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Conjugate Acid-Base pairs

& Generalized acid-base reaction:
HxA + H2O x H+ + A- + H2O HA + B l A + HB
Describe this as an equilibrium expression, K (often denotes KA or
A is the conjugate base of HA, and HB is the conjugate
[ A][ H  ]x
acid of B.
More simply, HA A- + H+
Geokimia TKG 2201
[ H x A] HA is the conjugate acid, A- is the conjugate base
H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
Strength of an acid or base is then related to the Ferian Anggara
dissociation constant Big K, strong acid/base!
pK = -log K as before, lower pK=stronger acid/base!

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Pelapukan batuan dan pembentukan mineral lempung Now consider the acid-base reaction: No. Materi
Ags/Sept Oktober
31/1 7/8 14/15 21/22 28/29 5/6 19/20
Air asam tambang NH3 + H2O l NH4+ + OH- 1 Pendahuluan
2 Sejarah pembentukan bumi

In this case, water acts as an acid, with OH- its conjugate 3 Asam dan basa
4 Termodinamika

base. Substances that can act as either acids or bases are 5 Reaksi Redok
6 Geokimia batuan beku
called amphoteric. 7 Geokimia batuan metamorf

Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is also an amphoteric substance: No. Materi

November Desember

Acid: HCO3- + H2O l H3O+ + CO32-

1 Geokimia batuan sedimen FA
2 Geokimia lingkungan FA
3 Komposisi air permukaan FA
Base: HCO3- + H3O+ l H2O + H2CO30 4 Isotop stabil
5 Isotop radioaktif
6 Siklus karbon FA
7 Material organik FA

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Weathering and Sedimentation in the Rock Cycle Strong Acids/ Bases Acid-Base Geochemistry
Our geology so far has focused on internally-driven processes: plate
tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism, orogeny. Strong Acids more readily release H+ into water, they more 
The rest of geology is driven fully dissociate Acid any compound that releases a H+ when dissolved in water
by surface processes: the H2SO4 2 H+ + SO42- Base any compound that releases an OH- when dissolved in
hydrologic cycle (rainfall, water
streams, ice), gravity, Strong Bases more readily release OH- into water, they
aqueous chemistry. more fully dissociate Bronstead->
Weathering and erosion are NaOH Na+ + OH- Acid donates a proton
the processes that form and Base receive/accept a proton
transport form sediment.
Strength DOES NOT EQUAL Concentration! >
Sedimentation, burial and Acid electron pair donor acceptor
lithification are the processes
that transform weathering Base electron pair donor
products into sedimentary
10 Geochemistry Geochemistry Geochemistry 4
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Weathering feedbacks: chemical and physical Chemical weathering Weathering

Physical weathering and chemical weathering generally proceed in The most common alteration product of feldspars is kaolinite, Al2Si2O5(OH)4, which There is a distinction between weathering and erosion:
parallel in most environments. serves as a model for the formation of clays by weathering generally.
Physical and chemical weathering promote one another: Weathering converts exposed rock to soil in place
The reactions of feldspars to kaolinite illustrate some of the basic trends:
Formation of cracks by physical weathering increases reactive surface area, K, Na, Ca are highly soluble and readily leached by chemical weathering. Erosion transports dissolved or fragmented material from the source area
promoting chemical weathering.
Chemical weathering replaces intact interlocking minerals with weak clays or Excess Si can be removed as silicic acid although quartz is relatively insoluble. where weathering is occurring to a depositional environment .
void space, making the rock easier to physically disaggregate, promoting Al is extremely insoluble, and is essentially conserved as source rock is converted to clays.
physical weathering Weathering is a hydration process, leaving H2O bound in the altered minerals.
Most of the earths surface is covered by exposure of sediment or
2 KAlSi3O8 + 9 H2O + 2 H+ -> Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 2 K+ + 4 H4SiO4
sedimentary rock, by area.
Note the H+ on the left- But the sediment layer is thin in most places, with respect to overall
Natural waters are acidic due to equilibrium of carbonic acid with CO2 in the atmosphere crustal thickness, so sedimentary rock is a minor volume fraction of the
CO2 (g) + H2O = H2CO3 crust (in part by definition: once buried to the mid-crust, sediments get
2 KAlSi3O8 + 9 H2O + 2 H2CO3 -> Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 2 K+ + 4 H4SiO4 + 2HCO3 cooked to metasediments).
Alteration of rock transforms acidic rainwater into neutral surface or ground water, with
bicarbonate the dominant species (relative to CO2 and CO32).
Mg and Fe2+ are also readily leached, but Fe3+ 
alteration of mafic rocks is hematite.

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Chemical weathering Rates of Chemical Weathering Weathering: chemical and physical

Many factors affect the rate at which a rock will weather, as summarized here. The destruction of rocks at the Earths surface by weathering
Some of these variables are local (e.g., source rock), some are global. These has two fundamental modes of operation:
include temperature and pCO2, leading to the CO2-weathering feedback cycle.
Chemical weathering is dissolution or alteration of the original
minerals, usually by reactions with aqueous solutions
Chemical weathering puts ions from the source minerals into
solution for subsequent erosion by transport in flowing water as
dissolved load.
Physical weathering is fragmentation into progressively smaller
particles, from intact outcrop to boulders and on down to
mineral fragments and sand grains.
Physical weathering makes loose pieces of rock available for
downslope movement by mass wasting or transport in flowing
water as suspended or bed load.

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Soil Formation Chemical weathering Chemical weathering

Chemically and physically Chemical weathering is driven by thermodynamic
weathered rock that is not energy minimization, just like chemical reactions
eroded or transported but at high temperature.
remains in place becomes The system seeks the most stable assemblage of
soil. phases.
The differences are that (1) kinetics are slow and
A weathered surface develops metastability is common; (2) the stable minerals
a stratified structure, with under wet, ambient conditions are different from
intact rock at the bottom (or those at high T and P; (3) solubility in water and its
inside) and maximum dependence on water chemistry (notably pH) are
weathering at the top . major determinants in the stability of minerals in
Leachable ions are A fresh rock made of olivine and pyroxenes will
transported downwards by end up as clays and iron oxides, with other
groundwater flow, possibly Some minerals are congruently soluble in acidic water, leaving no residue elements in solution
redeposited as water The most abundant is calcite: CaCO3 + H2CO3 = Ca2+ + 2HCO3 (the Tums reaction)
chemistry adjusts towards A fresh rock made of feldspars and quartz will end
Effects of dissolution (and precipitation) of calcite can be dramatic, to say the least. up as clays, hydroxides, and quartz in most waters.
equilibrium with the
developing soil profile.
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Redoks Soil Formation

The mineralogy and thickness of soil layers depends on source rock, climate (temperature
Reduksi oksidasi and rainfall), and age.
Berubahnya bilangan oksidasi dalam sebuah reaksi kimia
Oksidasi: peningkatan bilangan oksidasi, pengurangan elektron
Reduksi: pengurangan bilangan oksidadi, penambahan elektron

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Eh dan p Acid mine drainage (AMD)

The established convention is to measure AMD is caused when water flows over or through sulfur-bearing
potentials in a standard hydrogen materials forming solutions of net acidity.
electrode cell (at standard temperature AMD comes mainly from abandoned coal mines and currently active
and pressure). mining.
The cell consists on one side of a Reaksi Oksidasi: Mine drainage is metal-rich water formed from chemical reaction
platinum plate coated with fine Pt
powder that is surrounded by H2 gas
between water and rocks containing sulfur-bearing minerals
Mine drainage is formed when pyrite, an iron sulfide, is exposed and
maintained at a partial pressure of 1 atm
and immersed in a solution of unit H+
Reaksi Reduksi: reacts with air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron.
activity. Some or all of this iron can precipitate to form the red, orange, or
The other side consists of the electrode yellow sediments in the bottom of streams containing mine drainage
and solution under investigation. The acid runoff further dissolves heavy metals such as copper, lead,
mercury into ground or surface water
The rate and degree by which acid-mine drainage proceeds can be
increased by the action of certain bacteria.
Eh= ? : hidrogen fluorida
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P dan pH diagram: pertemuan selanjutnya! Reaksi substitusi Acid mine drainage (AMD)
Contaminated drinking water
Disrupted growth and reproduction of aquatic plants and animals
Persamaan ion:
Corroding effects of acid on parts of infrastructure such as bridges
FeS2 + 7/2 O2 + H2O Fe2++2SO42- + 2H+


Geochemistry 36 Geochemistry 33 Geochemistry 28