaviour of PV and other renewable energy

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Voltage M V applications may requires new protection concepts. The

1.5 effects of a possible controlled negative sequence current

U+ injection of generation units on the power system is the

Voltage / p.u.

U-

0.5

in future publications.

U0

0 REFERENCES

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Erlich, I.; (2009) Validation of an RMS DFIG

Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Voltage LV Simulation Model According to New German Model

1.5

Validation Standard FGW TR4 at Balanced and

U+

Unbalanced Grid Faults, 8th International Workshop on

Voltage / p.u.

1

U- Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power

0.5

U0

Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for

Offshore Wind Farms, Bremen, Germany

0 Feltes, C.; (2011) Advanced Fault Ride-Through Control of

-0.5 DFIG based Wind Turbines including Grid Connection

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 via VSC-HVDC, Dissertation, University Duisburg-

Positive, Negative & Zero Sequence Current M V Essen,

0.5 Feltes, C.; Engelhardt, S.; Kretschmann, J.; Fortmann, J.;

I+

0 Erlich, I.; (2010) Dynamic Performance Evaluation of

Current / p.u.

-0.5 Codes Requirements, IEEE PES General Meeting,

I0

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

-1 Engelhardt, S.; Kretschmann, J.; Fortmann, J.; Shewarega, F.;

Feltes, C.; Erlich, I.; (2011) Negative Sequence Control

-1.5

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 of DFG based Wind Turbines, IEEE PES General

Positive Sequence Active & Reactive Current LV Meeting, Detroit, Michigan, USA

1 Inzunza, R.; Sumiya, T.; Fujii, Y.; Ikawa, E.; (2010) Parallel

IP+ Connection of Grid-Connected LCL Inverters for MW-

0.5

Current / p.u.

0

Electronics Conference (IPEC)

-0.5 VDN: Transmission Code 2007, (2007) Netz- und

-1 Systemregeln der deutschen bertragungsnetzbetreiber,

Version 1.1

-1.5

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 BDEW: Technische Richtlinie Erzeugungsanlagen am

Time / s Mittelspannungsnetz, (2008)

Ordinance on System Services by Wind Energy Plants,

Fig. 11. Simulation results of a three phase fault in the Verordnung zu Systemdienstleistungen durch

medium voltage network and the response of the generation Windenergieanlagen (Systemdienstleistungsverordnung

unit SDLWindV), (2009), BMU

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