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Block 5 TopHat Questions

1. How does the liver glucose transporter differ from other glucose transporters in other tissues?
a. It concentrates Glc in the liver
b. It has a lower affinity for Glc than the others
c. It is induced by insulin
d. It co-transports Glc with Na+

2. What is the significance of lactate dehydrogenase?


a. It catalyzes the final step of glycolysis
b. It makes NADH for use in OxPhos
c. It regenerates NAD+ under anaerobic conditions
d. It is one of two steps that produce ATP in glycolysis

3. Phosphofructokinase-1 is activated by:


a. Glucose
b. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
c. Phosphorylation
d. Dephosphorylation

4. Which enzyme in glycolysis is NOT a regulated enzyme?


a. GAPDH
b. Pyruvate kinase
c. PFK-1
d. Hexokinase

5. What is the purpose of the PEPCK-catalyzed step in gluconeogenesis?


a. It is the major regulated step of gluconeogenesis
b. It produces ATP to power gluconeogenesis
c. It is involved in the secretion of Glc from the cell
d. It provides a way to bypass the thermodynamically irreversible pyruvate kinase step to
glycolysis

6. Gluconeogenesis is negatively regulated by


a. PKA phosphorylation of bifunctional enzyme
b. Frc-2,6-bisphosphate
c. Acetyl-CoA
d. ATP

7. Which of the following best describes gluconeogenesis?


a. High insulin levels induce the transcription of Glc 6-phosphatase and PEPCK genes
b. Metformin is thought to inhibit gluconeogenesis by stimulating AMP kinase
c. Glycolysis produces 2 ATP whereas gluconeogenesis uses 2 ATP
d. Fatty acids are the main anabolic precursor for gluconeogenesis
8. In the reaction catalyzed by glycogen synthase, how many ATPs are used to synthesize the
glycosidic bond?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2

9. Glucagon leads to the of phosphorylase, which ____ its activity.


a. Phosphorylation; inhibits
b. Dephosphorylation; inhibits
c. Phosphorylation; stimulates
d. Dephosphorylation; stimulates

10. A mutation in which glycogen enzyme will have the most severe effect on blood glucose?
a. Muscle phosphorylase
b. Glucose 6-phosphatase
c. Glycogen synthase
d. Liver phosphorylase
e. Branching enzyme

11. Glucose 6-P dehydrogenase deficiency causes hemolytic anemia because


a. RBCs lack ribose to make mRNAs
b. RBCs are unable to make ATP
c. RBCs are not able to replicate DNA
d. RBCs are easily overwhelmed by oxidative stress

12. Regarding the PPP pathway


a. Each molecule of Glc-6P used generates 1 molecule of CO2 and one molecule of NADPH
b. Frc 6-P is formed in the oxidative branch
c. Ribose 5-P is formed in the non-oxidative branch
d. ATP level is the most important regulator of the pathway

13. In the absence of bile acids


a. Fatty acids would not be transported into enterocytes
b. Triglycerides would not be transported into enterocytes
c. Lipase would not be released from pancreas
d. Triglycerides would be poorly digested in the lumen of the gut

14. In adipocyte TG synthesis, the glycerol backbone comes from


a. Glycerol in the pentose phosphate pathway
b. Dihydroxyacetone-P in glycolysis
c. Pyruvate
d. Serine
15. What is the biochemical function of perilipin?
a. Perilipin is secreted by pancreas and digests triglycerides in the duodenum
b. Perilipin binds to the surface of lipid droplets and regulates lipolysis
c. Perilipin is the enzyme that removes the first fatty acid from a triglyceride
d. Perilipin catalyzes the major regulated step in triglyceride synthesis

16. Which of the following is most likely to reduce fatty acid oxidation?
a. Phosphorylation of acyl-CoA synthetase
b. Feedback inhibition by acetyl-CoA
c. High levels of carnitine
d. High levels of malonyl-CoA

17. Methylmalonic academia is the accumulation of methylmalonic acid in the body. This can lead
to encephalopathy and is fatal if not treated. The most common cause is a genetic mutation
in methylmalonyl CoA mutase. What else might give rise to this disorder?
a. B12 deficiency
b. Mutation in acetyl-CoA carboxylase
c. Inhibition of thiolase
d. Biotin deficiency

18. The most critical factor for producing ketone bodies is


a. Inhibition of thiolase
b. Allosteric activation of succinyl-CoA transferase by ATP
c. Transport of acetoacetate into mitochondria
d. Accumulation of Acetyl-CoA

19. Choose the best statement about fatty acid synthase


a. Fatty acid synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme
b. The product of fatty acid synthase is palmitoyl-CoA
c. Fatty acid synthase catalyzes the major regulated step of fatty acid synthesis
d. Fatty acid synthase contains multiple active sites and catalyzes nearly every step of fatty
acid synthesis

20. Which best describes the synthesis of omega-3 fatty acids in liver?
a. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from palmitate by elongation and omega-3
desaturase
b. Humans are unable to synthesize omega-3 fatty acids
c. Formation of the omega three double bond is catalyzed by the P450 enzyme, CYP183A
d. Formation of omega-3 fatty acids occurs only in peroxisomes
21. Cyclooxygenase is the critical enzyme in the synthesis of
a. Anandamide
b. PGE2
c. Thromboxane A2
d. LTD4

22. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and endocannabinoids exert their biochemical effects


a. As ligands for G protein coupled receptors
b. By activating nuclear hormone receptors
c. As inhibitors of metabolic enzymes
d. By altering membrane structure and function

23. The conversion of leukotriene A4 to leukotriene C4 and beyond involves


a. Hydrolysis of a peroxide
b. Cyclization of a ring
c. Esterification of the carboxylate with CoASH
d. Conjugation with glutathione

24. Sort these metabolites in cholesterol synthesis in the correct order


a. Squalene
b. Lanosterol
c. Acetyl-CoA
d. Mevalonate

25. When a cell has adequate cholesterol, what prevents SREBP from transcribing cholesterol
biosynthetic genes?
a. Cholesterol is a negative allosteric modulator of SREBP
b. SREBP is anchored in the ER
c. PKA phosphorylates SREBP
d. An inhibitory protein binds to the enhancer sequence

26. Select the inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase


a. Celecoxib
b. Ezetimibe
c. Mevalonate
d. Simvastatin

27. Which lipoprotein particle has the greatest percentage of triglycerides?


a. VLDL
b. IDL
c. LDL
d. HDL
28. LDL
a. Contains a single protein, ApoE
b. Is made in and secreted by liver
c. Carries the majority of cholesterol in the blood
d. Carries dietary cholesterol from intestine to liver

29. A genetic mutation that impairs LDL receptor function will show
a. Liver toxicity due to lack of cholesterol
b. Extremely high levels of blood cholesterol
c. Low levels of all lipoproteins in blood
d. Inability to convert LDL to HDL
Answers

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. D
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. C
10. B
11. D
12. C
13. D
14. B
15. B
16. D
17. A
18. D
19. D
20. B
21. B
22. A
23. D
24. CDAB
25. B
26. D
27. A
28. C
29. B