INTRODUCTION: A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a hybrid vehicle which combines a conventional propulsion system with a rechargeable energy
storage system (RESS) to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle. It includes a propulsion system additional to the electric motors, to be not hampered by range from a charging unit like a battery electric vehicle (BEV).
The Prius is one of Toyota's top sellers in the United States. There are over 1 million worldwide
The Escape Hybrid is launched in 2004, is a Petrol-electric hybrid vehicle powered version of the Ford Escape SUV. Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking, and
some HEVs can use the internal combustion engine (ICE) to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (often a motorgenerator) toeither recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed (startstop system). An HEV's engine is smaller than a non-hybrid petroleum fuel vehicle and may be run at various speeds, providing more efficiency. HEVs became widely available to the public in the late 1990s with the introduction of the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius. HEVs are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future automotive market. Futurist magazine recently included hybrid electric vehicles as cars of the near future
History In 1901, while employed at Lohner Coach Factory, Ferdinand Porsche designed the "Mixte", a series-hybrid vehicle based on his earlier "System Lohner-Porsche" electric carriage. The Mixte broke several Austrian speed records, and also won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. The Mixte used a gasoline engine powering a generator, which in turn powered electric hub motors, with a small battery pack for reliability. It had a range of 50 km, a top speed of 50 km/h and a power of 5.22 kW during 20 minutes. In 1905, H. Piper filed a US patent application for a hybrid vehicle. The 1915 Dual Power, made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker, had a four-cylinder ICE and an electric motor. Below 15 mph (25 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle, drawing power from a battery pack, and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (55 km/h) top speed. About 600 were made up to 1918. In 1931 Erich Gaichen invented and drove from Altenburg to Berlin a 1/2 horse power electric car containing features later incorporated into hybrid cars. Its maximum speed was 25 miles per
. Thus hybrids could be a key element in US strategies to address our growing energy insecurity and environmental problems. Whether hybrids live up to their potential hinges on automakers and governments embracing them as one means of moving toward a secure energy future and a healthier environment. An account of the car and his characterization as a "crank inventor" can be found in Arthur Koestler's autobiography. hybrids can play a critical role in helping bring the technology of motors. power electronics. a No contemporaneous newspaper written
production beyond the prototype was reported. Arrow in the Blue. account which by summarize Koestler. taxed by the German Revenue Department and patented by the German ReichsPatent Amt. pages 269-271.
Why Hybrids? The primary importance of hybrid technology for cars and trucks is its potential to increase fuel economy dramatically while meeting today’s most stringent tailpipe emission standards (excluding the zero emission vehicle standard). the performance of hybrid vehicles can equal or even surpass that of most conventional vehicles. At the same time. Additional power to charge the battery was provided by a cylinder of compressed air which was re-charged by small air pumps activated by vibrations of the chassis and the brakes and by igniting oxyhydrogen gas. The car battery was re-charged by the motor when the car went downhill. and batteries to maturity and in reducing their cost.hour. Moreover. Such changes are vital to the success of future hydrogen fuel cell and other zero emission vehicles. but it was licensed by the Motor Transport Office.
beaches and wetlands. and alternative fuels. carbon equivalent) of the heat-trapping gases linked to global warming. rising demand for travel and increased vehicle ownership will outpace even the standards on the books through this decade. contributing to an increase in the earth’s average surface temperature. As the earth continues to warm. Saudi Arabia. as well as the environmental problems that are its consequence. This calls for both changes in conventional technology and a longer-term investment in hybrid vehicles. 40% (about 8 million barrels per day) went to fuel our cars and trucks.450 million tons (358 million metric tons.4 to 5.2 Of that daily consumption. In the year 2000. Over half of that was supplied by other countries.8C) between 1990 and 2100 If no major efforts are undertaken to reduce emissions of global warming gases (IPCC 2001). The size of our oil dependence and its rate of growth. hydrogen fuel cells. Cars and trucks will need to clean up their act
. By 2020. This is projected to rise 2.3 Most of these gases will stay in the atmosphere for more than 100 years. and other nations in the politically unstable Middle East. oil consumption is expected to grow by nearly 40% and our dependence on imports is projected to rise to more than 60% Those same cars and trucks were responsible for over 20% of the global warming emissions produced by the United States during 2000: 1.5 to 10. Regulations have helped clean up passenger vehicles over the past three decades. and other natural habitats. our farms and forests. at a cost to consumers of $186 billion. we face a great risk that the climate will change in ways that threaten our health. our economy. require an immediate response. the United States consumed nearly 20 million barrels of oil products every day. However. including Iraq. Cars and trucks are also major contributors to air pollution.Oil Dependence and the Environment.4F (1.
hybrids are poised to serve a key role in pushing down oil demand and global warming emissions from cars and trucks through the next two decades. Further. They offer a solid midterm strategy of investment in energy security and the environment.
Hybrid Vehicles. batteries. filling the temporal gap between conventional technology and hydrogen fuel cells . hybrid vehicles can mitigate the risk of delays in hydrogen fuel cell development and market success. hybrid vehicles provide additional assurance of reaching that goal. And they’ll help pave the way by acquainting consumers with electric drive technology. While a 40-mpg fleet could be reached with existing conventional technology. and power electronics—that the two share.even more if we are to eliminate the threat air pollution poses to public health—especially to our children and the elderly . Hybrids can also serve as an insurance policy for regulators contemplating significant increases to fuel economy standards over the next decade. In addition. They’ll also help ensure the success of fuel cell vehicles by bringing down the costs of the technologies—motors. since they promise fuel economy levels as high as 50 to 60 mpg. they open the door to fuel economy standards of 50 mpg or higher by the end of the next decade.
With their recent entrance into the market.
The “Gee-Whiz” Factor. Clearly. and performance of the hybrid (Graham 2001). hybrids are a key interim step. Automaker Choice. other factors. such as consumer and automaker choice. A second study. takingover where improved conventional technologies leave off and before fuel cells can fulfill their promise. by Applied Decision Analysis LLC. Consumer Choice. savings. consumers are showing interest in having an option to buy cars and trucks with better fuel economy. could prove crucial to their success.D. Power and Associates found that 30% of the more than 5.
. The primary reason people noted for considering a hybrid was their concern about high fuel prices (J. performed as part of larger study on hybrids by the Electric Power Research Institute. An additional 30% showed strong consideration.Given the necessity of continuing to reduce oil use and global warming emissions over the coming decades. Despite automakers’ claims to the contrary. A consumer preference study by J.D.000 recent new-vehicle buyers they surveyed would definitely consider a hybrid for their next purchase. found that 25% of the 400 potential car and truck buyers surveyed would purchase a hybrid vehicle instead of a conventional vehicle when given information on the potential costs. Power 2002). In addition to the logic of hybrids as a key part of investing in energy security and the environment. consumers want automakers to provide them with hybrid vehicles as additional choices when they step into the showroom.
But if some of the automakers choose to offer vehicles with hybrid nameplates just to capitalize on the “gee whiz” factor or the “green” image of hybrids. Chapter 2 provides a checklist for determining whether a vehicle is a hybrid and what kind of hybrid it is.Only Toyota and Honda have so far offered hybrids for sale in the US market. bringing in consumers interested in pickups or SUVs as well as those who want compact and family cars. along with substantially cleaner tailpipe missions. by putting their dollars where they will do the most good. And consumers must hold them to it. Idle-off capability
.Chrysler are expected to offer hybrids in 2004 or 2005. GM and Daimler. Both are likely to offer more models very soon. much of the potential benefits from hybrid technology will be lost. These new vehicles will help build the hybrid market. Chapter 3 evaluates how much environmental benefit is provided by a variety of hybrid designs. each of which provides a step-increase in similarity to a fuel cell or battery electric vehicles and helps indicate potential for improved environmental performance: 1. Automakers have a responsibility to society and consumers to market hybrids that provide the dramatic improvements in fuel economy the technology promises. as are most other automakers. Ford intends to enter the market with a hybrid SUV using a design similar to the Prius.
conventional and battery electric vehicles into five technology steps.
2. the inclusion of idleoff is not sufficient to distinguish a hybrid from a conventional vehicle. a vehicle must also incorporate the next two steps.” or regenerative braking. Conventional vehicles can achieve idle-off using an integrated starter-generator. requires an electric drive motor large enough to take over some of the braking duties and a battery pack big enough to capture the braking energy that is typically wasted. regenerative braking and engine downsizing. Electric-only drive 5. Therefore. not all vehicles that are equipped with idle-off technology are hybrids. Regenerative braking capacity 3. while a hybrid would use a larger. Some automakers conventional have proposed that adding incorporate regenerative the braking to vehicles integrated starter-
. a beefed up starter motor combined with an alternator. Engine downsizing 4. full function electric motor. In fact. however. Regenerative Braking. “Regen. to make the transition from conventional vehicle to “mild” hybrid.2 This is a key technology for battery electric vehicles and marks an important step beyond conventional technology. All hybrids can turn the engine off when the vehicle is at a stop. Extended battery-electric range
But in that case. such a vehicle may technically be a hybrid. This takes
. If a vehicle’s technology includes both regen and engine downsizing. Using the electric motor and battery pack for driving is the technology step that separates “mild” from “full” hybrids.
Electric-Only Drive. This wastes a significant benefit of hybridization. it can be classified as a “mild” hybrid. For example. If an electric motor is added. This is clearly a hybridization step. not to improve fuel economy. reducing the engine size allows a vehicle that would typically use a 6-cylinder engine to gain the fuel economy of a 4-cylinder engine while retaining the 6-cylinder performance using the boost available from the electric motor. A system that obtains about 10% of its peak power from the electric motor will be necessary to ensure that regen technology is included in more than just name only.
Engine Downsizing. a smaller engine is complemented by an electric motor that boosts vehicle power to meet the same performance as a larger engine. the technology is serving primarily to boost performance. but these systems typically operate at power levels and voltages that are too low to recover any significant braking energy to influence fuel economy. while improving fuel economy at the same time. failing to fulfill the promise of hybrid technology and instead creating a muscle hybrid. since it combines two technologies to achieve the performance of one. In downsizing. but the engine is not downsized.generators used for idle-off.
It also has the advantage of improving engine efficiency. However. plug-in hybrids can achieve superior environmental performance relative to other hybrids. moving toward electric vehicle technology.3 By getting much of their driving energy from the electricity grid. approaching the efficiency and cleanliness of purely electric vehicles. Above these speeds. The remainder of a consumer’s driving needs can then be met by operating the vehicle as a typical full hybrid. satisfying much of a consumer’s daily driving needs (Graham 2001). since plug-ins can still operate without recharging rom the electricity grid. Full hybrids thus use the battery and motor to launch the vehicle and drive until it reaches the speed at which the engine can be operated more efficiently. The final level of hybridization extends the battery-electric range by allowing the vehicle’s battery to be recharged from a clean electricity grid. These “pluginplugin” or “range extender” hybrids can operate as battery-electric vehicles for 20 to 60 miles each day. Energy and Environmental Performance
Extended Battery-Electric Range. efficiency benefits begin to diminish. but also while driving. This takes a step beyond engine downsizing.full advantage of the technology by turning the engine off not just when the vehicle is stopped. since it eliminates engine operation in its most inefficient low-power regions. Engine efficiency can be improved significantly by driving with the electric motor alone up to 10 to 15 miles per hour. although similarity with electric vehicles continues to increase. these benefits are highly dependent on how often consumers plug them in.
Like most modern ICE-powered vehicles.The clearest and most direct way to evaluate the environmental performance of a hybrid electric vehicle is to measure its fuel economy and emissions directly. Diesel Diesel-electric HEVs use a diesel engine for power generation. which would increase allowable ratios. SUVs. but no plans are in place at present. this is not practical for investigating the potential for a full fleet made up of hybrid compact cars. and less expensively than. family cars. It also provides a rough indication of a vehicle’s energy and environmental potential. it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel. Diesels have advantages when delivering constant power for long periods of time. Since only a few hybrids are available today. However. and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. pickups and minivans. fuel cells. suffering less wear while operating at higher
. the utility of the technology-based classification laid out above is that it provides an indication of how similar a vehicle is to a fuel cell or battery electric vehicle. . HEVs can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol. Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines. Engines and fuel sources Fossil fuels Free-piston engines could be used to generate electricity as efficiently as. Gasoline Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid electric designs.
in the USA and Iveco in Europe. As of October 2007 Fedex now operates more than 100 diesel electric hybrids in North America. including the Peugeot
.efficiency. PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid drivetrain: the Peugeot 307. Most diesel vehicles can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel). production diesel-electric engines have mostly just appeared in mass transit buses. Asia and Europe. along with Eaton Corp. There have been no concrete dates suggested for these vehicles. General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid. Bosch GmbH is supplying hybrid diesel-electric
technology to diverse automakers and models. FedEx. and petroleum may be needed for lubrication). this benefit would likely also apply. Diesel-electric hybrid drivetrains have begun to appear in commercial vehicles (particularly buses). as of 2007. may offer substantially improved mileage. but press statements have suggested production vehicles would not appear before 2009. has begun deploying a small fleet of Hybrid diesel electric delivery trucks. Peugeot is expected to produce a diesel-electric hybrid version of its 308 in late 2008 for the European market. so they can use but do not need petroleum at all for fuel (although mixes of biofuel and petroleum are more common. So far. but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle. If diesel-electric HEVs were in use. no light duty diesel-electric hybrid passenger cars are currently available. Citroën C4 Hybride HDi and Citroën C-Cactus. 120 mpg-US) fuel economy. although prototypes exist. combined with hybrid technology. Volkswagen made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 L/100 km (140 mpg-imp. Robert 308. The diesel engine's high torque.
especially for niche brands.e. a hybrid scooter is a threewheeler that uses two separate power sources to power the front and back wheels. Peugeot HYmotion3 compressor.Biofuels Some hybrid vehicles uses biofuels and electricity (i. The back wheel is powered by a single cylinder 125cc. Chevrolet Volt is an E85 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. with a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a target retail price of $5500. 20bhp single cylinder motor while the front wheels are each driven by their own electric motor. but the pairing of electrical components and an internal combustion engine (ICE) has made packaging cumbersome. When the bike is moving up to 10 km/h only
. eCycle Inc produces series diesel-electric motorcycles.
Vehicle types Motorcycles
Companies such as Zero Motorcycles and Vectrix have marketready all-electric motorcycles available now.
The mayor plans to convert 20% of the remaining 13.the electric motors are used on a stop-start basis reducing the amount of carbon emissions. The ability to mass-produce these items helps to overcome the investment hurdles faced by start-up brands and bring new engineering concepts into mainstream markets. New York City started converting its taxi fleet to hybrids in 2005. SEMA has announced that Yamaha is going to launch one in 2010. with 375 active as of July. Other types of HEVs are manufactured including Microhybrids—small hybrid electric city cars.
Automobiles and light trucks
A number of manufacturers currently produce hybrid electric automobiles and light trucks. fueling a competition to reign in new customers and set new standards for mobility. These proposed hybrid motorcycles could incorporate components from the upcoming Honda Insight car and its hybrid powertrain.000 taxis each year. Each company hopes to provide the capability to reach 60 miles (97 km) per charge by adopting advanced lithium-ion batteries to accomplish their claims.
Ford Escape hybrid-electric taxi. Diesel-electric hybrid vehicles may soon see mass-production. with Honda following a year later.
NASA's huge Crawler-Transporters are diesel-electric. equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit. high petroleum price means a hard sell for hybrid trucks and appears the first U.
. mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR (Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder) system. production hybrid truck (International DuraStar Hybrid). International Truck and Engine Corp. In mid 2005 Isuzu introduced the Elf Diesel Hybrid Truck on the Japanese Market.San Francisco intends to convert its entire fleet to hybrid or Compressed natural gas vehicles by 2008.
In 2003. have been selected to manufacture diesel-electric hybrid trucks for a US pilot program serving the utility industry in 2004. They claim that approximately 300 vehicles. GM introduced a hybrid diesel-electric military (light) truck. Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid is a diesel-electric
commercial truck.S. and Eaton Corp. Hybrid electric light trucks were introduced in 2004 by Mercedes Benz (Sprinter) and Micro-Vett SPA (Daily Bimodale). In 2007.
Other vehicles are:
Big mining machines like the Liebherr T 282B dump truck
or Keaton Vandersteen LeTourneau L-2350 wheel loader are powered that way.
Nissan Motors and Renault Trucks with Renault Puncher. not having energy storage on board. MAN AG with MAN TGL Series.Hino Motors (a Toyota subsidiary) has the world's first production hybrid electric truck in Australia (110 kW/150 hp diesel engine plus a 23 kW/31 hp electric motor.
The United States Army's manned ground vehicles of the Future Combat System all use a hybrid electric drive consisting of a diesel engine to generate electrical power for mobility and all other vehicle subsystems. which led to orders by the Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific Railways starting in early 2005. as does GE. Diesel-electric locomotives may not always be considered HEVs. Hybrid electric truck technology and powertrain maker: ZF Friedrichshafen.
Other hybrid petroleum-electric truck makers are DAF Trucks.
In May 2003. unless they are fed with electricity via
. Other military hybrid prototypes include the Millenworks Light Utility Vehicle.and the Shadow RST-V. Railpower Technologies had been running pilots in the US with the so called Green Goats. HEMTT model A3. Railpower offers hybrid electric road switchers. the International FTTS. In 2004. JR East started test runs with the so called NE (new energy) train and validated the system's functionality (series hybrid with lithium ion battery) in cold regions.
primarily by using three mechanisms: 1.
Marine and other aquatic Produces marine hybrid propulsion:
eCycle Inc. in which case they are better classified as dual-mode vehicles. Current HEVs reduce petroleum consumption under certain circumstances. regenerative braking)
by turning the ICE off
. 2. compared to otherwise similar conventional vehicles. Reducing wasted energy during idle/low output. generally Recapturing waste energy (i.a collector for short distances (for example.e. Solar Sailor Holdings
Environmental impact Fuel consumption Hybrid vehicles are the best bet to get the most out of each tank of fuel during city driving. in tunnels with emission limits).
lighter. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. but an ICE's highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operation.
Reducing the size and power of the ICE. making conventional vehicles inefficient. resulting in beneficial noise health effects (although road noise from tires and wind. power. Any combination of these three primary hybrid advantages may be used in different vehicles to realize different fuel usage. the loudest noises at highway speeds from the interior of most vehicles. The greater fuel economyfuel economy of HEVs has implication for reduced petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide
Noise Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of the electric motor at idling and low speeds. by using the added power from the electric motor to compensate for the loss in peak power output from the smaller ICE. in comparison to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. because the combustion engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand.
. the ICE operates closer to its range of highest efficiency more frequently. are not affected by the hybrid design alone). weight and cost profiles. and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle. and hence
inefficiencies from under-utilization. The drive system in a vehicle is required to operate over a range of speed and power.3. On the contrary. The ICE in an HEV can be smaller. leading to roadway noise reduction. in most HEV designs. emissions.
and they pay a $200 "bounty" for each battery to help ensure that it will be properly recycled. • Smooth acceleration and reduced noise and vibration at low speeds: On full hybrids. Toyota puts a phone number on each battery. although today's hybrids use NiMH batteries. there’s no vibration or engine noise. Pollution reduction in urban environments may be particularly significant due to elimination of idle-at-rest.
.Reduced noise may not be considered an advantage by some. "Nickel metal hydride batteries are benign.[citation
Toyota and Honda say that they will recycle dead batteries and that disposal will pose no toxic hazards. They can be fully recycled. the electric drive keeps the engine off until around 10 to 15 mph.
• Reduced noise and vibration at stops: Because the engine turns off when the vehicle stops." says Ron Cogan. for example. due to lower fuel consumption. lead improved human health with regard to respiratory problems and other illnesses. Battery toxicity is a concern. Pollution Reduced air pollution emissions. not the environmentally problematic rechargeable nickel cadmium. editor of the Green Car Journal. some people who are blind or visually-impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets and feel quiet hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard.
however. The more cylinders the vehicle has.• Reduced engine vibration: Unlike electric motors. This makes less difference for continuously variable transmissions. This requires modern control technology. combustion engines do not produce power continuously. This means a microwave could heat up breakfast on the way to work. the less vibration there is. instead of a dirty diesel generator. Or. each cylinder produces power about one quarter of the time (in a 4. which shows up as vibration. A hybrid can dramatically reduce vibration by filling the spaces between engine pulses with the electric motor.
.cylinder engine). but is well within the capability of a hybrid Better shifting performance: An automatic transmission produces a short drop in power each time it shifts. • Added electrical capacity: Hybrids can be designed to provide 110 or even 220 volt power. Thus its mechanical brakes will see less wear than those of a conventional vehicle and will need to be serviced or replaced less often. a series/parallel hybrid truck could provide the power source for construction equipment. • Reduced engine and brake maintenance: A hybrid recovers much of the energy required to stop through regenerative braking. undermine efficiency by increasing the amount of energy used while driving. This produces a pulse. In fact. In a hybrid. • Fewer stops at the gas station: The hybrid’s good fuel economy means that it may need to fill up only every 500 to 600 miles. This could. the motor can make up for much of this lost power.
Internal Combustion Engine Electric Motor/Generator Splitter Battery
but in radically different ways Both have small gasoline engines
.Key Features of Hybrids.. which is an engine that combines two or more sources of power. generally gasoline and electricity There are two types of gasoline-electric hybrids: Parallel hybrid Series hybrid Both use gasoline-electric hybrid technology.??
Hybrids achieve improved efficiencies using several approaches: Employ regenerative braking to recover energy that is thrown away Downsize or “right-size” the engine or primary power source Control the engine or primary power source to operate more efficiently and/or work more often in a more efficient range
HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK?
A hybrid car is a passenger vehicle that is driven by a hybrid engine.
which in turn will power the electric motor Both use electric power at starts and stops. low speeds (generally below 15mph) Both use the gasoline engine at cruising or highway speeds
OTHER HYBRID TERMINOLOGY
Full Hybrid: Can move solely on electric power Mild Hybrid: Requires at least some gasoline to power the transmission
. Both produce much less pollution than standard gasoline cars Both produce much less power – generally between 60-90hp (the average gasoline engine produces double that) Both are constructed of ultra lightweight materials like carbon fiber or aluminum to overcome the power gap Both are generally designed to be more aerodynamic than most cars. allowing them to “slice” through the air instead of pushing it out of the way Both use a process called regenerative braking to store the kinetic energy generated by brake use in the batteries.
Lexus RX 400h and GS 450h hybrid
. Stop-Start Hybrids: deceleration
Use electric power only while idling or during vehicle
Did you know that the following voltages are currently used in North American passenger vehicles? 12 Volt – ALL vehicles 36 Volts – Saturn Vue 42 Volt – some conventional and hybrid models 72 Volt – NEVs 144 Volt – ALL Honda hybrids 300 Volt – Toyota first generation Prius hybrids 500 Volt – Toyota Prius (second generation) 650 Volt – Toyota Highlander SUV.
HIGH VOLTAGE LINES Avoid cutting high-voltage wires during vehicle rescue. MOST hybrids’ high voltage lines run closer to the center of the vehicle and down toward the rear. where the battery is located.
.HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS
Interrupt Technology Gas-Electric systems use a technology that disconnects the battery power if a difference in voltage is detected. Should the vehicle detect a voltage change. High voltage lines are wrapped in orange loom. it will disconnect the power feed to and from the high voltage battery.
GM Hybrid Pick-up Cutaway
4. 8.STEPS TO SECRURING HYBRID VEHICLE
1. 6. 3. 7. 9. 10. 2. 5. Chock wheels Remove/Find Key Give key to I/C I/C makes general announcement regarding key Locate power button/Shut off power Engage emergency brake Cut negative 12V cable Cut positive 12V cable Do not touch or cut any orange or blue loom! Wait 5 minutes before making any cuts for extrication!
the electric motor uses electricity from the battery to power the vehicle.
For initial acceleration and slow-speed driving.
At speed above mid-range. the generator starts the engine and converts energy from the engine into electricity. as well as reverse. the battery typically powers all accessories. The gasoline engine provides power to the drive-train directly and to the electric motor via the generator. If the battery needs to be recharged. which is stored in the battery. both the engine and electric motor are used to propel the vehicle.
When a full hybrid vehicle is initially started. The gasoline engine only starts if the battery needs to be charged or the accessories require more power than available from the battery.
Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slow the vehicle down. Instead of using electricity to turn the wheels.
Three key factors: Regenerative braking Engine size Vehicle weight & aerodynamic design
Regenerative Braking converts otherwise wasted energy from braking into electricity and stores it in the battery. the rotating wheels turn the motor and creates electricity. In regenerative braking. the electric motor is reversed so that.
Engine size = may be smaller than in a conventional vehicle Engine is sized to accommodate average – not peak load Vehicle weight/aerodynamic design: Built using special lightweight materials Uses advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag load
Regenerative Braking Electric Motor Drive/Assist Automatic Start/ Shut-Off Regenerative Braking
This prevents wasted energy from idling. Recaptures kinetic energy normally lost as heat during braking Kinetic energy = energy of motion Electric motor acts as a generator when brakes applied Converts kinetic energy to electrical energy. Passing and Hill Climbing.
Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator is pressed. So. stored in batteries It becomes potential energy – available for use No system is 100% efficient
Electric Motor Drive/Assist
Additional Power to assist engine Accelerating. allows Smaller and More Efficient Engine to be Used.
more efficient motor maximizes emission management Strategies Result is reduction of harmful pollutants in atmosphere
Hybrids have some of the highest safety ratings of all vehicles High-voltage system contains many safety features Battery charge is computer controlled – extends battery life Batteries under warranty for 100.HEVs and Air Pollution
Decreased fuel consumption results in reduced vehicle emissions Ability to operate with smaller.000 miles. is your engine?? The cost of maintenance is reduced due to operation of hybrid technology Regenerative braking reduces wear on brakes Idle stop extends engine life Electric accessories reduce load on Engine
but not emission-free HEVs are partial zero-emission vehicles (PZEVs) – they produce zero emissions only when engine is not running More expensive than conventional Vehicles
Reduced fuel consumption Excellent gas mileage Fewer tailpipe emissions Lighter batteries than electric vehicles Regenerative braking system stores electrical energy in Batteries Uses less fuel to recharge batteries
Current Models of HEVs
Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid Honda Accord Hybrid Honda Civic Hybrid Ford Escape Hybrid GMC Silverado Hybrid GMC Sierra Hybrid Toyota Prius Toyota Highlander Hybrid Lexus 400h
. the HEVs have more efficiency. Optimum Utilization of these Vehicles will yield in good Results.CONCLUSION
So. Low Fuel Economy. especially Reduction of pollution. High Reliability and Less Air Pollution.
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