You are on page 1of 14

NOVA ANTIKA

DUKLJA
V
POGREBNE FORME I OBIAJI RANOG FUNERARY PRACTICES IN THE EARLY IRON
ELJEZNOG DOBA U MAKEDONIJI AGE IN MACEDONIA

Aleksandra Papazovska Sanev UDK 903.5(497.7)09


Archeological Museum of Macedonia
Kej Dimitar Vlahov b.b. Skopje, R. Macedonia
papazsan@hotmail.com

Apstrakt: Sahranjivanje u ranom eljeznom dobu pred- Abstract: The burial in the early Iron Age represents an
stavlja nestabilnu i produenu refleksiju kasnog bronza- unstable and extended reflection of the late Bronze Age,
nog doba, koje e od X vijeka prije n.e. da se razvije u lokalnu which will, starting from the tenth century BC, develop into
eljeznodobsku kulturu. Porijeklo i pojava nekropola iz a local Iron Age culture. The origin and occurrence of the
Povardarsko-Ulanci grupe, ukazuju na uticaje sa juga, za necropolis from Povardarje-Ulanci group, indicate on the
razliku od nekropola sa sjevera koje su organizovane u polja influences from the south, unlike the necropolis from the
urni. Ritual sahranjivanja u Povardarskim nekropolama je north that were organized in the fields of urns. The ritual
zgrena inhumacija. Prelazni period je bio propraen sa of burials in the cemeteries of Povardarje is shriveled
krupnim socijalnim, ekonomskim i kulturnim problemima inhumation. The transition period was followed with major
koji su se u sahranjivanju manifestovali sa dva osnovna social, economic and cultural problems that manifested in
pogrebna rituala, spaljivanje i inhumiranje. Istovremeno two basic funeral rituals, burning and inhumation. At the
praktikovanje ova dva rituala govori o nestabilnosti u same time, practicing these two rituals are about instability
sferi sahranjivanja, tj. o mijeanju razliitih kulturnih i in the sphere of burial, i.e. the mixture of different cultural
etnikih elemenata. Sahranjivanje u ranom eljeznom and ethnic elements. The burials in the early Iron Age
dobu podrazumijeva praktikovanje ispruene inhumacije. imply the practice of extended inhumation. Necropolis
Nekropole se generalno razlikuju u organizaciji, postoje: generally differ in the organization, there are: straight
ravne i tumularne nekropole. Tumularne nekropole pred- and tumuli necropolis. Tumuli necropolises represent the
stavljaju najkarakteri-stiniju pojavu koja treba da se most typical phenomenon that should be considered as
razmatra kao kulturno socijalna kategorija, preko koje se a cultural - social category, which are viewed through the
sagledavaju drutvene i socijalno ekonomske promjene social and socio - economic changes in one community.
u jednoj zajednici. Izdvajaju se dva tipa tumula: Klanovski There are two main types of tumuli: clan (typical early
(karaktoristini za rano eljezno doba) i Familijarni tumuli Iron Age) and family tumuli (typical late Iron Age). They
(karakteristini za kasno eljezno doba). Oni predstavljaju represent the burial of cattle - pastoral populations related
sahranjivanje stoarsko pastoralnih populacija vezanih to the conservative regions. The graves of their ancestors
za konzervativnije regione. Grobovi njihovih predaka have the most significant meaning, over which they identify
imaju najvee znaenje, preko kojih identifikuju sebe themselves as part of a community - tribe. This method of
kao dio zajednice plemena. Ovaj nain sahranjivanja u burial was completely overcome by the late sixth century
potpunosti je bio prevazien krajem VI vijeka prije n.e. sa BC with decomposition of clan system.
raspadanjem rodovsko plmenskog sistema.

Kljune rijei: zgrena inhumacija, pruena inhumacija, Key words: shriveled inhumation, extended inhumation,
kremacija, dvojni tumuli, Klanovski tumuli, Familijarni cremation, double tumuli, clan tumuli, family tumuli,
tumuli, pogrebni obiaji, ritual, urne. burial customs, ritual, urns.

9
Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18 Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji...

Sahranjivanje i pogrebni obiaji predstavljaju Burials and funerary practices are powerful cult-
znaajan element koji na najeksplicitniji nain predstavlja ural features, as they most explicitly represent the
tradicionalna, kulturna, ekonomska, socijalna i religiozna culture, traditions, economy, as well as social and reli-
shvatanja jedne zajednice. Nainom sahranjivanja i pog- gious practices of a particular community. In the funerary
rebnim obiajima, svaka zajednica uspostavlja naj- practices of the Iron Age communities we find the most
znaajnije elemente svoje materijalne i prije svega significant characteristics of their material and spiritual
duhovne kulture. U tom kontekstu kult mrtvih je imao culture to be the key elements for the burial rites itself. The
dominantno mesto u ukupnoj duhovnoj kulturi eljezno- relations with the dead were apparently very important
dobskih zajednica. for the living, as were their beliefs in the afterlife, too. It
eljezno doba u Makedoniji, predstavlja epohu u is very interesting to observe the special place and role
kojoj se uspostavljaju novi drutveni, ekonomski i kulturni of the dead, and their influence in the daily life of the
odnosi. Na poetku eljeznog doba ti su odnosi jo uvijek community. It could be concluded that the cult of the dead
nestabilni i predstavljaju produenu refleksiju kasnog had a dominant role in the spiritual culture of the Iron Age
bronzanog doba, sa nedovoljno jasno izdiferenciranim i communities.
razvijenim lokalnim vrijednostima. Ali, od X vijeka p.n.e. Since there are no written sources for this
ve e biti u cjelosti prevazieni bronzanodobski kriterijumi period, the cemeteries remain the key source for better
i zapoee razvoj lokalne eljeznodobske kulture. understanding of the cultural and even ethnical problems
Generalno, istraenost nekropola sa poetka relating the Iron Age communities. The graves provide
eljeznog doba u R. Makedoniji je na niskom nivou, jer je precise chronological determination, thus creating accu-
mali broj grobova koje sa sigurnou moemo da datiramo rate chronological systems. At same time, the features
u prva dva vijeka prvog milenijuma prije n.e. Istraeno je of the archaeological finds give important data for
oko trideset nekropola, od kojih veina samo djelimino, the different cultural influences, allowing appropriate
ali se nerijetko sretaju i pojedinani grobovi. Ova brojka je valorization of each culture.
djelimino uveana istraivanjima u poslednjoj deceniji ali The Iron Age in Macedonia is a period of new
jo uvijek nije na zadovoljavajuem nivou. Ovako slaba social, economic and cultural relations. In its very
istraenost ne moe da da podatke za sveobuhvatnu beginnings the cultural features of the Iron Age are still not
analizu ili generalno za sliku o nekropolama i njihovom stabilized and they represent reflections of the late Bronze
obimu i karakteru. S druge strane, dobra istraenost i Age culture, without clearly developed local values. Yet,
dokumentovanje kasnog bronzanog doba u R. Makedoniji, since the 10th cent. BC., these Bronze Age criteria will
posebno u regionu Povardarja, veoma dobro dopunjava evaluate and the development of the Iron Age will begin.
sliku o formiranju eljeznodobskih pogrebnih formi i In general, not many researches of the Early Iron
obiaja. Age cemeteries in Macedonia were done, and there are
Nekropole Povardarske ili Ulanci grupe, iz kasnog only few graves which can be dated with certainty in the
bronzanog doba na najbolji nain prezentuju prelaz iz first centuries of the first millennia BC. We speak of about
bronzanog u eljezno doba. thirty cemeteries, out of which the majority has been
investigated only partially, and also of frequent finds of
isolated graves. The number of graves increased with the
excavations in the last decades, yet not as much as we
would desire. This relatively low level of research cannot
provide sufficient information for more detailed analysis of
the cemeteries, their size and character. Nevertheless, the
existing results from the excavations in Macedonia clearly
point to the significance of the Iron Age cemeteries, while
the understanding of the Iron Age burial rites and customs
is completed with our knowledge on the Late Bronze Age
in the Republic of Macedonia, especially from the sites
along the Vardar river valley. These cemeteries belong
to the so-called Ulanci group, named by the site Dimov
Grob, near Ulanci, Gradsko, where 125 graves have been
excavated so far (Fig 1).1
Sl. 1 - Fig. 1 1 Mitrevski 2003, 48.

10
Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji... Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18

Obino su locirane u neposrednoj blizini naselja, They are always located near the settlement, they
dobro su organizovane, sa jedinstvenim i u potpunosti are well organized and with unique and fully defined burial
izgraenim pogrebnim formama i obiajima. Iz ove customs and criteria. To this group also belong the 24
kulturne grupe za sada je nabolje istraena nekropola, po excavated graves of the cemetery at the site Vodovratski
kojoj je grupa i dobila ime, Dimov grob pored sela Ulanci Pat, near the village Vodovrati, than the cemetery at
kod Gradskog, sa ukupno 125 istraenih grobova (sl.1).1 U Vardarski Rid with 100 excavated graves, and finally
ovu grupu spadaju i sahranjivanja iz nekropola Vodovratski the one at the site Mali Dol, in the village Tremnik near
Pat kod sela Vodovrati sa 24 istraena groba, lokalitet Negotino (Fig.2). Other cemeteries, such as the one at
Vardarski Rid sa oko stotinu istraenih grobova, Mali Dol village Strnovac near Kumanovo2, than at Kosur, Dolno
kod sela Tremnik (sl.2). U ostalim nekropolama Strnovac Sonje, Beli near Kocani, Demir Kapija, Dragoevo Stip,
kod Kumanova,2 Kour Dolno Sonje kodSkoplja, Beli kod Stobi and Govrlevo revealed either single graves, or only
Koana, Demir Kapija, Dragoevo tip, Stobi, ili Govrlevo grave finds from disturbed graves.3
otkrivena su pojedinana sahranjivanja ili samo grobni
nalazi iz rasturenih grobova.3 Meu grobnim inventarom
znaajnu ulogu imaju elementi ili importi iz egejskog
bronzanog doba. Najznaajnije takve manifestacije su:
prisustvo karakteristine mat slikane keramike i lokalnih
kopija mikenskih formi sudova, kao i pojedine bronzane
forme (labrisi i noevi brijai).
Najbolje su dokumentovane nekropole u Ulan-
cima ili na Vardarskom Ridu, koje odslikavaju stabilan i
miran razvoj sve do poslednjih, najmlaih sahranjivanja.4
Istraeni grobovi na nekropoli Vodovratski pat ukazuju na
sistem organizacije u redovima orjentisanim zapad istok
i poreanim paralelno jedan uz drugi, odravajui liniju
sjever jug.5 Ista karakteristina organizacija nekropole
Sl. 2 - Fig. 2
je potvrena i na nekropolama Dimov grob, Ulanci i Mali
Dol. Kod grobova iz nekropole Dimov Grob zabiljeena
je tendencija horizontalne stratigrafije koja je uslovljena Most significant features for the Ulanci group are
prirodnom limitiranou terena. Konstatovano je da je those inherited from the Aegean Bronze Age. They could
najstarije sahranjivanje ukopano u najisturenijem dijelu be recognized in the burials with inhumation and those
padine, a kako se ide prema unutranjosti brda nekropola with crouched position of the body burried in cist graves,
se irila i nailazimo na mlaa sahranjivanja.6 Generalno, as well as by the presence of mat painted pottery and
ovo moe da se potvrdi i na nekropolama iz Vardarskog local copies of Myceanean vessels in the graves.
Rida evelija, Mali Dol Negotino kao i na grobovima Best documented are the graves at Ulanci and
iz Dolno Sonje Skoplje. Porijeklo i pojava ovog tipa Vardarski Rid, which represent a stable and peacefull
nekropola u Makedoniji, u odnosu na grobne priloge evolution to the very latest i.e. the youngest burials.4 The
ukazuje na uticaje koji dolaze sa juga, ako uzmemo u obzir graves from Vodovrati show a system of organization of
da su u to vrijeme na sjeveru nekropole organizovane kao the graves in rows, parallel to each other and oriented
polja urni, sa savim razliitim ritualom sahranjivanja.7 west east.5 The same system was confirmed at the sites
Upotreba grobnih formi na spomenutim nekro- Dimov Grob, near Ulanci and Mali Dol, in Tremnik. At these
polama prethodno je jasno opredijeljena. Dominira grobna cemeteries we noticed tendency for horizontal stratigraphy,
forma cista, napravljena od kamenih ploa u nekoliko which was dictated by the natural configuration of the
varijanti (sa poloavanjem dna ili bez njega). U upotrebi terrain. In that manner, the oldest graves were put on the
su bile i pravougaone jame, a mnogo ree su veliki sudovi highest part of the hill, while the younger ones are found
1 Mitrevski 2003, 48. expanding towards the inner sides of the cemetery.6 In
2 2008, 138 139, T.I.9.
3 1997, 279 319. 2 2008, 138 139, T.I.9.
4 1997, 35-41 3 1997, 279 319.
5 1997, 43; Mitrevski 2003, 48. 4 1997, 35-41
6 1997, 43. 5 1997, 43; Mitrevski 2003, 48.
7 1997, 67; Luci 2007, 347 348. 6 1997, 43.

11
Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18 Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji...

pitosi koriteni kao grobna konstrukcija i to najee za general, the same organization was confirmed at the
sahranjivanje djece. Pojava kamenih cisti ili pravougaonih cemetery Vardarski Rid-Gevgelija, at Mali Dol Negotino
jama ne predstavlja novinu u sahranjivanju u bronzano and Dolno Sonje Skopje. The origin and the appearance
doba. U mikenskoj civilizaciji ove grobne forme su of these cemeteries in Macedonia, according to the grave
karakteristine za srednje heladsko doba i predstavljaju finds, point on southern influences. On the other hand the
dominantne grobne forme iz submikenskog doba, sa communities in the north organized their cemeteries in urn
kontinuranom upotrebom kroz cijeli II milenijum p.n.e.8 fields, with completely different burial ritual.7
Prilikom sahranjivanja na svim nekropolama bez The use of the specific grave forms in the
izuzetka, pogrebni ritual je ujednaen, a to je inhumacija above mentioned cemeteries was previously and clearly
zgreno poloenog tijela, a zavisno od pola pokojnik je determined. Most dominant is the cist grave, made from
polagan na lijevu ili desnu stranu, tako to su mukarci stone slabs in several variants (with or without paved
okrenuti na desnu, a ene na lijevu stranu.9 Pokojnici su floor). Rectangular pits were also in use, while rarely
polagani u grobove zajedno sa svojim linim predmetima, they used large vessels the pithoi, yet only as grave
a oko njih su postavljani grobni prilozi. Bez razlike dali constructions for child burials. The appearance of cist
se radi o grobovima jamama ili grobovima cistama od graves or rectangular pits is nothing new in the Bronze
kamenih ploa, uvijek su grobne komore formirane u Age burials. In the Mycenaean world this grave forms are
zavisnosti od samog pokojnika pri emu je zapadna typical for the Middle Helladic and they are dominant grave
strana kod glave bila neto ira od strane kod nogu. Kod forms from the sub Mycenaean times, with continuous
pojedinih sahranjivanja kod ovih nekropola zabiljeeno je use during the whole II millennium BC.8
da su grobovi bili markirani sa nasipom od kamenja.10 At every cemetery, without exception, the burial
Na teritoriji R. Makedonije, dominacija nekropola ritual is unified and the bodies are placed in crouched
sa inhumacijom je neosporna u toku kasnog bronzanog position. The males lay on their right side while the females
doba, a kroz eljezno vrijeme e se uspostaviti kao on their left side.9 The dead are buried together with their
osoben pogrebni ritual svih zajednica u R. Makedoniji. personal belongings, while the grave offerings are placed
Krupni socijalni, ekonomski, kulturi i etniki around them Regardless of the grave type, pits or cyst
problemi karakteristini za sve prelazne periode, pratili graves of stone slabs were always made according the
su i kraj bronzanog i poetak eljeznog doba. Oni su se deceased, and the west side of the grave near the head
neminovno manifestovali i u nainu sahranjivanja, pri emu was slightly wider than the eastern one - near the legs.
se kao posledica prelaznog perioda javlja upotreba dva Only few of the graves at these cemeteries are marked
osnovna rituala sahranjivanja: spaljivanje i inhumiranje. with a pile of stones.10
Istovremeno praktikovanje ova dva rituala, During the Bronze Age, cemeteries on the territory
govori o nestabilnosti u sferi sahranjivanja, tanije o of the R.Macedonia had inhumation as predominant burial
mijeanju, razliitih kultura i etnikih elemenata, to je rite. At the end of the Bronze Age and during the Iron Age
sasvim logino ako se imaju u vidu istorijske okolnosti u the inhumation will become major burial ritual.
ovom dijelu Balkana u ovo vrijeme. Prvi utisak u vezi sa Transitional periods are usually followed by large
pogrebnim formama i obiajima je da na cijeloj teritoriji social, economic, cultural and even ethnical problems
R. Makedonije postoji visok stepen jednolinosti u okviru and such changes were obviously happening during
osnovnih pogrenbnih rituala. Tako sline pojave, povezuju the transition from the Late Bronze to the beginning of
nekropole sa spaljenim pokojnikom, ali istovremeno the Iron Age, as well. These changes could be seen in
identine zakonitosti vae za sve grobove sa inhumiranim the burial rites too and, as continuity from the previous
pokojnicima.11 period the inhumation in the transitional period was used
Kremirani pokojnici su najprije spaljivani na together with the cremation. The use of both rites points
zgaritu, na jakoj vatri zajedno sa grobnim prilozima. Za to instability in the burial practice, and more precisely,
ovaj podatak nam svjedoe sitni ostaci od kremiranja kao it shows interferences of different cultural and ethnic
i isti pepeo i gare na nekropoli Kluka, Hipodrom kod elements. If we take into consideration the historical
Skoplja datirana u XII-XI vijek prije n.e.(sl.3) circumstances in the Balkans during that period, this
burial instability becomes understandable.

8 Mylonos 1966, 790-792; 1997, 67. 7 1997, 67; Luci 2007, 347 348.
9 1997, 37; 2006, 63. 8 Mylonos 1966, 790-792; 1997, 67.
10 1997, 39. 9 1997, 37; 2006, 63.
11 1997, 27. 10 1997, 39.

12
Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji... Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18

The first impression regarding the grave


shapes and burial rites is that in the whole territory of R.
Macedonia there is consistency in the basic burial rites.
Similar appearances connect the burials with cremated
individuals, but at the same time there are rules that are
unique and implying to the graves with inhumations, too.11
The deceased individuals were cremated at a
pyre together with the grave offerings. This conclusion
was derived from the cremation remains and ashes found
at Klucka Hipodrom near Skopje, dated in the 12-11th c.
B.C. (Fig.3). The slight deformation of the bones brought
the anthropologists to conclusion that the bones were
left on the pyre until they were cooled down completely.
Afterwards, the best preserved bone remains were
collected, carefully washed and placed together with the
personal objects and the grave offerings into the amphora
shaped ceramic vessels - urns.12 Deep bowls were used
as lids for the urns.
The urns were buried in pits carved in the bedrock
or in the ground. Most often they have no grave marks or
construction, yet sometimes the urns can be covered with
stone slab as is the case in the cemetery at Hipodrom in
Skopje and Mali Dol, near Tremnik (Fig.2). Quite often at
Hipodrom, or at grave 2 in Oreshani we find graves with
special protective constructions around the urn (Fig.4).

Sl. 3 - Fig. 3

Na osnovu slabe deformacije kostiju, antropolozi


su zakljuili da su bile prirodno ohlaene, odnosno da
su bile ostavljene na zgaritu sve dok se nisu potpuno
ohladile. Pritom su sakupljani najbolje ouvani skeletni
ostaci koji su paljivo oprani. Tako oieni od pepela,
stavljani su zajedno sa linim predmetima i prilozima,
bez ikakvog reda, u keramike sudove amforovidne
forme koje su sluile kao urne.12 Kao poklopci za
urne koritene su duboke zdjele. Po pravilu urne su
polegene u jame, ukopane u zdravicu ili u kulturni sloj
(njihov nivo ivljenja) najee bez ikakvog obiljeja tj.
konstrukcije, ponekad pokrivene ploastim kamenom
ili je sud samo poloen u jamu,kao to je est sluaj na
nekropolama Hipodrom i Mali Dol - Tremnik (sl.2). Ali
nerijetko, na nekropoli Hipodrom, kao i kod groba 2 na Sl. 4 - Fig. 4
nekropoli Oreani, sreemo grobove gdje je oko urne
bila formirana specijalna zatitna konstrukcija od toloidno 11 1997, 27.
12 1995, 61-63. 12 1995, 61-63.

13
Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18 Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji...

reanog kamenja (sl.4) poreanog prstenasto, najee The construction is toloid shaped - it is a stone
u tri reda. Pored navedene grobne forme, poznato je i wall which in most cases has three rows. The urn can
polaganje urne sa pokojnikom, bez poklopca, u jamu bez also be placed in a pit with no construction above it, and
konstrukcije (sl.3 i sl.5). Postavljanje ovakvih konstrukcija without a lid (Fig.3 and Fig.5). These constructions, or
ili samo kamenih ploa iznad same urne, predstavlja simply putting stone slabs on the urn, mark the position
markere koji su postavljeni sa ciljem da obiljee njenu of the grave.13 At Klucka Hipodrom, fragments of broken
poziciju.13 U Kluki - Hipodrom iznad konstrukcije urne, pottery vessels, remains of bird skeletons and shells
pronaeni su fragmenti keramike, ostaci koski od ptica i were found in the constructions of the urns, as they are
koljke, to se povezuje sa pogrebnim ritualima.14 connected with the rituals after the burial.14
Ovakav tip nekropola sa kremacijom na teritoriji On the territory of Kosovo, cremations from
Kosova i June Morave, zabiljeen je jo iz kasnog the Late Bronze Age, all belonging to the Donja Brnjica
bronzanog doba, gdje je evidentirana kulturna grupa Donja cultural group, are present at the following cemeteries:
Brnjica, i to na nekropolama: Donja Brnjica, Gratica, Donja Brnjica, Grastica, Kekola, Ulpiana and Iglarevo.15
Kekola, Ulpiana i Iglarevo.15 Isto tako u Bugarskoj u gradu Another Late Bronze Age cemetery dating in the 12-11th
Sandanski je otkrivena nekropola iz kasnog bronzanog c. B.C. was found near Sandanski, in Bulgaria. There, the
doba datirana u XII-XI vijek p.n.e. u kojoj urne imaju urns share similarities to the ones from the cemetery at
paralele sa onim sa Hipodroma i sa nekropolama sa Hipodrom as well as with the ones from Kosovo.16
Kosova.16 The cremation as burial rite appeared during the
U tom smislu, sahranjivanje sa kremacijom u 11th cent. BC., as a result of the spreading and influence
urnama se javlja kao rezultat irenja junomoravskih of the south Morava cultural elements in Skopje and the
elemenata na okolinu Skoplja i du Povardarja u XI vijeku river Vardar region. Yet, it did not have stronger influence
prije n.e. Ipak to nije ostavilo znaajnije posledice na on the material and spiritual culture of the Iron Age
materijalnu i duhovnu kulturu eljeznodobskih zajednica communities in Macedonia and these burial rites were
u Makedoniji, pri emu e ve u sledeeoj etapi ranog abandoned entirely during the following Iron Age period.
eljeznog doba taj ritual biti prevazien. According to D. Srejovic, all communities that
O spaljivanju kao pogrebnom ritualu, D. Srejovi practice the ritual of cremation have a character of cultures
misli, da sve kulture koje ga poznaju, po svom karakteru from the transitional period. As already mentioned, these
predstavljaju kulture prelaznog perioda. Ovaj se ritual rituals appeared during the periods of huge crises,
redovno pojavljuje u periodu velikih kriza, odnosno kada when one culture changes from one quality to another,
jedna kultura prelazi iz jednog kvaliteta u drugi, u vrijeme in periods of important economic structures, penetration
znaajnih promjena u ekonomskoj strukturi i prodiranju of new sources of production, or some significant
novih sredstava za proizvodnju, kao i znaajnih etnikih ethnical movements. Almost everywhere where there
pomeranja. Svuda gdje je dolo do nekih naglih promjena were changes or some kind of cultural evolution, the
ili nekog vida kulturne evolucije pojavljuje se spaljivanje cremation appeared as a new burial rite. Srejovic explains
kao novi ritual sahranjivanja. Njegovo pojavljivanje on its appearance as a result of a huge internal anxiety of
predstavlja kao rezultat velike unutranje uznemirenosti people confronting the appearances of the outer world
ovjeka pred pojavama spoljnjeg svijeta i straha od and the fear of things and events that surround them.17
deavanja koja ga okruuju.17 There are many different reasons for the
Razliiti su razlozi za pojavu ovog pogrebnog occurrence of this burial rite. The emergence of this
rituala u Makedoniji, gdje u dolini Vardara predstavlja rite along the Vardar valley represents migration waves
manifestaciju prodora migracionog talasa koji se kretao from the north, along the Morava River and continuing
sa sjevera, od doline Morave pa sve do Peloponeza.18 towards the south to the Peloponnesus Island.18 The
Nosioci ove kulturne manifestacije se povezuju sa carriers of these cultural manifestations are related with
ruenjem kasnobronzanodobske kulture u Makedoniji. the destruction of the Mycenaean world and the end of
Veoma je interesantna pojava dva rituala sahranjivanja the Late Bronze Age culture in Macedonia. Especially
na nekropoli Mali Dol u selu Tremnik kod Negotino
13 1995, 71-73. 13 1995, 71-73.
14 1997, 34. 14 1997, 34.
15 Luci 2007, 353. 15 Luci 2007, 353.
16 Alexandrov et.all. 2007, 379. 16 Alexandrov et.all. 2007, 379.
17 Srejovi 1959-1960, 109. 17 Srejovi 1959-1960, 109.
18 Mitrevski 2007,448. 18 Mitrevski 2007,448.

14
Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji... Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18

i nekropoli Tetovo (sl.5), gdje se ovaj ritual pojavljuje interesting is the presence of both burial rites in the
zajedno sa inhumiranjem. Ovakvo prisustvo oba rituala cemeteries Mali Dol, near Tremnik and in Tetovo (fig.5).
sahranjivanja ukazuje na injenicu da su se ovi doljci That presence of both rituals means that the newcomers
inkorporirali u ivot lokalnog stanovnitva, ak su incorporated in the life of the local communities and even
upotrebljavali njihove nekropoleza sahranjivanje to used their cemeteries, which is a proof that they continued
ukazuje na injenicu da su izvjesno vrijeme produili living together.
zajedniki ivot.
Kult mrtvih je oduvijek bio konzervativan tako da
se i najmanja promjena lako uoava. Pogrebni obiaji,
navike i shvatanja povezani sa smru, u jednoj kulturi
su jedne od najinertnijih ali u isto vrijeme i najsvetijih
karakteristika, koje su decenijama pa i vjekovima naj-
manje podlone promjenama. Funkcija pogrebnog rituala
kao sveanog ina kraja ivota, je pokuaj da se preko
sasvim nove forme produi ivot.19 Kada je ovaj ritual
bio izgraen, osmiljen i tako koncipiran prihvaen od
zajednice sa svim duhovnim komponentama, nije se
dozvoljavalo da tek tako bude mijenjan. Ipak kao tu
obiaj spaljivanje je u Makedoniji brzo bilo naputeno.
Sahranjivanje u ranom eljeznom dobu pod- Sl. 5 - Fig. 5
razumijeva praktikovanje skeletnog naina sahranjivanja,
tj. inhumacije pokojnika samo u pruenom poloaju, kao
produetak stare bronzanodobske tradicije. Tako je ritual The cult of the dead has always been very
sahranjivanja kroz cijeli period eljeznog doba u Make- conservative, and even a very small change in the rite
doniji, jedinstven. Postoje odreene, jedinstvene varijacije could be noticed easily. Funerary practices and habits,
u poloaju ruku pokojnika. Pritom ruke mogu da budu as well as the understanding of death are the most inert
pruene pored tijela pokojnika (grob 1, Tumul I Prali, components in a culture, but at the same time they are
Varvara), ili jedna ruka da bude savijena u ramenu ili the most sacred ones and least liable to changes for
iznad karlice, to ipak nema neko sutinsko znaenje. decades and even centuries. The function of the burial,
Nekrpole iz ranog eljeznog doba se razlikuju as a sacred ritual at the end of the life is more an attempt
po vie elemenata, koji se generalno mogu uoiti u to continue the life in a completely new form.19 When this
organizaciji. Na osnovu toga moemo da ih podijelimo burial rite was established, conceived and accepted by
u dva tipa nekropola i to: ravne nekropole i tumularne the community, with all of its spiritual components and
nekropole. concepts, further changes were not allowed to happen
Grobne forme nemaju nove tipove, one pred- easily. However, being a foreign custom, the cremation in
stavjaju produetak pojava iz prethodnog perioda. Tako, Macedonia was abandoned very quickly.
dok je ritual sahranjivanja kroz eljezno doba jedinstven Burials in the early Iron Age confirm the continuity
inhumacija, kod grobnih konstrukcija vidno se pojavljuju of the old Bronze Age practice the inhumation of the
razlike. U osnovi to su dva naina gradnje grobnih komora deceased in prostrated position. During the whole Iron
u okviru zajednikog prostora odreenog za sahranjivanje Age in Macedonia this is the only/sole burial practice.
na nekropoli. There are some variations of it, yet only in the way of
U ranoj fazi eljeznog doba, najee se koristi placing the hands of the individual. The hands lie along
jednostavna forma jame, kod koje se moe primijetiti the body (grave 1, Tumulus I Przali, Varvara) or one hand
nekoliko varijanti: jama bez grobne konstrukcije sa can be bent in the shoulder or laid above the pelvis, which
pokrivnom ploom (grob 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 tumul I Prali kod is not of a crucial importance.
Varvare), i jama sa poploavanjem sitnim kamenom The Iron Age cemeteries differ in many ways,
oblutkom. Sa druge strane, nerijetko se kao grobna forma but mostly in their organization. According to that we can
19 Ovo sretamo takorei kod svih drevnih naroda kod kojih imamo pisane 19 We found this almost every ancient people where there are written
dokumente o kraju ivota i prelazu u novi zagrobni ivot. Sretamo ga kod documents, for the end of life and to the crossing in the new afterlife world
Egipana, Asiraca, Graka, Rimljana pa sve do danas do Tibetanaca pa ak i in Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans and even Tibetanians, and in
u hrianskom svijetu. Christians worlds.

15
Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18 Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji...

pojavljuje cista koja e postati dominantna grobna forma distinguish two types of cemeteries: plane, and tumular
u toku zrelog i kasnog eljeznog doba. esto su grobovi ones.
ciste bili pokriveni sa kamenom konstrukcijom formiranom There are no new types of graves, as they are
od amorfnog kamenja, nalik na manju mogilu (kao to su only a continuation of the burial rite from the previous
grobovi iz nekropole u Oreanima). period. While the inhumation as burial ritual is unique,
Jednu od najkarakteristinijih pojava za rano obvious differences appear in the grave construction.
eljezno doba u Makedoniji predstavlja, svakako pojava Basically, there are two types of grave
tumularnih nekropola, koje se pojavljuju kao novi constructions in the area determined for burials.
fenomen. U razliitim regionima sama pojava i razvoj In the early phase of the Iron Age most often
tumula imaju razliite vrijednosti, zavisno od stepena the simple pit is used as a grave construction. Yet,
socijalnog i ekonomskog razvoja zajednice. Zbog toga, there are some variations of the type, such as the pit
pojava sahranjivanja pod tumulima treba da se posmatra without a grave construction, only covered with a stone
kao kulturno socijalna kategorija. Tako preko tumula slab, (grave 1,2,3,4,5 Tumulus I, Przali near Varvara)
moemo jasno da sagledamo i pratimo drutvene and a pit with pavement of pebbles. On the other
i socijalno-ekonomske promjene u razvoju lokalnih hand, the cist as grave form is not rare, and during the
eljeznodobskih zajednica. Sve ovo je mogue jer za developed Iron Age this will became a dominant burial
vrijeme njihove upotrebe tumuli pokazuju jasan unutranji type. Quite often, some of the cist graves are covered
razvoj uslovljen promjenama socijalno ekonomskih with a stone construction, resembling a small mound
odnosa.20 U tom smislu, u Makedoniji se izdvajaju (some of the graves in Oresani have such a mound).
dva osnovna tipa tumula. Stariji ili tzv. Klanovski ili One of the most characteristic events of the
Rodovski tumuli koji su uglavnom karakteristini za Early Iron Age in Macedonia is the new phenomenon
rano eljezno doba i mlai ili tzv. Familijarni tumuli, of cemeteries under tumuli. In different regions their
karakteristini za zrelo eljezno doba. Njihova pojava occurance and development have different values,
predstavlja novinu u rano eljezno doba u Makedoniji depending on the socio-economic stage of the community.
iako se ovaj pogrebni ritus na balkanskom prostoru sree These burials should be observed as both cultural
jo od ranog bronzanog doba (BrA 1 prema Rajneke za and social categories, and in that way we can clearly
Srednju Evropu). Smatra se da potie istono od Kavkaza understand and follow the socio-economic changes in
i Pontiskih stepa.21 the development of the Iron Age communities. All this
Karakteristino za klanovsko rodovske tumule can happened, because during their use, the tumuloi
je vie sahranjivanja pod jednim zajednikim zemljanim represent very clear inner development, influenced by
nasipom, koji je zagraen krunim zidom od kamenja. from the changes in the social and economical relations.20
Pritom, grobovi se organizuju oko najstarijeg sahranjivanja Two basic types of tumuli can be distinguished in
centralnog groba, strogo uslovljeni i okrenuti glavom Macedonia. The older ones, or so called clan or tribal
prema njemu. Postoji vjerovanje da je to osniva plemena tumuli are typical for the Early Iron Age, while the younger
otac. Ovom tipu pripadaju tumuli Visoi Beranci, Orlovi ones, so called family tumuli are typical for the developed
uki Star Karaorman, Kunovo uki Orizari, ali i Iron Age. Their appearance/emergence is novelty in the
novootkriveni tumuli anite i Kruevica u Mariovo, kao i Early Iron Age in Macedonia, although this burial rite in
tumul II u Strnovcu kod Kumanova.22 the Balkans existed since the Early Bronze Age (BrA 1
Tumuli ranog eljeznog doba generalno imaju acording to Reineke for Central Europe). Probably, its
isti konstruktivni koncept, a to je ograivanje centralnog origin is from the east of Kavkaz and the Pontian steps.21
prostora sa vijencem od krupnijeg kamenja, koji esto Clan tumuli are typical for having more burials
moe da bude i poploan, i u kojem se kao unutranje under one mound of earth, surrounded by a circular wall
jezgro nalazi centralno sahranjivanje u formi grobne ciste, of stones. The burials are organized arround the oldest
pokrivene posebnim nasipom koji moe biti od zemlje ili one the central grave, with strict conditionality and with
sitnog renog kamena. Centralno sahranjivanje u kojem the heads of all the other individuals turned towards the
pokojnik moe da bude poloen u zgrenoj inhumaciji central grave. There is a theory that it is the grave of the
je hronoloki najstarije (kao to je sluaj u tumulu u father i.e. the founder of the tribe. To this type belong the
Strnovcu). Za najstarije do sada istraeno sahranjivanje tumuli from Visoi - Beranci, Orlovi Cuki - Star Karaorman,
Kunovo Cuki Orizari, and the newly excavated tumuli in
20 Mitrevski 1997, 102-131.
21 1973, 264-266. 20 Mitrevski 1997, 102-131.
22 Mitrevski 1997, 88-110; Mitkoski 2010; Stankovski 2006, 93-114. 21 1973, 264-266.

16
Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji... Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18

pod tumulom u Makedoniji smatra se centralni grob Caniste and Krusevica Mariovo, as well as tumulus II in
cista sa zgrenim pokojnikom na lokalitetu Visoi, selo Strnovac, near Kumanovo.22
Beranci kod Bitolja, koji se, prema grobnim prilozima In general, the tumuli of the Early Iron Age have
datira u submikenski period (sl.6). the same construction concept - a central space encircled
with wall made of larger stone blocks. Often, the central
space is be paved, with a central cist grave covered with
a mound of earth or pebbles. The central burial is the
oldest one, and the deceased can be laid in crouched
position (as is in the tumulus in Strnovac). 1). The grave
from Visoi Beranci, with the deceased laid in crouched
position is the oldest central grave, as far as we know,
in the R. Macedonia. According to the finds we date it
in the Sub-Mycenaean period ( Fig.6). This tumulus is of
the so-called double tumuli type. The oldest burial was
covered first and with separate mound, which has its
own construction encircling the central grave. 23 All of the
following burials were placed radially around the central
grave i.e. the mound and then another mound of earth
and stones covered them all. 24
The tumulus in Beranci, like the tumuli in Vojnik-
Kumanovo, Orlova Cuka Stip, have parallels with the
Sl. 6 - Fig. 6
tumuli from the Protogeometric and the Geometric periods
found in Pateli, Ostrovo Lake and Vergina near Veria25.
There, these burials were appearing continuously from
Ovo su tumuli tzv. tipa dvojni tumuli gdje je the XI-th cent.BC.26 The occurence of the double tumuli in
najprije bila formirana mogila okolo najstarijeg inicijalnog Macedonia happened probably with the penetration of the
sahranjivanja, koje ima svoj poseban nasip ograen cultural and probably ethnical elements from south-east
prstenom,23 a oko njega radijalno su izvedena ostala Albania, where this kind of tumuli were in use during the
sahranjivanja i svi su zajedno pokriveni zajednikim
Bronze Age.27
nasipom od zemlje i kamenja.24 Tumul u Berancima kao Equally interesting is the burial under Tumulus I
i tumul Vojnik kod Kumanova i Orlova uka kod tipa,
from Strnovac28 where the central grave with crouched
imaju paralele sa Protogeometrijskim i Geometrijskim inhumation was separated with a mound encircled by
tumulima u Pateli na Ohridskom jezeru i Vergina kod a stone wall.29 This is typical for the cemeteries of the
Verje,25 gdje se sahranjivanja kontinuirano pojavljuju od Late Bronze Age in the lower Vardar River valley, where
XI vijeka p.n.e.26 Pojava dvojnih tumula u Makedoniji
there is a grave offering with a cantharos of the so-called
najvjerovatnije se duguje prodoru kultrnih a moda
Ulanci type, with mat painted decoration. This burial also
i etnikih elemenata iz jugoistone Albanije, gdje su
belongs to the group of the primary burials under the
takvi tumuli bili u upotrebi jo u toku bronzanog doba.27
double tumulus, that together with Visoi Beranci, Orlova
Interesantna je pojava Tumula I iz Strnovca28 sa
Cuka Karaorman, Vergina represent the beginning of
centralnim sahranjivanjem koje je izvedeno sa posebnim
burials under tumuli in Macedonia in the period between
nasipom sa prstenom od kamenja,29 i sa ritualom
XII-XI cent. BC.
sahranjivanja zgrena inhumacija, koji je karakteristian
Quite similar burial was found during the excavations
za povardarske nekropole iz kasnog bronzanog doba,
of the tumuli in Barata-Caniste (Fig.7) and Stragata-
a kao grobni prilog se javlja kantaros sa mat slikanom
dekoracijom tzv. Ulanci tipa. Predstavlja najstarije
22 Mitrevski 1997, 88-110; Mitkoski 2010; Stankovski 2006, 93-114.
23 Hammond 1967, 77-105; Hammond 1982,625 and 644. 23 Hammond 1967, 77-105; Hammond 1982,625 and 644.
24 1997, 103. 1999, 29-61. 24 1997, 103. 1999, 29-61.
25 Andronikos 1969,280-286. 25 Andronikos 1969,280-286.
26 Radt 1974, 144. 26 Radt 1974, 144.
27 Hammond 1967, 77-105; Prendi 1978; Prendi 1975,113. 27 Hammond 1967, 77-105; Prendi 1978; Prendi 1975,113.
28 2008, 142-147. 28 2008, 142-147.
29 2008, Crt.1, 136. 29 2008, Crt.1, 136.

17
Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18 Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji...

primarno tumularno sahranjivanje tzv. tipa dvojnih tumula,


karakteristino za makedonsku teritoriju i zajedno sa Visoi,
Beranci, Orlova uka, Karaorman i Vergina predstavljaju
uvod u tumularni nain sahranjivanja u Makedoniji u
periodu XII XI vijek prije n.e.
Slina je i situacija otkrivena prilikom istraivanja
na tumulima Barata anite (sl.7) i Stragata Kruevica
(sl.8).30 U Kruevici je centralni grob jasno izdvojen, dok je
u anitima sahranjivanje u posebnoj grobnoj konstrukciji
sa nasipom od kamenja. Grobni prilozi u njima se datiraju
ne kasnije od XII vijeka p.n.e. ili na sami poetak eljeznog
doba u X vijek p.n.e.
Razvoj tumularnog sahranjivanja produava i
kroz cijelo eljezno doba, pratei socijalne i ekonomske
promjene koje se jasno oslikavaju na tumularnoj arhitekturi
i strukturi.

Sl. 8 - Fig. 8

Krusevica (Fig.8).30 The central grave in Krusevica is


also clearly separated, while in Canista this burial has
a special grave construction with separate mound of
stones. The grave finds date not later than the XI cent.
BC., or from the very beginnings of the X cent. BC.
The development of tumular burials continued
during the whole Iron Age, following the social and
economic changes which clearly reflected in the tumuli
architecture and structure.
With the growth of the communities, the
Sl. 7 - Sl. 7 old tradition of the so called clan tumuli starts to be
abandoned. They, as founders of the communities and
as their guardians were privilaged with a very special
Sa nominalnim rastom zajednica, naputa se position. The new tumuli were organized in the vicinity,
sahranjivanje u starim klanovsko rodovskim tumulima. usually on the lower slopes, where they were expanding
Oni imaju privilegiju da budu osnivai plemena, postavljeni thus forming new spacious tumular cemeteries with more
na posebnu poziciju kao njegovi uvari. Novi, mlai tmuli than hundred graves. Their appearance was undoubtly
se organizuju u blizini, obino na nioj padini, gdje se ire a result of the newly established social relations which
formirajui nove prostrane tumularne nekropole sa vie came along with the overall stabilization during the
stotina tumula. Formiranje novih nekropola je svakako developed Iron Age in Macedonia, but also with the growth
bilo rezultat novo uspostavljenih drutvenih odnosa koji of the population. Basically, the new tumuli had the same
su nastupili sa sveukupnom stabilizacijom u toku punog construction elements as the older ones, but they were
eljeznog doba ali i uveanom populacijom stanovnitva. smaller and had less burials. The circular barier was not
Oni u osnovi imaju iste konstruktivne karakteristike kao anymore a wall of stone slabs, but just one row of stones
i stariji - klanovski tumuli, ali sa manjim dimenzijama i put in a circle. The burials were organized depending on
sa manjim brojem sahranjivanja. Ogradni prsten nije zid the available space, without a central grave and radial
30 Mitkovski 2010, 60-62. 30 Mitkovski 2010, 60-62.

18
Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji... Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18

od kamenja ve obini krug od nareanog kamenja u arrangement of graves arround it. The tumuli lost their clan
jednom redu. U njima su sahranjivanja organizovana u character transforming into family ones. The deceased
zavisnosti od slobodnog prostora, bez centralnog groba most probably belonged to the same biological family
i radijalnog rasporeda oko njega. Tako oni vie nemaju and most often they were laid in the same direction. Best
rodovsko klanovski ve familijarni karakter. Pokojnici, example of this type of so-called family tumulus is the one
najvjerovatnije iz jedne bioloke porodice, najee su at Dabici Sopot, near Veles, which was in continuous
polagani u istom pravcu, ispunjavajui cijelu unutranjost use trough the whole VII and the VI cent. BC.31
tumula. Najbolji primjer za ovaj tip tzv familijarnog tumula Generally speaking, the tumuli burials are
je nekropola Dabici Sopot kod Velesa koja je bila u characteristic for the farming and herding communities,
kontinuiranoj upotrebi niz cijeli VII i VI vijek p.n.e.31 and are related to the conservative and pastoral regions.
Generalno, tumuli predstavljaju sahranjivanje For those communities the graves of the ancestors were
stoarsko pastoralne populacije, vezane uglavnom za of utmost importance for their identification as members of
pokonzervativne regione. Za njih grobovi njihovih predaka the group, i.e. the clan. The burials under tumuli in these
imaju najvee znaenje za identifikovanje pojedinca kao regions were practiced eagerly and for a longer period
dijela zajednice grupe, odnosno plemena. U ovim of time. This rite was abandoned in diverse territories in
regionima se temeljno i jako dugo praktikovao obiaj different periods, but certainly, by the end of the VI cent.
sahranjivanja pod tumulima. Obiaj je bio prevazien u B.C, with the colaps of the tribal clan and tibal system and
razliito vrijeme na razliitoj teritoriji, ali svakako na isteku VI with the appearance of strong social differentiation, the
vijeka p.n.e. sa raspadom rodovsko-plemenskog sistema tumuli came out of use.
i sa sve vie izraenom socijalnom diferencijacijom tumuli
u Makedoniji izlaze iz upotrebe.

31 Mitrevski 1997, 93-96. 31 Mitrevski 1997, 93-96.

19
Nova antika Duklja V, 2014., 7-18 Aleksadra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV, Pogrebne forme i obiaji...

M. Andronikos, Vergina I. The cementery of the tumuli, Athena 1969.


S. Alexandrov- V.Petkov-G.Ivanov, The Late Bronze Age Necropolis in the Town of Sandanski,
Southwest Bulgaria. The Struma/Strymon River Valley in praehistoricus, Vol.2. Proceeding of the
International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus, Kjustendil-Blagoevgrad, 27.9-01.10.2004, Sofia
2007, 373-387.
J.Bouzek, Greece, Anatolia and Europe cultural interrelations during the Early Iron Age, Jonsered
Literatura

Bibliography
1997
. , - . ,
, 2006.
., , 1973
N.G.L. Hammond, 1967, 77-105
N.G.L. Hammond, Illiris, Epirus and Macedonia in Early Iron Age, CAH Vil.III/1, 1982
. , , I , ae
9, 1999.
A. Mitkoski, (.), Macedoniae acta Archaeologica 19 (2004-
2006), 2010,135-151.
. , , 1997.
. , - ,
()-1, 1995, 61-91.
D. Mitrevski, Prehistory in Republic of Macedonia-F.Y.R.O.M. Resent research in the Prehistory
of the Balkan, D.V. Grammenos (ed.), Publication of the Archaeological Institute of Northern
Greece, Nr.3, Thessaloniki 2003
D. Mitrevski,The beginning of the Iron Age in Macedonia. The Struma/Strymon River Valley
in praehistoricus, Vol.2. Proceeding of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus,
Kjustendil-Blagoevgrad, 27.9-01.10.2004, Sofia 2007, 443-450.
G.E. Mylonos, Mycenae and the Mycenaean age, New Jersey1966
K. Luci, Dating the Donja Brnica Culture Based on Metal Finds. The Struma/Strymon River Valley
in praehistoricus, Vol.2. Proceeding of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus,
Kjustendil-Blagoevgrad, 27.9-01.10.2004, Sofia 2007, 347-358.
F.Prendi, Un aperu sur la civilisation de la premiere periode du Fer en Albanie, Iliria III, 109-138,
Tirana 1975
F. Prendi, Lage du Bronze en Albanie, Iliria 7/8, Tirana 1978.
W. Radt, Die Frheiseneitlische Hgelnekropole bei Vergina in Macedonien, PBF XX/1, Mnchen
1974
., I ,
, (.), Macedoniae acta Archaeologica 18
(2002-2004), 2008,135-151.
D. Srejovi, 1959-1960

20