A PROJECT REPORT ON

CRYSTAL CERAMIC INDUSTRIES PVT. LTD.
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the S.Y.B.B.A. 2009-2010 Practical Studies 15-10-2009 TO 01-11-2009 SUBMITTED BY SYBBA Roll Exam Names of group members Division Nos. Nos. Khamar Dipen A. A 51 Gupta Kunal K. A 35 Chaudhari Rahulkumar S. A 18 Chaudhari Mitesh N. A 16 Patel Daksha D. B 112 Patel Bhagyashree K. B 104 SUBMITTED TO Programme: Academic Year: Subject: Duration:

V.M. PATEL COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES Ganpat Vidyanagar Campus, Kherva 382711, Mehsana-Gandhinagar Highway, Dist. Mehsana, North Gujarat, India.

V.M. PATEL COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES,

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. / Ms. ________________________ Of SYBBA, Division: __ , Roll No: ___ , Exam No: ___ , has satisfactorily completed his / her Project Report in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Subject: Practical Studies in the academic year 2008-09.

Signature of Project Coordinator

Signature of I/C Principal

College Stamp V.M. PATEL COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES Ganpat Vidyanagar Campus, Kherva 382711, Mehsana-Gandhinagar Highway, Dist. Mehsana, North Gujarat, India.

PREFACE
This Project Report has been prepared in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Subject: Practical Studies of the Second Year BBA Programme in the academic year 2009-2010. For preparing the Project Report, I have visited the company during the suggested duration from 15-10-2009 to 1-11-2009, to avail the necessary information. The blend of learning and knowledge acquired during my practical studies at the company is presented in this Project Report. The rationale behind visiting the company and preparing the Project Report is to study the evolution of the company, its development, its strategies and its functional departments like production department, marketing department, human resource department and financial department. The Project Report starts with the basic general information of the company and covers the information regarding its functional departments like production department, marketing department, human resource department and financial department. The information presented in this Project Report is obtained from sources like Company Personnel, Company Websites, Other Websites, Company Reports, and Other Literature. SYBBA Division A A A A B B Roll Nos. 51 35 18 16 112 104 Exam Nos.

Names of group members Khamar Dipen A. Gupta Kunal K. Chaudhari Rahulkumar S. Chaudhari Mitesh N. Patel Daksha D. Patel Bhagyashree K.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It was indeed an opportunity for me to visit CRYSTAL CERAMIC

INDUSTRIES PVT. LTD.and prepares a Project Report on the same during
SYBBA Programme. During my visit to the company for preparing this Project Report, I learnt many interesting things about the company, along with the aspects of industry as a whole. Preparation of such kind of report, which is based on secondary information, requires data gathering from many sources like Company Personnel, Company Websites, Other Websites, Company Reports, and Other Literature. I am thankful to Mr.Arvindbhai, who permitted me to visit the company and allowed me to prepare the Report. I am also thankful to the Departmental Heads of the company, who provided me the required information. Moreover I thank all those who supported me directly or indirectly in preparing this Report, without whose assistance, preparing this Report might have been much difficult for me. I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. K. M. Chudasama, (I/C Principal), Mr. Kamal Vyas (Project Coordinator) and other faculty members of the college for their valuable guidance and help in preparation of this Report. At last but not least, I am thankful to all my friends and other people, who helped me in preparation of this Project Report.

Names of group members Khamar Dipen A. Gupta Kunal K. Chaudhari Rahulkumar S. Chaudhari Mitesh N. Patel Daksha D. Patel Bhagyashree K.

SYBBA Division A A A A B B

Roll Nos. 51 35 18 16 112 104

Exam Nos.

INDEX
S. N. 1. 2. 3. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 PARTICULARS CERTIFICATE PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT GENERAL INFORMATION Company Profile History Form of Organization Organization Structure Bankers Auditors PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT Introduction Production Process Chart Production Process Types of Tiles Quality HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT Introduction Recruitment & Selection  Recruitment  Selection Promotion & Transfer Play roll system Organization on structure Labour welfare facilities Performance Appraisal Employee relation activity Personal data Promotion & transfer policy Time keeping system FINANCE DEPARTMENT Trading, Profit & Loss account of 2008 Balance sheet of 2008 Trading, Profit & Loss account of 2009 Balance sheet of 2009 Ratio Analysis PAGE I II III

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6 7

MARKETING DEPARTMENT Introduction Marketing function analysis Area Depot Channel of distribution Market Segmentation Market Research Chart Market Research Process Conclusion Bibliography

GENERAL INFORMATION

COMPANY PROFILE

NAME OF THE COMPANY Industries Pvt. Ltd.

Crystal Ceramic

REGISTERED ADDRESS Crystal Ceramic Industries Pvt. Ltd. 1st floor, Katanga Complex, Near S.T. stand, Himmatnagar-383001. Dist.Sabarkantha

 MISSION good quality tiles at Reasonable price
 CONTACT NO.

To provide

+912762324963, +912764267531 +912764267530 crystalsahara@yahoo.co.in www.crystalceramic.com At & Po: Kaiyal, Kaiyal-shedhavi Road, Tal: Kadi, Dist: Mehsana, (Gujarat-India)

 FAX NO.
 E-mail Address

 Website

 Corporate Office

HISTORY
Crystal Ceramic Industries Pvt. Ltd. was formed in 2001 by a few enthusiastic entrepreneurs. After 7 years, with more advanced infrastructure, wide range of products, broad network and bigger dreams company was renamed in 2008 as *Crystal Ceramic Industry Pvt. Ltd.* . Today, it has already become a renowned company in the ceramic industry. Crystal’s roots go back to 1990. Then it was started as a small tiles manufacturing unit under the name of Nijanand Ceramic Pvt. Ltd. having brand name of Sahara. But with a strong conviction and unending efforts, this small entity soon took shape as a major tiles manufacturing company in the country with production touching 4,80,000 Sq. Mts. per month. At Crystal, our only aim is to offer the very best. And in pursuit to offer sky-high standards, we have installed state-of-the-art equipments, employed certified experts, and started a quality assurance department and an R&D center. That’s not all. We have, indeed, extended our reach. We have more than 10 of our company depots and 150-plus agents spread across 4 zones of the country. And that number is growing constantly. In sum, it is crystal-clear that we are a premier ceramic company all set to make a global impression.

FORM OF ORGANIZATION
The size of the organization is based on the scale operation and capital employed in the organization. There are three types of an organization 1. small scale 2. large scale 3. medium scale The CRYSTAL is a large scale Private ltd. organization. The Company was set up on the Private basis.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

• Mr. B.P.PATEL • Mr.M.A.PATEL • Mr.R.M.PATEL • Mr.D.D.PATEL • Mr.G.K.PATEL • Mr.G.Z.PATEL • Mr.J.G.SUTHAR FACTORY STAFF: MARKETTING STAFF: OFFICE STAFF:

DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR Chief Operating Officer(CCO) Chief Developing Officer(CDO) 250 100 20

BANKERS
Punjab National Bank Shahibag Branch (Ahmedabad)

AUDITOR
K.K.PATEL & Associates (C.A.) F/51, 2nd floor, Akashganga Complex, Himmatnagar
C-creative R-reliable Y-youthful S-significant T-trustworthy A-aristocrat L-luxurious in the real sense

ORGANIZATION CHART

CHAIRMAN

MANAGING DIRECTOR

PRECEDENT OF PRODUCTION

PRECEDENT OF MARKETING

PRECEDENT OF FINANCE

PRECEDENT OF HRD

GENRAL MANAGER

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

FINANCE MANAGER

HRD MANAGER

DEPARTMENT INCHARGE

CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER

ACCOUNTANT

PERSONAL

CHIEF DEVELOPMENT OFFICER

CHIEF MARKETING OFFICER

CHIEF COMMERCIAL OFFICER

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION
Mostly all manufacturing units having different production process of any unit may be mostly depend upon the size and nature of the industry any quality of the raw material machinery and technology is used in this production.

The production process may be shorter or longer. In small scale industry the production process may be shorter but on other hand in large scale industry the production process may be longer. In large scale industry the longer production process may suffer many practical problems at the time of production.

Mostly the higher reliable company uses production process that contents the high technology, super power machinery, and very fast and latest components.

PRODUCTION PROCESS FLOW CHART
RAW MATERIAL

CRUSHING THE RAWMATERIAL

GRINDING & AUTOMIZATION

CLEANING & MIXING

QUALITY CONTROL

GLAZE LINE

FIRING

RECTIFICATION/ SQUARING AND CHAMFERING

DISPATCH & STOCK AVAILABILITY

Raw Materials:
• Ceramic Color • Compound • Powder • Boric Acid • Ceramic Pigments • Zinc Oxide • Alumina Bacon • STPP • Other Clays • Pigments • Frit • Glaze • CMC • Feldspar • Wollastonite • Corundum • Binding Material • Silica • Printing Bases • Matt • Borax Pent hydrate • Ukraine Clay • Quartz • Cal. Carbonates • Probitol • Kaolin • Kaolinate

Crushing the Raw Material:
First, the raw material particles are reduced to the desired size, which involves using a variety of equipment during several crushing and grinding steps. Primary crushing is done in ball mills, rapidly moving steel or ceramic balls. And for fine grinding, craftspeople use ball mills that consist of large rotating cylinders partially filled with steel or ceramic grinding media of spherical shape.

Grinding & Atomization:
Obtaining shapely and smooth granules

This is wet grinding phase where inside large continuous grinding machines, water and the raw materials are mixed together to create a waterbased suspension known as the slip. The slip is then injected at a high pressure and atomized inside large steel cylinders called atomizers wherein it gets into contact with a flow of hot air at a temperature of 500 to 600°C, in this process the water in the mixture evaporates almost instantaneously. The granules obtained in this way are uniform and smooth, round in shape and features a fine grain size. This, together with the controlled moisture (between 4 and 7%) of the atomized product is just what is required to give the right compactness during the subsequent pressing phase.

Cleaning and mixing:
The ingredients are passed through a series of screens to remove any under- or over-sized materials. Screens, usually operated in a sloped position, are vibrated mechanically or electromechanically to improve flow. If the body is to be formed wet, the ingredients are then combined with water to produce the desired consistency. Magnetic filtration is then used to remove iron from the slurries, as these watery mixtures of insoluble material are called. Because iron occurs so pervasively in most clays and will impart an undesirable reddish hue to the body if it oxidizes, removing it prior to firing is essential. If the body is to be formed dry, shell mixers, ribbon mixers, or intensive mixers are typically used.

Quality Control:
Perfection at every phase

The character of the raw materials is important in maintaining quality during the manufacturing process. The chemical composition, mineral phase, particle size distribution, and colloidal surface area affect the fired and unfired properties of theporcelain. With unfired body, the properties evaluated include viscosity, plasticity, shrinkage, and strength. With fired porcelain, strength, porosity, color, and thermal expansion are measured. Many of these properties are monitored and controlled during manufacturing using statistical methods. Both the raw materials and the process

parameters (milling time and forming pressure, for example) can be adjusted to achieve desired quality.

Glazing
The enamels are prepared in the color workshops, by mixing together vitreous flakes called frits, kaolin, siliceous sand, oxides and pigments for coloring ceramics. Inside the enameling booths, many different techniques are used for applying the enamel uniformly to the surface of the tiles. A spatula spreads the enamel for decorating the tiles through the meshes of the silk screens. Combining several silk-screen applications it is possible to create complex patterns and extremely attractive effects.

Firing
Firing is a further heating step that is done in roller firing kiln. A periodic kiln consists of sealed chamber with burner ports and flues. It can fire only one batch of ware at a time, but it is more flexible since the firing cycle can be adjusted for each product. A tunnel kiln is a refractory chamber several hundred feet or more in length. It maintains certain temperature zones continuously, with the ware being pushed from one zone to another. Typically, the ware will enter a preheating zone and move through a central firing zone before leaving the kiln via a cooling zone. This type of kiln is usually more economical and energy efficient than a periodic kiln. During the firing process, a variety of reactions take place. First, carbonbased impurities burn out, chemical water evolves (at 215 to 395 degrees Fahrenheit or 100 to 200 degrees Celsius), and carbonates and sulfates begin to decompose (at 755 to 1,295 degrees Fahrenheit or 400 to 700 degrees Celsius). Gases are produced that must escape from the ware.

On further heating, some of the minerals break down into other phases, and the fluxes present (feldspar and flint) react with the decomposing minerals to form liquid glasses (at 1,295 to 2,015 degrees Fahrenheit or 700 to 1,100 degrees Celsius). These glass phases are necessary for shrinking and bonding the grains. After the desired density is achieved (greater than 2,195 degrees Fahrenheit or 1,200 degrees Celsius), the ware is cooled, which causes the liquid glass to solidify, thereby forming a strong bond between the remaining crystalline grains. After cooling, the porcelain is complete.

Rectification/ Squaring and chamfering:
Making it 'joint-free'
To minimize the manufacturing limitations like variation in length, width and straightness of side’s rectification or squaring and chamfering process becomes necessary, it offers accuracy to diagonal dimensions to meet perfection of joints without interruption in continuity, means 'joint free' tiles.

Dispatch and stock availability:
As well as some complimentary items available on a special order basis (identified by a Name of Design Mentioned in Product Brochure). Many other styles and colors are available in our company stock yard on an order basis. Please visit our dealers showrooms or consult your sales representative. Due to our constant effort to offer our customers the latest designs and technical advances stock is on an “as available basis.” Please order your tiles well in advance to avoid out-of-stock situations, and to allow for shipping of special orders. If we are out-of-stock on an item that you have selected from our inventory program, please anticipate delivery in 15 to 30 days. Consult our sales representative in each case, and be aware that weather and other conditions are out of our control and can delay production or delivery of products. Selecting from available inventory or incoming stock is advisable whenever possible. In any case, all orders, whether solicited or unsolicited, are subject to CRYSTAL CERAMIC INDUSTRIES PVT. LTD.. At Kaiyal, Kaiyal Shedhavi Road, Taluka. Kadi, Dist. Mehsana, acceptance, in whole or in part, upon their receipt in writing by us and, after acceptance, to our ability to fill any orders so accepted. CRYSTAL CERAMIC INDUSTRIES PVT. LTD. will be under no liability for its failure to fill any accepted order when such failure is due to causes and

contingencies beyond its control, including, but not limited to, delays in production or shipment, strikes, labor troubles, domestic or foreign wars, fire, floods, explosions, accidents, sabotage, inability to obtain essential material or equipment, and orders or requisitions by the foreign Government. It is understood and agreed by you that in no event shall CRYSTAL CERAMIC INDUSTRIES PVT. LTD. be liable for direct, resultant, incidental, consequential or any other damages. All unfilled orders are subject to the conditions of sale in effect on the date of shipment.

TYPES OF TILES

Porcelain Elevation Metallic Eco Granostone Ruston

24” X24” 18” X18” 18” X12” 24” X 24” 18” X18” 24” X 24” 24” X24” 18” X18”

603MM X603MM 455MM X455MM 444MM X296MM 603MM X603MM 455MM X455MM 603MM X603MM 603MM X603MM 455MM X455MM

⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒

PRODUCTION

PORCELAIN

Time Period
Monthly Quarterly Yearly

Production
325000 SQ.MT. 2690000 SQ.MT. 900000 SQ. MT.

ELEVATION

METALLIC

ECO

GRANOSTONE

RUSTONE

QUALITY POLICY
At Crystal, quality is our prime concern. They’re an ISO 9001:2000 certified company which says a lot about our strict quality controls. They have a dedicated quality control department where rigorous tests are carried out at all stages to ensure that our products are defect-free. Not only that, their team of highly-qualified experts makes 100% sure that no product is passed without undergoing our strict quality assurance process. Nevertheless, they compete with our own quality standards and always strive to better them, perfect them and innovate them by experimenting and implementing various methods and technologies.

HUMAN RESOURSE DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION
Personnel department is one of the vital departments in any organization today. Main is active factored of production and there is doubt that it is the main controls & manages machine, material, money & market. It is like the heart of any enterprise, without manpower the organization cannot run or work. Crystal has a personnel department which deals with various matters relating to the personnel.

During our visit in Crystal, We found that there is a department of human resources development i.e. personnel department, which performs the function like personnel administrator, wage & salary administration, staffing, training, motivation, industrial relation recruitment and selection, personnel records and personnel audit. Thus we can say that thought giving full guidance, advice, motivation, etc to the employee and increasing their morale. Crystal has achieved its short term goals promptly and built the structure for long time objective. Due to the efficiency and competency of HRD manger, there has been no strike in Crystal, right its establishment and employees are promptly satisfied with the job, which has been offered to him.

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION
RECRUITMENT
Recruitment can be defined as, “it is process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for a job in an organization.”

Recruitment is the most important task of personnel administration. In Crystal, recruitment of the employees is done as per the company using the following sources of market. (1) By advertisement (2) Government employment (3) Internal promotion

SELECTION
The selection procedure is concerned to securing necessary information about an employee rather application. This information is secured in to different various kinds of steps or stages. Company screen out those applicants, which are suitable for that job. For selection Crystal uses internal & external sources. They have application blank for applicant they uses the employee’s references. The company is also advertisement and some other sources like advertisement and some other organization. The selection procedure of Crystal is quite simple and very clean.

SELECTION PROCESS CHART
SELECTION PROCEDURE OF CRYSTAL IS AS UNDER:VACANCY IN ANY DEPARTMENT

DIRECT APPLICATION

COLLECTION OF APPLICATION

SCRITINISATION OF APPLICATION

INTERVIEW

MEDICAL CHEACK UP

SELECTION

SELECTION PROCESS

VACANCY IN ANY DEPARTMENT:
Where there is any organization department then they collect information through collages, institution, university etc.

COLLECTION OF APPLICATION:
They collect application from post which are directly received. They collect list from district employment exchange campus interview etc.

SCRITINISATION OF APPLICATION:
After collection of application, they are studies in detail & not suitable applications are rejected & other kept for further process.

INTERVIEW:
Remaining applications are then called for interview in this interview person personality, experiences, subject knowledge, general knowledge etc. Are tested Interview result declared on that day.

MEDICAL CHECK UP:
Selected person sent for medical checkup & when person medically fit then section is done.

PLACEMENT:
Medical fit person gave offer letter & then person is joining in a work. In Crystal probation period is different for different types of person. 12 month for officers. 6 month for clericals. 3 month for workers

If any person is not suitable for his job then they have a right to terminate their services also.

PROMOTION & TRANSFER
When a person who work in any organization get more salary and have higher responsibility and power then it is call promotion. Promotion is in other words is the process of making upper change in the post of employee. Promotion is also one of the sources of internal sources of recruitment.

Promotion is given for encouragement so the employee feels more motivated and works harder in organization. Promotion policy of Crystal is also quite simple and they give promotion to their employees in both the ways as per the seniority and also as per performance. Transfer is nothing but when the area of employee is changed in any sort of action it may be the change of department or it may be the change of other unit. Transfer is also the source of internal recruitment and transfer is also done in situation of giving punishment. By the transfer if require need of other is also can be fulfilled. The policy of transfer is implemented in this unit is same. The transfer of any employee is done in very few occasions and it is temporary.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisal means a systematic evolution of an employee’s performance on the job in term of requirement of the job. Performance appraisal is concerned with merit ranking which involves seriating the ability of personnel for promotion. Crystal appraises the performance on the each employee. Though the appraisal system, appraisal knows the eligibility of each employee for promotion and accordingly the arrangement is made regarding either giving promotion or giving higher salary.

WAGE & SALARY ADMINISTRATION
Wage and salary represent the substantial part of the total cost in an organization. The administration of the wages and salary is performed for establishing & maintaining the equitable wage and salary structure and lower cost

structure. It refers to the financial aspect of need and motivation as well as reward and accordingly the manager interpret and analyze the need of workers. The wages and salary are depending upon the work, qualification, seniority and all other facts. The performance is also taken in to consideration at the time of giving salary. The salary is paid in Crystal is as per the rules of government and there is no conflict so far regarding the salary. The salary of higher management is quite higher in organization.

EMPLOYEE’S FACILITIES
Sometimes expect salary some other benefits are also require for good work force because by this kind of facility one can motivate the personnel in organization. Some benefits are also provided by Crystal. Those are as follows: ⇒ Bonus ⇒ Canteen ⇒ Provident fund ⇒ Medical ⇒ Residential Quarters ⇒ Sports Activities

BONUS:
As we see that the company is giving extra facility to its employees and bonus is good example of it. The company is giving 20% bonus to its employees every year.

CANTEEN:

The company provides beautiful canteen to its all work and staff members. The good food can be found there. The cheap food is provided to the employees and half amount is paid by the company itself.

PROVIDENT FUND:
Provident fund is also provided to employee by a company. But only for permanent employees.

MEDICAL:
The company is providing their employees ESI benefit and for managerial staff they provide them one- month salary as a medical expense.

RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS:
The company is providing the quarters for staying to the employees with the facilities of water & electricity at free of cost.

SPORTS ACTIVITIES:
The company is also providing sports facilities for their enjoyment. The company holds sports competition annually for the employees.

PERSONNEL RECORD
The Crystal Ceramic Industries Pvt. Ltd. maintains records of present as well as past personnel. The company taking help of computer for record of personnel data. The company issued identity card, shift card to its employees. The company also maintains the file of records like name, address, exhalation, transfer, P.F., etc.

EMPLOYEES FACTORY STAFF OFFICE STAFF MARKETTING STAFF

NUMBERS OF EMPLOYEES 250 20 100

TIME KEEPING SYSTEM
This department is engaged in tacking attendance of the employee and worker of the company has manual time keeping system. There are three shifts for workers.
SHIFT FIRST TIMES 8 AM TO 4 PM

SECOND THIRD

4 PM TO 12PM 12PM TO 8AM

The company has also adopted an advance logical home keeping system which function for the accurate computing workers attendance and order time working hours. The workers allowed working for 8 hours per day, but he want to do take overtime work. He has take permission of shift supervisor. If this permission is received by supervisor, he can do the overtime work.

FINANCE DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION
Financial management is that part of managerial activity, which is concerned with planning and controlling of firm’s financial resources. It is an applied branch of general management; chief accountant duties of financial management are planning and controlling management of corporate finance. Financial management is called upon to take their major decision, financial and dividend decision.

Financial management involves the implementation of this three major decision. It is an integrate part of overall management rather than a staff activity concerned with fund raising operations with sound management of financial resources. Business can’t achieve its objectives and may occur heavy losses. The major finance is procurement of money needed by the business, keeping and increasing the invested money through sound financial policies and programs and generating income or profit for the business.

TRADING, PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDED ON, 31ST MARCH, 2009

PARTICULARS
INCOME

SCHEDULE

YEAR(2008 YEAR(2007 -2009) Rs. -2008) Rs.

Turnover Other Income Increase / (Decrease) in Stock Total Rs… EXPENDITURE Manufacturing & other expenses Employee Emoluments Administrative & Selling Expenses Interest & Financial Charges

M N

726585633 803419 3497966 730887018

121810911 532227 51267344 173610482

O P Q R

522486128 56288788 57744149 49735893 686254958 44632060 16462296 28169764

143477246 2577981 5958669 8796761 160810657 12799825 3556426 9243399

Profit before depreciation Less: Depreciation Net Profit Before Tax Provision for taxation -current Tax -F.B.Tax -Deferred Tax Net Profit after Tax Add: Balance b/f from the previous year Amount available for Appropriations APPROPRIATIONS General Reserve Proposed Dividend on Equity Shares Tax on Dividend Balance carried to Balance Sheet

E

3200000 580000 7037189 17352575 8243499 25595974

925000 75000 0 8243399 0 8243399

0 2001300 3401121 23254553

0 0 0 8243399

BALANCE SHEET AS ON 31ST MARCH, 2009

PARTICULARS

SCHEDUL E

YEAR(2008 -2009) Rs.

YEAR(20072008) Rs.

SOURCES OF FUNDS SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS a) Share Capital b) Reserve & Surplus LOAN FUNDS A) Secured Creditors B) Unsecured Creditors Deferred Tax Liabilities TOTAL Rs… APPLICATION OF FUNDS 1.FIXED ASSETS a) Gross Block b) Less: Depreciation c) Net Block Capital Work in Progress 2.INVESMENTS 3.CURRENT ASSETS , LAON & ADVANCES a) Inventories b) Sundry Debtors c) Cash & bank balances d) Loan & Advances Less: 4.CURRENT LIABILITIES & PROVISION NET : CURRENT ASSETS MISC. EXPENSES TOTAL Rs…

A B

40026000 143358553

39652000 86851399

C D

206174923 141250050

237615804 122084462

7037189 537846715

0 486203665

E 383019027 44079904 338939123 0 F 2249006 336846440 27617607 309228833 19298858 2245308

G H I J

141263160 116597715 8895647 14756114 281512636 86262103 195250533

122853704 52428577 17432412 20173902 212888595 59336391 153552204 1878462 486203665

K

L

1408053 537846715

RATIO ANALYSIS

Ratio analysis is one of the techniques of financial analysis where ratio are used as yardstick for evaluating the financial condition and performance of a firm. Ratio may be classified according to function or tests as solvency, liquidity or profitability ratio and according to nature as leverage ratio and activity ratios. LIQUIDITY RATIO: A liquidity ratio is ratio, which points out whether there are sufficient liquid resources to meet short term liabilities. They are meant to measure the company’s financial strength to meet current obligation. e.g. current ratio, quick ratio, etc. SOLVENCY RATIO: These are long term ratio a pointer to future and long term solvency of the company in which creditors, bankers and financial institutions have great stake. E.g. proprietary ratio, debt equity ratio. PROFITABILITY RATIO: Ratio that is means to measure the profit earning capacity of the firm in its business operation fall under this category. E.g. gross profit ratio, net profit ratio. ACTIVITY RATIO: These ratios establish a relationship between sales and various assets of the firm, how well the assets are being made use of and the speed with which they are converted into sales.

CURRENT RATIO: Current ratio is significant ratio, which establishes a relationship between current assets and current liabilities of a firm during a given period of time. It is also as “working capital” ratio. Total current assets Current ratio = -------------------------Total current liability Year 2008 2009 Current assets 212888595 281512636 Current liabilities 59336391 86262103
current ratio analysis

Ratio 3.59 3.26

300000000 250000000 200000000
C.A 150000000

2008 2009

100000000 50000000 0
year

NET PROFIT RATIO: Net profit Net profit ratio: Net sales year 2009 net profit 8243339 Net sales 726585633 Ratio 1.13 * 100

PROPRIETARY RATIO: Proprietary ratio: Year 2008 2009 Proprietor funds total assets * 100 Total assets 212888595 281512636 ratio 59.42% 65.14%

Proprietor funds 126503399 183384553

P ropreitorsR tio a

300000000 250000000 200000000 T l ota 150000000 As es s ts 100000000 50000000 0 YE AR

2008 2009

P ropreitersRatio
20000 0000 10000 5000 Propreiters 10000 0000 F und 5000 0000 0 Yea r 20 08 20 09

FIXED CAPITAL ASSETS RATIO: Long term liability + share capital + reserve fixed capital Fixed assets 309228833 338939123 Ratio 1.18 1.15

Fixed capital assets ratio: year 2008 2009

Long term lia. + share cap. + reserve 364119203 389559476

fixed capital assets ratio
1.18 1.17 ratio 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 year 2008 2009

MARKETING DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION
The concepts of market are very important. Marketing is a comprehensive learn. It includes primary resources such as human resources, finance and management as well as a set of activities in order to direct the flow of goods & services from producer to consumer in the process of exchange & distribution. Marketing defined as the process of exchange between seller & buyer. It involves a number of inter related activities designed to plan promote, distribute & price a product or service in order to meet the wants & needs of both the parties in exchange. Transaction via - Consumers & producer Philip Kotler defines marketing as “The human activity directed at satisfying needs & wants through exchange process.” Marketing is the “creating and delivery of standard of living to the society.” A total system of interacting the business activities designed to plan, price promote & distribute want satisfying products & services to present & potential customers. According to the committee of American marketing association, Marketing consists of performance of business activity that direct the flow of goods and services from producers or supplier to the consumers and users.

MARKETING FUNCTION ANALYSIS
Marketing is only function which directly deals with consumer. The heart of modern marketing is creating customer values and satisfaction. The common definition of marketing is delivery of customer satisfaction Profit. The main goal of marketing is to attract new consumer by providing superior values and to keep current customer by delivery satisfaction.

Marketing is so basic that it can’t be consider a separate function. It is the whole business seen from the viewpoint of its final result that is from the customer viewpoint.

Marketing is the analysis planning implementation and control of programmers designed to bring about desired exchanges with target audiences for the purpose of personal mutual gain. It relies heavily on the adoption and coordination of product, price, promotion and place for achieving effective response.

AREA DEPOT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.
Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Baroda (Gujarat) Surat (Gujarat) Bangalore (Karnataka) Manglore (Karnataka) Hubli (Karnataka) Chandigarh (Punjab) New Delhi (Delhi) Ghaziabad (U.P.) Guwahati (Assam) Indore (M.P.) Bhopal (M.P.) Jaipur (Rajasthan) Jodhpur (Rajasthan) Kolkata (West Bengal) Mumbai (Maharashtra) Nagpur (Maharashtra) Pune (Maharashtra) Secunderabad (A.P.)

CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION
Most producers use intermediaries to bring their product to market. They try to force a distribution channel. “A set of interdependent organization involved in the process of making a product or services available for use or consumption by the consumer or business users.” Number of the intermediate shows the length of the distribution channel.

DIRECT MARKETING CHANNEL:
Direct marketing channel has no intermediary levels. It consists of a company selling directly to the consumers.

INDIRECT MARKETING CHANNEL:
Indirect marketing channels have one or more than one intermediaries levels. As above diagram all the distribution channels level except channel the examples of indirect marketing channels. Now, we will discuss that Crystal is using which types of distribution channel. Crystal is using both types of Marketing Channel. (1) Indirect marketing channel (2) Direct marketing channel

CRYSTAL DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL
CRYSTAL CERAMIC INDUSTRIES PVT. LTD.

AREA DEPOT

DISTRIBUTERS

RETAILERS

CONSUMER

MARKET SEGMENTATION
“Marketing segmentation is the sub dividing of a market in to distinguish sub set of customers, where any subsets of customers may be selected as a target market to be reached with distinguish marketing mix.” In segmenting markets, markets can apply Geographic, Demographic & Psychographic variable related to consumer characteristics as well as Behavioral variables related to consumer responses.

A.

GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION:
Geographic segmentation calls for dividing the market into different geographic units such as: nations, states, regions, countries, cities or neighborhoods. A Company may decide to operate in one or a few geographical area, or to operate in all areas but pay attention to local variations in geographic difference in needs and wants.

B.

DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION:
Demographic segmentation dividing market into group based on demographic variable such as age, gender, family size, family life style, income, occupation, education, religion, generation and nationality.

1. 2. 3.

Age And Lifecycle Segmentation Gender Segmentation Income Segmentation

AGE AND LIFE CYCLE SEGMENT:
Age & life cycle segmentation offering different product or using different market approaches for different age & lifecycle groups.

GENDER SEGMENTATIN:
Gender segmentation dividing a market into different groups based on gender. Gender segmentation has long been used in Clothing, cosmetics and magazines.

INCOME SEGMENTATION:
Income segmentation divides a market into different income groups. The marketers of products and services such as automobiles, boats, clothing, cosmetics, financial services and travel have long used income segmentation. Crystal has adopted geographic segmentation. The high-class people used Alaska platinum tiles and lower Class people used Alaska silver.

MARKET RESERCH CHART

Define the problem and research objective

Develop the research plan

Collect the information

Analyze the information

Present the findings

Make the decision

MARKET RESERCH PROCESS
“Marketing research as the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and finding relevant to specific marketing situation facing the company.” Marketing research process as under:

A. DEFINE THE PROBLEM AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:
Problems should not be defined either too broadly or too narrowly. A very broad or vague definition leads to excessive wastage of resources. Too narrow a definition leads to inadequate data or information that is to help take an effective decision. • • What is to be researched ( the content, the scope) and Why is it to be researched ( the decision that are to be made)

B. DEVELOP THE RESEARCH PLAN:
The second stage of marketing research requires develop the most efficient plan for gathering the needed information. This involves decision on the sources, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, and contact methods.

C. COLLECT THE INFORMATION:
Four major problems arise: • • • • Some respondents will not be at home and must be contacted again or replaced. Other respondents will refuse to co-operate Others will give biased or dishonest answers Some interviewers will be based or dishonest

D. ANALYZE THE INFORMATION:
The researcher tabulates the data and develops frequency distributions. Averages and measures of dispersion are computed for the major variables. The researcher will also apply some advanced statistical techniques and decision models in the hope of discovering additional findings.

E. PRESENT THE FINDINGS:
The researcher should present findings that are relevant to major marketing decisions facing management.

F. MAKE THE DECISION:
Depending on their confidence in the finding, managers decide to use it, discard it, or carry out more research.

CONCLUSION
Bachelor of business administration students have to visit any industrial place and after completing this visit they have to prepare a project report on this organization. I have visited crystal ceramic and complete my industrial tour. I have to prepare the project report on the daily work of crystal ceramic. I have included all the related information about the company.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
I have referred following things for complete of my project:  The website : www.cryatalsahara.com  The information given by the company  The booklet of the company about the finance department

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