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Under guidance of
Dept. of Civil engineering
Submitted by
1.Anubhav Shukla 2.Ankur Verma 3.Ankit Kumar Rawat
4.Aditya Rajpoot 5.Dheeraj Kumar

I hereby declare that the project work entitled as

Making of bricks by the using of red brick dust
comparing with fly ash brick is authentic record
of my own work carried out at B.N. College of
Engineering Technology as required for six
month project semester for the award of degree
of B.Tech. (Civil engineering) under the guidance
of Dr. Nakul Guptaduring 6 months

Date Signature

Certified that the above statement made by the

student is correct to the best of our knowledge &
Guide signature
Guide Name
B.N. College of engineering technology
I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the
possibility to complete the project . I want to thanks the department of
civil engineering and construction and maintenance section of B.N.
college of engineering technology for giving me such a golden
opportunity to commence this project in the first instant. I have
further more to thanks the professor Dr. Nakul Gupta who
encouraged me to go ahead with my project .
I am also thankful to the entire civil engineering department
B.N.College of engineering technology for their stimulating
support .
I am deeply indebted to our training In-charge at site Mr. Salman
whose help stimulating suggestions & encouragement help me in all
the time at training site and also for writing the report also I am
thankful to site engineer for taking me
understand the process of construction.
My colleagues from the civil engineering department supported me in
my project work. I want to thank them for all their help , support
inetrest and valueable hints. Who looked closely at the final version
of the report for English style and grammer, correcting both and
offering suggestion for improvement .
This work has been undertaken as a part of the research and
investigation on making of bricks by the using of red brick dust
with comparing flyash brick the financial assistance afford to
gratefully acknowledgment.
In this project is study of making of bricks by the using of bricks dust
comparison with fly ash brick .
In this project the localy available material of brick dust . the brick
dust is generaly the wastage material . this wastage material about
10%-15% at a time of construction. And also the red brick is made by
clay soil .
This clay soil is gradually decreases due to continuous making of
bricks . this soil is very usefull for fertilizing because of upper layer
of the earth .
The red brick dust is also collected from the ancient building as a
wastage material of bricks.
Flyash is generated in larg quantity especially by thermal power plant
A lot of research had been carried out for effective utilization of fly
ash in building industry use of flyash in manufacturing bricks is one
such subject wich is being studied by researchers .
The aim of the present study is to investigate the strength and water
The brick dust is recycled by the using of this project. In this project
comparing the characteristics of brick with flyash brick.
The material for making of brick is red brick dust , stone dust , ppc ,
and also the flyash brick material is flyash ,stone dust , lime gypsum.
The brick dust brick and flyash brick having a same size. The size of
the brick 12.5*12.5*25 cm3
the brick whose solid ingredient for flyash brick is flyash stone dust
lime and gypsum are used for the manufactured .
the manufacturing process uses technique and equipment similar to
those used in flyash brick in factories. The manufactured process
compressive strength is higher then the flyash bricks. this exceed
some of the best load carrying flyash brick available by more then
25% and it several time better then acceptable commercially
available flyash brick . other important charactorstics of red brick
dust brick have been evaluated . this included absorption capecity .
initial rate of absorption ,modulus of rupture , bond strength and
durability . the value for this characteristics for flyash are excellent
and have exceeded .

moreover flyash bricks have been produced with a naturally

occurring reddish color similar to that of normal flyash brick.
This paper is presented the result of testing and the advantage gained
by this type of brick over conventional flyash.
Red brick dust, flyash , gypsum, lime ,ppc (pozzolona
Portland cement), compressive strength and water absorption.
List of content
1. Title page .
2. Declaration
3. Acknowledgement
4. Abstract
5. Table of content
6. List of the table
7. List of figure.
Chapter -1
1. Introduction..
2. Background of the study .
3. Aims and objectives..
4. Scope
5. Methodology
Chapter- 2
1. Literature review
2. Historical background
3. Next subheading
Chapter -3
1. Methodology
2. Next subheading.
1. Result ..
2. Next subheading
Chaper -5
1. Conclusion and recommendation
2. Conclusion..
Chapter -6
1. Drawing or printout
Chapter -7
1.Reference and bibliography.
Chapter -1
In the present scenario in the construction industry use of economic
and environmental friendly. Material is of great concern. One of the
main gradients use in the cement. It is observe from the various
studies that the emitted from the cement account to greater percentage
in global warming. Cement industries account to a greater emission of
CO2 and they also use high level of energy production of cement. In
order to minimize these effect. Replacement of cement with some
pozzolona material such as fly ash can have an improving effect
against this harmful factor. In this work optimum mix of fly ash
generated as barapkuria thermal power plant sand hydrated lime and
gypsum and also optimize the brick forming pressure. Flyash-55%,
stone dust -25%, hydrated lime-15%, gypsum-5%. Was found to be
optimum mix for the optimum mix study the compressive strength
,micro structure shrinkage property, unit volume rate initial rate of
absorption, absorption capacity apparent porosity opened pore and
impervious pore of the flyash sand lime gypsum brick produced with
optimize composition under brick forming pressure efflorescence and
the radio activity of the bricks is forming under optimize condition
were also investigated. In this paper experimentally the red brick dust
is comparing with the flyash brick in this the red brick dust brick use
of the ppc cement with the percentage of 20% , in the fly ash brick it
consist of the flyash ,stone dust ,lime and gypsum are performance
characteristics are analysed and also for the red brick dust brick is
consist of the red brick dust and stone dust and also it include the
small amount of ppc 20% furthermore the , the estimated optimum
value , the additional of flyash 60% at a fixing temperature as 950*C
has no harmful effect on the brick quality . it seems that the flyash
added building brick so reasonably good properties and may become
competitive with the conventional building bricks use of the raw
material for the production of building bricks is not only viable
alternative to flyash but also a solution to difficult and expensive
waste disposal problem. In the present work the attempt has make to
find the optimum mix percentage of to obtain maximum strength of
red brick dust brick admixed with lime , gypsum and quarry dust at
various proportion .
The pulverized fuel ash commonly known as flyash is a useful by
product from thermal power station using pulverised coal as fuel and
has considerable pozzolonic activity. This national resource has been
gainfully utilized for manufacture of pulverised fuel ash lime bricks
as a supplement to common burnt clay buildings bricks leading to
conservation of natural resources and improvement in environment
Pulverised fuel ash lime bricks are obtain from materials consisting of
pulverised feul ash in major quantity lime as an acceletor acting as a
catalyst . pulverised fuel ash lime bricks are generaly manufactured
my intergrading blending various raw materials are then moulded into
bricks and subjected to curing cycles at different temperature and
pressure . on occasion as and when required crushed bottom fuel ash
or stone dust is also used in the composition of courser material to
control watwer absorption in the final product. Pulverised feul ash
reacts with lime in presence of moisture from a calcium hydrate
which is binder material. Thus pulverised fuel ash lime in presence of
moisture from a calcium silicate hydrate whch is binder material.
Thus pulverised fuel ash lime brick is chemically ended bricks
These brick are suitable for use in masonry costruction just like flyash
bricks . the production of pulverised fuel ash lime bricks has already
started in the country and it is expected that this standard would
encourage production and use on mass scale . this stand lays down on
the essential requirement of pulverised fuel ash bricks so as to achieve
uniformity in the manufacturer of such bricks .
The proposed unit will be a started by one of the women entrepreneur
and she have acquired EM part 1 from the district industries centre ,
kanchipuram, and also obtain all the statuary requirement to run the
firm without any technical and managerial problems.
The red brick dust is the locally available material form the
demolished building and high rise structure demolished material of
the brick

in this paper , the demolished material of

the red brick dust is recycled or reused as a bricks ,
The clay brick is making by the using of fertile layer of the earth due
to this fertile layer making of the bricks this layer are get redused day
by day so this fertile layer is prevented by the using of reused of
demolished material of the red brick dust ,
At a time of construction the brick wastege is about 10%-15% , this
wastage of red brick dust is reused by the making of red brick dust
brick this brick is consist of the different ratio of the material it can be
used red brick dust-55%, stone dust-25%, ppc (portland pozzolona
cement)-20%, and also the some ratio are taken for the analysis of the
different ratio of the red brick dust , stonr dust and ppc,
This brick is comparing with the flyash brick . the flyash brick is
making as the same percentage of the flyash bricks becouse of the ppc
is not working as the binder material with the flyash. So making of
the flyash brick with the ratio of the standard brick of flyash . so the
percentage of the material is , flyash -55%, stone dust-25%, lime-
15%, gypsum-5%, as that ratio of the flyash brick the different ratio
of the red brick dust brick and also the ratio of the flyash brick and
red brick dust brick are same,
Aims and objectives
The aim of this paper is achieving the greater strength of the red
brick dust as comparing with the flyash brick.
To find out the optimum mix design for making brick so as to
achieve the maximum compressive strength of the red brick dust brick
as comparing to the flyash bricks ,
Need for the study-
To improve the compressive strength to estimate the stability
and durability of the bricks
To maintain the uniform size and shape of flyash bricks and to
reduse the plastering thickness.
To improve the engineering properties such as workability ,
plasticity etc.
180 billion tones of common burnt clay bricks are consumed
annually tones of clay about 5000 acre of top layer of the soil dug out
for bricks manufacturer , soil erosion , emmission from coal burning
or fire woods which couses deforestation are the serious problem
posed by brick industry . the above problem can be reduced some
extent by using flyash bricks in dwelling units.
Demand for dwelling units likely to raise to 80 million units
by year 2015for lower middle and lower income groups , involving
and estimated investment of $670 billion , according to the associated
chamber of commerce and industry , demand for dwelling units will
further grow to 90 million by 2020, which would require a minimum
investment of $890 billion . the indian housing sector at present faces
a shortage of 20 million dwelling units for its lower middle and low
income groups which will witness a spurt of about 22.5 million
dwelling units by the end of tenth plan period. There is ample scope
for flyash brick and block units.
In chennai alone 1crore bricks are required for constructional
acticities in every day . but good quality of bricks as well as required
quantity are not available moreover during the rainy seasion supply of
clay bricks are very difficult . therefore in order to fullfill the require
demand ther will be greate chance to start more units in the field of
flyash bricks.
At present 20no. units are engaged and 40 lakhs no. of bricks are per
month are manufactured in our state . and there will be scope to start
near about 100 units. , which will be produced more then 2 crore no.
of bricks per months in future . thus marketing of this product are well
the details regarding the methods and properties of
materials used in this study .
Materials used

flyash Stone dust lime gypsum

Fly ash bricks

Fig. 1 flowchart shows the materials used for flyash bricks

Red brick dust Stone dust ppc

Red brick dust brick

Fig.2 flowchart shows the materials used for red brick dust brick
properties of materials

fly ash
fly ash is a finally divided residue resulting from the
combustion of powdered coal and transported by the flue gases and
collected by electrostatic precipitator .
ASTM broadly classify fly ash into two classes
CLASS F: fly ash normally produced by burning anthracite
or bitumen coal, usually has less than 5% Cao. Class F fly ash has
pozzolanic properties only.
CLASS C: fly ash normally produced by burning lignite or
sub bituminous coal. some class c fly ash may have Cao content may
excess of 10%. In addition to pozzolonic properties. Class c fly ash
also possesses compendious properties. Fly ash used is of type class c
with a specific gravity of 2.19.
The fly ash for the present investigation was procured from IFFCO,
phulpur, Allahabad. In all the samples, fraction finer then 2 was
maintain as 7.7%. its LL,,PL,and PI were 15%, 15% and 0%
respectively. The OMC and MDD were 45% and 800 kg/m3
respectively. The chemical composition of fly ash is presented in
table. 1
table 1: chemical composition of fly ash

Chemical % by weight
Unburnt carbon 12.00
Sio2 57.77
Al2O3 23.92

Fe2O3 9.56
Tio2 1.63
CaO 2.24
K2O 0.60
MgO 1.28
Mo2O 0.13