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MATH 370: Practice Questions

Definitions
Complete the following definitions.

1. A set X is countable if ... there exists a bijection of X with a subset of N

2. The least upper bound property of the set of real numbers R with its usual ordering <
states that ... every nonempty subset of R that is bounded above has a least upper
bound.

3. A sequence (an ) of real numbers converges to a real number L if ... for every ε > 0
there exists an N such that n > N implies |an − L| < ε.

4. Let f : I → R be a function where I is a nonempty subset of R and let x0 ∈ I and L a
real number. The “limit of f (x) as x approaches x0 is L” if ... for every sequence (an )
of real numbers in I \ {x0 } the sequence of values f (an ) converges to L.
Alternatively, for every ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that

for any x ∈ I, 0 < |x − x0 | < δ implies |f (x) − L| < ε.

5. Let f : I → R be a function where I is a nonempty subset of R and let x0 ∈ I. The
function “f is continuous at x0 ” if ... for every ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that

for any x ∈ I, |x − x0 | < δ implies |f (x) − f (x0 )| < ε.

It would also be correct to say “the limit of f (x) as x approaches x0 is f (x0 )” or even to
say that something like both the left hand and right hand limits exists and their values
coincide. However, these answers are not self-contained and would only receive partial
credit unless it is further explained what the phrase “limit of f (x) as x approaches x0 ”
means, in the first case, or, in the second case, how the one-sided limits are defined.

6. Let f : I → R be a function where I is a nonempty subset of R. The function “f is
uniformly continuous” if ... for every ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that

for any x, y ∈ I, |x − y| < δ implies |f (x) − f (y)| < ε.

it contains all its limit points. n3 + 1 1 Since 4 ≥ and the harmonic series diverges. Equivalently. Determine which of the following properties the given function possess: bounded. This could be shown directly. the approach using calculus is much easier to carry out. not uniformly continuous . con- tinuous. Hence. 2. hence conditionally convergent. 1. 5} The set of subsequential limits is closed. then simplify. Determine if the series (−1)n is convergent. X n3 + 1 2. 3. although in practice. 1) {1/n}n∈N {0.Short Answers 1. so it suffices to check that the terms are eventually decreasing. Since 0 is a limit point of both the second and the third examples but is not contained in either of them. 3. it follows that the original series is n +1 n not absolutely convergent. and if so. 1] continuous. The alternating series test applies to show that the original series is convergent. these sets cannot arise as the set of subsequential limits of some sequence. [0. The last example is a closed set because the set of limit points is empty. To verify that the hypotheses of the alternating series test are satisfied note that the series is clearly alternating with terms tending to zero. one applies techniques of calculus (which we shall develop later) and reduce the problem to verifying that f 0 (x) < 0 x3 + 1 for x large enough where f (x) = 4 .!!!). Logarithmic differentiation facilitates this x +1 computation: f 0 (x) d 3x2 4x3 = log f (x) = 3 − 4 <0 f (x) dx x +1 x +1 holds iff 3(x4 + 1) < 4x(x3 + 1) iff x4 + 4x > 3 which holds for all x > 1. 4. but not the fourth. whether the conver- n4 + 1 gence is absolute or conditional. for any ε > 0 there exists an x ∈ E different from z such that |x − z| < ε. i. 1] (0.e. Briefly justify your answer.. Determine which of the following sets cannot be the set of subsequential limits of a sequence of real numbers. the argument using calculus shows n3 + 1 (n + 1)3 + 1 < for all n ≥ 1.. n4 + 1 (n + 1)4 + 1 Even though the above can be obtained directly via elementary means (cross multiply. 0 happens to be a limit point of the first three examples. unbounded. uniformly continuous f (x) = 1/x on (0. Recall that a limit point of a set E ⊂ R is a real number z that can be realized as the limit of a sequence in E \ {z}.

bounded. convergence of the sequence) now follows from the fundamental theorem that any bounded monotone sequence has a limit. If x = 2 + 3. we can choose δ = ε1/p so that |x| < δ implies |xp | < ε. Thus. Prove that the sequence converges. Let a1 = 1 and for n ≥ 1 let√an+1 = a√ n + 1. we see that √ √ 2+ 5 1+ 5 1 ≤ an < L for all n (which reduces to checking that < ). which implies the extension is continuous at x = 0. no extension is possible because g(x) is not uniformly continuous. Short Proofs √ √ 1. Similarly. uniformly continuous 4. Prove that √ √2 + 3 is irrational. 1] because given ε > 0. 1] continuous. 2. or L = (1 ± 5)/2. Since sup A is the least upper bound of A. 1] extendible to a continuous function on [0. g(x) = 1/x on [1. Show that a convergent sequence is Cauchy. √ L − L − 1 = 0. What can you say about sup A and sup B ? For any a ∈ A the hypothesis implies a < sup B since there exists a b ∈ B such that a < b and b ≤ sup B (because sup B is an upper bound for B). Then given any ε > 0 there is an N such that n > N implies |an − L| < ε/2 and |an − L0 | < ε/2. Given ε > 0 there is an N such that . it follows that L = L0 . 1]. we have an ≥ 1 for all n.√ From the recurrence relation we see that the limit. x is irrational. a1 < 2 and an+1 = an + 1 < 3 < 2 if an < 2. must satisfy 2 L = 1 + L. uniformly continuous h(x) = sin(1/x) on (0. sup A ≤ sup B. Since L ∈ [0. √ 3. not uniformly continuous k(x) = x sin(1/x) on (0. Arguing by s induction as before. 1] is the function g(x) = xp sin(1/x) on (0. If p = 0. which shows that an is increasing. Let A and B be nonempty subsets of R such that for each a ∈ A there exists a b ∈ B such that a < b. If x was rational. Continuity of the extension at all other points follows from continuity of g on (0. Suppose L and L0 and both the limits of a convergence sequence (an ). sup B is an upper bound for A. The triangle inequality now implies |L − L0 | ≤ |L − an | + |an − L0 | < ε. or equivalently. Let L be the limit of a convergent sequence (an ). It follows 2 2 that a2n < an + 1 = a2n+1 . so we have an < 2 for all n. This extension is continuous at x = 0 for any p ∈ (0. then it would have to be ±1. if it exists. 4. Show that the limit of a convergent sequence is uniquely determined. For which values of p ∈ [0. then it satisfies (x2 − 5) = 24 or x4 − 10x2 + 1 = 0. 1] continuous. Hence. bounded. Since a1 ≥ 1 and an+1 = an√+ 1 ≥ 2 √ ≥ 1 if an ≥ 1. 5. bounded. we deduce that L = (1 + 5)/2. 2). The existence of L (that is. √ if it exists. 1] ? Consider the extension obtained by setting g(0) = 0. ∞) continuous. which it obviously isn’t. Since ε > 0 was arbitrary.

composition of x5 + 5 the function 2 is continuous on [0. given m. Prove that x3 + x + 1 has a real root. n > N implies |an − L| < ε/2. √ x5 + 5 7. x +1 √ Since x5 + 5 ≥ 0 for x ≥ 0. 6. This shows that the sequence is Cauchy. 10]. 10] and being a 2 √ continuous functions. the function x5 + 5 is defined on [0. 10]. it is also continuous. The intermediate value theorem implies there is some z. Hence. Since x + 1 6= 0 for any x. and since its domain is a closed interval. x +1 the function is necessarily bounded. . −1 < z < 0 such that f (z) = 0. Prove that 2 is bounded on [0. The function f (x) = x3 + x + 1 is continuous and satisfies f (0) = 1 and f (−1) = −1. n > N the triangle inequality implies |am − an | ≤ |am − L| + |L − an | < ε.