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NigerNiger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For other uses, see Niger (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the neighboring country Nigeria.
Coordinates: 16N 8E

Republic of the Niger

Rpublique du Niger (French)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto:

"Fraternit, Travail, Progrs" (French)


"Fraternity, Work, Progress"

Anthem: La Nigrienne

Location of Niger (dark green)


Capital Niamey
and largest city 1332N 205E

Official languages French

National languages[1] Arabic


Buduma
Fulfulde
Gourmanchma
Hausa
Kanuri
Zarma & Songhai
Tamasheq
Tassawaq
Tebu

Demonym Nigerien /nadrn/ or/nirin/ [2][3]

Government Unitary semi-presidential republic

President Mahamadou Issoufou


Prime Minister Brigi Rafini

Legislature National Assembly

Independence from France


Declared 3 August 1960

Area
Total 1,267,000 km2(489,000 sq mi) (21st)
Water (%) 0.02

Population
2016 estimate 20,672,987 (61st)
2012 census 17,138,707
Density 12.1/km2 (31.3/sq mi)

GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate


Total $21.655 billion[4]
Per capita $1,154[4]

GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate


Total $7.674 billion[4]
Per capita $409[4]

Gini (2011) 31.5[5]


medium

HDI (2014) 0.348[6]


low 188th

Currency West African CFA franc(XOF)

Time zone WAT (UTC+1)

Drives on the right[7]

Calling code +227

ISO 3166 code NE

Internet TLD .ne

a. Lowest ranked.

Niger or the Niger[8][9] (/nadr/ ( listen), or /nir/;[10][11] French: [ni]) officially the Republic of
the Niger,[8][9] is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Niger is
bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina
Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of almost
1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa, with over 80 percent of its land area
covered by the Sahara Desert. The country's predominantly Islamic population of about 21
million[12] is mostly clustered in the far south and west of the country. The capital city is Niamey,
located in the far-southwest corner of Niger.
Niger is a developing country, and is consistently one of the lowest-ranked in the United
Nations' Human Development Index (HDI); it was ranked last at 188th for 2014.[6] Much of the non-
desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification. The economy is
concentrated around subsistence and some export agriculture clustered in the more fertile south,
and the export of raw materials, especially uranium ore. Niger faces serious challenges to
development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, inefficient agriculture, high fertility rates
and resulting overpopulation without birth control,[13] poor education and poverty of its people, lack of
infrastructure, poor health care, and environmental degradation.
Nigerien society reflects a diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its several ethnic
groups and regions and their relatively short period living in a single state. Historically, what is now
Niger has been on the fringes of several large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived
under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. Following a military coup in 2010, Niger
has become a democratic, multi-party state. A majority live in rural areas, and have little access to
advanced education. 71.3% of the population cannot read as of 2015, one of the lowest literacy
rates in the world.

Contents
[hide]

1History
o 1.1Prehistory
o 1.2Empires and kingdoms in pre-colonial Niger
1.2.1Songhai Empire (6001591)
1.2.2Hausa kingdoms (mid-14th century 1808)
1.2.3Mali Empire
1.2.4Kanem-Bornu Empire
o 1.3French Niger (190058)
o 1.4Independence (1958)
1.4.1First military regime: The Supreme Military Council and Second Republic 19741991
1.4.2National Conference and Third Republic 19911997
1.4.3Second military regime, Fourth Republic, third military regime 19971999
1.4.4Fifth republic 19992009
1.4.5Sixth republic and fourth military regime 20092010
1.4.6Seventh republic 2010present
2Geography, climate, and ecology
o 2.1Climate
o 2.2Environment
3Governance and politics
o 3.1Foreign relations
o 3.2Government finance
3.2.1Foreign aid
o 3.3Judicial system
o 3.4Law enforcement
o 3.5Military
o 3.6Administrative divisions
o 3.7Largest cities and towns
4Economy
o 4.1Economic sectors
4.1.1Agriculture
4.1.1.1Drought and food crisis
4.1.2Mining
4.1.3Oil
o 4.2Growth rates
o 4.3Economic reforms
o 4.4Transportation infrastructure
5Society
o 5.1Demographics
o 5.2Ethnic groups
o 5.3Languages
o 5.4Largest cities
o 5.5Religion
5.5.1Islam
5.5.2Animism
o 5.6Education
o 5.7Health
6Culture
o 6.1Festivals and cultural events
6.1.1Gurewol festival
6.1.2Cure Sale festival
o 6.2Media
7See also
8References
9Sources
10External links

History
Main article: History of Niger
Prehistory

Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit,
Niger.
Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by numerous archaeological remains. In prehistoric
times, the climate of the Sahara (Tenere desert in Niger) was wet and provided favorable conditions
for agriculture and livestock herding in a fertile grassland environment five thousand years ago.[14]
In 200506, a graveyard in the Tenere desert was discovered by Paul Sereno, a paleontologist from
the University of Chicago.[15] His team discovered 5,000-year-old remains of a woman and two
children in the Tenere Desert.[15]The evidence along with remains of animals that do not typically live
in desert are among the strongest evidence of the 'green' Sahara in Niger. It is believed that
progressive desertification around 5000 BCE pushed sedentary populations to the south and south-
east (Lake Chad).[16]

Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French
spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as
ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
Empires and kingdoms in pre-colonial Niger
By at least the 5th century BCE, Niger became an area of trans-Saharan trade, led by the Berber
tribes from the north, using camels as an adapted means of transportation through the desert. This
trade has made Agadez a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade. This mobility, which would
continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and
interbreeding between southern black and northern white populations. It was also aided by the
introduction of Islam to the region at the end of the 7th century.[16] Several empires and kingdoms
also flourished during this era up to the beginning of colonization in Africa.
Songhai Empire (6001591)
Main article: Songhai Empire
The Songhai Empire was an empire bearing the name of its main ethnic group, Songhai or Sonrai,
and located in western Africa on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger, Mali and Burkina
Faso. In the 7th century, Songhai tribes settled down north of modern-day Niamey and founded the
Songhai city-states of Koukia and Gao. By the 11th century, Gao had become the capital of
the Songhai Empire.[17]
From 1000 to 1325, The Songhai Empire prospered and managed to maintain peace with its
neighboring empires including the Mali Empire. In 1325, the Songhai Empire was conquered by the
Mali Empire, but was freed in 1335 by prince Ali Kolen and his brother, Songhai princes held captive
by Moussa Kankan, the ruler of the Mali Empire.[17] From the mid-15th to the late 16th century,
Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history.[18]
The Kaouar escarpment, forming an oasis in the Tnr desert.
Hausa kingdoms (mid-14th century 1808)
Main article: Hausa Kingdoms
Between the Niger River and the Lake Chad lay a fertile area and Hausa kingdoms. These kingdoms
flourished from the mid-14th century up until the early 19th century when they were conquered
by Usman dan Fodio, founder of the Sokoto Empire. The Hausa kingdoms were not a compact entity
but several federations of kingdoms more or less independent of each other. Their organization was
somewhat democratic: the Hausa kings were elected by the notables of the country and could be
removed by the latter.[17]
The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states founded according to the Bayajidda legend by the six
sons of Bawo. Bawo was the unique son of the hausa queen Daurama and Bayajidda or (Abu
Yazid by certain Nigerien historians) who came from Baghdad. The seven original hausa states
were: Daoura (state of queen Daurama), Kano, Rano, Zaria, Gobir, Katsena and Biram.[17]
Mali Empire
Main article: Mali Empire
The Mali Empire was a Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita circa 1230 that existed up to
1600. At its peak circa 1350, the empire extended as far west as Senegal and Guinee Conakry and
as far east as western Niger.
Kanem-Bornu Empire
Main article: Kanem-Bornu Empire
The Kanem-Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern-day Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon,
Niger and Libya. The empire first existed and prospered as the Kanem Empire as early as the 9th
century and later as the kingdom of Bornu until 1900.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For other uses, see Niger (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the neighboring country Nigeria.
Coordinates: 16N 8E

Republic of the Niger

Rpublique du Niger (French)

Flag
Coat of arms

Motto:

"Fraternit, Travail, Progrs" (French)


"Fraternity, Work, Progress"

Anthem: La Nigrienne

Location of Niger (dark green)

Capital Niamey
and largest city 1332N 205E

Official languages French

National languages[1] Arabic


Buduma
Fulfulde
Gourmanchma
Hausa
Kanuri
Zarma & Songhai
Tamasheq
Tassawaq
Tebu

Demonym Nigerien /nadrn/ or/nirin/ [2][3]

Government Unitary semi-presidential republic

President Mahamadou Issoufou


Prime Minister Brigi Rafini

Legislature National Assembly

Independence from France


Declared 3 August 1960

Area
Total 1,267,000 km2(489,000 sq mi) (21st)
Water (%) 0.02

Population
2016 estimate 20,672,987 (61st)
2012 census 17,138,707
Density 12.1/km2 (31.3/sq mi)

GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate


Total $21.655 billion[4]
Per capita $1,154[4]

GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate


Total $7.674 billion[4]
Per capita $409[4]

Gini (2011) 31.5[5]


medium

HDI (2014) 0.348[6]


low 188th

Currency West African CFA franc(XOF)

Time zone WAT (UTC+1)

Drives on the right[7]

Calling code +227

ISO 3166 code NE

Internet TLD .ne

a. Lowest ranked.

Niger or the Niger[8][9] (/nadr/ ( listen), or /nir/;[10][11] French: [ni]) officially the Republic of
the Niger,[8][9] is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Niger is
bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina
Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of almost
1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa, with over 80 percent of its land area
covered by the Sahara Desert. The country's predominantly Islamic population of about 21
million[12] is mostly clustered in the far south and west of the country. The capital city is Niamey,
located in the far-southwest corner of Niger.
Niger is a developing country, and is consistently one of the lowest-ranked in the United
Nations' Human Development Index (HDI); it was ranked last at 188th for 2014.[6] Much of the non-
desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification. The economy is
concentrated around subsistence and some export agriculture clustered in the more fertile south,
and the export of raw materials, especially uranium ore. Niger faces serious challenges to
development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, inefficient agriculture, high fertility rates
and resulting overpopulation without birth control,[13] poor education and poverty of its people, lack of
infrastructure, poor health care, and environmental degradation.
Nigerien society reflects a diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its several ethnic
groups and regions and their relatively short period living in a single state. Historically, what is now
Niger has been on the fringes of several large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived
under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. Following a military coup in 2010, Niger
has become a democratic, multi-party state. A majority live in rural areas, and have little access to
advanced education. 71.3% of the population cannot read as of 2015, one of the lowest literacy
rates in the world.

Contents
[hide]

1History
o 1.1Prehistory
o 1.2Empires and kingdoms in pre-colonial Niger
1.2.1Songhai Empire (6001591)
1.2.2Hausa kingdoms (mid-14th century 1808)
1.2.3Mali Empire
1.2.4Kanem-Bornu Empire
o 1.3French Niger (190058)
o 1.4Independence (1958)
1.4.1First military regime: The Supreme Military Council and Second Republic 19741991
1.4.2National Conference and Third Republic 19911997
1.4.3Second military regime, Fourth Republic, third military regime 19971999
1.4.4Fifth republic 19992009
1.4.5Sixth republic and fourth military regime 20092010
1.4.6Seventh republic 2010present
2Geography, climate, and ecology
o 2.1Climate
o 2.2Environment
3Governance and politics
o 3.1Foreign relations
o 3.2Government finance
3.2.1Foreign aid
o 3.3Judicial system
o 3.4Law enforcement
o 3.5Military
o 3.6Administrative divisions
o 3.7Largest cities and towns
4Economy
o 4.1Economic sectors
4.1.1Agriculture
4.1.1.1Drought and food crisis
4.1.2Mining
4.1.3Oil
o 4.2Growth rates
o 4.3Economic reforms
o 4.4Transportation infrastructure
5Society
o 5.1Demographics
o 5.2Ethnic groups
o 5.3Languages
o 5.4Largest cities
o 5.5Religion
5.5.1Islam
5.5.2Animism
o 5.6Education
o 5.7Health
6Culture
o 6.1Festivals and cultural events
6.1.1Gurewol festival
6.1.2Cure Sale festival
o 6.2Media
7See also
8References
9Sources
10External links

History
Main article: History of Niger
Prehistory

Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit,
Niger.
Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by numerous archaeological remains. In prehistoric
times, the climate of the Sahara (Tenere desert in Niger) was wet and provided favorable conditions
for agriculture and livestock herding in a fertile grassland environment five thousand years ago.[14]
In 200506, a graveyard in the Tenere desert was discovered by Paul Sereno, a paleontologist from
the University of Chicago.[15] His team discovered 5,000-year-old remains of a woman and two
children in the Tenere Desert.[15]The evidence along with remains of animals that do not typically live
in desert are among the strongest evidence of the 'green' Sahara in Niger. It is believed that
progressive desertification around 5000 BCE pushed sedentary populations to the south and south-
east (Lake Chad).[16]
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French
spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as
ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
Empires and kingdoms in pre-colonial Niger
By at least the 5th century BCE, Niger became an area of trans-Saharan trade, led by the Berber
tribes from the north, using camels as an adapted means of transportation through the desert. This
trade has made Agadez a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade. This mobility, which would
continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and
interbreeding between southern black and northern white populations. It was also aided by the
introduction of Islam to the region at the end of the 7th century.[16] Several empires and kingdoms
also flourished during this era up to the beginning of colonization in Africa.
Songhai Empire (6001591)
Main article: Songhai Empire
The Songhai Empire was an empire bearing the name of its main ethnic group, Songhai or Sonrai,
and located in western Africa on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger, Mali and Burkina
Faso. In the 7th century, Songhai tribes settled down north of modern-day Niamey and founded the
Songhai city-states of Koukia and Gao. By the 11th century, Gao had become the capital of
the Songhai Empire.[17]
From 1000 to 1325, The Songhai Empire prospered and managed to maintain peace with its
neighboring empires including the Mali Empire. In 1325, the Songhai Empire was conquered by the
Mali Empire, but was freed in 1335 by prince Ali Kolen and his brother, Songhai princes held captive
by Moussa Kankan, the ruler of the Mali Empire.[17] From the mid-15th to the late 16th century,
Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history.[18]

The Kaouar escarpment, forming an oasis in the Tnr desert.


Hausa kingdoms (mid-14th century 1808)
Main article: Hausa Kingdoms
Between the Niger River and the Lake Chad lay a fertile area and Hausa kingdoms. These kingdoms
flourished from the mid-14th century up until the early 19th century when they were conquered
by Usman dan Fodio, founder of the Sokoto Empire. The Hausa kingdoms were not a compact entity
but several federations of kingdoms more or less independent of each other. Their organization was
somewhat democratic: the Hausa kings were elected by the notables of the country and could be
removed by the latter.[17]
The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states founded according to the Bayajidda legend by the six
sons of Bawo. Bawo was the unique son of the hausa queen Daurama and Bayajidda or (Abu
Yazid by certain Nigerien historians) who came from Baghdad. The seven original hausa states
were: Daoura (state of queen Daurama), Kano, Rano, Zaria, Gobir, Katsena and Biram.[17]
Mali Empire
Main article: Mali Empire
The Mali Empire was a Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita circa 1230 that existed up to
1600. At its peak circa 1350, the empire extended as far west as Senegal and Guinee Conakry and
as far east as western Niger.
Kanem-Bornu Empire
Main article: Kanem-Bornu Empire
The Kanem-Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern-day Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon,
Niger and Libya. The empire first existed and prospered as the Kanem Empire as early as the 9th
century and later as the kingdom of Bornu until 1900.

V2

Clasificarea edentatiei partiale Kennedy.


Clasa I sunt incluse arcadele dentare edentate partial cu prezenta obligatorie a
breselor bilaterale terminale, adica marginite de dinti numai mezial.
Clasa II este caracteristic prezenta obligatorie numai a unei brese terminale, adica
marginita de dinti numai mezial.
Clasa III este caracteristic prezenta obligatorie a bresei laterale intercalate, adica
marginita atat mezial cat si distal de dinti
Clasa IV sunt incluse arcadele dentare edentate partial cu localizarea bresei numai in
zona frontala
Primele trei clase sunt impartite in 4 subdiviziuni, in dependenta de numarul breselor.

Articulatoarele, componente,
Sunt aparate ce imit miscrile mandibulei n toate planurile si servesc pentru refacerea
morfologiei ocluzale corespunztoare activitii funcionrii Sistemului
Stomatognat.Articulatorul Simplex propus de Gysi foloseste ca principiu de construire triunghiul
Bonwil. Au 2 rame: superioar => imit maxila;inferioar => imit mandibula, articulate printr-
un complex asemntor ATM.Astfel, extremitile posterioare ale ramei superioare sunt
prezentatede condilii articulari care alunec pe pantele ce imit tuberculii articularisituai pe
ramura inferioar. Suprafaa acestor pante are un plan denclinare meziodistal de 33 si
oralovestibular de 17..Alte tipuri: Monsson, Wadsworth, Heit.Articulatoare adaptabile reproduc
individual miscari:
1)cu nregistrare intrabucal
2)cu nregistrare extrabucal
3)cu nregistrare intra si extrabucal.

Lingurile amprentare. Varieti. Etapele amprentrii anatomice:


Lingurile amprentare reprezinta un suport rigid, rezistent, nedeformabil pe care se depune
materialul amprentar si se preseaza pe cimpul protetic. Ele sunt diverse dupa dimensiuni si
forme, caracteristice pentru maxila si mandibula. Lingura pentru maxila este compusa din baza
care acopera palatul dur, versantul vestibular al apofizei alveolare si arcada dentara. Lingura
pentru mandibula se deosebeste de cea maxilara prin rascolirea bazei la crearea locului pentru
limba si prezenta bordurii lingual care acopera versantul intern al apofizei. Etapele amprentarii:
1)Alegerea materialului amprentar 2)Alegerea lingurii amprentare 3) Pregatirea materialului
amprentar 4)Aplicarea materialului amprentar pe lingura si in cavitatea bucala 5)Formarea
marginii cimpului protetic 6) Priza materialului 7)Scoaterea amprentei 8) Prelucrarea
amprentei si examinarea 9)Obtinerea modelelor

Tipuri de praguri cervicale, tehnica realizrii i necesitatea.


Exista praguri supragingivale ,subgingilave si juxtagingivale..Cu ajutorul pragurilor cervicale
obinem un aspect fizionomic
mai bun n cazul retraciilor gingivale. Igiena mai favorabil Prepararea dinilor in zona coletal
are ca scop adaptarea c mai perfect a protezei pariale fixe la aceasta periferie, nchiderea
marginal sau jonciunea dento- protetica. Aceast limit cervicala a preparaei dinilor
intereseazdin mai multe puncte de vedere nivelul de plasare;configuratia limitei de plasare;
posibilitati de creare a acestora pentru realizarea unor amprente de precizie in cazul in care
aceasta limita e plasataintracrevicular avand ca obiectiv mentinerea stabilitatii gingiei libere.

Enumerati consecutivitatea etapelor de prelucrare si finisare a puntilor dentare metalice


intreg turnate .
1) Dupa ce componentele metalice au fost curatate se sectioneaza tijele canalelor de turnare din
locul solidarizarii lor cu componenta metalica
- operatiunea se efectueaza cu ajutorul abrazivelor rotative
- discuri de carborund cu grosimea de 0.8-1.5 mm fixate in mandrene
- pietre sau freze speciale extradure

2) La operatia de planare si netezire se efectueaza cu ajutorul instrumentelor abrazive rotative:


3) Dupa slefuire se face adaptarea pieselor pe model si redarea aspectului morfologic
corespunzator
4) La operatia de lustruire se foloseste aparatul de slefuit:
- se foloseste lustruirea mecanica : filtru , perii , puful de bumbac
- lustruirea electrochimica prin bai electrogalvanice

5) Se spala proteza cu un jet de apa pentru verificarea calitatii lustruirii


V3

Clasificarea puntilor dentare.


Clasificarea punilor dentare are la baz mai multe criterii:
1. Materialele din care sunt confecionate
a) Metalice (aliaje nobile i inobile), nefizionomice
b) Nemetalice (din acrilate, composite sau porelan), fizionomice
c) Mixte metalo-ceramice, metalo-acrilice
2.Metoda de fixare: a) fixe; b) mobile
3. Metoda de confecionare: a)Lipite b) Sudate
c) Turnate ( se modeleaz macheta punii protetice din cear i se nlocuiete prin metal)
4. Numrul dinilor stlpi:
a) Cu un dinte (punile cu extensie)
b) Cu doi dini care mrginesc brea din ambele pri
c) Cu trei i mai muli
5. Dup raportul corpului de punte cu apofiza alveolar
a) Cu raport n a b) Semia c) Tangent liniar d) Punctiform e) Suspendat
6. Dup particularitile de construcie: a) Monolite (dintr-o bucat) b) Separate (din dou bucai)
c) Pliante d) Atipice.

Confectionarea modelului de lucru i auxiliar.


la nceput amprentele se spal bine cu un jet deap rece, apoi se prepar pasta din ghips, prin
malaxarea manual sau mecanic a apei cu pulbere de ghips.Dup prepararea pastei din ghips
trecem la turnarea modelului. n acest scop amprenta splat se usuc si se depune cu spatula
poriun imici de past din ghips pe prile interne cele mai pronunate aleamprentei. Se vibreaz
cu mna sau prin meninerea amprentei n vibrator pentru ca pasta s ptrund treptat n toate
imprimrile amprentei. Pentru realizarea soclului modelului pe masa de ghips sau pe o plac de
sticl se depun poriuni de past din ghips de dimensiunileamprentei, peste care se amplaseaz
amprenta cu partea n care a fostturnat pasta de ghips. Ulterior asupra lingurii amprentare se
apas usor pentru solidarizarea poriunilor de past de ghips din amprent si de pemas avnd
grij s nu subdimensionm. Concomitent, cu spatula senltur surplusurile de ghips. Dup
priza definitiv, se ndeprteazmodelul de pe placa de sticl si se trece la eliberarea lui de
materialul amprentar. Se fasoneaz soclul modelului cu ajutorul cuitului de ghips sau cu ajutorul
aparatlui de soclat.

Ceara speciala.Componenta.
Acesta ceara este ambalata in seturi,are forma cilindrica cu dimensiuni de 2;3;9mm si lungime
de 120;75;150mm

Ele sunt utilizate pentru canale de turnare principale si auxliare


Compozitia cerii speciale :
60% pafarina , 25 % ceara carnauba , 10%cerezit

Lingurile amprentare. Varieti. Etapele amprentrii anatomice:


. Lingura pentru maxila este compusa din baza care acopera palatul dur, versantul vestibular al
apofizei alveolare si arcada dentara. Lingura pentru mandibula se deosebeste de cea maxilara
prin rascolirea bazei la crearea locului pentru limba si prezenta bordurii lingual care acopera
versantul intern al apofizei. Etapele amprentarii: 1)Alegerea materialului amprentar
2)Alegerea lingurii amprentare 3) Pregatirea materialului amprentar 4) Aplicarea materialului
amprentar pe lingura si in cavitatea bucala 5) Formarea marginii cimpului protetic 6)Priza
materialului 7)Scoaterea amprentei 8) Prelucrarea amprentei si examinarea 9) Obtinerea
modelelor

Etapele clinico-tehnice de confecionare a punilor dentare ntreg turnate.


1.Clinic prepararea dinilor stlpi, amprentarea, protecia plgii
dentinale;
2.Laborator realizarea modelului de lucru, modelarea machetei
coroanei din cear, turnarea;
3.Clinic proba coroanei turnate;
4.Laborator prelucrarea mecanic, slefuirea si lustruirea;
5.Clinic proba si fixarea coroanei

Tipurile lingurilor de amprentare


Lingurile amprentare reprezinta un suport rigid, rezistent, nedeformabil pe care se depune
materialul amprentar si se preseaza pe cimpul protetic. Ele sunt diverse dupa dimensiuni si
forme, caracteristice pentru maxila si mandibula. Lingura pentru maxila este compusa din baza
care acopera palatul dur, versantul vestibular al apofizei alveolare si arcada dentara. Lingura
pentru mandibula se deosebeste de cea maxilara prin rascolirea bazei la crearea locului pentru
limba si prezenta bordurii lingual care acopera versantul intern al apofizei.

Tipuri de praguri cervicale, tehnica realizrii i necesitatea.


Exista praguri supragingivale ,subgingilave si juxtagingivale..Cu ajutorul pragurilor cervicale
obinem un aspect fizionomic
mai bun n cazul retraciilor gingivale. Igiena mai favorabil Prepararea dinilor in zona coletal
are ca scop adaptarea c mai perfect a protezei pariale fixe la aceasta periferie, nchiderea
marginal sau jonciunea dento- protetica. Aceast limit cervicala a preparaei dinilor
intereseazdin mai multe puncte de vedere nivelul de plasare;configuratia limitei de plasare;
posibilitati de creare a acestora pentru realizarea unor amprente de precizie in cazul in care
aceasta limita e plasataintracrevicular avand ca obiectiv mentinerea stabilitatii gingiei libere.

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