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UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER SMELTER PLANT

Final Report

GROUP 13
GROUP PERSONNEL:
ABDI RIDHOLLOH FARRY (1406643053)
ABU BAKAR ASH SHIDDIQ (1306449302)
ADENIA GITA DIANTY (1306392960)
ANGGA KURNIAWAN SASONGKO (1306392916)
HANIF IBRAHIM (1306392973)
SHEILA NABILA PUTRI (1306392821)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


ENGINEERING FACULTY, UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
DEPOK
2016
LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS

1. Name : Abdi Ridholloh Farry


NPM : 1406643053
BOP : Jakarta, October 27th 1991
Address : Jl. H. Japat No. 75 Sukamaja, Depok 16417
2. Name : Abu Bakar Ash Shiddiq
NPM : 1306449302
BOP : Jakarta, April 15th 1995
Address : Jl Kalibaru Timur Gg, VI No. 2 Senen, South Jakarta
3. Name : Adenia Gita Dianty
NPM : 1306392960
BOP : Jakarta, August 2nd 1995
Address : Pancoran Barat IV, No. 2 RT 011/RW 01, South Jakarta
4. Name : Angga Kurniawan Sasongko
NPM : 1306392916
BOP : Jakarta, March 14th 1995
Address : Jl. Pinang Emas 1 UT 19, Pondok Indah, South Jakarta
5. Name : Hanif Ibrahim
NPM : 1306392973
BOP : Bekasi, September 18th 1995
Address : Jl. Pertanian 2 No 118 Lebak Bulus, South Jakarta
6. Name : Sheila Nabila Putri
NPM : 1306392821
BOP : Jakarta, December 22nd 1995
Address : Kavling Setiabudi No. 7, Cipadu, Larangan, Tangerang

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PREFACE

Praise to God, The Cherisher and Sustainers of the worlds: God who has
been giving His blessing and mercy to the writer to complete this Final Report
entitled Preliminary Design of Copper Smelter Plant. This final report is
submitted to fulfill one of the requirements in Chemical Plant Design Class as
capstone course of Chemical Engineering Major in Universitas Indonesia. In
finishing this report, the writer really gives his regards and thanks for people who
has given guidance and help, they are:

1. Prof. Dr. Ir. Widodo Wahyu Purwanto, DEA., Dr. rer. Nat. Ir. Yuswan
Muharam, M.T., Dr. Ing. Ir. Misri Gozan M.Tech., Ir. Dijan Supramono,
M.Sc., Dr. Tania Surya Utami, S.T., M.T., and others lectures, who has
given their best guidance to the writer in writing a great quality report and
well developed chemical product.
2. Our Parents, who always give their supports, prayers, and blessing.
3. All of our friends from Chemical Engineering Department batch 2013 who
always give their supports.

Finally, the writer realizes there are unintended errors in writing this final
report. The writer really appreciates all readers giving their suggestion to improve
its content in order to be made as one of the good examples for the next report.

Depok, December 15th 2016

Writer Team

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Indonesia is the top ten countries in the world which contribute around 4% copper
concentrate production in the world. Two largest company that provide copper
concentrate is PT. Freeport Indonesia and PT. Newmont. However not all copper
concentrate will be process in Indonesia, and mostly the copper mine (copper
concentrate) will be export overseas. The government regulation No. 4 in 2009 on
mineral and coal has pushed Indonesia to implement the advancement minerals
value-added in the country, particularly copper. Based on that background, we will
build copper smelter to reduce the export value of copper concentrate and
implement the government regulation.
The raw material in our plant are such as copper concentrates, limestone,
silica, and oxygen. The process will start when all the raw material burned on four
furnaces unit, then casting, and refinery electrolytic, which will be resulting in
copper cathode with high purity. In our plant, we also built oxygen plant to produce
oxygen-enriched air will help the combustion smelting process. PT. Smelco
Indonesia produce copper cathode (99,99% purity) and sulfuric acid (98.5% purity),
anode slime, slag, and gypsum as byproducts. PT. Smelco Indonesia is going to
produce copper cathode 320,000 tonnes/year and the copper concentrate needed to
produce our main product is 876 tonnes/day. To support the production, our plant
will be constructed in Gresik, East Java and the marketing target is exported to
China, and India as the most copper consumers from the worlds. PT. Smelco
Indonesia is divided into several areas, which are office area and process area. From
the plant layout, we could generate the total area needed to build the plant which
actually in total amounted 6.582 hectare of land area.
Equipment sizing has important role in increasing the standards of each
plants. The proper size of equipment helps to optimize the process in the plant
which is obtained by developing the Process Flow Diagram (PFD), Piping and
Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID), and sizing a static process equipment. From
P&ID could be generated controller and valve that we need for each process. P&ID
shows all of piping including the physical sequence of branches, reducers, valves,
equipment, instrumentation and control interlocks.
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To support its production process, we should determine the Health, Safety,
and Environment analysis, based on HAZID and HAZOP. To support the safety
aspect, we provide the personal protection equipment and the emergency
equipment, we also provide the evacuation procedure, firefighting and emergency
alarm, evacuation route, and the assembly or meeting point in case of emergency.
The waste of our production is grouped into three types, they are solid, liquid, and
gas. Solid waste is the largest waste produced from our plant which amounted about
27686.35 kg/hour. This waste is a byproduct which is beneficial to be processed.

In plant design, we have to determine economic analysis to make sure the


profitable of our plant. The total CAPEX for our plant is USD 164,225,587. After
we calculate the CAPEX, we have to calculate OPEX (Operational Cost), from the
operational cost breakdown, the biggest cost for operational is raw material. The
total operating cost is USD 1,999,971,434 per year. Based on the production of
copper cathode before, the price for our copper cathode is USD 6,700/tonne. Capital
cost of our plant will be obtained by loan some money from investors and banks.
The money we loaned form investors is 60% of total capital cost and from the bank
is 40% of total capital cost. The WACC that we got from calculation is 20.43% and
the percentage of MARR is 23.46%. After we make the Before Tax Cash Flow and
After Tax Cash Flow, we calculate the profitability analysis. Payback Period is 4.4
years, IRR is 35.7%. The BEP for copper cathode is 24495 tonne and 32728 tonne
for the byproduct.

Cost breakdown of our plant show that the material cost in our plant takes
about 75% of our total cost. The value of largest cost will be analyzed by sensitivity
analysis to see if the value change occurred in each variable will affect plant
economic significantly. Not only cost, the price of our product also may have its
value changing for a period of time. The analysis showed that NPV and IRR will
fall down if the cost increases and vice versa. Payback period will become longer
to reach if the cost of production is increased. The outstanding issues includes the
technical aspect and economic aspect of the plant. The technical aspects discuss the
advantages of out plant, whereas the economic aspects discuss the TCI of the
capacity of our plant compared with another plant.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS ............................................................................ ii


PREFACE ............................................................................................................. iii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................. ix
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................ x
LIST OF APPENDICES ................................................................................... xiii
CHAPTER I BACKGROUND ............................................................................ 1
1.1 Background ................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Project Objective .......................................................................................... 2
1.3. Basic Theory ................................................................................................. 2
1.4 Market Analysis ............................................................................................ 3
1.5 Capacity Analysis ......................................................................................... 6
1.6 Raw Material Analysis ................................................................................. 6
1.7 Plant Location Analysis ................................................................................ 7
CHAPTER II PROCESS SELECTION ............................................................. 9
2.1 Process Selection Alternative ....................................................................... 9
2.2 Process Selection ........................................................................................ 17
2.3 Process Description .................................................................................... 19
2.4 BFD and PFD ............................................................................................. 25
2.5 Mass Balance .............................................................................................. 25
2.6 Energy Balance ........................................................................................... 27
2.7 Mass Efficiency .......................................................................................... 28
2.8 Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) Network ................................................. 29
2.8.1 Heat Exchanger Information ...................................................................... 29
2.8.2 Heat Recovery Pinch Method ..................................................................... 31
2.8.3 Pinch Design Method ................................................................................. 36
2.9 Utility Analysis ........................................................................................... 38
2.9.1 Water .......................................................................................................... 38
2.9.2 Fuel ............................................................................................................. 43
2.9.3 Air ............................................................................................................... 45
2.9.4 Electricity.................................................................................................... 45
CHAPTER III EQUIPMENT SIZING ............................................................. 47
3.1 Furnace ....................................................................................................... 47
3.2 Electrolytic Cell .......................................................................................... 49
3.3 Caster .......................................................................................................... 49
3.4 Belt Conveyor ............................................................................................. 50
3.5 Adsorber Column ....................................................................................... 54
3.6 Absorber Column ....................................................................................... 55
3.7 Packed Bed Reactor .................................................................................... 57
3.8 Filter Equipment ......................................................................................... 57
3.9 Heat Exchanger........................................................................................... 58
3.10 Storage Tank ............................................................................................... 69
3.11 Warehouse .................................................................................................. 70
3.12 Coagulant Tank........................................................................................... 71
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3.13 Filtration Tank ............................................................................................ 72
3.14 Ion Exchanger Tank.................................................................................... 72
3.15 High Pressure Turbine ................................................................................ 73
3.16 Pump ........................................................................................................... 73
3.17 Compressor ................................................................................................. 77
3.18 Piping .......................................................................................................... 79
3.19 Valve ........................................................................................................... 82
CHAPTER IV PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGY ...................................... 84
4.1 Plant Control Tabulation ............................................................................ 84
4.2 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram .......................................................... 88
CHAPTER V PLANT LAYOUT ....................................................................... 89
5.1 Area Plant Layout ....................................................................................... 89
5.2 Equipment Plant Layout ............................................................................. 92
5.2.1 2D Picture ................................................................................................... 92
CHAPTER VI HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................... 93
6.1 HSE Aspect................................................................................................. 93
6.1.1 HAZID ........................................................................................................ 93
6.1.2 HAZOP ....................................................................................................... 96
6.2 HSE Management ..................................................................................... 101
6.2.1 Operational Details ................................................................................... 101
6.2.2 Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) ...................................................... 107
6.2.3 MSDS ....................................................................................................... 109
6.3 Emergency Action Plant ........................................................................... 116
6.3.1 Emergency Operating Procedures or Training ......................................... 116
6.3.2 Firefighting ............................................................................................... 119
6.3.3 Evacuation Area ....................................................................................... 120
6.4 Waste Management .................................................................................. 121
6.4.1 Solid Waste ............................................................................................... 121
6.4.2 Liquid Waste............................................................................................. 122
6.4.3 Gas Waste ................................................................................................. 122
6.4.4 Sound Pollution ........................................................................................ 123
CHAPTER VII CAPITAL ESTIMATE ......................................................... 124
7.1 Total Equipment Cost ............................................................................... 124
7.2 Total Bulk Material Cost .......................................................................... 124
7.3 Site Development Cost ............................................................................. 125
7.4 Building Cost ............................................................................................ 125
7.5 Supporting Equipment Cost...................................................................... 125
7.6 Engineering and Supervision Cost ........................................................... 125
7.7 Construction Expenses ............................................................................. 125
7.8 Contingencies Cost ................................................................................... 126
7.9 Contractors Fee ....................................................................................... 126
7.10 Additional Cost ......................................................................................... 126
7.11 Working Capital ....................................................................................... 126
7.12 Calculation of Total Capital Investment ................................................... 127
CHAPTER VIII OPERATING COSTS ......................................................... 128
8.1 Equity........................................................................................................ 128
8.2 Raw Material Cost .................................................................................... 128
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8.3 Utility Cost ............................................................................................... 129
8.4 Waste Treatment Cost .............................................................................. 129
8.5 Labor Cost ................................................................................................ 129
8.5.1 Direct Labor Cost ..................................................................................... 129
8.5.2 Indirect Labor Cost ................................................................................... 129
8.6 Maintenance Cost ..................................................................................... 130
8.7 Operating Overhead Cost ......................................................................... 130
8.8 Local Taxes and Insurance Cost ............................................................... 130
8.9 Depreciation.............................................................................................. 130
8.10 Cost of Manufacture ................................................................................. 130
8.11 Operating Cost (OPEX) Breakdown ........................................................ 131
CHAPTER IX ECONOMIC EVALUATION ................................................ 133
9.1 Investment Feasibility Analysis................................................................ 133
9.1.1 Income ...................................................................................................... 133
9.1.2 Cash Flow ................................................................................................. 133
9.2 Profitability Analysis ................................................................................ 134
9.2.1 IRR............................................................................................................ 134
9.2.2 NPV .......................................................................................................... 134
9.2.3 Payback Period ......................................................................................... 135
9.2.4 Break Event Point (BEP) .......................................................................... 136
9.3 Cost Breakdown ....................................................................................... 137
9.4.1 IRR Sensitivity Analysis .......................................................................... 138
9.4.2 NPV Sensitivity Analysis ......................................................................... 139
9.4.3 Payback Period Sensitivity Analysis ........................................................ 140
CHAPTER X OUTSTANDING ISSUES ........................................................ 141
10.1 Technical Aspect ...................................................................................... 141
10.2 Economical Aspect ................................................................................... 142
CHAPTER XI CONCLUSION........................................................................ 143
REFERENCES .................................................................................................. 145
APPENDIX ........................................................................................................ 148
APPENDIX A: Mass and Energy Balances ........................................................ 148
APPENDIX B: BFD and PFD ............................................................................ 157
APPENDIX C: PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION ..................................... 168
APPENDIX D: SIZING CALCULATION ALGORITHM ............................... 174
APPENDIX E: MSDS ........................................................................................ 203
APPENDIX F: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS.......................................................... 225
APPENDIX G: PLANT LAYOUT..................................................................... 242

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 World Copper Forecast .......................................................................... 5


Figure 1.2 Smelter Plant Location .......................................................................... 8
Figure 2.1 Isasmelt Furnace .................................................................................. 11
Figure 2.2 Mount Isa Copper Isasmelt Plant ......................................................... 11
Figure 2.3 Hydrometallurgical Extraction Process ............................................... 12
Figure 2.4 Copper Solvent Extraction Process ..................................................... 12
Figure 2.5 Flash Smelting Process ........................................................................ 13
Figure 2.6 Schematic of a Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit ................................. 13
Figure 2.7 Schematic of a Conventional Cryogenic Air Separation Unit ............. 14
Figure 2.8 Schematic of a Conventional Membrane Air Separation Unit ............ 15
Figure 2.9 The Single Contact Process ................................................................. 16
Figure 2.10 Double Contact Process ..................................................................... 17
Figure 2.11 Mitsubishi Copper Smelting Diagram and Equipment ...................... 20
Figure 2.12 Smelting Furnace ............................................................................... 21
Figure 2.13 Slag Cleaning Furnace ....................................................................... 21
Figure 2.14 Composition of Converter Product from Smelting Copper Scrap ..... 22
Figure 2.15 Overall Mass Balance of Copper Smelter ......................................... 26
Figure 2.16 Cascade Table .................................................................................... 33
Figure 2.17 Combined Composite Curves ............................................................ 35
Figure 2.18 Combined Composite Curves After Pinch ........................................ 36
Figure 2.19 Pinch Design Method ........................................................................ 37
Figure 2.20 BFD of Water Treatment Process ...................................................... 39
Figure 2.21 Raw Water Screening ........................................................................ 40
Figure 2.22 Coagulation and Flocculation Process ............................................... 40
Figure 2.23 Filtration Unit .................................................................................... 41
Figure 2.24 Ion Exchange Unit ............................................................................. 42
Figure 5.1 Typical Spacing for Plant Equipment .................................................. 90
Figure 5.2 Typical Spacing for Plant Equipment .................................................. 90
Figure 5.3 Red and Blue Zone .............................................................................. 91
Figure 5.4 Total 2D Plant Layout ......................................................................... 92
Figure 6.1 Evacuation Route Map ...................................................................... 121
Table 7.1 Total Bulk Material Cost..................................................................... 124
Table 7.2 Building Plant Cost ............................................................................. 125
Table 7.3 Total Capital Investment ..................................................................... 127
Figure 8.1 OPEX Breakdown Diagram .............................................................. 132
Figure 9.1 Profile of Cummulative Cash Flow ................................................... 136
Figure 9.2 Capital Cost Breakdown .................................................................... 137
Figure 9.3 IRR Sensitivity Analysis ................................................................... 139
Figure 9.4 NPV sensitivity Analysis ................................................................... 139
Figure 9.5 Payback Period Sensitivity Analysis ................................................. 140

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Supply and Demand Balance .................................................................. 4


Table 1.2 World Refined Copper Usage and Demand ............................................ 4
Table 1.3 Location Comparison .............................................................................. 7
Table 1.4 Location Selection Result ....................................................................... 8
Table 2.1 Copper Smelter Technology Selection ................................................. 17
Table 2.2 Copper Smelter Technology Selection Result ...................................... 18
Table 2.3 Oxygen Purification Method Selection ................................................. 18
Table 2.4 Oxygen Purification Method Selection ................................................. 18
Table 2.5 Sulfuric Acid Plant Technology Selection ............................................ 19
Table 2.6 Sulfuric Acid Plant Method Selection Result ....................................... 19
Table 2.7 Overall Mass Balance of Copper Smelter ............................................. 26
Table 2.8 Overall Mass Balance of Oxygen Plant ................................................ 26
Table 2.9 Overall Mass Balance of Sulfuric Acid Plant ....................................... 27
Table 2.10 Energy Requirement for Each Equipment .......................................... 27
Table 2.11 Overall Energy Balance of Copper Smelter ........................................ 27
Table 2.12 Overall Energy Balance of Oxygen Plant ........................................... 28
Table 2.13 Overall Energy Balance of Sulfuric Acid Plant .................................. 28
Table 2.14 Oxygen Plant Stream Classifications .................................................. 29
Table 2.15 Sulfuric Acid Stream Classification .................................................... 30
Table 2.16 Shifted Temperatures in Oxygen Plant ............................................... 31
Table 2.17 Shifted Temperature in Sulfuric Acid ................................................. 31
Table 2.18 Minimum Utility Requirements .......................................................... 32
Table 2.19 Utility Requirement............................................................................. 34
Table 2.20 Minimum Utility Requirement After Pinch ........................................ 36
Table 2.21 Water Consumption Before HEN ....................................................... 38
Table 2.22 Water Consumption After HEN .......................................................... 39
Table 2.23 Electricity Consumption ..................................................................... 46
Table 3.1 Specification of Smelting Furnace ........................................................ 47
Table 3.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Specification Design ........................................ 47
Table 3.3 Specification of Anode Furnace ............................................................ 48
Table 3.4 Specification of Electrolyic Cell ........................................................... 49
Table 3.5 Specification of Hazelett Caster ............................................................ 49
Table 3.6 Specification of Hazelett Caster ............................................................ 50
Table 3.7 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-101 .................................................. 50
Table 3.8 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-102 .................................................. 51
Table 3.9 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-103 .................................................. 51
Table 3.10 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-104 ................................................ 52
Table 3.11 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-105 ................................................ 52
Table 3.12 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-106 ................................................ 53
Table 3.13 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-107 ................................................ 53
Table 3.14 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-108 ................................................ 54
Table 3.15 Specification of Adsorber Column R-201 .......................................... 54
Table 3.16 Specification of Adsorber Column R-202 .......................................... 55
Table 3.17 Specification of Absorber Column R-302 .......................................... 55
Table 3.18 Specification of Absorber Column R-303 .......................................... 56
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Table 3.19 Specification of Packed Bed Reactor R-301 ....................................... 57
Table 3.20 Specification of Cyclone FG-301 ....................................................... 57
Table 3.21 Specification of E-101 ........................................................................ 58
Table 3.22 Specification of E-201 ........................................................................ 59
Table 3 23 Specification of E-202 ........................................................................ 59
Table 3.24 Specification of E-203 ........................................................................ 60
Table 3.25 Specification of E-204 ........................................................................ 60
Table 3.26 Specification of E-205 ........................................................................ 61
Table 3.27 Specification of E-206 ........................................................................ 61
Table 3.28 Specification of E-207 ........................................................................ 62
Table 3.29 Specification of E-301 ........................................................................ 62
Table 3.30 Specification of E-302 ........................................................................ 63
Table 3.31 Specification of E-303 ........................................................................ 63
Table 3.32 Specification of E-304 ........................................................................ 64
Table 3.33 Specification of E-305 ........................................................................ 64
Table 3.34 Specification of E-306 ........................................................................ 65
Table 3.35 Specification of E-307 ........................................................................ 65
Table 3.36 Specification of E-308 ........................................................................ 66
Table 3.37 Specification of E-401 ........................................................................ 66
Table 3.38 Specification of E-402 ........................................................................ 67
Table 3.39 Specification of E-403 ........................................................................ 67
Table 3.40 Specification of E-404 ........................................................................ 68
Table 3.41 Specification of E-405 ........................................................................ 68
Table 3.42 Specificatin of Storage Tank for Sulfuric Acid .................................. 69
Table 3.43 Specification of Storage Tank for Demineralize Water ...................... 69
Table 3.44 Specification of Warehouse TK-101................................................... 70
Table 3.45 Specification of Warehouse TK-102................................................... 71
Table 3.46 Specification of Warehouse TK-103................................................... 71
Table 3.47 Specification of Coagulant Tank......................................................... 71
Table 3.48 Specification of Filtration Tank .......................................................... 72
Table 3.49 Specification of Demine Water Tank.................................................. 72
Table 3.50 Specification of Turbine T-401 ........................................................... 73
Table 3.51 Specification of Pump P-301 .............................................................. 73
Table 3.52 Specification of Pump P-302 .............................................................. 74
Table 3.53 Specification Pump P-201................................................................... 74
Table 3.54 Specification Pump P-202................................................................... 75
Table 3.55 Specification Pump P-101................................................................... 76
Table 3.56 Specification Pump P-401................................................................... 76
Table 3.57 Specification Pump P-501................................................................... 77
Table 3.58 Specification Compressor K-100 ........................................................ 77
Table 3.59 Specification Compressor K-101 ........................................................ 78
Table 3.60 Specification Compressor K-102 ........................................................ 78
Table 3.61 Specification Compressor K-201 ........................................................ 78
Table 3.62 Specification Compressor K-202 ........................................................ 79
Table 3.63 Piping Specification of Copper Smelter Plant .................................... 79
Table 3.64 Piping Specification of Sulfuric Acid Plant ........................................ 80
Table 3.65 Pipinng Specification of Oxygen Plant ............................................... 81
Table 3.66 Pipinng Specification of Power Plant ................................................. 81
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Table 3.67 Piping Specification of Water Pretreatment Plant .............................. 82
Table 3.68 Valve Size of Copper Smelter Plant ................................................... 82
Table 3.69 Valve Size of Oxygen Plant ................................................................ 82
Table 3.70 Valve Size of Sulfuric Acid Plant ....................................................... 82
Table 3.71 Valve Size of Power Plant .................................................................. 83
Table 3.72 Valve Size of Water Utility................................................................. 83
Table 4.1 Control Tabulation of Copper Smelter Plant ........................................ 84
Table 4.2 Control Tabulation of Oxygen Plant ..................................................... 85
Table 4.3 Control Tabulation of Sulfuric Acid Plant ............................................ 86
Table 4.4 Control Tabulation of Power Plant ....................................................... 87
Table 4.5 Control Tabulation of Water Utility...................................................... 88
Table 6.1 HAZID Parameters (Hazard Effect) ..................................................... 93
Table 6.2 HAZID List ........................................................................................... 94
Table 6.3 HAZOP Parameter ................................................................................ 97
Table 6.4 HAZOP List .......................................................................................... 97
Table 6.5 Explanation of HMIS .......................................................................... 110
Table 6.6 HMIS Protective Equipment Code ..................................................... 110
Table 7.1 Total Bulk Material Cost..................................................................... 124
Table 7.2 Building Plant Cost ............................................................................. 125
Table 7.3 Total Capital Investment ..................................................................... 127
Table 8.1 Financial Interest ................................................................................. 128
Table 8.2 Raw Material Cost .............................................................................. 129
Table 8.3 Cost of Manufacture............................................................................ 131
Table 8.4 OPEX Breakdown ............................................................................... 132
Table 9.1 Income of The Plant ............................................................................ 133
Table 9.2 Raw Material Price Flutuation ............................................................ 138
Table 9.3 Product Price Fluctuation .................................................................... 138

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LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Mass and Energy Balances


Figure A.1 Smelting Furnace Equipment............................................................ 148
Figure A.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Equipment ................................................... 149
Figure A.3 Converting Furnace Equipment ........................................................ 149
Figure A.4 Anode Furnace Equipment ............................................................... 150
Figure A.5 Electrolytic Cell Equipment ............................................................. 151
Table A.1 Smelting Furnace Mass Balance ........................................................ 148
Table A.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Mass Balance ................................................ 149
Table A.3 Converting Mass Balance .................................................................. 150
Table A.4 Anode Furnace Mass Balance ............................................................ 150
Table A.5 Casting Machine Mass Balance ......................................................... 151
Table A.6 Electrolytic Cell Mass Balance .......................................................... 151
Table A.7 Mass Balance ..................................................................................... 152
Table A.8 Compressor Mass Balance ................................................................. 152
Table A.9 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-201 and E-202 .............................. 152
Table A.10 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-201 and E-202 ............................ 152
Table A.11 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-205 and E-206 ............................ 152
Table A.12 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-207 .............................................. 153
Table A.13 Adsorber Mass Balance.................................................................... 153
Table A.14 Heat Exchanger E-301 and E-302 Mass Balance ............................. 153
Table A.15 Heat Exchanger E-303 and E-304 Mass Balance ............................. 153
Table A.16 Heat Exchanger E-305 and E-306 Mass Balance ............................. 153
Table A.17 Heat Exchanger E-307 and E-308 Mass Balance ............................. 153
Table A.18 Bed Converter Mass Balance ........................................................... 154
Table A.19 Absorber Mass Balance.................................................................... 154
Table A.20 Total Energy Requirements of Copper Smelter Plant ...................... 154
Table A.21 Energy Requirements of 1st Compressor.......................................... 154
Table A.22 Energy Requirements of 2nd Compressor ......................................... 155
Table A.23 Heat Exchanger E-301 and E-302 Energy Balance .......................... 155
Table A.24 Heat Exchanger E-303 and E-304 Energy Balance .......................... 155
Table A.25 Heat Exchanger E-305 and E-306 Energy Balance .......................... 155
Table A.26 Heat Exchanger E-307 and E-308 Energy Balance .......................... 156
Table A.27 Bed Converter Energy Balance ........................................................ 156
Table A.28 Absorber Energy Balance ................................................................ 156
Table A 29 Pump Energy Balance ...................................................................... 156

APPENDIX B: BFD and PFD


Figure B.1 BFD of Copper Smelter Plant ........................................................... 157
Figure B.2 BFD of Oxygen Plant........................................................................ 158
Figure B.3 BFD of Sulfuric Acid Plant ............................................................... 159
Figure B.4 PFD Before HEN Copper Smelter I .................................................. 160
Figure B.5 PFD Before HEN Copper Smelter II ................................................ 161
Figure B.6 PFD Before HEN Oxygen Plant ....................................................... 162
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Figure B.7 PFD Before HEN Sulfuric Acid Plant .............................................. 163
Figure B.8 PFD After HEN Oxygen Plant .......................................................... 164
Figure B.9 PFD After HEN Sulfuric Acid Plant ................................................. 165
Figure B.10 PFD of Pre-Water Treatment .......................................................... 166
Figure B.11 PFD of Power Plant......................................................................... 167

APPENDIX C: PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION


Figure C.1 P&ID of Copper Smelter Plant ......................................................... 168
Figure C.2 P&ID of Copper Smelter Plant ......................................................... 169
Figure C.3 P&ID of Oxygen Plant ...................................................................... 170
Figure C.4 P&ID of Sulfuric Acid Plant ............................................................. 171
Figure C.5 P&ID of Power Plant ........................................................................ 172
Figure C.6 P&ID of Water Utility ...................................................................... 173

APPENDIX D: SIZING CALCULATION ALGORITHM


Table D.1 Component of Absorption Column .................................................... 174
Table D.2 Properties of Absorber Feed .............................................................. 175
Table D.3 Packing Specification ......................................................................... 177
Table D.4 Industrial Absorber Specification ...................................................... 177
Table D.5 Data for Shale Thickness Calculation ................................................ 180
Table D.6 Flow Information of Reactor .............................................................. 182
Table D.7 The Result of Storage Tank Sizing .................................................... 192
Table D.8 Rigid Base Material Data Sheet ......................................................... 194
Table D.9 Design Criteria For SSF ..................................................................... 194
Table D.10 Cation Composition of Ion Exchanger Feed .................................... 195
Table D.11 Feed of Turbine T-401 ..................................................................... 199
Table D.12 Output of Turbine T-401 .................................................................. 199
Table D.13 Typical Velocity of Fluid in Pipeline ............................................... 201
Figure D.1 Design Data for Various Packing ..................................................... 176
Figure D.2 Flooding Line Graph ......................................................................... 177
Figure D.3 Capacity of Zeolit to Adsorp Nitrogen ............................................. 181
Figure D.4 Polymath Calculation of Reactor Sizing ........................................... 184
Figure D.5 Fouling Factors Coefficients ............................................................. 186
Figure D.6 Overal Heat Transfer Coefficients .................................................... 187
Figure D.7 Rateau Turbine Diagram ................................................................... 200
Figure D.8 Valve Size for Sch. 40 ...................................................................... 202

APPENDIX E: MSDS
APPENDIX F: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Table F.1 Total Equipment Cost ......................................................................... 228
Table F.2 Piping Cost of Copper Smelter Plant .................................................. 232
Table F.3 Piping Cost of Sulfuric Acid Plant ..................................................... 232
Table F.4 Piping Cost of Oxygen Plant .............................................................. 233
Table F.5 Piping Cost of Power Plant ................................................................. 234
Table F.6 Piping Cost of Water Utility ............................................................... 234
xiv Universitas Indonesia
Table F.7 Cost of Valve ...................................................................................... 234
Table F.8 Total Building Cost............................................................................. 235
Table F.9 Supporting Equipment Cost ................................................................ 235
Table F.10 Engineering and Supervision Cost .................................................... 236
Table F.11 Construction Expenses...................................................................... 236
Table F.12 Contingencies Cost ........................................................................... 236
Table F.13 Contractors Fee ................................................................................ 237
Table F.14 Royalties and Plant Start Up Cost..................................................... 237
Table F.15 Additional Cost ................................................................................. 237
Table F.16 Working Capital Cost ....................................................................... 237
Table F.17 Utility Cost ........................................................................................ 238
Table F.18 Waste Treatment Cost....................................................................... 238
Table F.19 Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 238
Table F.20 Labor Need per Equipment ............................................................... 239
Table F.21 Direct Labor Cost.............................................................................. 239
Table F.22 Indirect Labor Cost ........................................................................... 239
Table F.23 Operating Overhead Cost.................................................................. 240
Table F.24 Taxes and Insurance Cost ................................................................. 240
Table F.25 Cash Flow ......................................................................................... 241
Figure F.1 FM factor for heat exchanger FOB cost ............................................ 227
Figure F.2 FL factor for heat exchanger FOB cost ............................................. 227

APPENDIX G: PLANT LAYOUT


Figure G.1 Copper Smelter Plant Layout ............................................................ 242
Figure G.2 Oxygen Plant Layout ........................................................................ 242
Figure G.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant Layout ............................................................... 243
Figure G.4 Water Utility Plant Layout ................................................................ 243
Figure G.5 Power Plant Layout ........................................................................... 244
Figure G.6 Total Plant Layout ............................................................................ 245

xv Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER I
BACKGROUND

1.1 Background
Indonesia is a green country with a lot of natural resources. One of natural
resources that has been commodity is mining and mineral. According the law
no.4/2009 it has been stated that mineral and coal in Indonesia miner area is
unrenewable natural resources that had a role to enrichen the society of Indonesian
therefore the management should be done in Indonesia. However, the usage is not
optimal, where still the commodity without maximum management is forced to be
export.
Based on data from ministry of energy and mineral (ESDM) production of
concentrate copper in Indonesia nearly 2,38 million Metrictonne (MT). From 100%
production, at least 70% of copper concentrate is exported as raw material and the
rest 30% is going to be process in Indonesia to become copper cathode. The
potential of copper is big with 4,925 million metric tonne ore with proven reserves
approximately 4,161 million tonne ore (Data from ministry ESDM, 2011). In fact,
according to International Copper Study Group (ICSG) report in 2014 the reserves
of copper in Indonesia contribute 4% from all over the world. The usage of coppes
is dominated from the sector of contruction, equipment, and manufacturing.
Considering the resources of copper in Indonesia still high and the usage of copper
is varied therefore improvement for sales value by doing process in Indonesia is a
must. At a recent, theres only one company to smelting copper it is PT. Smelting
Gresik. This company processing copper concentrate to become copper product
(main product) with 99,99% purity. To fullfiled the demand of copper cathode on
domestic and Asia, in 2009 the capacity of production is improve become 300.000
metric tonne per year where the copper concentrate is supplied by PT. Freeport
Indonesia. PT. Freeport Indonesia has reached 1 1,2 million metric tonne to
produce copper concentrate, however from 100% production, only 30% that can be
processes in PT. Smelting Gresik. The condition make PT. Freeport had to export
the rest of copper concentrate, while Indonesia is importing copper cathode. Based

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on Law no.4/2009 it was stated that mining product should be processed in
Indonesia and the usage is to enrich the society. Considering theres only one
company in smelting Industry and also Indonesia still doing import copper cathode
then the opportunity to build another smelting company should be done.

1.2 Project Objective


The objective of our integrated copper smelter is produce copper cathode
which has purity 99.9%. This copper will supply the international market.
Furthermore, our plant will support governvent regulation No.4 in 2009 on mineral
which pushed Indonesia to implement the advancement minerals value-added in
the country, particularly copper. Based on data, copper concentrate production in
Indonesia is around 2.39 million tonnes per year, even though only around 1 million
ton per year of concentrate that process by PT. Smelting Gresik. As a result, there
are opportunity of around 1,4 million copper concentrate which can be processed
to copper cathode. Our plant will process around 870,525 tonnes copper concentrate
in a year to obtain 320,000 tonnes copper cathode.

1.3. Basic Theory


Copper is one of the basic chemical elements. It is commonly used to
produce a wide variety of products, including electrical wire, cooking pots and pans,
pipes and tubes, automobile radiators, and many others. Copper is also used as a
pigment and preservative for paper, paint, textiles, and wood. It is combined with
zinc to produce brass and with tin to produce bronze.
Mining produces ores with less than 1 percent copper. Concentration is
accomplished at the mine sites by crushing, grinding, and flotation purification,
resulting in ore with 15 to 35 percent copper. Ore concentration is roasted to reduce
impurities, including sulfur, antimony, arsenic, and lead. The roasted product,
calcine, serves as a dried and heated charge for the smelting furnace. Smelting of
roasted (calcine feed) or unroasted (green feed) ore concentrate produces matte, a
molten mixture of copper sulfide (Cu2S), iron sulfide (FeS), and some heavy metals.
Converting the matte yields a high-grade "blister" copper, with 98.5 to 99.5 percent
copper. Typically, blister copper is then fire-refined in an anode furnace, cast into
"anodes", and sent to an electrolytic refinery for further impurity elimination.

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In the smelting process, either hot calcine from the roaster or raw unroasted
concentrate is melted with siliceous flux in a smelting furnace to produce copper
matte. The required heat comes from partial oxidation of the sulfide charge and
from burning external fuel. Most of the iron and some of the impurities in the charge
oxidize with the fluxes to form a slag on top of the molten bath, which is
periodically removed and discarded. Copper matte remains in the furnace until
tapped.
Converting produces blister copper by eliminating the remaining iron and
sulfur present in the matte. Air, or oxygen-rich air, is blown through the molten
matte. Iron sulfide is oxidized to form iron oxide (FeO) and SO2. Blowing and slag
skimming continue until an adequate amount of relatively pure Cu2S, called "white
metal", accumulates in the bottom of the converter. A final air blast ("final blow")
oxidizes the copper sulfide to SO2, and blister copper forms, containing 98% to 99%
coppers. The blister copper is removed from the converter for subsequent refining.
The SO2 produced throughout the operation is vented to pollution control devices.
Fire refining and electrolytic refining are used to purify blister copper even
further. In fire refining, blister copper is usually mixed with flux and charged into
the furnace, which is maintained at 1100C (2010F). The impurities are removed
as slag. The remaining copper oxide is then subjected to a reducing atmosphere to
form purer copper. The fire-refined copper is then cast into anodes for even further
purification by electrolytic refining. Electrolytic refining separates copper from
impurities by electrolysis in a solution containing copper sulfate (Cu2SO4) and
sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The copper anode is dissolved and deposited at the cathode.
As the copper anode dissolves, metallic impurities precipitate and form a sludge.
Cathode copper, 99.95 to 99.96 percent pure, is then cast into bars, ingots, or slabs.

1.4 Market Analysis


Market analysis is the most fundamental in the design of a factory. This
analysis needs to be done to determine the potential of the product in the market.
Results of market analysis that has been done can be used to determine the design
capacity of the plant, and the factory will be built.
As we mention in background, the use of copper is the 3rd most metal that
industry needed. In industrial, copper is used for equipment, construction and
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infrastructure. However, market for copper cathode in domestic is not profitable
since the needs for copper cathode has been fullfiled by the competitor. Heres the
detail of supply and demand market domestic that has been studied by ministry of
energy (ESDM) and ministry of trade (KEMENPERIN). From the table below we
can see that the demand of copper cathode has been fullfiled. And we can conclude
that the market of copper cathode in domestic is not profitable.

Table 1.1 Supply and Demand Balance


Copper Products
Unwrought Copper
Basic Copper
Copper Cathode Others

Tonne Thousand USD Tonne Thousand USD Tonne Thousand USD

1. Pasokan Mineral
Produksi 879,696 N/A 281,718 1,168,897 1,816 1,375,466
Impor 295 3,588 66,067 610,992 6,306 48,688
2. Konsumsi Mineral
Dalam Negeri 227,811 3,588 217,615 610,992 6,306 48,688
Expor 652,180 N/A 130,170 1,168,897 1,816 1,375,466
(source: Report of Supply Demand Mineral ESDM, 2011)

Although in Indonesia market for copper cathode is not profitable but in


overseas this commodity still has the market value. From the data that we collected,
we see that theres an imbalance in 2015 and 2016. In 2015 theres 6,2% imbalance
between refined Cu production and Cu consumption and in 2016 theres 9,18%
imbalance between production and the consumption. Heres the data about world
consumption

Table 1.2 World Refined Copper Usage and Demand

Criteria 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016


World Refined Cu
17655 18598 19746 20912 22067 23245 24256 25329
Consumption
Copper Price LME
234 315 330 390 410 380 360 360
cash (c/lb)
World Refined Cu
18361 18344 18816 19583 20565 21928 22821 23198
Production
(source: AQM Copper inc&International Study Copper Group (ICSG), 2016)

Copper consumption expanded at an annual pace of 10.1%. Heres the detail


about the needs of copper refined in the future.
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Figure 1.1 World Copper Forecast


(source: AQM Copper inc,2016)

In Indonesia, theres two company that concern in exploring the copper


concentrate and that is PT. Freeport and PT. Newmont Indonesia. From 100 %
copper concentrate that produced by PT. Newmont Indonesia and PT. Freeport.
There are just 30% that are processed to be refined copper, and the remaining will
be export on copper concentrate form. Law no. 04/2009 stated that the duty for
processing and purification of mineral has to be done in Indonesia including copper
concentrate. Based on that fact it will be our opportunity for our plant to fullfiled
the law. Not only that, our plant also can reduce the export value of copper
concentrate.

The main product of our plant is refined copper (contains 99% of copper).
Based on the data from ministry energy and mineral (ESDM) the need in domestic
has been fullfiled so it will be better if we consider to export our product. We will
target our product in region asia such as China, and India. Our copper smelter plant
has acid sulphate (H2SO4), gypsum, copper slag, anode slime, and copper telluride
as byproduct and this also our opportunity to sell it to another industry. Acid
sulphate can be use for fertilizer, gypsum for cementing, copper slag for cement
and concrete, anode slime for gold, and copper telluride for semi conductor. If we
want to sells our acid sulphate we can sell to PT. Pupuk Sriwijaya (PUSRI) in West
Sumatera; PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda Lhoksumawe Aceh; PT. Pupuk Kujang in
West Java; and PT. Pupuk Kaltim.

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1.5 Capacity Analysis
From the ESDM data on table 1.1, we can see that the demand of copper
cathode has been fullfiled. Although in Indonesia market for copper cathode is not
profitable but in overseas this commodity still has the market value. Based on the
Supply and Demand of World Refined Copper Data, we have around 2,131,000
deficit production. Then, we take 15% market share, so we get
2,131,000 15% = 320,000 tonne/year
Then we convert the demand of copper to be our market capacity product.
320,000 /
= 876 /
365 /

1.6 Raw Material Analysis


Indonesia has copper as a natural source with amount of 4,925 million tons
of ore with saving or backing up with amount of 4,161 million tons of ore. Indonesia
is in the fourth position of the greatest copper exporter countries in the world, after
Chile, Peru, and Australia. Indonesia has two major copper mining company, PT
Freeport Indonesia and PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara.
Limestone potential in Indonesia is quite big and is almost spread evenly in
all over Indonesia. The amount of limestone in Indonesia is about 28,678 billion
tone. Mostly limestone exists in West Sumatera with amount of about 23,23 billion
tone or almost 81,82 % of all limestone natural source in Indonesia. Silica sand in
Indonesia is found as sediment precitipated. The highest reserve in west Sumatera
and the other reserve in West Borneo, South Sumatera, South Borneo, and Bangka
Belitung Island. The producer of silica sand is PT. Byan Technology Indonesia. PT.
Byan Technology in Surabaya, east Java. East Java is a place with high reserve of
silica sand.

Coal is the most important energy source for Power Generation. Indonesia
is one of the largest coal producers and exporters in the world. Since 2005, when
production exceeded Australia, Indonesia became the leading exporter of thermal
coal. The three regions with the largest coal reserves in Indonesia are South
Sumatra, South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan.

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1.7 Plant Location Analysis
Plant site selection is one of the main factors that determine the success and
survival of a plant. The location we selected based on: the location near raw
material, the location near the buyer, the location has support facility (water,
electricity, transportation, and land availability) and also labor availability. From
the four criteria above, we selected that Gresik, Madura, and Timika has the
potential to be analyze
Based on the criteria that we selected, the next page contains the detail of
comparison from 3 locations:

Table 1.3 Location Comparison


Criteria Gresik Madura Timika (Papua)
Far from PT.
Far from PT. Freeport Near PT. Freeport
Freeport
Source of silica in
Raw Material There's PT. SAMAC Source of silica in Madura
Papua is poor, therefore
Analysis (Silica, Mining as silica is poor, therefore it can be
it can be delivered by
Copper supply which is near delivered by ship from
ship from another
Consentrate, from Gresik another region.
region.
Limestone)
There is several Main source of
There's a lot of mount of
limestone mining in limestone in Papua is
limestone in Madura,
East Java. Paniai
the transportation can be
Good transport by Timika is lack both of
delivered using suramadu
Transportation use international land and water
bridge which near
harbor in Surabaya transporation
International harboour
Gresik Power Plant have Madura PTBA PT. Freeport has power
with the capacity Power station with generating with
12.814 capacity 400-megawatt capacity 385MW it can
Utilities (Water
GWh(PT.PJB) (MW) be transmit to Timika
and Power Plant)
Water can be from
water can be from coast in Water can supply from
Berantas &Bengawan
Madura river in Timika
SoloRiver
Worker (Fee and Minimum wage is Minimum wage to be paid Minimum wage to be
Salary) Rp3.042.500 is Rp1.350.000 paid is Rp2.487.000
PT Pupuk Gresik can
buy H2SO4 as feed in
No industrial No industrial
By Product fertilizer industry and
petrochemical and petrochemical and
Market cement industry (PT
fertilizer fertilizer
Semen Gresik) which
can buy our slag.

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Table 1.4 Location Selection Result
Scoring
Priority Gresik Madura Timika
Criteria
Raw Material Analysis (Silica, Copper Consentrate,
5 5 25 3 5 5 25
Limestone)
Transportation 3 4 12 4 3 4 12

Utilities (Water and Power Plant)


4 4 16 3 4 4 16
Worker (Fee and Salary) 3 2 6 4 3 2 6
By Product Market 4 4 16 3 4 4 16
Total 75 63 75

From the evaluated that has been done above, we selected Gresik is a
location for our Smelter plant. To be detailed our plant will be contruted in Manyar,
Gresik district. This location is selected because is only 20 Km away to PT.
Petrokimia, 43 Km away from PT. Semen Gresik, and 38 Km to international harbor
Tanjung Perak not only that the location is near with the coast, if we want to build
jetty for our plant the space still exists. Heres the detail of the location with the
coordinates 704'36.1"S and 11236'04.1"E.

Figure 1.2 Smelter Plant Location


(source: Google Maps)

Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER II
PROCESS SELECTION

2.1 Process Selection Alternative


Before process selection, we should consider some alternative process and
analyze each alternative process. The alternative will be explained below.

2.1.1 Copper Smelter Plant


The method that are used to form copper cathode from copper ore consists
of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process. Pyrometallurgical used high
temperatures to extract metals, such as smelting. Meanwhile, the
hydrometallurgical is one of the extractive metallurgy method involving the use of
aqueous chemistry for the recovery of metals from ores, concentrates, and recycled
or residual materials About 80% of the worlds copper-from ore is produced by
concentration/smelting/refining of sulfide ores.
2.1.1.1 Mitsubishi Process
The Mitsubishi process employs three furnaces connected by continuous
gravity flows of molten material. They are smelting furnace, slag cleaning furnace,
converting furnace. The smelting furnace blows oxygen-enriched air, dried
concentrates, SiO2 flux and recycles into the furnace liquids via vertical lances. It
oxidizes the Fe and S of the concentrate to produce -68% Cu matte and Fe-silicate
slag. Its matte and slag flow together into the slag cleaning furnace. The slag-
cleaning furnace separates the smelting furnace's matte and slag. Its matte flows
continuously to the converting furnace. Its slag (0.7-0.9% Cu) flows continuously
to water granulation and sale or stockpile.
The converting furnace blows oxygen-enriched air, CaCO, flux and
granulated converter slag 'coolant' into the matte via vertical lances. It oxidizes the
matte's Fe and S to make molten copper. A major advantage of the process is its
effectiveness in capturing SO2. It produces two continuous strong SO2 streams,
which are combined to make excellent feed gas for sulfuric acid or liquid SO2
manufacture. The advantage of Mitsubishi Copper smelting is,

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1. Higher oxygen utilization in concentrates smelting and matte conversion, by
virtue of the higher intensity reaction zone directly below the furnace lances.
2. Flexibility in treating a wide range and grade of concentrates and secondary
materials such as refinery anode scrap and scrap copper.
3. Furnace size are minimized since only short furnace retention times are
required.
4. Efficient capture of feed particles into the melt resulting in reduced carryover
or unsmelted dust to downstream equipment. Carryover from the smelting
furnace is typically 2 to 5% of the total solids fed to the furnace.
5. Slag from the smelting furnace typically contains 0.5 to 0.7% copper.
6. Continuous production of off-gases resulting in more stable operation of
downstream gas handling equipment and acid plant operation.

2.1.1.2. Copper Isasmelt Process


Ausmelti Isasmelt copper smelting entails dropping moist solid feed into a
tall cylindrical furnace while blowing oxygen-nriched air through a vertical lance
into the furnaces matteislag bath (Pritchard and Hollis, 1994). The products of the
process are a mattelslag mixture and strong SO, offgas. The matte slag mixture is
tapped periodically into a fuel-fired or electric settling furnace for separation. The
settled matte (-60% Cu) is sent to conventional converting. The slag (0.7% Cu) is
discarded. The offgas (25% SO,) is drawn from the top of the smelting furnace
through a vertical flue. It is passed through a waste heat boiler, gas cleaning and on
to a sulfuric acid plant. A small amount of oxygen is blown through the side of the
smelting furnace or lance (about halfway up) to ensure that sulfur leaves the furnace
as SO, rather than S. This prevents sulfur condensation in the gas cleaning system.
Most of the energy for smelting comes from oxidizing the concentrate charge. The
principal product of the furnace is a matte slag mixture. It is tapped into a
hydrocarbon fired or electric settling furnace. The products after settling are 60%
Cu matte and 0.7% Cu slag.
The advantages of the process are:
1. its small 'footprint', which makes it easy to retrofit into existing smelters
2. its small evolution of dust.

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Figure 2.2 Mount Isa Copper Isasmelt Plant


Figure 2.1 Isasmelt Furnace
(source:
(source: Extractive Metallurgy of
Copper, Davenport) https://www.saimm.co.za/Journal/v097n04p161.pdf)

2.1.1.3 Hydrometallurgical Extraction Process


Hydrometallurgy is one of the method of processing copper by extraction
of metal from ore by preparing an aqueous solution of a salt of the metal and
recovering the metal from the solution. Hydrometallurgical extraction entails:
1. sulfuric acid leaching of Cu from broken or crushed ore to produce impure
Cu-bearing aqueous solution
2. transfer of Cu from this impure solution to pure, high-Cu electrolyte via
solvent extraction electroplating pure cathode copper from this pure
electrolyte.
The leaching is mostly done by sprinkling dilute sulfuric acid on top of
heaps of broken or crushed ore (-0.5% Cu) and allowing the acid to trickle through
to collection ponds. Extraction and stripping are carried out in large mixer-settlers.
The Cu-loaded organic phase goes forward to another mixerisetter ('stripper') where
Cu is stripped from the organic into pure, strongly acidic, high-Cu electrolyte for
electrowinning. Then when the organic phase is subsequently put into contact with
high acid electrolyte [step (c) above], the Cu is stripped from the organic into the
electrolyte at high Cu++ concentration, suitable for electrowinning. The last stage of
hydrometallurgic extraction of chopper is electrowinning. Pure metallic copper
(less than 20 ppm undesirable impurities) is produced at the cathode and gaseous
O2 at the anode.

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Figure 2.4 Copper Solvent Extraction


Process

(source: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper,


Davenport)

Figure 2.3 Hydrometallurgical Extraction Process


(source: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper,
Davenport)

2.2.1.4 Flash Smelting Process


In flash smelting furnace, copper concentrate, silica flux, pure oxygen,
oxygen enriched air, and hydrocarbon fuel are introduced at the top of the reaction
shaft. The results in controlled oxidation of the concentrates Fe and S, a large
evolution of heat and melting of the solids. The process is continuous. Flash
smelting has some significant advantages over conventional smelting, which is high
recovery of copper and other valuable metals, low investment and operating costs
for smelter and acid plant, continuous process, and high sulfur recovery. The
periodic tapping and transportation of the matte from the flash smelting furnace
cause fugitibe emissions of SO2 gasses and some loss of heat energy. However, the
flash furnace has such a drawback as a difficulty with lowering the copper grade of
slag. The flash converting furnace can produce continuous off-gas flows at
relatively high SO2 contents because high levels of the oxygen enrichment can be
utilized and the furnace is sealed. So it can achive more than 99.8% sulfur capture.
The scheme of the flash smelting process is on Figure 2.5 below.
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Figure 2.5 Flash Smelting Process


(source: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Davenport)

2.1.2 Oxygen Plant


2.1.2.1 Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA)
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas
species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species molecular
characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material. The basic principle of this
process is adsorption. The adsorption process is based on the ability of some natural
and synthetic materials to prefentially adsorb nitrogen. Zeolites are typically used
in adsorption-based process for oxygen. Nitrogen is adsorben and an oxygen-rich
effluent stream is produced until the bed is saturated with nitrogen. The advantages
of pressure swing adsorptions (PSA) are:
1. PSA units can be placed on-site which makes the nitrogen readily available
2. Low to moderate capital cost. Cost-effective nitrogen production of relatively
high purities.
3. Quick installation and start-up. During shutdown, less money is lost.
While the disadvantages of PSA are:
1. High maintenance equipment but noisy operation
2. There is possible down time with respect to the compressor that is being used.

Figure 2.6 Schematic of a Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit


(source: Smith, 2001)
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2.1.2.2 Cryogenic Distillation
Cryogenic air separation is currently the most efficient and cost-effective
technology for producing large quantities of oxygen, nitrogen and argon as gaseous
or liquid product. To achive the low distillation temperatures an Air Separation Unit
(ASU) requires a refrigeration cycle that operates by means of the Joule-Thomson
effect. The advantages of cryogenic distillation are:
1. Providing a feed stream of clean, dry and compressed air
2. Produce large quantities of high purity of nitrogen.
3. Can produce both gaseous and liquid products.
4. Liquid forms of cryogenic gases are easier and cheaper to transport.
While the disadvantages of cryogenic distillation are:
1. Cryogenic process has a very large capital cost, due to the use of compressors
and turbines. Packing is not as effective at low temperatures.
2. High energy costs to cryogenically cool gases. Large site space and utility
requirements
3. Special cryogenic equipment, such as valves and pumps, required. Cryogenic
separation also requires numerous of heat echangers, insulators, which add
more costs.
On figure 2.7 below we can see the schematic of cryogenic distillation process.

Figure 2.7 Schematic of a Conventional Cryogenic Air Separation Unit


(source: American Journal of Oil and Chemical Technologies, Iran)

2.1.2.3 Membrane Separation


Membrane separation is a technology which selectively separates
(fractionates) materials via pores and/or minute gaps in the molecular arrangement
of a continuous structure. The membrane used in this method consists of a bundle
of selectively permeable hollow fibers. These fibers allow the fast gases (which is
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oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor) to permeate the memberane wall much
faster than the slow gas (nitrogen). The advantages of membrane separation are:
1. At low flow rates (up to 40,000 SCFH) this process is economical.
2. Simplest process in terms of calculation and engineering design.
3. It doesnt cost a lot for repairs and maintenance, lowest tax and insurance.
4. Requires the least amount of equipment.
While the disadvantages are:
1. The purity of nitrogen is not good enough for certain process.
2. Membranes are expensive. Uneconomical for high purity requirements, and
large output
3. The energy cost is higher than chemical treatment, although less than
evaporation.
On figure 2.10 below we can see the schematic of membrane air separation process.

Figure 2.8 Schematic of a Conventional Membrane Air Separation Unit


(source: Smith, 2001)

2.1.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant


One of the byproduct of the smelting process is sulfur from the annode
furnace, so we will make its own plant.
2.1.3.1 Lead Chamber Process
In the original lead chamber process, sulfur and potassium nitrate are ignited
in a room lined with lead foil. Potassium nitrate, or saltpeter is an oxidizing agent
oxidizes the sulfur to sulfur trioxide according to the reaction: 6 KNO3(s) + 7 S (s)
3 K2S + 6 NO (g) + 4 SO3 (g). The floor of the room was covered with water.
When the sulfur trioxide reacted with the water, sulfuric acid was produced: SO3(g)

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+ H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) This process was a batch process and resulted in the
consumption of potassium nitrate.

2.1.3.2 Single Contact Process


The principle of contact process is the oxidation reaction of SO2 gas with
oxygen from the air by using solid catalyst, then absorbed it into SO3 absorption to
produce sulfuric acid. The catalyst used is Pt because it can be activated at
temperature above 400oC. The sulfur trioxide is absorbed by concentrated sulfuric
acid in absorbers, preceded if necessary by oleum absorbers. In the absorbers, the
sulfur trioxide is converted to sulfuric acid by the existing water in the absorber
acid.

Figure 2.9 The Single Contact Process


(source: Smith, 2001)

2.1.3.3 Double Contact Process


Compared to the single contact process, this process has higher yield
process and less of SO2 emission which does not converted. In the other
configuration, gas which go outside from absorption tower will be heated again
through the heatexchanger, then go back to the last step of converter. Thus, the SO3
content will be decrease. The reaction is: SO2(g) + O2(g) SO3(g)
The degree of conversion obtained is about 99.6%, depending on the
arrangement of the contact beds and of contact time preceding the intermediate
absorber. After cooling the gases to approximately 160190C in a heat exchanger,
the sulfur trioxide already formed is absorbed in the intermediate absorber in
sulfuric acid with a concentration of 98.599.5 wt%. The intermediate absorber is
preceded by an oleum absorber if required. The sulfur trioxide formed in the
secondary stage absorbed in the final absorber.

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Figure 2.10 Double Contact Process


(source: Smith, 2001)
2.2 Process Selection
The alternative process mentioned above, either for copper smelter plant,
sulfuric acid plant, or oxygen plant, will be scored by some criterias. Some criteria
used in this process selection are: energy requirement, product purity, emmision
and waste, complexity process, production rate, cost investment and capacity. The
concept scoring matrix with value of scoring: 1: poor, 2: fair, 3: good, 4: very
good, 5: excellent.
2.2.1 Copper Smelter Plant
For the copper smelting process, the comparison of the process is shown on
the table below.
Table 2.1 Copper Smelter Technology Selection

Criteria Mitsubishi Isamelt Flash Smelting


Transportation of matte
The feed is
from flash smelting
Energy moist solid,
4 Furnaces needed furnace cost fugitive
Requirment need more heat
emission of SO2 and loss
for drying
of energy
Matte Grade of
65-69% 50% 45-50%
Copper
Eliminating fugitive emissions
form furnaces and ladles due to Small evolution Dust carryover rates are
Emmision &
its 3 furnaces connected by of dust, but low high due to solid material
Waste
enclosed launders that operates captured SO2 reaction in gas phase
contnuously
Complexity
Furnaces more complicated Simple process Simple process
Process
Production Rate
990 2255 5815
(1000 t/yr)
Cost for decoupling and
Melt movement by launder Small footprint
Cost Investment converting operation is
reduce cost is needed
high
(source: various sources)

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Table 2.2 Copper Smelter Technology Selection Result

Weight Mitsubishi Isasmelt Flash


Criteria
(%) Point Score Point Score Point Score
Energy Requirment 15 4 0.6 4 0.6 4 0.6
Product Purity 25 5 1.25 4 1 4 1
Emmision & Waste 15 5 0.75 3 0.45 4 0.6
Complexity Process 15 4 0.6 5 0.75 4 0.6
Production Rate 10 3 0.3 4 0.4 5 0.5
Cost Investment 20 5 1 5 1 4 0.8

2.2.2 Oxygen Plant


The criteria for selecting the process that will be used in oxygen plant are:

Table 2.3 Oxygen Purification Method Selection


Pressure Swing Adsorption
Criteria Membrane Cryogenic Distillation
(PSA)
Oxygen Membrane air Cryogenic distillation can
The PSA can produce 97%
Purity separation can achieve achive 99% of oxygen
oxygen purity
99% of oxygen purity purity
The capacity for The capacity for
The capacity for pressure
Capacity membrane separation cryogenic distillation can
swing adsorption can produce
is only 1-8,000 Nm3/h produce oxygen above
500-10,000 Nm3/h oxygen
oxygen 10,000 Nm3/h
The most complex
More complex because it used process is cryogenic
Complexity Low; one main
adsorbent which is need to be distillation, because it
equipment.
regenerate periodically used a refrigeration
system
High, the use of
Cost
Low Low refrigerant added more
Investment
cost.

Hence, the scoring process of oxygen plant based on criteria explained


above is shown on the table below

Table 2.4 Oxygen Purification Method Selection


Membrane Pressure Swing Cryogenic
Weight
Parameter Separation Adsorption Distillation
(%)
Point Score Point Score Point Score
Purity 20 5 1.0 5 1.0 5 1.0
Capacity 30 3 0.9 4 1.2 5 1.5
Complexity 30 5 1.5 5 1.5 3 0.9
Cost 20 5 1.0 5 1.0 3 0.6
Total 100 4.4 4.7 4.0

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2.2.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant
The comparison of the alternative process in the sulfuric acid plant is shown
below. Based on the data that we got from the literature, we make the scoring based
on some criteria. The weight given represents our priority of choosing the process.
According to the total score below, the process chosen is double contact. Hence,
the method that will be applied in the sulfuric plant will have two absorbers.

Table 2.5 Sulfuric Acid Plant Technology Selection


Lead Chamber
Criteria Single Contact Double Contact
Process
Energy
Low Low High
Requirement
Product Purity About 70% About 97.5-98.5% About 99.6%
Emmision & High sulfur dioxide High sulfur dioxide The remaining of sulfur dioxide
Waste emission emission need to be removed is reduced
Complexity
Medium Medium High
Process
High (15% higher than single
Cost Investment Medium Medium
contact)
Catalyst Lead Vanadium Oxide Vanadium Oxide

Table 2.6 Sulfuric Acid Plant Method Selection Result


Lead Chamber
Priority Single Contact Double Contact
Criteria Process
(%)
Point Score Point Score Point Score
Energy Requirment 15 5 0.75 5 0.75 4 0.6
Product Purity 30 3 0.9 4 1.2 5 1.5
Emmision & Waste 20 3 0.6 3 0.6 5 1
Complexity Process 15 5 0.75 5 0.75 4 0.6
Cost Investment 20 5 1 5 1 4 0.8
Total 4 4.3 4.5

2.3 Process Description


2.3.1 Copper Smelter Plant
The overall process in Mitsubishi Copper Smelter plant entails three main
furnaces which are smelting furnace, cleaning furnace, and converting furnace. the
output of the converting furnace is fed to anode furnace, then casted, and finally it
is electrorefined to get the cathode copper.

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Figure 2.11 Mitsubishi Copper Smelting Diagram and Equipment


(source: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Davenport)

The Smelting (S) Furnace is the first stage of copper production in the
Mitsubishi Process. It is a continuous-operation furnace that produces a high-grade
copper sulfide matte as well as a silicate slag. Matte smelting process condition is
1250oC and 1 atm. The feed of smelting furnace is dried concentrates (containing
30% Cu, 25% Fe, 30% S, and moisture content about 0,5%) mixed with coal, silica
sand, and recycled slag from converter furnace. The mixed feed injected into
smelting furnace through vertical lances, together with oxygen enriched air. The
concentrates are bath-smelted instantly, producing a high-grade matte about 68%
copper and silicate slag. The oxidation raction occurs in smelting furnace are
2 CuFeS2 + O2 Cu2S + 2 FeS + SO2
2 FeS + 3 O2 2 FeO + 2 SO2
2 Cu2S + 3 O2 2 Cu2O + 2 SO2
FeO + SiO2 FeSiO3
Cu2O + FeS Cu2S + FeO
The electric slag-cleaning furnace (3600 kW) is elliptical with three or six
graphite electrodes arranged in two pairs of three. It is a process where molten matte
and slag containing metal that had been transferred from the smelting furnace
through a launder be heated by two sets of delta-type electrodes (2100 & 1500
KVA). Slag celaning furnace accepts matte and fayalite slag (2FeO SiO2) from the
smelting furnace and separates them into layers by the difference of specific gravity.
The process condition of slag cleaning furnace is 1250oC and 1 atm. Residence
times in the furnace are 1 to 2 hours. The purpose of the electrodes and electrical
power is to keep the slag hot and fluid. Heat is obtained by resistance to electric

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current flow between the graphite electrodes in the slag - selectively heating the
slag to 1250C. Only a tiny amount of offgas is generated in the electric furnace.

Figure 2.12 Smelting Furnace


(source: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Davenport)

Figure 2.13 Slag Cleaning Furnace


(source: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Davenport)

The converting furnace blows oxygen-enriched air blast (30-35 volume%


O2), CaCO3 flux and converter slag granules onto the surface of the matte. In this
circular furnace, matte is continuously converted to blister copper. Inputs to this
furnace include: oxygen enriched blowing air (30-35%), limestone flux, coolant,
anode scrap, and molten copper matte. The air enrichment here is lower than that
of the S-Furnace. The Converting Furnace reactions are highly exothermic so that
the heat balance must be carefully controlled to hold the bath temperature as low as

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o
possible. Converting furnaces process condition is 1250 C and 1 atm. The converter
reactions are:
Cu2S (matte) + O2 2 Cu (blister) + SO2
3 FeS (matte) + 5 O2 Fe3O4 (slag) + 3 SO2
CaCO3 (flux) CaO (slag) + CO2
In addition, some Cu2S is oxidized to Cu2O:
Cu2S (matte) + 2 O2 2 Cu2O (slag) + SO2
2 Cu2O + Cu2S 6 Cu + 5 O2
This process produces
1. blister copper (99% Cu and 0.5% S)
2. molten slag (mostlly as Cu2O, 14% Cu)
3. SO2 offgas (< 0.3 ppm SO2 or 25-30% vol SO2)

Figure 2.14 Composition of Converter Product from Smelting Copper Scrap


(source: http:/ www.epa.govirpdweb00/docs/source-management/tsd/scrap_tsd_041802_apc2.pdf)

The C furnace uses a multi-lance system (similar to that of the S-Furnace)


to inject flux, oxygen-enriched air, and coolant down into the high intensity reaction
zone in the melt. Limestone, however, is the chosen flux for the C-Furnace, since a
more fluid ternary slag of the Cu2O-CaO-Fe3O4 type is desired.
The C-Furnace has several advantageous environmental features since it is
one stationary furnace instead of several rotary type furnaces. It is tightly sealed
and can produce much smaller volume of gas with higher SO2 concentration for the
acid plant feed.
At the anode furnace, a process that occurs in the blister is oxidation and
reduction. The reaction as shown below
Cu2S + O2 2 Cu + SO2

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This process aims to be produced copper refinery which will be ready in
casting the next process.
The final stage in the smelter is casting, uses technology called casting of
the English Hazelett Caster. This process takes place in two stages where the first
will be in the refined copper into copper continuous cast strip by a Hazelett Twin
Belt Caster. Then, continuous copper strips had to be cut into pieces by hydraulic
shearing machine anode.
Almost all copper is treated electrolytically during its production from ore.
It is electrorefined from impure copper anodes or electrowon from leach solvent
extraction solutions. Electrorefining entails:
1. Electrochemically dissolving copper from impure copper anodes into CuSO4-
H2SO4-H2O-electrolyte
2. Selectively electroplating pure copper from this electrolyte without the anode
impurities.
3. It produces copper essentially free of harmful impurities
4. Elimination of unwanted impurities; cathode copper typically has a purity >
99.9 % wt Cu, with < 0.005 % total metallic impurities;
Electrorefining produces the majority of cathode copper (ca. 95%). Overall
copper electrorefining is the sum of both reactions above would be
Cuimpure Cupure
The process for electrorefining copper is typical of those carried out in
aqueous solution. The electrolyte is copper sulfate (0.7 molar) and sulfuric acid (2
molar) and the way in which the purification of the copper occurs can be seen by
considering the metals likely to be found.

2.3.2 Oxygen Plant


From the discussion on the selecting process above, we chose pressure
swing adsorption (PSA) technology to be implement on our oxygen plant. Pressure
swing adsorption process rely on the fact that under high pressure, gases tend to be
attracted to solid surfaces, or adsorbed.
The process starts when air is fed into compressor after going through a
filter. The compressor will compress the air from 1 bar until 5 bar, in 2 stages of
compression. The main objective is that the adsorption process will take place when
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the pressure is high and under ambient temperature, so after a stage of compression,
the gas need to be cooled down by cooling water in heat exchangers. Next it will
enter a drum tank, to be storage, and then the PSA process will start. Air, is passed
under pressure through a vessel containing an adsorbent bed of zeolite that attracts
nitrogen more strongly than it does oxygen part or all of the nitrogen will stay in
bed, and the gas coming out of the vessel will be enriched in oxygen. When the bed
reaches the end of its capacity to adsorb nitrogen, it can be regenerated by reducing
the pressure, thereby releasing the adsorbed nitrogen. Then it is ready for another
cycle of producing oxygen enriched air. Using two adsorbent vessels allows near-
continuous production of the target gas. It also permits so-called pressure
equalization, where the gas leaving the vessel being depressured is used to partially
pressure the second vessel. This results in significant energy savings, and is
common industrial practice.

2.3.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant


The use of DCDA system adds 10 to 15% to the cost of the plant in
comparison with the older Single Absorption Process. The conversion is aided by a
catalyst. The converter consists of a tall cylindrical vessel of sufficient diameter
(generally 3.5 to 5.5m) to give a low gas velocity, inside which there are three or
four trays for quantities of catalyst. Between the catalyst sections there are devices
for cooling the gases to keep the temperature entering the later catalyst sections in
the region of 405 to 440oC.
After the passage through the first catalyst tray when the gas temperature
has risen from about 410oC to over 600oC, the gases pass into an external waste
heat boiler to raise steam and bring the gas temperature down to 430oC and at this
temperature the gases enter the second catalyst tray. On passing through the catalyst
the temperature again rises but this time not so much, and after the second tray
sufficient heat can be removed by superheating the steam raised in the waste heat
boilers. The super heater tubes are led from the boiler into a space underneath the
catalyst bed in the path of the gases. The temperature is again brought down to about
430oC and after the third pass the gases are similarly cooled. In the final section,
which contains most of the catalyst, the temperature rise is small as the reaction has
been brought near the equilibrium value in the previous passes and only relatively
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small amounts of sulfur dioxide and oxygen remain to react. After leaving the
catalyst the gases are at 400 to 450oC; the gases then pass through an air cooler to
the absorbers. The catalyst consists of vanadium in the form of small pellets or
cylinders. The speed of the reaction depends on the activity of the catalyst. A
conversion of sulfur dioxide to trioxide of between 98 and 99% is achieved.
The gas leaving the reactor is cooled further in a heat exchanger as
mentioned above and before entering the absorption tower where the Sulfur trioxide
is absorbed in a recirculated stream of concentrated sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid
is maintained at desired concentration (usually 98% H2SO4) by the addition of water
and its temperature is controlled in the desired range of 70 to 90oC measured at the
tower inlet by cooling the recirculated acid. Our plant uses a Double Contact Double
Absorption Process (DCDA). The gas after passing through three catalyst bed goes
to the first absorption tower where the Sulfur trioxide is removed. The gas is then
reheated to about 420oC, passed through the fourth catalyst bed, then cooled and
sent to a second absorption tower. The effect of removing sulfur trioxide product at
the first absorption stage is to push the reaction equlibrium of remaining sulfur
dioxide and oxygen in the direction of more product. In the reaction
2 SO2 + O2 2 SO3

2.4 BFD and PFD


The BFD and PFD designs can be seen on Appendix B.

2.5 Mass Balance


2.5.1 Mass Balance of Copper Smelter
Below is the overall mass balance of copper production which will be
detailed for each process unit in Appendix A. Our target product is Cu refined
copper with purity 99.99%. Below is mass balance of copper smelting process.

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CuFeS2 SiO2
SiO2 O2
O2 Cu
CaCO3 Fe2S3
FeO
FeSiO3
CaO
CaO-Fe2O4
SO2
CO2

Figure 2.15 Overall Mass Balance of Copper Smelter

Table 2.7 Overall Mass Balance of Copper Smelter


Component Input (tonne/day) Output (tonne/day)
CuFeSs 2385.5 -
O2 1760 398.76
SiO2 516 62
CaCO3 186 -
Fe2S3 - 27.04
Cu - 876
FeO - 16.54
FeSiO3 - 999
Fe3O4 - -
CaO - 25.4
SO2 - 1830.4
CO2 - -
Other
- 5.25
metals
total 4847.5 4240.4

2.5.2 Oxygen Plant


The overall mass balance of the oxygen plant can be seen below. The output
is two, one is at the top of the adsorber column, which is the purified oxygen, and
the other is at the bottom of the adsorber column, which is nitrogen.

Table 2.8 Overall Mass Balance of Oxygen Plant


Component Input (tonne Output (tonne mole/day)
mole/day) Purified O2 N2
O2 82 78 4
N2 367 8.6 348

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2.5.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant
The overall mass balance of the oxygen plant can be seen below.

Table 2.9 Overall Mass Balance of Sulfuric Acid Plant


Output (tonne/day)
Component Input (tonne/day)
SO2 H2SO4 SO3
SO2 1860 - - -
SO3 - - - 200
H2SO4 5200 - 5460 -

2.6 Energy Balance


2.6.1 Copper Smelter
In the copper smelter plant, we calculate the energy consumption needed for
each equipment based on the data of energy from the literature.

Table 2.10 Energy Requirement for Each Equipment


Operation Btu/ton
Smelting
Electric Furnace 22.68
Outokumpu flash 9.20
Mitsubishi reactor 12.21
Converting
Electric Furnace 6.50
Outokumpu flash 8.16
Mitsubishi reactor 6.25
Gas Cleaning
Electric Furnace 7.73
Outokumpu flash 8.16
Mitsubishi reactor 6.25
Electrorefining
Electric Furnace 5.61
Outokumpu flash 6.29
Mitsubishi reactor 6.29
(source: An Assessment of Energy Requirements in Proven and New Copper Processes report)

Table 2.11 Overall Energy Balance of Copper Smelter

Operation Feed (tons) 104 kJ Total (104kJ)


Smelting Furnace Mitsubishi 2385 128.6934 306949.5
Cleaning Slag 2648 65.875 174437
Converting Furnace 1587 31.8308 50514.2
Anode Furnace 886 95.5 84604.14
Electrorefining 881 59.1294 51979.2
Hazelet Caster 881 18 15858
TOTAL 684341.84
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2.6.2 Oxygen Plant
The overall energy balance in oxygen plant comes from its two
compressors. Table below shows the overall energy balance of oxygen plant.

Table 2.12 Overall Energy Balance of Oxygen Plant


Equipment Energy (MW)
Compressor 1 (MW) 11.3
Compressor 2 (MW) 8.75
Total (MW) 20.05

2.6.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant


Most of equipment in sulfuric acid plant produce and requies energy.

Table 2.13 Overall Energy Balance of Sulfuric Acid Plant


Equipment Input Output
HE E-301 -17.6 -16.6
HE E-302 -18.4 -18
HE E-303 -18.5 -18.8
HE E-304 -18.2 -18.2
HE E-305 -21.7 -21.7
HE E-306 -21.7 -21.7
HE E-307 -22 -21.9
HE E-308 -21.9 -21.8
1st Bed Converter -7.2 -7.1
2nd Bed Converter -8.3 -8.3
3rd Bed Converter -9.2 -9.2
4th Bed Converter -9.6 -9.6
Pump P-301 -14.6 -14.6
Pump P-302 -12.8 -12.8

2.7 Mass Efficiency


2.7.1 Copper Smelter
Mass efficiency obtain from mass of refined copper product divided by mass
of copper concentrate.


= 100%
2
876 tonnes
= = 36.94 %
2385.5 tonnes

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2.7.2 Oxygen Plant
The efficiency of the oxygen plant is,


=

78
= = 93.9%
83

2.7.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant


Efficiency of sulfuric acid can be determined by its SO2 converter because
most off SO3 will be absorbed by concentrated H2SO4 completely (Matthew, 2013).

3
=
2
(0.4234 3800)
=
1792
= 99.2%

2.8 Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) Network


2.8.1 Heat Exchanger Information
In smelter plant, there are several streams which are needed to analysis their
heat transfer. The flows of stream are evaluated into two main types, hot fluid and
cold fluid. Hot fluid is when the fluid has temperature decrease, which requires a
cold utility to cool the flow towards the temperature target. Cold fluid is when the
fluid has the temperature increase that its flow requires hot utility to heat flow
towards desired temperature. The table below shows the data of hot fluid and cold
fluid in our oxygen plant with the initial temperature, final temperature, and
enthalpy for each stream which needed to be evaluated.

Table 2.14 Oxygen Plant Stream Classifications


Q Cp
Stream Stream Molar Flow Tin Tout Q
No. Type (MW/day (kJ/kgmo
In Out (kgmol/hr) (oC) (oC) (kJ/hr)
) l oC)
1 1a 1b 11010 152 32 HOT 38314800 0.4434 29

2 2a 2 11010 124 32 HOT 29496230.4 0.3413 29.12

3 C1 C2 15910 32 64 COLD -38728758.4 -0.4482 76.07

4 C3 C4 15580 31 56 COLD -29656530 -0.3432 76.14

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Table 2.15 Sulfuric Acid Stream Classification

Cp
Stream Mass Flow Molar Flow Tin Tout Q
No. Stream In Type Q (kJ/hr) (kJ/kgmol
Out (tonne/day) (kgmol/hr) (oC) (oC) (MW/day)
oC)
1 1 1' 1860 1476 1200 1100 HOT 7216164 0.083 48.89
2 1' 2 1860 1476 1100 800 HOT 21165840 0.245 47.8
3 2 3 1860 1476 800 377 HOT 29100860.3 0.336 46.61
4 4 5 2560 2148 776 357 HOT 40239536.5 0.465 44.71
5 6 7 2560 2006 633 327 HOT 28340808.1 0.328 46.17
6 8 9 2560 1933 478.5 317 HOT 14694289.1 0.17 47.07
7 10 11 2560 1927 329 127 HOT 17123283.5 0.198 43.99
8 13 14 800 1850 26.85 115 COLD -12336813 -0.142 75.65
9 14 15 800 1850 115 293.5 COLD -25083891 -0.29 75.96
10 15 16 800 1850 293.5 305 COLD -1614134.3 -0.0187 75.87
11 18 19 700 1619 22.13 117 COLD -11690080 -0.135 76.11
12 19 20 700 1619 117 125 COLD -978135.04 -0.0113 75.52
13 20 21 700 1619 125 200 COLD -9214943.3 -0.107 75.89
14 21 21' 700 1619 200 218 COLD -2220620.4 -0.0258 76.2

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2.8.2 Heat Recovery Pinch Method
Linnhoff and Vredeveld has introduced the pinch term to design the heat
exchanger networks by the set of thermodynamically based on methods that
guarantee minimum energy. There are two methods that can be used to determine
the pinch from heat exchanger network, those are composite curve and problem
table cascade. The first step is determined the shifted temperature intervals (T*)
from actual supply and target temperatures. Hot streams are shifted down in
temperature by Tmin/2 and cold streams up by Tmin/2 as detailed in the table
below, in this case of our plant, Tmin that we used is 15.

Table 2.16 Shifted Temperatures in Oxygen Plant


Stream In Stream Out Type Tin Tout Tin* Tout*
1a 1b HOT 152 32 137 17
2a 2 HOT 124 32 109 17
C1 C2 COLD 32 64 47 79
C3 C4 COLD 31 56 46 71

Meanwhile the shifted temperature in sulfuric acid plant is shown as below

Table 2.17 Shifted Temperature in Sulfuric Acid


Stream In Stream In Type Tin Tout Tin* Tout*
1 1' HOT 1200 1100 1185 1085
1' 2 HOT 1100 800 1085 785
2 3 HOT 800 377 785 362
4 5 HOT 776 357 761 342
6 7 HOT 633 327 618 312
8 9 HOT 478.5 317 463.5 302
10 11 HOT 329 127 314 112
13 14 COLD 26.85 115 41.85 130
14 15 COLD 115 293.5 130 308.5
15 16 COLD 293.5 305 308.5 320
18 19 COLD 22.13 117 37.13 132
19 20 COLD 117 125 132 140
20 21 COLD 125 200 140 215
21 21' COLD 200 218 215 233

2.8.2.1 Cascade Curve


After we have the problem table, we can cascade any surplus heat down the
temperature scale from interval to interval. This is possible any excess heat
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available from the hot streams in an interval is hot enough to supply a deficit in the
cold streams in the next interval down.
Since our smelter plant is high temperature process, it is known that the
utility that require only from cold utility to cooling our equipment. For heat utility
our plant is no longer needed since we have excess heat. From the table below, we
know the minimum utility requirement based on the problem table cascade method.

Table 2.18 Minimum Utility Requirements

Utility Q (MW)
Hot 0
Cold 23.258

To see the minimum utility requirement, we used the grand composite


curve. The grand composite curve is help to understanding the interface between
the process and utility system. The grand composite curve is obtained by plotiing
the problem table cascade.

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Figure 2.16 Cascade Table

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Table 2.19 Utility Requirement
Ti H Q
0

1185 14271444

14271444

1085 41804748

56076192

785 3956002.56

60032195

761 36815415.78

96847610

618 53833480.97

150681091

463.5 35366332.16

186047423

362 5592808.2

191640232

342 951364.26

192591596

320 768075.36

193359671

314 256025.12

193615696

312 -367956.61

193247740

308.5 228988.76

193476729

302 -12359629.8

181117099

233 -5435837.64

175681261

215 -22566754.5

153114507

140 423797.55
` 153538304

137 90218.8

153628523

132 716.28

153629239

130 2535914.52

156165154

112 1130179.83

157295334

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Table 2.19 Utility Requirement (contd)
109 -25006412.7

132288921

79 -16158466.3

116130455

71 -48475399

67655056

47 -809534.59

66845521

46 1563415.432

68408936

41.85 2438725.399

70847662

37.13 12881211.16

83728873 Cold Utility (Kj)

17

43.258 Cold Utility (MW)

2.8.2.2 Composite Curves


Composite curve is generated for hot fluid, cold fluid and combination of
both fluids. This section describes the use of a heat exchanger network (HEN) to
recover the heat in production of sulfuric acid and oxygen. Composite curves
consist if temperature (T)-enthalpy (H) profiles of heat availability in the process
(the hot composite curve) and heat demands in the process (the cold composite
curve) together in a graphical representation.

HOT COLD
1200

1000

800
T (oC)

600

400

200

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
H (MW/day)

Figure 2.17 Combined Composite Curves

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The premium approach temperature (Tmin) can be measured directly from
the T-H profiles as being the minimum vertical difference between the hot and cold
curves. This point of minimum temperature difference represents a bottleneck in
heat recovery and is commonly refer as the pinch. We are using temperature
difference about 10oC to get the pinch composition.

HOT COLD
1200

1000

800
T (oC)

600

400

200

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
H (MW/day)

Figure 2.18 Combined Composite Curves After Pinch

Figure above shows that the pinch is being at 1100oC for cold fluid and
1090oC for hot fluid, as we use 10oC as the minimum temperature difference. The
hot end and overshoots indicate minimum hot utility requirement (QH min) and
minimum cold utility requirement (QCmin), as shown below.

Table 2.20 Minimum Utility Requirement After Pinch


Utility Q (MW)
Cold 30.2
Hot 0

2.8.3 Pinch Design Method


This pinch design method is used to determine the use of hot or cold fluid
for heating or cooling the stream. The determination of the heat transfer is based
on the are above and below the pinch and also the loading of its heat exchanger.
The design is shown in the figure below. After we have all the exchanger network
analysis, we revised the PFD that is shown in the next section.

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Figure 2.19 Pinch Design Method

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2.9 Utility Analysis
Utility plant is supporting facilities to running the process from the
beginning until the end of product. For our plant, we require several utilities.
They are electricity, water, and fuel. In this assignment.
2.9.1 Water
The water needed for our main process will be provided as the cooling agent
to reduce the temperature of the stream entering the heat reactor before going to the
next process. For example, in sulfuric acid plant the feed temperature reach 1200oC
as the outlet of the furnace. Hence, we need to cool down the temperature before it
enters the next equipment. The feed into this cooling water system is treated water
from the Bengawan Solo river.

2.9.1.1 Water as Feed of Heat Exchangers


On table below shown the utility of water needed before HEN

Table 2.21 Water Consumption Before HEN

Mass of Water
Plant Equipment Unit
(tonne/day)
Copper Smelter Anode Furnace F-104 53
Electrorefining P-101 8.8
E-201 6878
Oxygen Heat Exchanger
E-202 6734
E-304
E-305 800
E-302
Sulfuric Acid Heat Exchanger E-301
E-303
700
E-306
E-307
Total 15112
Total (tonne/hr) 629.67

The water needed for cooling in power plant is not included in the
calculation because we used the water from the oxygen plant.
After HEN calculation is done by cascade and composite curve method, the
total water consumption needed for this plant is shown below
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Table 2.22 Water Consumption After HEN
Q(MW) Q (Kj) M (kg) m (tonne/s) m (tonne/hr)
1.9 6840000 1636364 0.02513 90.4762
8 28800000 6889952 0.10582 380.952
11 39600000 9473684 0.1455 523.81
7.8 28080000 6717703 0.10317 371.429
4 14400000 3444976 0.05291 190.476
4.7 16920000 4047847 0.06217 223.81
Total 1780.95

The calculation of the water consumption after HEN is using the specific
heat of water, 4.19 kJ/kgoC, with the temperature difference (T) 15oC. The
temperature chosen based on the rule of thumb that states the cooling water could
cool down the hot stream about 15oC.

2.9.1.2 Water Pretreatment Process


Water pretreatment process is a process unit to treat water from impurities
to pure water which fulfill the specification water in using of main process. In this
plant design, the source would be from Bengawan Solo River. The water will be
used as feed water of heat exchanger. The pretreatment is important to use in
preventing corrosion and scalling in the process equipment which can reduce the
production and cause revenue losses. The quality of water still needs to be
maintained due to its BOD and COD level. Furthermore, we need the water
pretreatment process which process will be explained below. The PFD is shown in
Appendix B.
The BFD is shown on figure below

Figure 2.20 BFD of Water Treatment Process

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The treated water has to fulfill the specification which needs certain process
from water source to be specified as the feed water of process. The description for
each process will be explained further
a. Screening
Screening stage is the initial stage of water treatment. The purpose of screening
is to maintain the structure of the flow in the utility of the large objects that may
damage the unit of utility facilities and facilitate the separation and remove solid
particles carried in large lake. At this stage, the particles will be filtered without the
added of chemicals.

Figure 2.21 Raw Water Screening


(Source: kopar.fi/page/raw-water-screening)

b. Coagulation and Flocculation


Alum added to the water as a coagulant to help small particles stick together so that
they can be removed more easily. Mixing speed is gradually reduced to allow the Alum
to form sticky particles called "floc" which attract the dirt particles which can be more
easily removed.

Figure 2.22 Coagulation and Flocculation Process


(Source: koshland-science-museum.org)

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c. Sedimentation
The clumps sink to the bottom of the sedimentation basins, trapping larger
organic materials.
d. Filtration
Filtration in water purification is a common operation in order to get rid with
Suspended Solid (SS), including particulate BOD in water (Metcalf, 1984).
Materials used in the medium can vary: sand, anthracite (crushed anthracite coal),
carbon active granular, powdered active carbon and garnet stones. The most
commonly used in Africa and Asia are sand and gravel as a primary filter, consider
another type is quite expensive (Kawamura, 1991)

Figure 2.23 Filtration Unit


(Source: chemistry.wustl.edu)

e. Demineralization
Far more resin is used for water purification than for any other purpose. It is
therefore appropriate to discuss water treatment examples when outlining the
application of the principles of ion exchange technology. Industrial ion exchange
units are produced in sizes ranging from a few litres up to vessels holding several
tonnes of resin. Service runs between regenerations usually range from 12 to 48
hours. The two major types of treatment applied to water are water softening - the
replacement of 'hard' ions such as Ca2+and Mg2+ by Na+ and demineralisation the
complete removal of dissolved minerals. Both of these treatments are outlined
below. Demineralisation virtually all the dissolved matter in natural water supplies
is in the form of charged ions. Complete deionization (i.e. demineralisation) can be
achieved by using two resins.

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The water is first passed through a bed of cation exchange resin contained
in a vessel similar to that described for softeners. This is in the hydrogen ion form
brought about by the use of a strong acid regenerant (either hydrochloric or
sulphuric). During service, cations in the water are taken up by the resin while
hydrogen ions are released. Thus, the effluent consists of a very weak mixture of
acids. The water now passes through a second vessel containing anion exchange
resin in the hydroxide form for which sodium hydroxide is used as the regenerant.
Here the anions are exchanged for hydroxide ions, which react with the hydrogen
ions to form water. Such twin bed units will reduce the total solids content to
approximately 1-2 mg L-1. With larger units, it is usual to pass water leaving the
cation unit through a degassing tower. This removes most of the carbonic acid
produced from carbon dioxide and bicarbonate in the feed water and reduces the
load on the anion unit. Without degassing the carbonic acid would be taken up by
the anion bed after conversion to carbonate.

Figure 2.24 Ion Exchange Unit


(Source:buildingcriteria1.tpub.com)

f. De-aeration
De-aeration serves to heat the water that comes out of the ion exchanger and
condensate tool marks before it is sent as feed water. In this de-aerator, water is
heated to 100C so that the gases dissolved in the water such as O2 and CO2 can be
eliminated, because these gases can cause corrosion. The heating is done by using
a heating coil inside the de-aerator.

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2.9.2 Fuel
Fuel utility is used to determine how much fuel that must be prepared in a
period time. Fuel is used to burn copper concentrate, silica, limestone on the furnace
unit. The fuel that we use is coal, which is bituminous coal that fits for metallurgical
process. The coal is used in smelting furnace, converting furnace, and anode
furnace. Below is the calculation to determine fuel consumption. Assumption: we
use medium-volatile bituminous coal, with heating value of
Heating Value = 13840 Btu/lb = 32247 kJ/kg

2.9.2.1 Smelting Furnace


On smelting furnace, we use coal to melt copper concentrate and silica. So,
there will be a phase change, and latent heat calculation will be done.
CuFeS2 = 2385.5 tonne/d = 99.4 tonne/h
SiO2 = 516 tonne/d = 21.5 tonne/h
Q = QCuFeS2 + QSiO2
Q = (m )CuFeS2 + (m )SiO2
tonne MJ tonne MJ
Q = (99.4 144.6 ) + (21.5 236.87 )
hr tonne hr tonne
MJ MJ
Q = 14372.6 + 5092.70
hr hr
MJ
Q = 19465.3
hr
kJ MJ 103 kg MJ
Coal Heating Value = 32447 3 = 32247
kg 10 kJ tonne tonne
MJ
19465,3
Coal Mass = h = 0.61 tonne = 14.5 tonne
MJ hr day
32247 tonne

2.9.2.2 Converting Furnace


On converting furnace, we use coal to melt limestone, and further heat the
copper (I) sulfide. So, there will be a phase change for the limestone, and here is
the calculation.
CaCO3 = 186 tonne/d = 7.75 tonne/h
Cu2 S = 1033. 5 tonne/d = 0.27 tonnemole/h

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Q = QCaCO3 + Q Cu2 S
1523
Q = (m )CaCO3 + (m Cp dT)SiO2
1473
1523
tonnemole
Q Cu2 S = 0.27 (9.38 + 0.0312T + 20.97 T 2 )
h 1473

tonnemole MJ MJ
Q Cu2 S = 0.27 218660 = 59038
h tonnemole h
tonne MJ
QCaCO3 = (m )CaCO3 = 7.75 531.6
hr tonne
MJ
QCaCO3 = 4120
hr
MJ MJ MJ
Q = QCaCO3 + QCu2 S = 59038 + 4120 = 63158
h hr h
kJ MJ 103 kg MJ
Coal Heating Value = 32447 3 = 32247
kg 10 kJ tonne tonne
MJ
63158
Coal Mass = h = 1.96 tonne = 47 tonne
MJ h day
32247 tonne

2.9.2.3 Anode Furnace


On anode furnace, we use coal to further melt copper (I) sulfide and copper.
Here is the calculation.
= 719 / = 0.472 /
2 = 167 / = 0.0437 /
Q = QCu + Q Cu2 S
1523
= (5.44 + 0.001462 )
1513


= 0.472 [(5.45 . 103 . 4184)] /


= 0.472 23

= 10.86 /

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1523
Cu2S = (9.38 + 0.0312 + 20.9 2 )
1513


Cu2 S = 0.437 . [(2099.7 . 103 . 4184)] /

2 = 384 /
= 2 + 2 = 395 /
kJ MJ 103 kg MJ
Coal Heating Value = 32447 3 = 32247
kg 10 kJ tonne tonne
MJ
395 tonne tonne
Coal Mass = h = 0.02 = 0.48
MJ h d
32247 tonne

= 14.5 tonne/d + 47 tonne/d + 0.48 tonne/d = /

2.9.3 Air
Air is used in oxygen plant as a feed to adsorb the nitrogen, and produce
pure oxygen. Oxygen is consumed by copper smelter plant and sulfuric acid plant.
Oxygen is used in copper smelter plant for the combustion of coal to melt copper
concentrate, silica, and limestone. While oxygen in sulfuric acid plant is used to
oxidize sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide with the help of catalyst.

2.9.4 Electricity
In general, the electricity requirement in this plant can be divided as process,
utility unit, and another requirement. The electricity consumption of our main
process is listed on the table below

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Table 2.23 Electricity Consumption
Power
Plant Equipment Unit
(kW)
Slag Cleaning
F-102 3600
Furnace
C-201 11.54
C-202 5.59
Copper
Belt Conveyor C-203 3.15
Smelter
C-104 1.89
C-105 0.33
Hazelet Caster PM-101 100
Pump P-101 3.36
K-201 300
Oxygen Compressor
K-202 305
Sulfuric P-301 1.239
Pump
Acid P-302 1.083
Power
Pump P-401 117.9
Plant
Total 4451.082
Total (kWh/day) 106825.97

The electicity requirement in our plant would be supplied from the power
plant which use the steam produced from the main plant as the feed.
The copper smelter plant need such big power supply. Electricity supply
from PLN would not be a good idea due to the high cost of the copper smelter
operation plant. Hence, we decided to build the power plant that using steam turbine
as power supply to minimize the electricity requirement. Excess heat on copper
smelter plant, can be utilized to drive the steam turbine. Economizer is installed on
the furnace to utilized the heat from flue gas on the furnace to heat up the steam
from oxygen plant and finally it is used to drive the steam turbine. This power plant
uses a closed loop system. The PFD of the power plant is shown in the Appendix
B.

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CHAPTER III
EQUIPMENT SIZING

3.1 Furnace
3.1.1 Smelting Furnace

Table 3.1 Specification of Smelting Furnace


Specifications
Name Smelting Furnace
Code F-101
Function To produce 68% Cu matte and Fe
Shape Circular
silicate slag
Copper production rate 876 ton/day
Operating
(ton/day Condition
o
Liquid, Off Gas Temperature 1250 C
Dimensions
Diameter 10.1 m
Height 4 m
Number of Lances

Outside Pipe Diameter 10 cm


Inside Pipe Diameter 5 cm
Layer Thickness
Slag layer thickness 0.1 m
Matte layer thickness 1.4 m

3.1.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace

Table 3.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Specification Design


Name Slag Cleaning Furnace
Code F-102
Function To accepts molten matte and
Material Stainless slag
Steel SA-240
Dimension
Shape Elliptical
Width 6 m
Length 12.5 m
Height 2 m

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Table 3.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Specification Design (contd)

Electrodes
Material Graphite
Number 6
Diameter 0.4 m
Electricity
Min Voltage 90 V
Max Voltage 120 V
Min Current 5.5 kA
Max Current 12 kA
Power Rating 3600 kW
Applied Power 3000 kW
Operation
T 1250 C
P 2 atm
Residence Time 2 hour

3.1.3 Anode Furnace


Table 3.3 Specification of Anode Furnace
Name Anode Furnace
Code F-104
Function To produce anode
Capacity 320000 copper
tones/year
Dimensions
Diameter 3.12 m
Length 12.5 m
Number of Unit 2
Furnace Production Details
Anode production 400 tones/cycle
Oxidation Duration 5 hours
Air Flowrate
Air 50 Nm3/minutes
Oxygen 5 Nm3/minutes
Anode Casting
Casting Rate 100 tonne/hour
Automatic yes
Anode mass
weighing 370 kg

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3.2 Electrolytic Cell

Table 3.4 Specification of Electrolyic Cell

Name Project Electrolytic Cell


Code P-201
Function Remove impurities in copper
Capacity
Cathode Cu 266700 tones/day
Electrolytic Cell Dimensions
Material Polymer
Length 6.3 m
Width 1.2 m
Depth 1.4 m
Anode Specification
Purities of Cu 99.5%
Length 0.974 m
Width 0.934 m
Thickness 0.045 m
Mass 370 kg
Cathodes Specification
Type Isa Stainless Steel
Length 1m
Width 1m
Thickness 0.01 m
Plating Times 7 days
Electrolyte
Temperature inlet 65oC
Temperature Outlet 63oC
Volumetric Rate
Cu 52 kg/m3
H2SO4 173 kg/m3

3.3 Caster
3.3.1 Hazelett Caster

Table 3.5 Specification of Hazelett Caster


Name of Project Hazelett Caster
Code of Project PM-201
Dimension
Length Between Molten Copper 3.81 m
Width of Cast Strip 0.93
Length of Lug 0.18 m

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Table 3.5 Specification of Hazelett Caster (contd)
Dimension
Thickness of Cast Strip 0.045 m
Thickness of Lug 0.027 m
Casting Details
Casting rates 100 tones/day
Caster use 9 hours/day
Method of cutting Hydraulic sheer
Power consumption 100 kwh/tones

Table 3.6 Specification of Hazelett Caster

Code of Project PM-203

Casting angle 150

Casting belt width 508 mm

Casting belt thickness 1.1 mm

Casting bar height range 70-75 cm

Casting bar width range 100-132 cm

Nominal cast range 40-62 ton/hr

Nominal Caster speed 10.5 13.7 m/min

3.4 Belt Conveyor


3.4.1 Belt Conveyor C-101

Table 3.7 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-101

Equipment Specification
Name C-101
Material loaded CuFeS2
Parameters
Capacity 99.40 ton/h 27.610 kg/s
Speed 94.89 ft/min 0.482 m/s
Required mass flow 99.40 ton/h 27.610 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 125.70 ton/h 34.917 kg/s
Width 54 in 1.3716 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 5 5
Length 1 1200 ft 365.760 m
Length 2 60 ft 18.288 m
Height 10 ft 3.048 m

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Table 3.7 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-101 (contd)
Parameters
Power 16.92 Hp 12.448 kW
Belt material SL-516

3.4.2 Belt Conveyor C-102

Table 3.8 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-102


Equipment Specification
Name C-102
Material loaded SiO2
Capacity 21.50 ton/h 5.972 kg/s
Speed 81.52 ft/min 0.414 m/s
Required mass flow 21.50 ton/h 5.972 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 31.65 ton/h 8.792 kg/s
Width 42 in 1.0668 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 5 5
Length 1 1200 ft 365.760 m
Length 2 60 ft 18.288 m
Height 10 ft 3.048 m
Power 8.11 Hp 5.962 kW
Belt material SL-516

3.4.3 Belt Conveyor C-103

Table 3.9 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-103

Equipment Specification
Name C-103
Material loaded Coal
Capacity 0.60 ton/h 0.168 kg/s
Speed 5.37 ft/min 0.027 m/s
Required mass flow 0.60 ton/h 0.168 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 13.51 ton/h 3.753 kg/s
Width 30 in 0.762 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 5 5
Length 1 1200 ft 365.760 m
Length 2 60 ft 18.288 m
Height 10 ft 3.048 m
Power 1.10 Hp 0.807 kW
Belt material SL-516

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3.4.4 Belt Conveyor C-104

Table 3.10 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-104

Equipment Specification
Name C-104
Material loaded CaCO3
Parameters
Capacity 7.75 ton/h 2.153 kg/s
Speed 68.84 ft/min 0.350 m/s
Required mass flow 7.75 ton/h 2.153 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 13.51 ton/h 3.753 kg/s
Width 30 in 0.762 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 5 5
Length 1 1200 ft 365.760 m
Length 2 60 ft 18.288 m
Height 10 ft 3.048 m
Power 4.61 Hp 3.392 kW
Belt material SL-516

3.4.5 Belt Conveyor C-105

Table 3.11 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-105


Equipment Specification
Name C-105
Material loaded Coal
Capacity 1.96 ton/h 0.544 kg/s
Speed 17.39 ft/min 0.088 m/s
Required mass flow 1.96 ton/h 0.544 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 13.51 ton/h 3.753 kg/s
Width 30 in 0.762 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 5 5
Length 1 1200 ft 365.760 m
Length 2 60 ft 18.288 m
Height 10 ft 3.048 m
Power 1.76 Hp 1.297 kW
Belt material SL-516

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3.4.6 Belt Conveyor C-106

Table 3.12 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-106

Equipment Specification
Name C-106
Material loaded Coal
Capacity 0.02 ton/h 0.006 kg/s
Speed 0.18 ft/min 0.001 m/s
Required mass flow 0.02 ton/h 0.006 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 13.51 ton/h 3.753 kg/s
Width 30 in 0.762 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 5 5
Length 1 1200 ft 365.760 m
Length 2 0 ft 0.000 m
Height 10 ft 3.048 m
Power 0.81 Hp 0.596 kW
Belt material SL-516

3.4.7 Belt Conveyor C-107

Table 3.13 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-107

Equipment Specification
Name C-107
Material loaded Cu
Capacity 36.72 ton/h 10.200 kg/s
Speed 96.12 ft/min 0.488 m/s
Required mass flow 44.06 ton/h 12.240 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 45.84 ton/h 12.733 kg/s
Width 48 in 1.2192 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 0 0
Length 1 200 ft 60.960 m
Length 2 0 ft 0.000 m
Height 0 ft 0.000 m
Power 2.41 Hp 1.773 kW
Belt material SL-516

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3.4.7 Belt Conveyor C-108

Table 3.14 Specification of Belt Conveyor C-108

Equipment Specification
Name C-108
Material loaded Cu
Capacity 36.50 ton/h 10.139 kg/s
Speed 95.55 ft/min 0.485 m/s
Required mass flow 36.50 ton/h 10.139 kg/s
Maximum mass flow 45.84 ton/h 12.733 kg/s
Width 48 in 1.2192 m
Angle 1 0 0
Angle 2 0 0
Length 1 200 ft 60.960 m
Length 2 0 ft 0.000 m
Height 0 ft 0.000 m
Power 2.60 Hp 1.915 kW
Belt material SL-516

3.5 Adsorber Column


3.5.1 Adsorber Column R-201

Table 3.15 Specification of Adsorber Column R-201


Name R-201
Vessels
Number 1
Insulation type External Insulation
Diameter 2.029721 m
Height 6.089162 m
Adsorbent Bed
Type Ag-A Zeolit
Mass per vessel 6.892357 tonne
Density 700 kg/m3
Operation
Pressure 5 bar
o
Temperature 29 C
Duration 240 min

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3.5.1 Adsorber Column R-202

Table 3.16 Specification of Adsorber Column R-202

Name R-202
Vessels
Number 1
Insulation type External Insulation
Diameter 2.029721 m
Height 6.089162 m
Adsorbent Bed
Type Ag-A Zeolit
Mass per vessel 6.892357 tonne
Density 700 kg/m3
Operation
Pressure 5 bar
o
Temperature 29 C
Duration 240 min

3.6 Absorber Column


3.6.1 Absorber Column R-302

Table 3.17 Specification of Absorber Column R-302


Equipment Specification
Name Absorber Column
Code R-302

Function To absorb SO3 and


produce H2SO4
Number of Unit 1
Material Carbon Steel
Type Packing
Packing Width and Height
Tower Diameter 3.09361374 m
Height of Packing 11.88847672 m
Permissible Tensile Stress kg/cm2
Mechanical Design
Working Pressure 101300 N/m2
Design Pressure 106365 N/m2
0.106365 N/mm2
Permissible Stress 950 N/mm2
Join Eff (j) 0.85

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Table 3.17 Specification of Absorber Column R-302 (contd)

Corrosion Allowance 3
Outer Diameter 3.15361374
Operating Condition
o
Input Gas, T 200 C
o
Input H2SO4, T 80 C
o
Output Gas,T 81 C
o
Output H2SO4, T 111 C
H2SO4 Production 0.98

3.6.1 Absorber Column R-303

Table 3.18 Specification of Absorber Column R-303


Equipment Specification
Name Absorber Column
Code R-303

Function
To absorb SO3 and produce H2SO4
Number of Unit 1
Material Carbon Steel
Type Packing
Packing Width and Height
Tower Diameter 3.09361374 m
Height of Packing 11.88847672 m
Permissible Tensile Stress kg/cm2
Mechanical Design
Working Pressure 101300 N/m2
Design Pressure 106365 N/m2
0.106365 N/mm2
Permissible Stress 950 N/mm2
Join Eff (j) 0.85
Corrosion Allowance 3
Outer Diameter 3.15361374
Operating Condition
o
Input Gas, T 200 C
o
Input H2SO4, T 80 C
o
Output Gas,T 81 C
o
Output H2SO4, T 111 C
H2SO4 Production 0.98

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3.7 Packed Bed Reactor

Table 3.19 Specification of Packed Bed Reactor R-301

Equipment Specification
Code R-301
Function Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide
Number of Units 1
Operation Continuous
Type Packed Bed Reactor
Operational Data
Inlet Temperature (oC) 439
o
Outlet Temperature ( C) 500
Pressure (bar) 2
Catalyst
Type V2O5
Weight (kg) 42165
Density (lb/ft3) 33.8
Diameter (mm) 8
Dimension
Number of Bed 4
Diameter (m) 3.133
Total Height (m) 12.5
Height of bed 1 3.510013
Height of bed 2 3.384656
Height of bed 3 3.13394
Height of bed 4 2.507152

3.8 Filter Equipment

Table 3.20 Specification of Cyclone FG-301


Equipment Specification
Name FG-301
Separate atmosphere air with dust
Function
and other solid particle
Fluid Data
Volume Flow 362.5
Density of gas 1225
Density of solid 8930 kg/m3
Particle Diameter 50 mikron
Dimension
Diameter Cyclone 53.26 cm

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Table 3.20 Specification of Cyclone FG-301 (contd)
Dimension
Diameter Collecting Hopper (Dc) 12.95 cm
A 6.475 cm
W 1.67 cm
Do 6.475 cm
Hc 19.425 cm
H 32.375 cm
B 4.856 cm

3.9 Heat Exchanger

Table 3.21 Specification of E-101


3.9.1 E-101Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell

Equipment Code E-101 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 4 6


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 1400 500

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4

Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information

Fluid Allocation Flue Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.686

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 77500 62500 Length m 3

Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m2 23.38

Vapor Phase Out 0.9908 1 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 1200 148 Baffle Spacing mm 342.77
o
Temperature Out C 1000 350 Baffle Cut % 45.00

Viscosity Pa.s 0.00006 0.00002 Tube Information

Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.90 2.06 Tubecount per Shell 50

Pressure bar 2 3 Inside Diameter mm 44.8

Velocity m/s 0.75 9.04 Outside Diameter mm 50.0

Pressure Drop bar 0.35 0.41 Pitch mm 67.5


2
Fouling Resistance m K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch

Heat Exchanged kW 4816.93


2
Overall Coeff. W/m K 232.71 LMTD K 843

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3.9.2 E-201
Table 3.22 Specification of E-201

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-201 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 6


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 250 120

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 2


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Cooling
Air 0.790
Fluid Allocation Water ID m
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 286600 Length m 1.5625

Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m2 91.13

Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 152 32 Baffle Spacing mm 394.76
o
Temperature Out C 120 40.5 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00024 0.00764 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.02 4.23 Tubecount per Shell 153
Pressure bar 2.5 2 Inside Diameter mm 34.0
Velocity m/s 0.88 8.92 Outside Diameter mm 38
Pressure Drop bar 0.50 0.14 Pitch mm 51.3
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 3602.44
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 233.07 LMTD K 99

3.9.3 E-202
Table 3 23 Specification of E-202

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-202 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 6
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 250 120
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Air Cooling Water ID m 1.003
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 21970 Length m 1.74
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m2 412.01
Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 120 22 Baffle Spacing mm 501.40
o
Temperature Out C 95 65 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00023 0.00955 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.01 4.20 Tubecount per Shell 132
Pressure bar 2.5 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.34 9.72 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.42 0.42 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 3357.36
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 225 LMTD K 60.64

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3.9.4 E-203
Table 3.24 Specification of E-203

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-203 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 6


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 250 250

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Air Cooling Water ID m 0.912

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 33330 Length m 1.5


2
Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m 244.16

Vapor Phase Out 0.9908 1 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 95 35 Baffle Spacing mm 455.99
o
Temperature Out C 65 55 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00022 0.00013 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.01 2.30 Tubecount per Shell 104
Pressure bar 2.5 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.48 8.54 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.08 0.07 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 3207.32

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 225 LMTD K 45

3.9.5 E-204
Table 3.25 Specification of E-204

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-204 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 6


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 150 300

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Air Cooling Water ID m 1.094

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 33330 Length m 1.875

Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m2 461.38

Vapor Phase Out 1 1 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 65 35 Baffle Spacing mm 547.07
o
Temperature Out C 32 80 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00020 0.00015 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 39.00 37.00 Tubecount per Shell 164
Pressure bar 2.5 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.45 8.54 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.32 0.23 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 4246.38

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 263.34 LMTD K 85

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3.9.6 E-205
Table 3.26 Specification of E-205
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-205 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 8 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 200 100
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 2
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Air Cooling Water ID m 1.283
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 280600 Length m 1.67
2
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m 634.80
Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 124 31 Baffle Spacing mm 641.62
o
Temperature Out C 80 43 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00023 0.00780 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.01 4.23 Tubecount per Shell 270
Pressure bar 5 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.47 9.92 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.48 0.06 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 3950.99
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 234.87 LMTD K 62

3.9.7 E-206
Table 3.27 Specification of E-206

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-206 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 8 5


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 150 100

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Air Cooling Water ID m 0.846

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 33510 Length m 1.4


2
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m 470.76

Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 80 23 Baffle Spacing mm 423.04
o
Temperature Out C 55 56 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00021 0.00930 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.01 4.20 Tubecount per Shell 86
Pressure bar 5 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.65 9.79 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.45 0.45 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling 2
m K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Resistance
Heat Exchanged kW 2227.17
2
Overall Coeff. W/m K 206.55 LMTD K 22
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3.9.8 E-207
Table 3.28 Specification of E-207
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-207 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 8 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 150 150
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Air Cooling Water ID m 0.905
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 318800 33510 Length m 1.55
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m2 437.59
Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 55 35 Baffle Spacing mm 452.50
o
Temperature Out C 32 74 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00020 0.00617 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.00 4.23 Tubecount per Shell 102
Pressure bar 5 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.63 9.32 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.48 0.46 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 2040.85
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 193.12 LMTD K 25

3.9.9 E-301
Table 3.29 Specification of E-301
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-301 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 1100 450
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 2
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Cooling
SO2 Gas m 0.710
Fluid Allocation Water ID
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 77500 29170 Length m 2.50
2
Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m 25.03
Vapor Phase Out 1 1 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 1000 254 Baffle Spacing mm 354.85
o
Temperature Out C 900 370 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00050 0.00039 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.88 2.00 Tubecount per Shell 64
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.97 9.20 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.43 0.44 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 2828.75
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 149.25 LMTD K 643

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3.9.10 E-302
Table 3.30 Specification of E-302
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-302 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 1000 300

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 2


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO2 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.613

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 77500 33330 Length m 1.50


2
Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m 28.78
Vapor Phase Out 1 1 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 900 114 Baffle Spacing mm 306.72
o
Temperature Out C 750 261 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00048 0.00013 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.87 2.23 Tubecount per Shell 81
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 34.0
Velocity m/s 1.00 9.78 Outside Diameter mm 38
Pressure Drop bar 0.45 0.40 Pitch mm 51.3
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 3363.50

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 153.59 LMTD K 630

3.9.11 E-303
Table 3.31 Specification of E-303

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Tube
Shell Side
Equipment Code E-303 Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 900 100
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO2 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.802
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 77500 286600 Length m 1.48
2
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m 93.63
Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 750 32 Baffle Spacing mm 400.95
o
Temperature Out C 500 45 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00043 0.07640 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.85 4.23 Tubecount per Shell 75
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.99 8.92 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.49 0.28 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 4596.18
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 158.52 LMTD K 577

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3.9.12 E-304
Table 3.32 Specification of E-304
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-304 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 700 300

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO2 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.887
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 77500 29170 Length m 1.25
Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m2 75.57
Vapor Phase Out 1 1 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 500 125 Baffle Spacing mm 443.59
o
Temperature Out C 377 254 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00034 0.00013 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.82 2.19 Tubecount per Shell 97
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.89 9.78 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.43 0.46 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 2697.57
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 150 LMTD K 540

3.9.13 E-305
Table 3.33 Specification of E-305

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-305 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 850 250

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO2 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.984

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 106700 33330 Length m 1.75

Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m2 137.55

Vapor Phase Out 1 0.185 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 775 27 Baffle Spacing mm 196.86
o
Temperature Out C 357 115 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00044 0.00850 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.86 4.20 Tubecount per Shell 126
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.72 17.32 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.20 1.53 Pitch mm 62.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 12726.04

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 190 LMTD K 462

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3.9.14 E-306
Table 3.34 Specification of E-306
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-306 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 750 350
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO3 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.838
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 106700 33330 Length m 2
Vapor Phase In 1 0.185 Heat Transfer Area m2 131.12
Vapor Phase Out 1 0.8343 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 633 115 Baffle Spacing mm 335.32
o
Temperature Out C 327 293.5 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00040 0.00240 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.84 4.00 Tubecount per Shell 84
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 2.25 30.47 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 4.17 0.30 Pitch mm 65
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 9142.06
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 200 LMTD K 342

3.9.15 E-307
Table 3.35 Specification of E-307

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-307 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 600 220
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 2
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO3 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.663
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 106700 21970 Length m 2.5
2
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m 41.65
Vapor Phase Out 1 0 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 478.5 22 Baffle Spacing mm 165.87
o
Temperature Out C 317 117 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00033 0.00950 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.81 4.20 Tubecount per Shell 54
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 1.00 9.98 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.48 0.04 Pitch mm 62.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 4652.65

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 250 LMTD K 320

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3.9.16 E-308
Table 3.36 Specification of E-308
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-308 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 500 250

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation SO3 Gas Cooling Water ID m 0.802

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 106700 21970 Length m 2


2
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m 467.34

Vapor Phase Out 1 0.24 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 329 117 Baffle Spacing mm 200.48
o
Temperature Out C 127 125 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00026 0.00236 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 0.76 4.20 Tubecount per Shell 75
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 5.76 144.48 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 203.50 1.05 Pitch mm 62.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000250 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 4777.67

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 192.04 LMTD K 157

3.9.17 E-401
Table 3.37 Specification of E-401

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-401 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 350 200

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Steam Cooling Water ID m 0.884

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 41670 62500 Length m 2


2
Vapor Phase In 1 0 Heat Transfer Area m 30.01

Vapor Phase Out 0 0.5 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 276 78 Baffle Spacing mm 441.78
o
Temperature Out C 132 150 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00019 0.00356 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 1.99 4.18 Tubecount per Shell 96
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.88 8.96 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.43 0.01 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 3346.31

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 2000.00 LMTD K 55

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3.9.18 E-402
Table 3.38 Specification of E-402
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-402 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 450 350
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 2
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Steam Steam ID m 0.756
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 41670 62500 Length m 2
2
Vapor Phase In 1 0.5 Heat Transfer Area m 23.35
Vapor Phase Out 0.9908 1 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 350 150 Baffle Spacing mm 378.08
o
Temperature Out C 276 280 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00019 0.00019 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 2.40 4.90 Tubecount per Shell 75
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.87 8.98 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.44 0.02 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 2261.55
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 1790.00 LMTD K 74

3.9.19 E-403
Table 3.39 Specification of E-403
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-403 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 550 400

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Steam Steam ID m 0.706

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 62500 62500 Length m 1.5


2
Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m 12.63

Vapor Phase Out 0.9908 1 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 485 280 Baffle Spacing mm 353.03
o
Temperature Out C 421 320 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00028 0.00019 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 2.13 4.00 Tubecount per Shell 54
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.72 9.04 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.42 0.49 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 2837.76
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 1870.00 LMTD K 150

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3.9.20 E-404
Table 3.40 Specification of E-404
Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell
Equipment Code E-404 Shell Side Tube Side
Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5
o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 650 500
Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4
Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Steam Steam ID m 0.850
Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 62500 62500 Length m 1.5
Vapor Phase In 1 1 Heat Transfer Area m2 20.33
Vapor Phase Out 0.9908 1 Baffle Information
o
Temperature In C 580 320 Baffle Spacing mm 424.97
o
Temperature Out C 485 400 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00032 0.00021 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 2.20 2.90 Tubecount per Shell 87
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 36.35 0.11 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 1.86 0.00 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 4354.60
Overall Coeff. W/m2K 1780.00 LMTD K 165

3.9.21 E-405
Table 3.41 Specification of E-405

Equipment Specification Construction - Each Shell


Equipment Code E-405 Shell Side Tube Side

Material carbon steel Design Pressure bar 5 5


o
Type Shell and Tube Design Temperature C 150 150

Performance of One Unit Passes per Shell 1 4


Shell Side Tube Side Shell Construction Information
Fluid Allocation Steam Cooling Water ID m 0.861

Total Fluid Enter kg/hr 62500 250000 Length m 2

Vapor Phase In 0.95 0 Heat Transfer Area m2 423.75

Vapor Phase Out 0 0 Baffle Information


o
Temperature In C 81 32 Baffle Spacing mm 430.67
o
Temperature Out C 78 78.2 Baffle Cut % 45.00
Viscosity Pa.s 0.00020 0.00760 Tube Information
Specific Heat kJ/kgK 39.00 37.00 Tubecount per Shell 90
Pressure bar 2 2 Inside Diameter mm 46.0
Velocity m/s 0.72 7.46 Outside Diameter mm 50
Pressure Drop bar 0.89 0.14 Pitch mm 67.5
Fouling Resistance m2K/W 0.000167 0.000125 Pitch Type triangular pitch
Heat Exchanged kW 2292.20

Overall Coeff. W/m2K 425 LMTD K 14

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3.10 Storage Tank
3.10.1 Storage Tank T-201

Table 3.42 Specificatin of Storage Tank for Sulfuric Acid

Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Sulfuric Acid Tank
Equipment Code T-201
Storage Type Liquid Storage
Function Storage for H2SO4
Number of Unit 1
Material Carbon Steel SA 167
Type of Tank Cylinder Vertical Concrete Foundation
Type od Head Flat Head
Operation Data
Temperature (oC) 30
Pressure (bar) 2
Mass Flow (kg/h) 28437.5
Bulk Density (kg/m3) 1842
Dimension
Capacity (kg/h) 682500
3
Volume tank (m ) 407.5732899
3
Volume of Liquid in Tank (m ) 370.5211726
Tank Diameter (m) 6.377302582
Tank Height (m) 12.75460516
Height of Liquid in Tank (m) 11.47914465
Design Pressure (bar) 3.532994666
25.29
Hydrostatic Pressure (bar) 2.072169275
Shell Thickness (in) 0.212035665
Head Thickness (in) 0.742124829

3.10.2 Storage Tank T-402


Table 3.43 Specification of Storage Tank for Demineralize Water
Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Demineralize Water Tank
Equipment Code T-402
Storage Type Liquid Storage
Function Storage for Demineralize Water
Number of Unit 2

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\
Table 3.43 Specification of Storage Tank for Demineralize Water (contd)
Equipment Specification
Material Carbon Steel SA 167
Cylinder Vertical
Type of Tank
Concrete Foundation
Type od Head Flat Head
Operation Data
Temperature (oC) 30
Pressure (bar) 2
Mass Flow (kg/h) 890475
3
Bulk Density (kg/m ) 1004
Dimension
Capacity (kg/h) 890475
Volume tank (m3) 975.6200199
3
Volume of Liquid in Tank (m ) 886.9272908
Tank Diameter (m) 8.530909854
Tank Height (m) 17.06181971
Height of Liquid in Tank (m) 15.35563774
Design Pressure (bar) 2.887502694
Hydrostatic pressure (bar) 1.510871908
Shell Thickness (in) 0.526092676
Head Thickness (in) 1.841324367

3.11 Warehouse
3.11.1 Warehouse TK-101
Table 3.44 Specification of Warehouse TK-101
Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Slag Warehouse
Equipment Code TK-101
Function store for slag
Number of Unit 1
Type Rectangle building with a triangular prism roofs
Operation Data
Temperature 30C
Pressure 1 atm
Bulk Density 3848.41 kg/ m3
Dimension
Capacity 31,987.5 tons
Length 37 m
Width 28 m
Height 10 m

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3.11.2 Warehouse TK-102

Table 3.45 Specification of Warehouse TK-102


Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Anode Warehouse
Equipment Code TK-102
Function Store for Anode Slime
Number of Unit 1
Type Rectangle building with a
triangular prism roofs
Operation Data
Temperature 30C
Pressure 1 atm
Bulk Density 5000 kg/ m3
Dimension
Capacity 157.5 tons
Length 6 m
Width 4.5 m
Height 2 m

3.11.3 Warehouse TK-103

Table 3.46 Specification of Warehouse TK-103


Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Copper Cathode Warehouse
Equipment Code TK-103
Function Store for Copper Cathode
Number of Unit 1
Type Rectangle building with a
triangular prism roofs
Operation Data
Temperature 30C
Pressure 1 atm
Bulk Density 8930 kg/ m3
Dimension
Capacity 26280 tons
Length 26.5 m
Width 20 m
Height 7 m

3.12 Coagulant Tank


Table 3.47 Specification of Coagulant Tank

Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Coagulant Tank
Equipment Code T-501
Number of Vessel 4
Type Rigid Base Circular

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Table 3.47 Specification of Coagulant Tank (contd)

Determination of Diameter of the Water Tank


Mass Flow Rate 222618.75 kg/h
Density 1004 kg/m3
Volume 221.73 m3
Height 4.40 m
Diameter 8.40 m
Free board 0.40 m
Wall Thickness 6 mm
Design of Base
Thickness of base 6 mm

3.13 Filtration Tank

Table 3.48 Specification of Filtration Tank


Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Filtration Tank
Equipment Code T-502

Function To Filter Suspended Solid (SS)

Number of Unit 4
Filter Specification
Filter Type Slow Sand Filter
Total Surface Area (m2) 267.1425
Max. Surface Per filter (m2) 50
Number of Filters 6
Surface Area per Filter (m2) 44.53
Dimension
Filtration Rate (m/h) 0.2
Required Tank Area (m2) 356.19
Long (m) 25
Width (m) 15
Height (m) 2.4

3.14 Ion Exchanger Tank

Table 3.49 Specification of Demine Water Tank


Equipment Specification
Equipment Name Ion Exchanger
Equipment Code V-502 & V-503
Function To remove Cation and Anion

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Table 3.49 Specification of Demine Water Tank (contd)
Number of Unit 2
Operation Data
Cation Concentration 250 mq/L
Use degasifier (Yes/No) Yes
Anion Concentration 150.25 mq/L
Running time 15 h
Throughput Flow rate 19200 m3
Ionic Load
Cation Load 4800000 eq
Anion Load 2884800 eq
Operating Capacity
Cation regeneration with HCl 1 eq/L
Anion regeneration with NaOH 0.5 eq/L
Resin Volumes
SAC 4800000 L
SBA 5769600 L
Specific Flow Rate
SAC 5.1 h-1
SBA 4.72 h-1

3.15 High Pressure Turbine

Table 3.50 Specification of Turbine T-401


Name Steam turbine
Code T-401
Reducing pressure to
Function
produce electricity
Number of Unit 1
Operating Condition
Inlet Temperature Up to 500 Celcius
Inlet Pressure Up to 101 Bar
Gas Flow Up to 15000 M3/h
Unit Specification
Shaft Speed Up to 3600 RPM
Dimension (LxWxH) 1x1x1.3 RPM

3.16 Pump
3.16.1 P-301
Table 3.51 Specification of Pump P-301
Pump Identification
Name Pump
Code P-301
Function Transfer water into E-307
Amount (unit) 1
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Table 3.51 Specification of Pump P-301 (contd)
Pump Identification
Mode of Operation Continuous
Material Composition
Type Fluid Liquid
Operating Condisiton
Mass flow (kg/s) 8.102777778
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.008119444
Density (kg/m3) 997.3
Temperature (oC) 22.12
Specification Design
Type Centrifugal
Material CS A 285
NPSHa (m) 10.48853423
Head (m) 22.27529913
Utility
FHP (kW) 1.326614721
BHP (kW) 1.768819628

3.16.2 P-302
Table 3.52 Specification of Pump P-302
Pump Identification
Code P-302
Function Transfer water into E-305
Amount (unit) 1
Mode of Operation Continuous
Material Composition
Type of fluid Water
Operating Condition
Mass flow (kg/s) 9.166666667
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.009277778
Density (kg/m3) 996.1
Temperature (oC) 26.85
Specification Design
Type Centrifugal
Material CS A-285
NPSHa (m) 10.00451002
Head (m) 34.84116885
Utility
FHP (kW) 2.347423751
BHP (kW) 3.129898335
3.16.3 P-201
Table 3.53 Specification Pump P-201
Pump Identification
Name Pump
Code P-201
Function Transfer water into E-205
Amount (unit) 1
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Table 3.53 Specification Pump P-201 (contd)
Pump Identification
Mode of Operation Continuous
Material Composition
Type fluid Water
Operating Condisiton
Mass flow (kg/s) 79.44444444
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.079777778
Density (kg/m3) 994.6
Temperature (oC) 32
Specification Design
Type Centrifugal
Material CS A-285
NPSHa (m) 12.70941704
Head (m) 9.197232794
Utility
FHP (kW) 5.370417516
BHP (kW) 7.160556687

3.16.4 P-202
Table 3.54 Specification Pump P-202
Pump Identification
Name Pump
Code P-202
Function
Amount (unit) 1
Mode of Operation Continuous
Material Composition
Type Fluid Water
Operating Condisiton
Mass flow (kg/hr) 280600
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.078111111
Density (kg/m3) 994.9
Temperature (oC) 31
Specification Design
Type Centrifugal
Material CS A-285
NPSHa (m) 12.50132387
Head (m) 9.504604907
Utility
FHP (kW) 5.445108946

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3.16.5 P-101
Table 3.55 Specification Pump P-101
Pump Identification
Name Pump
Code P-101
Function Transfer H2SO4 into electrolytic cell
Amount (unit) 1
Mode of Operation Continuous
Operating Condiiton
Mass flow (kg/s) 52.77777778
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.028527778
Density (kg/m3) 1844
Temperature (oC) 26.85
Specification Design
Type Centrifugal
Material Metal
NPSHa (m) 14.66242959
Head (m) 17.05144771
Utility
FHP (kW) 0.661454076
BHP (kW) 0.881938767

3.16.5 P-101
Table 3.56 Specification Pump P-401
Pump Identification
Name Pump
Code P-401

Function Transfer water into E-401


Amount (unit) 1
Mode of Operation Continuous
Operating Conditon
Mass flow (kg/s) 18.88888889
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.017397222
Density (kg/m3) 972.8
Temperature (oC) 35
Specification Design
Type Multistage centrifugal Pump
Material Carbon steel
NPSHa (m) 4.207051475
Head (m) 595.2029034
Utility
FHP (kW) 99.16080371
BHP (kW) 110.1786708

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3.16.5 P-501
Table 3.57 Specification Pump P-501
Pump Identification
Name Pump
Code P-501
Function Take Water River
Amount (unit) 1
Mode of Operation Continuous
Material Composition
Type of Fluid Water River
Operating Condition
Mass flow (kg/s) 494.4444444
Flow rate (m3/s) 0.495555556
Density (kg/m3) 994.9
o
Temperature ( C) 31
Specification Design
Type Submerged Pump
Material Carbon Steel
NPSHa (m) 51.50248049
Head (m) 19.43797843
Utility
FHP (kW) 70.64085329
BHP (kW) 94.18780439

3.17 Compressor
3.17.1 K-100
Table 3.58 Specification Compressor K-100
Equipment Specification
Code of Project K-100
To transfer heating media into
Function
heat exchanger
No. Unit 1
Type Centrifugal
Material CRA (corrosion Resistant Alloy)
Operating Data
Compressor Power 474.375 kw
Efficiency (%) 75
Temperature Inlet (0C) 759.8
Temperature Outlet (0C) 776
Pressure Inlet (kPa) 154
Pressure Outlet (kPa) 165
Head (m) 1225

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3.17.2 K-101
Table 3.59 Specification Compressor K-101
Equipment Specification
Code of Project K-101
Function To transfer heating media into HE
No. Unit 1
Type Centrifugal
Material CRA (corrosion resistant Alloy)
Operating Data
Compressor Power 41.309 kw
Efficiency (%) 75
0
Temperature Inlet ( C) 632.5
0
Temperature Outlet ( C) 633.9
Pressure Inlet (kPa) 135
Pressure outlet (kPa) 136
Head (m) 106

3.17.3 K-102
Table 3.60 Specification Compressor K-102
Equipment Specification
Code of Project K-102
Function To transfer heating media into HE
No. Unit 1
Type Centrifugal
Material CRA (corrosion resistant alloy)
Operating Data
Compressor Power 161.636 kw
Efficiency (%) 75
0
Temperature Inlet ( C) 472.8
Temperature Outlet (0C) 478.5
Pressure inlet (kPa) 135
Pressure Outlet (kPa) 140
Head (m) 417

3.17.4 K-201
Table 3.61 Specification Compressor K-201
Equipment Specification
Code of Project K-201
Function To compress air atmosphere
No. Unit 1
Type Reciprocating
Material Carbon Steel
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Table 3.61 Specification Compressor K-201 (contd)
Operating Data
Compressor Power 10808.5 kw
Efficiency (%) 75
Temperature Inlet 31
(0C)
Temperature Outlet 152.6
(0C)
Pressure inlet (kPa) 100
Pressure Outlet (kPa) 250
Head (m) 9700

3.17.5 K-202
Table 3.62 Specification Compressor K-202
Equipment Specification
Code of Project K-202
Function To compress air from HE
No. Unit 1
Type Reciprocating
Material Carbon Steel
Operating Data
Compressor Power 8181 kw
Efficiency (%) 75
0
Temperature Inlet ( C) 32
Temperature Outlet (0C) 124.4
Pressure inlet (kPa) 245.2
Pressure Outlet (kPa) 500
Head (m) 7285
3.18 Piping
Table 3.63 Piping Specification of Copper Smelter Plant
ID OD
Stream In Nominal Size (inch) Wall thickness (inch)
(inch) (inch)
19 8 6.85130803 8.625 0.322
Pump to Electrolytic
8 6.85130803 8.625 0.322
Cell
2B 1.5 1.499949794 1.9 0.145
9B 1.25 1.097725931 1.66 0.14
13B 0.38 0.283463867 0.675 0.091
5B 1 1.032189433 1.315 0.133
10B 1 0.871887618 1.315 0.133
14B 0.38 0.246740468 0.675 0.091
1 1.25 1.264331402 1.66 0.14
2 0.75 0.73102575 1.05 0.113
3 10 9.992959225 10.75 9.271

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Table 3.64 Piping Specification of Sulfuric Acid Plant


Nominal Size ID OD
Stream Wall Thickness (Inch)
(Inch) (Inch) (inch)
1 1.25 1.2643314 1.66 0.14
1' 1.25 1.2643314 1.66 0.14
2 1.25 1.2643314 1.66 0.14
2' 1.25 1.2643314 1.66 0.14
3 1.25 1.2643314 1.66 0.14
4 1.5 1.44557751 1.9 0.145
5 1.5 1.44557751 1.9 0.145
6 1.5 1.39764015 1.9 0.145
7 1.5 1.39764015 1.9 0.145
8 1 1.37219489 1.315 0.133
9 1 1.37219489 1.315 0.133
10 1 1.37009482 1.315 0.133
11 1 1.37009482 1.315 0.133
12 5 4.28008238 5.563 0.258
13 5 4.28008238 5.563 0.258
14 5 4.28008238 5.563 0.258
15 5 4.28008238 5.563 0.258
16 5 4.28008238 5.563 0.258
17 4 4.00399293 4.5 0.237
18 4 4.00399293 4.5 0.237
19 4 4.00399293 4.5 0.237
20 4 4.00399293 4.5 0.237
21 4 4.00399293 4.5 0.237
21' 4 4.00399293 4.5 0.237
23 6 5.66605157 6.625 0.28
24 0.5 1.51323764 0.84 0.109
25 2.5 4.67072168 2.875 0.203
26 8 6.85130803 8.625 0.322
27 1.5 1.51323764 1.9 0.145

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Table 3.65 Pipinng Specification of Oxygen Plant

Table 3.66 Pipinng Specification of Power Plant

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Table 3.67 Piping Specification of Water Pretreatment Plant
Nominal Size ID OD Wall Thickness
Stream
(inch) (Inch) (inch) (Inch)
Water from Bengawan
34 31.28069 34 0.75
Solo River

3.19 Valve

Table 3.68 Valve Size of Copper Smelter Plant


Flow Valve
Stream Flow (gpm) SG Gf dP Cv, max
(tonne/day) Size (in.)
2B 1120 205.52 1.104 1.104 5 193.1451 4
5B 920 168.82 2.264 2.264 5 227.1994 5
9B 600 110.1 1.104 1.104 5 103.4706 3
10B 930 170.655 2.264 2.264 5 229.6689 5
13B 40 7.34 1.104 1.104 5 6.898038 1
14B 70 12.845 2.264 2.264 5 17.28691 1,5
2 530 97.255 0.6218 0.6218 5 68.59339 3
1 1860 341.31 1.104 1.104 5 320.7588 5

Table 3.69 Valve Size of Oxygen Plant


Flow Flow Valve
Stream SG Gf dP Cv, max
(tonne/day) (gpm) Size (in.)
4, 1, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D,
1860 341.31 1 1 5 305.2769 5
1E, 2A, 2, 2B, 2C
C1, C2 6879 1262.2965 1 1 5 1129.032 16
18, 19 528 96.888 1 1 5 86.65926 3
14, 14A, 16 795 145.8825 1 1 5 130.4813 4
C3, C4 6734 1235.689 1 1 5 1105.234 16
13, 13A, 15 804 147.534 1 1 5 131.9584 4
7 60 11.01 1 1 5 9.847643 1

Table 3.70 Valve Size of Sulfuric Acid Plant


Flow
Stream Flow (gpm) SG Gf dP Cv, max Valve Size (in.)
(tonne/day)
1, 1', 2, 2', 3, 4, 5,
1860 341.31 1.104 1.104 5 320.7588 5
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
18, 19, 20, 21, 21,
528 96.888 1 1 5 86.65926 3
21'
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 804 147.534 1 1 5 131.9584 4
23 400 73.4 1.84 1.84 5 89.05329 3.00
24 120 22.02 1.84 1.84 5 26.71599 1.5
26 500 91.75 1.84 1.84 5 111.3166 5
28 500 91.75 1.84 1.84 5 111.3166 5
25 2.4 0.4404 1.84 1.84 5 0.53432 0.75
27 2.4 0.4404 1.84 1.84 5 0.53432 0.75

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Table 3.71 Valve Size of Power Plant
Flow Flow Valve Size
Stream SG Gf dP Cv, max
(tonne/day) (gpm) (in.)
C4, A, B, C,
1500 275.25 1 1 5 246.1911 5
D, E, F, G, H
6A, 7A, 8A 1001 183.6835 1 1 5 164.2915 4
3A, 4A, 5A 1500 275.25 1 1 5 246.1911 5
1A, 2A 6000 1101 1 1 5 984.7643 16

Table 3.72 Valve Size of Water Utility


Flow Valve
Stream Flow (gpm) SG Gf dP Cv, max
(tonne/day) Size (in.)
A, B, C,
42744 7843.524 1 1 5 7015.461 16
D, E, F, G
H 175.2 32.1492 1 1 5 28.75512 2
I 38496 7064.016 1 1 5 6318.248 16
J 4224 775.104 1 1 5 693.2741 16

Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER IV
PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGY

4.1 Plant Control Tabulation


Table 4.1 Control Tabulation of Copper Smelter Plant
Equipment Process Controller Manipulated Final Control
Unit Sensor Sequence of Instrumentation
Name Variable P/PI/PID Variable Element
Thermocouple Oxygen-
Smelting Proportional Temperature Control
F-101 Temperature & Temperature Enriched Air
Furnace Integral TT Valve TCV
Element Flow
If the furnace temperature is too
Thermocouple Oxygen-
Converting Proportional Temperature Control low, the temperature control valve
F-103 Temperature & Temperature Enriched Air
Furnace Integral TT Valve TCV will open in which the flow of
Element Flow
oxygen-enriched air will increase
Thermocouple Oxygen-
Converting Proportional Temperature Control
F-104 Temperature & Temperature Enriched Air
Furnace Integral TT Valve TCV
Element Flow
C-101 / C-102 If the input of the component is too
/ C-103 / C- much based on the analysis done on
Belt Conveyor Proportional Speed Indicator
104 / C-105 / - Motor Speed the output of the furnace, we can
Conveyor Speed Integral ST Controller SIC
C-106 / C-107 adjust the input by controlling the
/ C-108 motor speed of belt conveyor
When the temperature of outlet heat
Thermocouple exchanger more or less than design,
Proportional Temperature Control
Economizer E-101 Temperature & Temperature Flue Gas Flow the transmitter will transfer signal to
Integral TT Valve TCV
Element temperature control valve to open
and close.

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Table 4.2 Control Tabulation of Oxygen Plant
Final
Equipment Process Controller Manipulated
Unit Sensor Control Sequence of Instrumentation
Name Variable P/PI/PID Variable
Element

E-201 / E-202 / Thermocouple If the outlet temperature of the the heat exchanger not fit
Temperature
Heat E-203 / E-204 / & Proportional Cooling Water with the wanted condition, then the valve will adjust the
Temperature Control
Exchanger E-205 / E-206 / Temperature Integral TT Flow Rate flow of cooling water until the condition become
Valve TCV
E-207 Element normal again.

When the pressure outlet flow from compressor the


controller will send a signal to give a higher power to
Pressure
Pressure the compressor motor. If the pressure outlet flow is
Gauge & Proportional
Compressor K-201 / K-202 Pressure Air Flow Rate Safety higher from its initial flow condition, the control
Pressure Integral PT
Valve procedure is likely the same but, the final action is
Element
decreasing power to compressor motor until the
condition become steady normal condition.

Flow
Flow Element Flow Cooling Water Indicator When the outlet pump flow is higher than design, the
Pump P-201 / P-202 Flow
& Flowmeter Control Flow Rate Controller valve will be closed.
FIC
Pressure
Pressure When the pressure of the adsorber is higher than the
Gauge & Pressure
Pressure Air Flow Rate Control design pressure, the pressure control valve will open to
Pressure Controller
Valve PCV reduce the pressure on the adsorber.
Element
Adsorber
R-201 / R-202
Column When the temperature of the of the adsorber is not fit
Thermocouple with the wanted condition, the TT will give an electric
Temperature
& Proportional signal to TIC and then transfer that signal into a
Temperature Air Flow Rate Control
Temperature Integral TT pneumatic signal to flow control valve at the cold fluid
Valve TCV
Element inlet (cooling water or steam) until the condition
become normal.

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Table 4.3 Control Tabulation of Sulfuric Acid Plant

Equipment Process Controller Manipulated Final Control


Unit Sensor Sequence of Instrumentation
Name Variable P/PI/PID Variable Element
E-301 / E-302 / If the outlet temperature of the the heat
Thermocouple Temperature
Heat E-303 / E-304 / Proportional Cooling Water exchanger not fit with the wanted condition, the
Temperature & Temperature Control Valve
Exchanger E-305 / E-306 / Integral TT Flow Rate valve will adjust the flow of CW until the
Element TCV
E-307 condition become normal again.
If the inlet converter reactor not fit with the
Thermocouple Temperature
Proportional Cooling Water wanted condition, the valve will adjust the flow
Reactor R-301 Temperature & Temperature Control Valve
Integral TT Flow Rate of CW until the condition become normal
Element TCV
again.
When the pressure of the absorber is higher
Pressure Safety
Top Product Pressure than the design pressure, the pressure control
Pressure Valve & -
Flow Rate Safety Valve valve will open to reduce the pressure on the
Absorber Pressure Gauge
R-302 / R-303 absorber.
Column
Level Reduce liquid level in column by opening the
Mechanical Proportional Liquid Product
Level Indicator Level Control Valve on the bottom product of
Float Integral LT Flow Rate
Controller LIC the column.
Top Product
Pressure Safety When the pressure of the tank is higher than the
Proportional Flow Rate of Pressure
Pressure Valve & design pressure, the pressure valve control will
Integral PT Absorber Safety Valve
Storage Pressure Gauge open to reduce the pressure on the tank.
TT-301 Column
Tank
Level Reduce liquid level in column by opening the
Mechanical Proportional Liquid Product
Level Indicator Level Control Valve on the bottom product of
Float Integral LT Flow Rate
Controller LIC the column.

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Table 4.4 Control Tabulation of Power Plant
Final
Equipment Process Controller Manipulated
Unit Sensor Control Sequence of Instrumentation
Name Variable P/PI/PID Variable
Element

Flow
Cooling When the outlet pump flow is higher than design,
Flow Element Flow Indicator
Pump P-401 Flow Water Flow the valve will be closed. But, if the outlet pump
& Flowmeter Control Controller
Rate flow is lower than design, the valve will be opened.
FIC

If the outlet temperature of the the heat exchanger


not fit with the wanted condition, the TT will give
E-401 / E-
Thermocouple Cooling Temperature an electric signal to TY and then transfer that signal
Heat 402 / E-403 Proportional
Temperature & Temperature Water Flow Control into a pneumatic signal to the control valve at the
Exchanger / E-404 / E- Integral TT
Element Rate Valve TCV cold fluid inlet (cooling water or steam) so the valve
405
will adjust the flow until the condition become
normal again.

When the pressure outlet flow from compressor is


lower about 5% than each intial flow condition, the
controller will send a signal to give a higher power
Pressure
to the compressor motor until the condition become
Steam Element & Proportional Air Flow Pressure
T-401 Pressure normal condition. And if the pressure outlet flow is
Turbine Pressure Integral PT Rate Safety Valve
higher from its initial flow condition, the control
Gauge
procedure is likely the same but, the final action is
decreasing power to compressor motor until the
condition become steady normal condition.

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Table 4.5 Control Tabulation of Water Utility

Final
Equipment Process Controller Manipulated
Unit Sensor Control Sequence of Instrumentation
Name Variable P/PI/PID Variable
Element

Flow When the outlet pump flow is higher than


Flow
Cooling Water Indicator design, the valve will be closed. But, if the
Pump P-501 Flow Element & Flow Control
Flow Rate Controller outlet pump flow is lower than design, the
Flowmeter
FIC valve will be opened.

Coagulant
T-501
Tank

Filtration
V-501
Tank
Level
Reduce liquid level in column by opening the
Kation Mechanical Proportional Liquid Product Indicator
V-502 Level Level Control Valve on the bottom product of
Exchanger Float Integral LT Flow Rate Controller
the column.
LIC
Anion
V-503
Exchanger

Water
T-502
Tank

4.2 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram


The P&ID can be seen on Appendix C.

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CHAPTER V
PLANT LAYOUT

5.1 Area Plant Layout


The plant layout has several objectives such as minimize investment in
equipment, minimize overall production time, utilize existing space effectively,
safety, operation process, minimize material handling cost, minimize variation in
types of material equipment, facilitate the manufacturing process, and facilitate the
organizational structure. As mentioned before, our plant will be located in the
Gresik due to the consideration as mentioned of. Our plant is located near to the sea
which we decided to build a harbor as the loading and unloading of buying raw
material and exporting the product we produced.
This plant is divided into several areas, there is the main process plant, and
utility plant, where the river water that will be used in water cooler to cooling the
air that will be compress, and also a power plant. There is flare outside the process
area. In the other side of the plant, there are the supporting area and building, such
as the security post, main office, mosque, clinic, laboratories, fire station, and also
the assembly point and parking area. We also consider the position of equipment
and the building with the HSE aspect. Between the office and the process area we
have a canal to block the effect of heat and other effect of accident, and also to
transport the water back to the river.
The design of the plant layout will determine the efficiency of the production
process and influence how long survival or success of an industrial workplace. A good
plant layout design can simplify the process of monitoring the production process and
also facilitate resetting plant layout if there are plans in the future plant expansion. The
plant layout is made by considering the following:
The space available must be enough for the whole plant and its supporting facilities.
Spacing between process instruments is ruled by Inside Battery Limit (IBL), and
the spacing between supporting facilities is ruled by Outside Battery Limit(OBL).
Safety is the main consideration in the plant layout
The spacing rule of thumb between equipment can be seen on the figure below.

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Figure 5.1 Typical Spacing for Plant Equipment


(source: Assesment Methodology for Equipment Layout, Chem. Eng. Dept, UI, 2015)

Figure 5.2 Typical Spacing for Plant Equipment


(source: GAPS Guideline, 2015)

Our plant is divided into two zone which each of them has certain functional
such as safety rule. The zone is red zone, and blue zone.
a. Red Zone
Red zone is a process zone which consist of process train, utilities, flare stacks
and storage and loading. The process train of our plant consist of copper smelting
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plant, oxygen plant, and sulfuric acid plant. The utilities consist of steam turbine
power plant, water pretreatment, and waste water treatment. The red zone is
dangerous, so the workers are suggested to wear minimum standard PPE (Personal
Protective Equipment) which consist of shoes, earplug, helmet, coverall, and
glasses. Considering the danger of this zone, all of worker are suggested to wear
minimum standard PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) which consist of shoes,
earplug, helm, and glasses. The red zone is necessary to design the layout
specifically due to the potential fire and explosion impact.

b. Blue Zone
Blue zone is the area of the plant which is not directly related to the process. It
consists of office area, clinic, laboratory, mosque, firefighting, and parking lot area.
This area is quite safe and does not need safety equipment or PPE (Personal
Protective Equipment). There is a rule of thumb of plant layout spacing based on
Center for Chemical Process AIChe Industry Technology Alliance. The figure
below is the zone that has been explained earlier.

N
GUEST CAR PARK (FOR SECURITY MOTORCYCLE PARKING
ADMISSION) SECURITY AREA

MAIN
W E
GATE

S
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
CAR PARKING AREA DEPOK

PROJECT
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
SMELTER PLANT

DRAWING
DATE
NO.
11/16/2016
2
ASSEMBLY
POINT

BLUE ZONE
GROUP
PAR13

OFFICE BUILDING
MOSQUE

CLINIC
FIRE STATION

K3 BUILDING
LAB
MECHANICAL AND
ASSEMBLY POINT ELECTRICAL
BUILDING

CANAL CANAL

CENTRAL
CONTROL
POWER PLANT ROOM

WATER UTILITY

ASSEMBLY POINT

SULFURIC
ACID PLANT
OXYGEN PLANT

RED ZONE
RAW MATERIAL
STORAGE

COPPER SMELTER PLANT

ASSEMBLY POINT

LOADING AND
PRODUCT STORAGE UNLOADING

FLARE

Figure 5.3 Red and Blue Zone


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5.2 Equipment Plant Layout
5.2.1 2D Picture

25 m 40 m N
MOTORCYCLE PARKING

20 m
GUEST CAR PARK (FOR SECURITY
ADMISSION) SECURITY AREA

MAIN 40 m
W E
GATE 65 m

S
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

45 m
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

55 m
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
CAR PARKING AREA DEPOK

E-101/201/202/203/204/205/206/207/301/302/
303/304/305/306/307/308
25 m /401/402/404/405 : Heat Exchangers
R-301 : Packed Bed Reactor
R-302/303 : Absorber
R-201/202 : Adsorber
60 m ASSEMBLY K-201/202 : Kompresor

30 m
T-401 : Turbine
POINT F-101/102/103 : Furnace
F-/104/105 : Furnace
25 m PM-101/102 : Hazelette Caster

45 m
OFFICE BUILDING P-101/102/103/ : Electrorefining
P-104/105/106 : Electrorefining

20 m
MOSQUE P-501/502 : Pump
T-501/502/503/504 : Coagulant Tank
25 m
V-501 : Filtration Tank
30 m 35 m
V-502/503 : Ion Exchanger
V-504 : Cooling Tower
10 m

10 m CLINIC T-503/504/502 : Water Tank

20 m
FIRE STATION
PROJECT

45 m
30 m
LAB PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
20 m

K3 BUILDING SMELTER PLANT


MECHANICAL AND
10 m

ASSEMBLY POINT

20 m
ELECTRICAL DRAWING
DATE
NO.
10 m

BUILDING 5
11/16/2016
65 m 25 m

GROUP
PAR13
5m

5m
CANAL CANAL

5m
80 m

5m
35 m

5m
5m

30 m 8400 mm 8400 mm 8400 m

900 mm 800 mm 700 mm

2500 mm
Evaporator

5000 mm

T-501 T-501 T-501


(E-403)
(E-402)
(E-401)

1800 mm
HE

2500 mm
HE

5000 mm
2300 mm
2300 mm

3000 mm
8400 mm

CENTRAL
1500 mm

P-501
5000 mm
5000 mm

40 m
800 mm 900 mm

CONTROL
1800 mm

T-501
5000 mm
2500 mm

30000 mm
Condenser

2300 mm

ROOM
(E-404)
(E-405)
(P-401)

1900 mm
Pump

HE
5000 mm
5000 mm

55 m

5000 m

5000 m 6800 mm

5000 mm
65 m
15000 mm

Cooling Tower
V-502 V-503 (V-504)
V-501

3000 m 5000 m
30000 mm

25000 mm
5000 mm

35 m

2000 mm

5000 mm
Turbine
(T-401)

5500 mm

T-505 5000 m
T-504 T-503 T-502

15 m
ASSEMBLY POINT
8350 mm
8350 mm 8350 mm
8350 mm
5000 mm

3000 mm

5000 mm
1500 mm
2400 mm

P-502
2200 mm

E-308

2800 m

E-305
E-306

3000 mm
4000 mm

1200 mm
1100 mm

1100 mm
4000 mm

6000 mm 50 m
1500 mm
R-301
4000 mm

1500 mm

FILTER
5000 mm 5000 mm
1500 mm
950 mm

1150 mm

2100 mm 2500 mm
2500 mm

4000 mm K-201 E-201 E-202


1500 mm
1500 mm
45 m

5000 mm

2400 mm 2000 mm
30 m
15000 mm
10000 mm

1000 mm

E-204 E-203
8000 mm

5000 mm
5000 mm
10000 mm
40 m

1250 mm

1500 mm
3000 mm

E-307

2500 mm

1500 mm

K-202
2200 mm 2200 mm
3000 mm
2000 mm

5000 mm
E-303

3000 mm
E-302

R-302
2000 mm

1000 mm
2200 mm

2200 mm

R-201
6000 mm
2000 mm

1000 mm
R-202
1500 mm

800 mm

2500 mm
2500 mm

3000 mm

1500 mm 1500 mm
2100 mm
1900 mm

2200 mm 2400 mm
E-304
3000 mm

E-301

8000 mm
E-207 E-206 E-205
3000 mm

R-303

1500 mm
1100 mm

1100 mm

1000 mm 10000 mm
1500 mm
1000 mm
3000 mm

35 m
75 m

1000 mm
4000 mm

10100 mm
RAW MATERIAL
65 m

E-101
6000 mm

10400 mm

12500 mm
4000 mm
STORAGE
10100 mm

6000 mm

9000 mm

F-101 F-102 F-103


6000 mm
2m

6300 mm
40 m

12500 mm
1200 mm

P-101
5000 mm 6000 mm
1m

6300 mm 4000 mm
1200 mm

2000 mm

3150 mm

P-102 PM-101 F-104


1m

6300 mm
1200 mm

P-103
2500 mm

5000 mm

6300 mm
1200 mm

P-104 12500 mm
6000 mm
25 m 5000 mm
1m

6300 mm 4000 mm
3150 mm
2000 mm
1200 mm

P-105 PM-102 F-105


1m

6300 mm
1200 mm

P-106
2000 mm
10 m

155 m
ASSEMBLY POINT 80 m

LOADING AND
10 m

PRODUCT STORAGE
15 m

UNLOADING

FLARE

Figure 5.4 Total 2D Plant Layout

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CHAPTER VI
HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

6.1 HSE Aspect


6.1.1 HAZID
Hazard Identification (HAZID) is an analysis of hazard prevention on
industrial installation by observing whole aspects. Aspect in industrial installation:
a. Information data of industrial installation (PFD, P&ID, lay out, meteorological
data, social cultural community around data, record of events)
b. Location (operating facilities, support facilities)
c. Risk (human resource, environment, asset, image)
d. Trigger factor of danger (operation process, transportation, geography and
meteorology, social cultural)
e. Hazard potential (huge fire and explosion, drown, environmental
contamination)
In hazard identification, the analysis considering hazard effect and hazard
frequency (level of hazard possibility). HAZID parameters in considering hazard
effect are listed in table below.

Table 6.1 HAZID Parameters (Hazard Effect)

Parameter Minor Major Severe


Human Resources No accidents The accident was Fatal accident
not fatal
Asset Losses less than Losses between Losses in excess
U.S. $ 100,000 U.S. $ 100,000 of U.S. $
U.S. $ 1,000,000 1,000,000
Environment No environmental Minor damage to Damage to the
damage the environment environment
(source: Geoff Wells, 1996)

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Table 6.2 HAZID List
Potential Hazard
Location Causes Frequency Prevention
Hazard Effect
Copper Smelter Plant
Power motor
The Velocity of
Conveyor which used is Control/ monitoring
conveyor is to Minor Most
System higher than it periodically
high
should be
Routine check on the Slag
High
Smelting Cleaning Furnace
Fire & Temperature and
Furnace Severe Likely condition. Placing a
Explosion Pressure Inside
Unit temperature and pressure
the Furnace
contro
Barriers and other
protecting covering,
Electrolytic cells including the mobile
Electrolitic Electrical may emit large shields should be used or
Severe Most
Cells Hazard quantities of set up to protect workers
dusts against the splashes of
molten metal and
electromagnetic radiation

Application of explosion
High protection system.
Slag
Temperature Cascade control which
Cleaning Explosion Severe Likely
Inside the operates automatically
Furnace
Furnace responds temperature and
product moisture change
Routine check on the Slag
High
Cleaning Furnace
Converter Fire & Temperature &
Severe Likely condition. Placing a
Furnace Explosion Pressure Inside
temperature and pressure
the Furnace
control
Application of explosion
High protection system.
Anode Temperature Cascade control which
Explosion Severe Likely
Furnace Inside the operates automatically
Furnace responds temperature and
product moisture change
Routine check on the Slag
High
Cleaning Furnace
Melting Fire & Temperature &
Severe Likely condition. Placing a
Furnace Explosion Pressure Inside
temperature and pressure
the Furnace
control
Charging a
furnace with Barriers and other
coming in
impure or moist protecting covering,
contact with
scrap metal and including the mobile
metal splashes
Casting alloys, Molten shields should be used or
or be exposed Severe Most
System metal also emits set up to protect workers
to
electromagnetic against the splashes of
electromagnetic
radiation in the molten metal and
radiation
furnace and electromagnetic radiation
pouring areas

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Table 6.2 HAZID List (contd)
Potential Hazard
Location Causes Frequency Prevention
Hazard Effect
Oxygen Plant
Air
Compressor Safety ear plug
Compressor Noise Pollution Major Most
Sound provisioning
Unit
Protect the piping
Piping Damage and Corrosion,
Major Likely network and control
Network leakage of pipe failure
periodically
Defficiency on Make sure the Drum is
Leaking, Crack
the welded joint, properly design, Do a
Drum and material Major Likely
Exposure to the routine maintenance and
exposure
wind, Corrosion weld inspection
Adsorber Overpressure in Control and monitoring
Explosion Severe Likely
Unit the adsorber unit the pressure
Sulfuric Acid Plant
Loud operation
Safety ear plug
Water Pump Noise Pollution noise Major Most
provisioning
Protect the piping
Piping Damage and Corrosion,
Major Likely network and control
Network leakage of pipe failure
periodically
Outout will not
Heat have Cold water flow
Control/monitoring
Exchanger temperature as is too low, feed Major Likely
periodically
Unit specified inlet is to high
before
Overflow
High capacity of
Water which release
cooling water Minor Most Control the flow capacity
Utility Unit to the
which produce
environment
Overpressure in Control and monitoring
Absorber Explosion Severe Unlikely
the absorber unit the pressure
The reaction
The reaction Control/monitoring
Converter will not run Major Likely
uncontrolled periodically
optimally
There is a leak
in the storage
Acid Routine Inspection.
tank, so that the
Storage Corrosion Severe Unlikely Protect the storage tank
acid released
Tank with cathodic protection
into the
environment
Water Utility System
Water flooding Minor Likely Checking tank/vessel
Tank/Vessel Overcapacity
Leakage Minor Likely level periodically
Surfacing tools that
Loud operation
Pump Noise pollution Minor Most generate the noise and
noise
oblige the use of earplug
Protect the piping
Piping Leakage and Corrosion,
Major Likely network and control
Network damage of pipe Failure
periodically

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Table 6.2 HAZID List (contd)

Potential Hazard
Location Causes Frequency Prevention
Hazard Effect
Water Utility System
Ion
Checking level
Exchange Water flooding Overcapacity Minor Likely
periodically
Unit
Power Plant
Outout will not Cold water
Heat have temperature flow is too low, Control/monitoring
Major Likely
Exchanger as specified feed inlet is to periodically
before high
Over speed in
There should be
steam turbine
Steam Boiler in valves to release the
which will make Major Most
Turbine HRSG too hot pressure and prevent
rotor failure in
over speed
steam turbine
Surfacing tools that
Loud operation generate the noise
Pump Noise pollution Minor Most
noise and oblige the use of
earplug

6.1.2 HAZOP
Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP) was first developed by ICI, a
British chemical company. Hence, HAZOP is more often implemented in the
chemical industry. But along with the increasing need for hazard analysis
techniques, several other industries, such as food industry, pharmaceutical, and
mining (including oil and gas drilling offshore), also began to implement many
HAZOP. The main purpose of HAZOP is to identify:
a. The dangers (hazards) are a potential (especially that endanger human health
and the environment)
b. All sorts of problems operational capability (operability) on each process as a
result of irregularities against the design goals (design intent) processes in plants
as well as plants that have new activity or will be operated.
For HAZOP, there are a few parameters that we use in, meaning for each
parameter can be seen in table below. For each unit, there is deviation that are not
write because we consider that deviations have probability very low.

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Table 6.3 HAZOP Parameter
Guide Word Meaning
No or not Complete negation of the design intent
More Quantitative increase
Less Quantitative decrease
As well as Qualitative modification/increase
Part of Qualitative modification/decrease
Reverse Logical opposite of the design intent
Other than Complete substitution
Early Relative to the clock time
Late Relative to the clock time
Before Relative to order or sequence
After Relative to order or sequence
(source: Geoff Wells, 1996)

Table 6.4 HAZOP List


Guide
Location Parameter Possible Cause Consequences Action Required
Words
Copper Smelter Plant
Ensure that electricity
supply is stable, use
Energy supply too Production will be too
Less small generator if
low slow
needed to stabilize
Belt electricity supply
Belt Speed
Conveyor Improper set point,
machine is not in Calculate the set point
There will be material
More good condition so accurately, clean the
queue to the next process
there is deviation machine periodically.
with the set point
Will be harm exhaust gas Calculate the set point
Smelting Improper set point
flow rate More release to the accurately, clean the
Furnace on belt conveyor
environment machine periodically.
Improper set point Will be harm to the next
on belt conveyor process, and disturb the
Calculate the set point
Slag so the product of next process,
flowrate more accurately, clean the
Furnace smelting furnace furthermore can make
machine periodically
not suitable with defect to the equipment
the spec. process
Copper Smelter Plant
Less Pipe/ line leakage Will harm the equipment Install Flow Control

Electrolytic process will


Electrolytic
flow rate be not optimal, so there
Cell
Level control valve will be unnecessary
More Install Flow Control
pails open chemicals concentration
exhaust release to next
process.

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Table 6.4 HAZOP List (contd)
Guide
Location Parameter Possible Cause Consequences Action Required
Words
Oxygen Plant
Low input
Less flowrate, FIC Compressor Failure Install flow indicator
Compresso failure
Flow
r
Process fluid valve
More Over-pressure Install flow indicator
failure
Close the pressure
output valve so that
Gas pressure is too Pressure deficiency in
the pressure could
low, defect on the column operation,
Less reach the specified
compressor mass transfer is not
pressure in the column
function effective
operation, Install the
pressure control
Adsorber Pressure
Open the pressure
Gas pressure is too output valve so that
high, valve before Overpressure in the the pressure inside the
More entering adsorber column operation, mass column will not
is inadvertently transfer is not effective accumulated to
opened prevent damages in
the column
The defection of Explosion or drum
valve on the leakage, the harm
Drum Pressure More pipeline before exhaust gas will be Install Valve
reentering the damage the
drum environment
Sulfuric Acid Plant
Failure of inlet Process fluid Install high
No cooling water temperature is not temperature alarm
vapor lowered accordingly TAH
Process fluid
Less Pipe leakage Install flow meter
Pump Flow temperature too low
Install low
Inlet valve failed Output of process fluid temperature alarm
More
open temperature TAL before and after
the process
Less flow carried
Less conversion and Install flow and
upstream due to
Less SO3 Release hazard temperature indicator
pressure drop Gas
gases as above as above.
pipe leakage
Install flow and
More flow carried
Heat Flow Equilibrium conversion temperature indicator
More upstream Increase
Exchanger Temperature in may not reached as above. Regular test
in pressure
on catalyst.
Install thermocouples
Too much heat Higher conversion if
as above and regular
Less removed by heat enough catalyst is
check on boiler
exchangers available.
efficiency

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Table 6.4 HAZOP List (contd)
Guide
Location Parameter Possible Cause Consequences Action Required
Words
Sulfuric Acid Plant
Heat exchangers Inefficiency in heat Install thermocouples as
Heat Flow
More fail to remove exchanger also affects above and regular check
Exchanger Temperature
specified heat other beds temperature on boiler efficiency
Less inlet gases Less production of Instal flow indicator and
Less
carried upstream H2SO4 controller
Increased load on
Flow downstream
More More inlet gas equipment Control the inlet gases
More H2SO4 needed
for absorption
Reaction rate not
reach Install thermocouples as
Insufficient conversion
equilibrium, less above and gas bypass to
to meet environmental.
Less conversion control gas temperatures.
Requirement. Less
Too much Check catalyst activity
production of H2SO4
cooling in heat and plug of catalyst.
Catalyst
Temperature exchanger
Converter
Higher
temperature
Install thermocouples as
carried from Failure in heat
More above and gas bypass to
previous bed. exchanger
control gas temperatures.
Insufficient
cooling
Install pressure relief
Outlet gas pipe Increase pressure
Pressure More valve Shut down and
partial blockage downstream
clear pipes.
Breakage of
Damage to
As catalyst and
downstream Install layers of porous
Catalyst Well chips carried
equipment and loss of silica.
As downstream by
catalysts
gases
Ensure liquid feeds to
the absorber and other
process units shutdown
Flow stopped
No absorption in Install low flow alarm
upstream Line
column Pressure build onto the FIC. Install
Intermediet blockage or the
Flow No up in pipe Gasess kick-back on steam on
Absorber isolation valve
escape into the upstream pumps and
shut in error Line
surrounding ensure pressure relief
fracture
system is tolerable. Plant
emergency shutdown
procedure
Sulfuric Acid Plant
High liquid flow Accumulation of
Intermediet at loading point. liquid in the column Regular patrolling of
Temperature Less
Absorber Leaking inlet No absorption in feed transfer lines
flange column

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Table 6.4 HAZOP List (contd)
Guide
Location Parameter Possible Cause Consequences Action Required
Words
Sulfuric Acid Plant
Pump at
maximum
Possible reduction in Ratio control on liquid feed
discharge or
More absorption efficiency streams. Install high level
pump
May cause flooding alarm on the FIC
malfunction
Intermediet Increased feed
Temperature
Absorber Increased dissolved Ensure accurate
Less Over cooling gases in acid temperature control on the
(impurities) internal cooling circuit
Ensure accurate
Insufficient Decreased absorption,
More temperature control on the
cooling higher pollution
internal cooling circuit
No Line blockage Line rupture Regular inspection
Decrease in H2SO4 Install suitable alarms to
production 2. Health column to indicate low
Less Pipe/ line leakage
Flow and safety hazard flow. Install low level
because it is toxic alarm
Level control Increase pressure in
More Install low level alarm
valve pails open tank
Acid
Storage LCV fails shut or
Increase pressure in Covered by control and
Tank Pressure More isolation valve
tank alarms
closed in error
Lower inlet
stream
temperatures or Install high level alarm
Temperature Less Insufficient drying
over capacity ontic on H2SO4 outlet.
from cooling
circuit
Water Ulitity System
Failure of inlet
Process fluid is Install high temperature
No cooling water
stopped alarm TAH
vapor
Pump Flow Less Pipe leakage Process fluid is lower Install flow meter
Install low temperature
Inlet valve failed purifying process in
More alarm TAL before and after
open not maximal
the process
Input flow rate is Close the inlet valve to
too large reduce the flowrate
High Flooding
Output flow rate
Ion Open the output valve
Level is too small
Exchanger
Material damage and
Input flow rate is Open the inlet valve to
Low process is not running
too small increase flowrate
optimum
Input flow rate is Close the inlet valve to
Tank Level High Flooding
too large reduce the flowrate

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Table 6.4 HAZOP List (contd)
Guide
Location Parameter Possible Cause Consequences Action Required
Words
Water Ulitity System
Output flow rate
High Flooding Open the output valve
is too small
Tank Level Material damage and
Input flow rate is Open the inlet valve to
Low process is not running
too small increase flowrate
optimum
Power Plant
Rechecking
Rpm of The rpm of motor The power generated inspection/maintenance
Turbine Less
motor is too low is low regime will be suitable
toward the specification
Less flow carried
upstream due to Heat transfer is not
Less
pressure drop Gas maximal
pipe leakage
Flow Install flow control
More flow carried
upstream Increase Heat transfer is not
More
Heat in pressure drop maximal
Exchanger Gas pipe leakage
Too much heat
less removed by heat product is offspec
install flow control, and
exchangers
Temperature checking the temperature
Heat exchangers
Can be harmful for the periodically
more fail to remove
next process
specified heat
Low input
Storage
Level Less flowrate, high Flowrate decreases Install Level Indicator
Tank
output flow rate

6.2 HSE Management


6.2.1 Operational Details
In this subchapter, will be explained about the start up and shut down
procedure needed in our palnt. These kind of planning is needed due to the safety
aspect and the efficiency. The procedure of each plant is explained below.
6.2.1.1 Copper Smelter Plant
1. Start-Up Procedure
Start up procedures in this copper smelting plant includes two ways for there
are two major system in this plant, smelting system and electrorefining system. The
procedures are:

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a. Smelting System
During initial stages of the plant commissioning and operation, concentrate
feed rates were maintained at between 80 t/h and 100 t/h, after which a step-wise
increase in production to design capacity was achieved following construction of
the new oxygen and acid plants. Matte and slag grades have been well controlled
since start-up and are currently achieving the design target of 55 wt. % Cu in matte
and less than 0.75 wt.% Cu in slag. Cold commissioning teams finalize construction
and cold commission the furnace, lance service, feed system, product handling
system and Mitsubishi designed and supplied process control system. For our
system, the schematic procedures are:
Checking for oxygen and silica supply.
Pre-treating the solid raw material
Input raw material to primary furnace manually. Generating steam as the
pre-heater of air to make auto ignition in the primary furnace firebox.
After combustion process happened for several times, synchronizing the gas pre-
heater (between flue gas as the hot fluid and air from blower as the cold fluid) and
stop running the steam generator and start running the scrubber to absorb flue gas.
Collecting copper from primary furnace bottom product while slag will flow
into slag recovery furnace continuously.
Preparing to start up slag recovery furnace for the next 12 hours by applying
step three to five then emptying and cleaning the primary furnace.
Collecting tin from slag recovery furnace bottom product while hardhead
will flow into hardhead recovery furnace continuously.
b. Electro-Refining System
The principal technical objective of the refinery is to produce high purity
cathode copper. Other important objectives are to produce this pure copper rapidly
and with a minimum of energy. For electro-refining system, the start-up procedures
are:
Making sure that the arrangement of the anodes and cathodes in the
electrolytic cells are right.
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Installing anode and cathode in parallel system.
Pumping the electrolyte to electro-refining tank. Check chemical
conditions, particularly electrolyte composition, temperature, and
circulation rate.
Test and verifying the output voltage.
Connecting electricity and turning AC into DC by using rectifier.
Check electrical conditions, particularly current density.
2. Shut Down Procedure
Shut down procedures of this plant include two ways too, smelting system
and electro-refining system. The procedures are:
a. Smelting System
For smelting unit system, there are two kind of shut down procedures. They are
normal shut down and emergency shutdown. Normal shutdown process is done by
turning off air blower by closing the input valve. Emergency shutdown process is a
force shut down process, the blower is turned off without reducing speed process
and flue gas valve is opened fully to make sure all gas left the furnace. The
emergency shutdown process is used for the emergency situation such as if the
system is brake out and need maintenance immediately.
b. Electro-Refining System
For the electro-refining system, the shutdown process is simple. The shutdown
process will be done by turning off the connection of current from the electrical
circuit.
6.2.1.2 Oxygen Plant
1. Start-Up Procedure
The successful long term performance of the Pressure Swing Adsorbed
depends on operation and maintenance of the system. This includes the initial plant
start-up and operational start-ups and shut-downs. Preventing the problems not only
a matter of system design but also a matter of proper commissioning and operation.
Before beginning to start-up the upstream process facilities, should be

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commissioned and ready for operation. Start up and commissioning of air
separation plant is taken up after following activities:
a. Make a visual inspection of the machine and make sure all parts are properly
attached.
b. Connect the oxygen outlet to the application
c. Connect the unit into an electrical outlet and verify that power supply switch
the power switch to On. Set the mode switch to the generate position.
d. Open the inlet air valve. Check all upstream and downstream fittings thoroughly
e. Turn on the compressed air supply. Follow air compressor manufacturers start-
up instructions. Check the air pressure. Listen for the sound of the compressor
to start operating. The storage tank pressure gauge should indicate a pressure
increase after approximately 15 minutes.
2. Shut Down Procedure
The safety shutdown systems based on the following procedures:
a. Emergency Shutdown
In case of an emergency, simply turn the Main Power Switch to OFF. This will
stop all generator functions immediately. Oxygen supply can be shut off manually
closing the Oxygen product ball valve located on the optional product receiver tank.
b. Normal Shutdown
Switch the PSA Mode switch to the "DESORB" mode and allow 2 minutes
for the PSA tower to safely depressurize. When the PSA tower is completely
desorbed, the tower pressure gauge will read zero.
Turn the power switch to the off position and unplug generator from its
power.
Close the (customer installed) shutoff valve on the inlet air line. Turn the
(customer installed) inlet air (pressure-relieving) pressure regulator down
until the pressure in the air line is zero.
Close the valves at the inlet and outlet of the oxygen receiver tank. The
receiver tank pressure gauge should read zero. (Note: The receiver tank is

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pressurized with high purity oxygen even though the receiver tank pressure
gauge reads zero.)
Empty the receiver tank by opening 2-way valve beneath the receiver tank
Check to confirm that the inlet pressure regulator gauge, PSA tower pressure
gauge, oxygen receiver gauge, oxygen outlet pressure gauge all read zero
before attempting any maintenance.
6.2.1.3 Sulfuric Acid Plant
1. Start-Up Procedure
The start-up procedure for sulfuric acid plant are:
a. During start-up, the initial heating of the converter should be carried out using
dry air to minimize the water condensation on the catalyst. MECS recommends
a single dry blow, but some clients continue dry blows until all passes are
between 100oC and 170oC (212 and 340oF). Using only a single dry blow reduces
the heat-up time by approximately 24 hours.
b. Acid should be circulating through all of the towers. With the acid circulating,
the drying tower will dry the ambient air and the absorbing towers will absorb
any SO3 that is formed during the converter heat-up.
c. As the converter is heating, the vent gases in the start-up vents (at the
economizers) may become cloudy as SO3 gas is evolved from the catalyst when
it reaches approximately 300oC (570oF). If these emissions are not acceptable,
shut down the main compressor and change the blinds so that the combustion
gases flow through the final tower to the stack. In some plants a start-up bypass
duct is provided to bypass the interpass tower. Restart the main compressor to
continue the heating process.
d. After the catalyst, has reached the specified temperatures, the plant is ready to
start with. Shut off the fuel supply, and shut down the main compressor.
e. Initiate SO2 supply 30% to 40% of full rate. It is recommended that this be done
using approximately 7% to 8% SO2 gas feed at a reduced blower rate.
f. A gradual temperature rise will be observed in the first pass within a few minutes
of sulfur dioxide admission. For the initial start-up with new catalyst, this
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temperature rise (measured at the first pass outlet) should peak within forty-five
minutes at a maximum of 20 oC to 50oC (35 oC to 90oF) above the expected outlet
operating temperatures for the given gas strength. This temperature maximum
will begin to drop after approximately thirty minutes to eventually line out at the
expected operating temperature for the given SO2 strength gas stream. There will
not be a tremendous temperature rise during the initial start-up with new catalyst
since the catalyst is almost completely sulfated prior to operation.
g. Slowly increase the sulfur flow Hold this outlet temperature until the inlet
temperatures to each pass of catalyst are near the design temperatures. The pass
1 outlet temperature should not exceed 630oC (1160oF) to prevent damage to the
catalyst.
h. The plant should be stabilized before attempting to increase the plant rate. The
plant rate can slowly be increased by adjusting the main compressor pressure.
The rate of feed adjustment should be dictated by the emissions and the bed inlet
temperatures. Raising the rate slowly minimizes process upsets and helps to keep
everything under control. The feed rate increase will not generate a large
temperature rise during the initial start-up with new catalyst since the catalyst is
almost completely sulfated prior to operation.
2. Shut Down Procedure
Condensed moisture or acid may cause weakening and partial disintegration
of the catalyst, leading tohigh pressure drop and a possible permanent decrease in
conversion efficiency. The catalyst ishygroscopic (attracts moisture), especially if
SO2 or SO3 gas is left in contact with the catalyst. Therefore, during a plant
shutdown, moist air must be precluded, to the maximum possible extent, from the
catalyst and the converter / heat exchanger system.
a. Short Term Shutdown
Adjust heat exchanger bypasses to raise the temperatures in the converter
by 28C (50F) in each pass. Shut down the sulfur feed flow and the main
compressor.

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b. Long Term Shutdown
If any shutdown is to be of such length that the catalyst temperatures will
fall below the dew point ofsulfuric acid (i.e. the point where moisture or acid would
condense), the converter system should firstbe purged with dry air to remove the
SO2 and SO3 prior to shutdown.
Shut off the sulfur feed and decrease the main compressor volume to
approximately 50%. Purge the converter / heat exchanger system with dry air until
all the equipment is cooled down and the SO2 and SO3 are purged from the catalyst
passes (approximately four hours).
After purging the system, care should be taken so that moist air does not
subsequently reach thecatalyst. Natural draft will bring in moist air through the
plant stack and the air inlet. Valves can beshut and blanks installed to prevent moist
air intrusion. If maintenance work is performed on theconverter, the length of time
that the man ways are open should be minimized.
If the shutdown plans require the plant to be held down for long periods, in
excess of several months, and sulfuric acid will not be circulated through the towers
on a regular basis, it will be very difficult tomaintain a dry environment for the
catalyst. In this case, it is recommended that the catalyst isremoved from the
converter and stored in moisture resistant packages in a dry warehouse until theplant
is ready to start up again. The packages should be labeled with the catalyst converter
location so that the catalyst can be replaced in the same location later.

6.2.2 Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)


Personal protection equipment for employee is the main standard for a
company to protect its employees. There are some types of personal protection
equipment:
1. Respiratory Protection Equipment
Respirator or air purifying respirator which serves to clean the air that has been
contaminated in the form of dust, gases, metal vapors, smoke and fog, and protect
the work force has been a breath of danger, composed of chemical respirator (gas

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and vapor contaminants), mechanical filter respirator (dust, mists, metal fumes,
acids) and a cartridge or canister respirator (mixed gas/vapor to solid particles
equipped with a filter).
2. Protection Equipment for Hands
Hand Gloves is equipment used for hazardous work hand in case of contact
between the hand with heat, chemicals or other dangerous hands. Usually this type
of hand gloves hanging from its use in the existing conditions in the work, namely:
a. Asbestos gloves made of leather, PVC should be used if the heat generated in
the factory work, such as welding gloves to be used must pass through the
wrist.
b. Rubber gloves, made of synthetic material, vinyl as well as natural, to protect
hands from chemicals caustic acids, alkalis and various types of other
solvents.
c. Gloves canvas/leather, wear gloves of canvas or heavy cotton is typically used
when the main danger is very high heat caused by friction.
d. Gloves with chrome leather or PVC material with special design, to reduce
the hazard when in contact with sharp objects.
e. Glove fabric type is used to work under normal conditions.
3. Protection Equipment for Legs
Safety shoes is a safety shoes are used to protect workers against accidents
caused by heavy items falling to the feet, protruding nails, liquid metal, and so on.
Standard for leg protection is ANSI Z41.

4. Protection Equipment for Eye


Protecting the eyes from debris and splashing subtle body chemicals that
cause irritation to the eyes or even injure the eyes. This tool can also protect your
eyes from impact workers against a hard object. Standard for eye protection is ANSI
Z87.1.
5. Protection Equipment for Ear

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Ear protective devices commonly used in the area located the tools that can
cause noise. For protection against ear every employee who dealt with the process
equipment required to use earplugs. Earmuffs are divided into two types:

a. Thermal earmuffs are earmuffs used in cold environments to keep one's ears to
keep warm.
b. Acoustic earmuffs, also known as ear defenders. This tool is coated with sound
dampening materials, such as thermal earmuffs and headphones in appearance,
which is used as hearing protection from noisy sound.
6. Protection Equipment for Head
This protection equipment for head or safety helmet is a protective device that
is used to protect the head from impact by hard objects while working in the field,
whether it's due to hit by accident or because of a fall or stumble. Standard for safety
helmet is ANSI Z89.1

7. Body Protection Equipment


Body Protection Equipment is a coverall protection which serves to avoid direct
contact of leakage or spillage of product and medium product in the form of liquid.
To clean up the spill using absorbent material must be non-combustible inorganic.
In addition, protective clothing or clothing that workers should not be used that has
a crease on the bottom of his pants.

6.2.3 MSDS
A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains
information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and
how to work safely with the chemical product. It is an essential starting point for
the development of a complete health and safety program. It also contains
information on the use, storage, handling and emergency procedures all related to
the hazards of the material. The MSDS contains much more information about the
material than the label. MSDSs are prepared by the supplier or manufacturer of the
material. It is intended to tell what the hazards of the product are, how to use the
product safely, what to expect if the recommendations are not followed, what to do
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if accidents occur, how to recognize symptoms of overexposure, and what to do if
such incidents occur. The key to the hazards associated with the numerical ratings
is provided below.
Table 6.5 Explanation of HMIS

0 - ordinary combustible hazards in a fire


Health 1 - slightly hazardous
Hazard 2 hazardous
Ratings
3 - extreme danger
4 deadly
0 - will not burn
Flammability 1 - will ignite if preheated
Hazard 2 - will ignite if moderately heated
Ratings
3 - will ignite at most ambient conditions
4 - burns readily at ambient conditions
0 - stable and not reactive with water
Reactivity 1 - unstable if heated
Hazard 2 - violent chemical change
Ratings
3 - shock and heat may detonate
4 - may detonate
(source: HMIS, 2014)

Table 6.6 HMIS Protective Equipment Code


HMIS Code Required Protective Equipment
A safety glass
B safety glass, gloves
C safety glass, gloves, protective apron
D face shield, gloves, protective apron
E safety glass, gloves, dust respirator
F safety glass, gloves, protective apron, dust respirator
G safety glass, gloves, vapor respirator
H splash goggles, gloves, protective apron, vapor respirator
I safety glass, gloves, dust respirator, vapor respirator
J splash goggles, gloves, protective apron, dust respirator, vapor respirator
K airline mask or hood, gloves, full suit, boots
L-Z site-specific label
(source: HMIS, 2014)

For our plant, we are going to summarize the main material in our plant.
There are copper concentrate, limestone, silica sand, suluic acid, copper cathode

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and oxygen. In this section, we will describe each criteria for health and safety of
each components. Below, we are going to summarize each raw materials of our
product.
1. Copper Concetrate
Formula : CuFeS2
Appearance : Solid, copper colored, odorless
Based on MSDS we get, this material score for health =1, fire = 2, and
reactivity = 1. Copper concentrate is finely ground material that is not flammable
or combustible under normal conditions of transport and storage. However, when
heated strongly in air for a sufficient time it will burn, releasing toxic and irritating
sulphur dioxide gas as well as possible copper and iron oxide fumes. Contact with
strong acids will generate flammable and highly toxic hydrogen sulphide gas.
Inhalation or ingestion of copper concentrate dust or copper oxide fume may
produce irritation of the upper airways. Possible cancer hazard due to the silica
content. Protective clothing are required for fire emergency response personnel due
to the potential for release of high concentrations of sulphur dioxide from burning
concentrate. The metals content in this product have low direct bioavailability and
pose little immediate ecological risk. To store this material must provide well-
ventilated area away from sources of combustion, acids and strong oxidizers

2. Limestone
Chemical Name : Calcium Carbonate
Formula : CaCO3
Appearance : White, odorless, granular solid
Based on MSDS rating, limestone shows that they give hazard rating of
health=2, fire=0, reactivity = 0, and personal protection = E. from this hazard rating,
we can conclude that limestone can cause temporary or minor injury. It will not
burn and it is stable. Limestone potentially cause acute health effect if its dust
contact with our eyes or inhaled by human because it can cause irritation. It is
slightly hazardous in case of skin contact because it can irritate our skin and slightly

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hazardous in case of ingestion and inhalation. Limestone potentially cause chronic
health effect such as toxic to kidneys and repeated or prolonged exposure to the
substance can produce target organ damage. There is no special effect in fire hazard
unless it contacts with fluorine. Limestone will ignite and burn fiercely. Personal
protection used are safety glasses, gloves, and dust respirator.

3. Silica Sand
Chemical Name : Silicon Dioxide
Formula : Si-O2
Appearance : Solid, white, odorless
From MSDS silica sand it shows that they give hazard rating of health =1,
fire = 0, reactivity = 0 and personal protection=E. For health, the rating is 1 which
means that its slightly dangerous. For fire the rating is 0 which means that it will
not burn ignite if theres a fire. For reactivity, the rating is 0 which means that it is
stable and it will not react with water. This material is slightly hazardous in case of
skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. So, the
workers must use personal protection such as Safety glasses, Lab coat, and Dust
respirator. To store this material the container must provide well ventilation to keep
exposure to airborne contaminants below the exposure limit.

4. Sulfuric Acid
Chemical Name : Hydrogen Sulfate
Formula : H2-SO4
Appearance : Colorless, odorless
From MSDS sulfuric acid it shows that they give hazard rating of health =3,
fire = 0, reactivity = 2, For health the rating is 3 which means that its extremely
danger. For fire the rating is 0 which means that it will not burn ignite if theres a
fire. For reactivity, the rating is 2 which means that it is violent chemical change.
Eventough the material is non-flammable. However, products of decompostion
include fumes of oxides of sulfur. Will react with water or steam to produce toxic
and corrosive fumes. Reacts with carbonates to generate carbon dioxide gas. Reacts
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with cyanides and sulfides to form poisonous hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen
sulfide respectively. A place that store this material should provide well ventilated
area and should be store with coated fiberboard drum using a strong polyethylene
inner package. Since this product quite danger, a worker should use personal
protection such as Face shield with Full suit, and Vapor respirator.

5. Copper Cathode
Chemical Name : Copper Cathode
Formula : Cu (99,9%)
Appearance : Solid with Reddish color
Copper cathode is a Metallic product which poses little or no immediate
hazard in solid form. However, this product still also has hazardous if this material
repeatedly exposure to human can discolor skin and hair and irritate the skin; may
cause mild dermatitis, runny nose, and irritation of the mucous membranes.
Repeated ingestion may damage the liver and kidneys. In order to minimize the
hazard, worker should use gloves to handle our product this is because most
Particulate may enter the body through cuts, abrasions or other wounds on the
surface of the skin. Since our operation may generate dust, fume or mist, the use
ventilation is a must to keep exposure to airborne copper below the TLV. If
ventilation alone cannot so control exposures, use approved respirators selected
according to local regulations

6. Oxygen
Product Name : Oxygen
Formula : O2
Appearance odor and state : Odorless and colorless
Based on MSDS, oxygen shows that they give hazard rating of health=0,
fire=0, and reactivity = 0. From this hazard rating, we can conclude that oxygen has
no significant risk to health. It will not burn and it is stable material. Breathing 80%
or more oxygen at atmospheric pressure for more than a few hours may cause nasal
stuffiness, cough, sore throat, chest pain and breathing difficulty. Breathing oxygen
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at higher pressure increases the likelihood of adverse effects within a shorter time
period. Breathing pure oxygen under pressure may cause lung damage and also
central nervous system effects resulting in dizziness, poor coordination, tingling
sensation, visual and hearing disturbances, muscular twitching, unconsciousness
and convulsions. Breathing oxygen under pressure may cause prolongation of
adaptation to darkness and reduced peripheral vision. Oxygen is nonflammable but
will support combustion. Use extinguishing media appropriate for surrounding fire.
A place with high oxygen concentration should provide ventilation and/or local
exhaust to prevent accumulation of high concentrations of gas (greater than 23%).
There is no special personal protection needed but safety shoes and work gloves are
recommended when handling cylinders. Clothing exposed to high concentrations
may retain oxygen 30 minutes or longer and become a potential fire hazard. Stay
away from ignition sources.

7. Sulfur dioxide
Chemical Name : Sulfurdioxide
Formula : SO2
Appearance : Gas, colorless, odor
Based on MSDS, sulfur dioxide has been giving rating for health=3, fire=0
and reactivity=0. This means that sulfur dioxide could cause serious temporary or
residual injury even though prompt medical attention was given. This material is
poisonous by inhalation and may irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and sinuses,
resulting in choking, coughing, and sometimes bronchoconstriction. Eventough the
material is extremely dangerous, but this material is stable and will not burn in order
to prevent risk, the worker should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus and
appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). To store this material Store only
where temperature will not exceed 125F (52C). Firmly secure containers upright
to keep them from falling or being knocked over. Install valve protection cap, if
provided, firmly in place by hand. Store full and empty containers separately. Use

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a first-in, first-out inventory system to prevent storing full containers for long
periods.

8. Sulfur Trioxide
Chemical Name : Sulfurtrioxide
Formula : SO3
Appearance : clear, odorless
Based on MSDS, sulfur trioxide has been giving rating for health=3, fire=0
and reactivity=2. This material is categorized as extremely dangerous where
Inhalation of the spray mist may produce severe irritation of respiratory tract,
characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath. Severe over-exposure
can result in death. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering,
and itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening, or,
occasionally, blistering. This material also reactive with oxidizing agents, metals,
alkalis, moisture. The product may undergo hazardous decomposition,
condensation or polymerization, it may react violently with water to emit toxic
gases or it may become self-reactive under conditions of shock or increase in
temperature or pressure. the workers who handled this material should use gloves,
full suit, vapor respirator and be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or
equivalent. Wear appropriate respirator when ventilation is inadequate and also face
shield.

9. Coal
Product Name : Bituminous Coal
Formula : C
Appearance : Black Powder
Based on HMIS rating, coal shows that they give hazard rating of health=1,
fire=3, reactivity = 0, and personal protection = E. From this hazard rating, we can
conclude that coal can cause temporary or minor injury. Coal is stable material. The
principal health hazard associated with coal occurs during its mining and transport.
Coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) can occur in miners after as little as 15 years
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of excessive inhalation of respirable coalmine dust. Respirable quartz particles and
free silica may be co-implicated. Coal dust is deposited in the lungs where its site
of action is the lung parenchyma, lymph nodes and hila. The severity of the disease
is directly related to the amount of coal dust in the lungs. In the simple stages, the
disease is detectable by x-ray as round, irregular "macules" of 1-5 mm. This stage
typically does not change lung function or shorten life. The chronic stage of CWP,
however, involves massive pulmonary fibrosis that does impair pulmonary function
and shorten life. Chronic Bronchitis (lung inflammation, coughing attacks, difficult
breathing, etc.) and emphysema can result from excessive coal dust inhalation.
Rheumatoid arthritis can be exacerbated by pneumonias leading to rapidly
developing lung damage (Caplans Syndrome). Fire will be occur when coal is
exposed to flame of temperature in excess of 127oC. It is highly combustible and/or
explosive when in dust or powder form. Coal dust may react slowly with oxygen at
room temperature. Heat accelerates the process, which could lead to spontaneous
ignition in piles of coal dust. Personal protection are used in the management of this
material are respiratory protection, safety glasses, and gloves.

6.3 Emergency Action Plant


There are several emergency action responses if some incident happen that
will be executed for the safety of the employee and others element of plant, such
as:

6.3.1 Emergency Operating Procedures or Training


The emergency procedures should include instructions for dealing with
fires, leaks and spills. The procedure should describe how to:
Raise the alarm and call the fire brigade;
Tackle a fire or control spills and leaks (when it is safe to do so);
Evacuate the site, and if necessary nearby premises.
These instructions consist of a four-step procedure that employees should
follow during a fire. This procedure must be memorized by all employees.
Experience has demonstrated that the best response to a plant fire is first, to sound
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the alarm, then let others know there is a fire, then to combat the fire if possible,
and finally, to evacuate if necessary. The plan works best when expressed as an
easily recalled acronym, such as SAFE:

a. S Sound the alarm


Either sound it yourself or call out to someone else to sound it. This allows the
fire department to be on its way while other activities are being performed.
b. A Alert others
Quickly tell others in the area of the fire. Do this in a calm, firm manner. Do not
cause a panic. Secure the area for the fire department. Close all doors and windows
to prevent the spread of smoke and flames. Call security to give verification and
information about location of fire.
c. F Fight the fire
Do this only in the case of a manageable fire, one that you have the training and
experience to fight. For example, fire in a wastebasket. If it possible two employees
should fight the fire together using two fire extinguishers. If you have any doubt
about your ability to fight the fire, then do not attempt to combat it.
d. E Evacuate the area
If necessary. Alarm which used for evacuation system is an alarm system
standard from OSHA. It applies to provide an early warning for emergency actions
or reaction time for employees to safely escape the work place, the immediate work
area, or both.
Type of alarms which used in this plant is:
1. Audible Alarm
Audible alarm which used consists of horn and sirens. Horns produce a very loud
distinctive sound that immediately attracts attention. Horns can be useful to call
attention to critical situations. Signals other than those used for evacuation purposes
do not have to produce the temporal coded signal. Thus, sirens produce a loud
piercing wail that makes them ideally suitable for initiating a site-wide evacuation.
2. Visible Alarm
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Visual alarm which used consists of flashing/steady lights and strobe lights.
Steady lights are well suited for areas where ambient noise makes audible signals
difficult to hear, for an example in area where the compressor is in. These types of
lights come with different colored covers for increased attention and can be ordered
with rotating or flashing lights.
Strobe lights use high intensity flash tubes that are ideally suited for areas where
high ambient light levels make traditional rotating or flashing lights difficult to
distinguish or where ambient noise makes audible signals difficult to hear.

6.3.1.1 Medical Emergencies


Whenever an employee or visitor is injured or develops a medical
emergency condition on plant property, follow the protocol below and notify your
immediate supervisor as soon as possible. Medical emergency instruction:
a. Dial the plant infirmary and inform the nurse of emergency and its location
in the plant.
b. If the nurse cannot be reached, dial emergency call, and inform any hospital
or fire department of the medical emergency. Give the dispatcher the nature
and location in the plant of medical emergency.
c. Unless you have been designated by management to be a first aid responder,
do not provide first aid. Make the victim as comfortable as possible until
medical help arrives

6.3.1.2 Emergency Escape Procedures


The purpose of the escape procedure is to help the employee evacuate to
predetermined assembly areas whenever the alarm sounds. Here is the procedure
of emergency escape:

a. In the event of an emergency, employees shall activate fire pull stations


without exposing themselves to serious hazards and leave the work area as
soon as possible via the emergency route assignments posted in your
immediate work area.

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b. All primary emergency escape routes and designated meeting locations shall
be provided to each employee by departmental managers as part of the
emergency planning process. These primary route and designated meeting
locations must be approved by the plant manager.
c. An orderly evacuation shall be supervised by departmental managers, line
supervisors, and designated wardens who will check all rooms/enclosed
spaces and report any problems via telephone or radio to plant security.
d. Each local manager or supervisor shall provide for the specialized
evacuation of any handicapped employees.

6.3.2 Firefighting
A firefighting strategy should consider:
Appointment of fire wardens, with subsequent training;
Location plans of safety shower, fire hoses, extinguishers, and water
sources.
Access for emergency services;
Provision of firewater lagoons.
There are several important aspects in fire fighting equipments, which are:
a. Fire Extinguisher
Fire extinguisher is the equipment that is used to extinguish the fire in small
scale. This equipment usually in tubular form and used to extinguish the fire in the
emergency situation. Fire extinguisher which will be used in our plant is class B
fire extinguisher. This type usually used for flammable liquids and gases. We chose
this type because some raw materials that we use are flammable.
b. Fire Hydrant
Fire hydrant is a permanent system that is used to extinguish the fire. It uses
pressurized water which flowed through pipes and fire hose to extinguish the fire.
In our plant, there are class 2 of building hydrant system. This type has 1,5 inch
diameter of a hose. This type usually used for untrained people.
c. Safety shower and eyewash station

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Safety showers and eye wash stations are the emergency facilities which
shoud be available in every chemical laboratory. They are used by laboratory
workers in case of splash of toxic or corrosive chemicals or fire. This equipment
should also provide a drainage system for the excess water and should not come
into contact with any electrical equipment that may become a hazard when wet, and
should be protected from freezing when installing emergency equipment outdoors.
Whereas, an emergency blangket should be available near the shower to prevent
from shock and cover the place for removal of clothes.

6.3.3 Evacuation Area


Evacuation areas is an important thing to be planned when there is an
emmergency situation occurs. All of employee should have to get out from the plant
immediately and go the nearest assembly point. Our plant have been declared the
assembly point in the some place. First point is near to the mosque. Second, it is
placed near to the central control room. Third, the assembly point is near to the raw
material storage, then the fourth is placed near to the product storage. Besides that,
in this plant design, we build fire station near to the mechanical and electrical
building which is also near to the process area. When the emmergency situation
occurs, sometimes due to the intensity of the accident, we should initial the
emmergency shutdown when the situation such as below:
a. An electric power failure while the process production operates.
b. Manual alarm
c. Equipment failure
If there is an emmergency situation, the plant should be shutdown as the
shutdown prosedure to minimize the risk of failure. Worker can follow escape route
to save themselves as the simulation given routinely. If the emmergency shutdown
has been initiated, the plan will not cause any damage to the worker or community.
Thus, the escape route and shutdown procedure are essentially need in the plant
design. The red arrows indicate evacuation routes from each point of the plant
leading to assembly point.

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N
GUEST CAR PARK (FOR SECURITY MOTORCYCLE PARKING
ADMISSION) SECURITY AREA

MAIN
W E
GATE

S
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
CAR PARKING AREA DEPOK

PROJECT
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
SMELTER PLANT

DRAWING
DATE
NO.
11/16/2016
2
ASSEMBLY
POINT GROUP
PAR13

OFFICE BUILDING
MOSQUE

CLINIC
FIRE STATION

K3 BUILDING
LAB
MECHANICAL AND
ASSEMBLY POINT ELECTRICAL
BUILDING

CANAL CANAL

CENTRAL
CONTROL
POWER PLANT ROOM

WATER UTILITY

ASSEMBLY POINT

SULFURIC
ACID PLANT
OXYGEN PLANT

RAW MATERIAL
STORAGE

COPPER SMELTER PLANT

ASSEMBLY POINT

LOADING AND
PRODUCT STORAGE UNLOADING

FLARE

Figure 6.1 Evacuation Route Map

6.4 Waste Management


Waste of processing in industry has to be handling well or else it may give
damage that affect environment or sustainability of production in plant. All of those
wastes can be directly discarded, recycled, used again in the process, or even can
be sold to other plant as their raw material.

6.4.1 Solid Waste


Solid waste in our plant consist of anode slime and copper slag. Anode
slimes are collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the refining of
copper. Anode slime consists many precious components such as Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn,
Ni, Fe, As, Sb, SiO2, MgO, Ag, and Au. According to Freeport Indonesia report,
anode slime can be used for gold and silver. In our plant, we produce anode slime
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approximately 5.25 tonnes/day and we will try sell this material to the related
industry. For copper slag, also from Freeport report, it can be used for raw material
concrete and cement. Copper slag is a by-product which obtained during the matte
smelting and refining of copper (Biswas and davenport, 2002). In our plant, we
produce copper slag at least 1000 tonnes/day. Since the product has a large amount
it will be beneficial if we sell it to the related industry.

6.4.2 Liquid Waste


In our plant, liquid waste comes from cooling water. All of the output
cooling water flow will be recycled and used again as input in the process. We chose
recycling because the cooling water used in our plant has been through the
mineralization process in water utility unit. Mineralization process require high
operating cost so its such wasting money if we always dispose the output cooling
water that been mineralized. The other reason we chose recycling is because in our
plant the cooling water mostly not directly contacted with other material so that the
contamination from other substances can be minimized and can be used again in
the process. Treatment needed in recycling the cooling water waste of our plant is
lowering its temperature by using heat exchanger. Heat exchanger used in order to
minimize contamination from other substance as we know the cooling water been
mineralized before. As the cooling component, sea water (without mineralization)
is used in order to exchanging its heat. So, the effluent will only be sea water used
as cooling water. However, since the liquid waste is also coming from SO3
reduction system, the waste water has to pass the mineralized unit to remove any
substance if we want to use it again as a recycled of feed water.

6.4.3 Gas Waste


In our plant, gas waste comes from sulfuric acid plant. In our sulfuric acid
plant, we want to make SO2 into sulfuric acid which is going to be sell to fertilizer
industry. However, this plant produce gas waste specifically sulfur trioxide (SO3)
which comes from absorber. Since SOx is a pollutant that is dangerous, we decide
to reduce again the amount of SO3 before it will burn using flare stack. One of
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alternative SO3 reduction system is salt solution spray + Wet-type ESP (WEP). This
system can collect SO3 mist very effectively from the water saturated gas at
downstream of FGD system (flue gas desulfurization). The dissolved salts
applicable in this system can be any salts of Na, Mg and K. In a journal that we get
the salt that is injected is sodium based, so that the solution of NaHSO3 and Na2SO4
are injected. Sprayed droplet including salt solution is drying up in the flue gas, and
absorbing SO3 on its surface. Salt solution droplet does not react with SO2, and it
absorbs selectively only SO3, so that SSS is very effective for SO3 reduction.

6.4.4 Sound Pollution


Noise in our plant generated from many equipment such as pump, and
compressor. This noise can also cause damage to mechanical system to appliance.
According to Ministry of Manpower Decree No. Kep.51/MEN/1999, Threshold
Limit Value (TLV) from noise is around 85dB for 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week.
If exceed the TLV there are some disorders that can cause such as physiological
disorder (reducing function of hearing) and also psychological disorders (mental
and stress disorder). In order to reduce noise level there are some action that can be
done which are eliminate noise transmission to workers, eliminate noise from noise
source, and providing protection to employees. For eliminating noise from noise
equipment can be done by regular maintenance and replacing the parts that caused
noise. Eliminating noise transmission can be done by closing the engine as soon as
possible and if necessary isolate and minimize the machine from any holes and
doors. For the workers that always work around the equipment that generated noise
will be equipped with ear plug in order to dampening noise. Using ear plug can
decrease noise up to 20 dB so that they can keep working in the save area.

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CHAPTER VII
CAPITAL ESTIMATE

In this chapter, there will be explained about several calculation and analysis
needed to be done to estimate the economic analysis for this plant. The calculation
need several assumptions as shown below
1. Plant lifetime is 20 year; start from 2020 (including the equipment purchase
and based on the benchmarking).
2. The main plant, copper smelter has a total production of 320,000
tonnes/year copper cathode that is done in continuous production.
In estimating equipment cost, we use index value to estimating price at
present time, the equation is shown below.

= ( ) (6.1)

7.1 Total Equipment Cost


The price of equipment is calculated for purchasing in 2020. The prediction
cost is done by using cost index, explained in the previous sub-chapter. The table
on Appendix F shows the cost of all the equipment.

7.2 Total Bulk Material Cost


Bulk material cost calculated from piping, controller, and electricity cost.
The details of each component can be seen in Appendix E.

Table 7.1 Total Bulk Material Cost

Component Cost (USD)


Piping Copper Smelter 6350.175
Piping Sulfuric Acid 24320
Piping Oxygen Plant 3157.71
Piping Power Plant 2831.211
Piping Water 7128
Valve 160,791
Total 204,578

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7.3 Site Development Cost
In our plant site development cost consist of site preparation cost and land
cost. The wide area of our plant is
Table 7.2 Building Plant Cost

Building Cost (USD)


Building (Plant) 5,994,083
Building (Office) 11,988,166
Others 2,997,041
Total 20,979,290

7.4 Building Cost


Building costs are costs required to build some buildings that exist in our
factory based on the results of our calculations in Plant Layout. This cost is based
on the volume of each of the buildings that will determine the cost of materials to
construct the building. The total is USD 46,582,653.

7.5 Supporting Equipment Cost


Supporting facilities is equipment needed to accelerate production process
which is including in the entire area of plant building. The amount of these
supporting equipment is determined from the number of employees and also their
needs, with total USD 1,252,500.

7.6 Engineering and Supervision Cost


The engineering costs, sometimes referred to as home office costs or
contractor charges, include the costs of detailed design and other engineering
services required to carry out the project construction design and engineering. We
use 8% of Total Direct Permanent Investment Cost.

7.7 Construction Expenses


Construction is the item else that is included into indirect plant cost and
consist temporary construction and operation, construction tools and rentals, home
office personnel located at the construction site, construction payroll, travel and
living, taxes and insurance, and other construction overhead. This expense item is
occasionally included under equipment installation, or more often under

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engineering, supervision, and construction. We use 10% of Total Direct Permanent
Investment Cost. The calculation shown in table below.

7.8 Contingencies Cost


Contingency charges are extra costs added into the project budget to allow
for variation from the cost estimate. In order to compensate for unpredictable
expense, minor process changes, price changes, and estimating errors, a
contingency charge is applied against the direct plant cost. We use 15% of Total
Direct Permanent Investment as contingency cost because in this plant there might
be unpredictable costs due to the miss-calculation. The calculation shown in table
below.

7.9 Contractors Fee


The contractors fee depends upon the size, complexity, and location of the
plant. We use 3% of Total Direct Permanent Investment. The calculation shown in
table below

7.10 Additional Cost


Additional cost consists of royalties cost, plant startup cost, and others.
Estimate royalties cost is equal to 2% of CTDC and plant startup cost is equal to 10%
of CTDC.

7.11 Working Capital


We use 17.6% of Total Permanent Investment for working capital.

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7.12 Calculation of Total Capital Investment
Table 7.3 Total Capital Investment

Type Cost Kind of Cost Symbol Cost (USD) Note


Total Bare-Module Cost CTBM 59,940,828 Calculated
Cost of Bulk Material CBulk 214,021 Calculated (valve+pipe)
Site Development Cost Csite 10,461,528 Calculated
Direct Cost
Building Plant Cost CBuild 20,979,290 Calculated
Supporting Equipment Cost CSupport 1,252,500 Calculated
(CDPI = CTBM + Cbulk + Csite + Cbulid +
Total Direct Permanent Investment CDPI 91,595,668
Csupport)
Engineering and Supervision Ceng 7,327,653 (8% CTBM)
Construction Expenses Cconstruction 9,159,567 (10% CTBM)
Contingencies Cost Ccontingency 13,739,350 (15% CTBM)
Indirect Cost
Contractors Fee Ccontractor 2,747,870 (3 % CTBM)
(CTDC = CDPI + Ceng + Ccontruction +
Total Depreciable Capital CTDC 124,570,108
Ccontingency + C contractor)
Royalties Cost Croyal 2,491,402 (2% CTDC)

Additional Plant Start Up Cost Cstartup 12,457,011 (10% CTDC)


Cost Additional Cost Csupport 7,066 Calculated

Total Permanent Investment CTPI 139,525,587 (CTPI = CTDC + Croyal + Cstart up)

Working Working Capital CWC 24,700,000 (CWC = 17.6 % CTPI)


Capital Total Capital Investment CTCI 164,225,587 (CTCI = CTPI + CWC)

Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER VIII
OPERATING COSTS

Manufacturing cost associated with day-to-day operation of copper smelter


plant have to estimated before economic feasibility of a proposed process can be
assessed. Manufacturing consist of direct manufacturing cost, fixed cost, and
general expense.
8.1 Equity
In building a factory, the most important factor to be looked at is whether
the plant is porfitable or not. To the factory must be assessed its equity. To reduce
the risk, the owner can borrow money from the bank and investor. However, for
this plant we will use 40% of equity capital from the bank loans and 60% from the
investors. The table below shows the total equity from investor and banks.

Table 8.1 Financial Interest

Capital Source Percentage Capital Share [USD]


Bank BCA 4% 6,568,924
Bank Citibank 4% 6,568,924
Bank of America 6% 9,853,386
ANZ Panin Bank 6% 9,853,386
Standard Chartered Bank 4% 6,568,924
Bank Mandiri 6% 9,853,386
BNI 10% 16,422,310
Investor I 30% 49,266,931
Investor II 30% 49,266,931
TOTAL 100% 164,223,104

8.2 Raw Material Cost


Copper concentrate is raw material from PT. Freeport Indonesia by 70% and PT.
Newmont Nusa Tenggara by 30%. Our limetone delivered from Rembang with the
delivery cost is 0.2 USD/tonne.km. While silica is delivered from Tuban with
delivery the cost of 0.2 USD/tonne.km. The coal is delivered from PT. Jaya Shakti
Barutama, Kecamatan Manyar-Gresik, with the delivery cost of 0.2 USD/tonne.km.

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Table 8.2 Raw Material Cost

Capacity Total Price


Raw Material Price [USD/tonne]
[tonnes/day] [USD/year]
Copper Concentrate 2390 1,800 1,570,230,000
Silica 516 90 16,950,600
Limestone 186 55 3,733,950
Coal 62 60 3,720
Total [USD/year] 1,590,918,270
(source: various sources)

8.3 Utility Cost


The utility on our plant is water utility, for process and as a cooling water.
The utility requirements are obtained from the material and energy balances. As
requirements increase, the unit cost declines. The table on Appendix F shows the
total utility cost.

8.4 Waste Treatment Cost


The waste treatement in our plant consists of dust treatment and SO2 gas
treatment. For dust treatment that include in nonhazardous solid waste disposal we
need 38 USD/tons. Since our dust production is 500 tonne/year, so waste treatment
cost of our plant is 19,000 USD/year.

8.5 Labor Cost


8.5.1 Direct Labor Cost
To operate our plant and keep the processes continously generating product,
we need labors. Direct labor cost involves expense cost for worker that is directly
related in plant process such as operator, technician, etc. Our integrated smelter
plant operates continously 24 hour and it requires workers to keep monitoring the
processes. Operating costs for this labor can be calculated from the estimated
number of daily labor and the necessary shift. (Sinnott, 2005). We assume effective
production activity of our plant in a year is 360 days. The direct labor cost can be
seen on Appendix F.

8.5.2 Indirect Labor Cost


Indirect labor cost calculates salaries for worker that are not directly related
with the plant process. It will involve executives and clerical wages. Here we
consider non-field worker that that does not related to engineering department or

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anything about technical aspect. This includes administrative cost that can also
contributes in calculation of general expenses cost. The indirect labor cost can be
seen on Appendix F.

8.6 Maintenance Cost


Maintenance cost are devided into four categories: Wages and benefits
(MW&B) in our plant is 10% of TCI, while the salaries and benefits is equal to 25%
of MW&B. Total annual cost of maintenance is USD 37,747,887/year.

8.7 Operating Overhead Cost


Overhead cost is devided into four categories: general plant overhead,
provision for the services of the mechanical department and for the employee
relations department, as well as business services, with the total annual operating
overhead cost equal to the sum of these four categories or (7.1+2.4+5.9+7.4) =
22.8% of M%O-SW&B. The total operating overhead cost is USD 5,038,584/year.

8.8 Local Taxes and Insurance Cost


Annual property taxes are assessed by the local municipality as a percentage
of the total depreciable capital, CTDC, with arrange from 1% for plants located in
sparsely populated areas to 3% when located in heavily populated areas. Property
taxes are not related to federal income taxes levied by the Internal Revenue Service
and considered below. This corresponds to a process of low risk located away from
a heavily populated area.

8.9 Depreciation
Depreciation is the reduction in value of an asset. The assets of our plant
come from equipment and building cost. The method used to depreciate an asset is
a way to account for decreasing value of the asset to the owner and to represent the
diminishing value (amount) of the capital funds invested in it.

8.10 Cost of Manufacture


After we have known direct manufacturing cost, operating overhead, and
fixed cost; now we can calculate total annual cost of manufacture (COM) for our
plant. It is the sum of those mentioned before. By determining cost of manufacture,
we will be able to obtain total production cost later. Annual cost of manufacture we

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that we have calculated is shown below:

Cost of Manufacture (COM) = Raw Material + Utilities + Operation (labor-


related) + Maintenance + Operating Overhead + Property Tax + Insurance +
Depreciation.

General expenses (GE) refer to activities that are conducted by the central
operations of a company, perhaps at the corporate headquarters, and are financed
from profits made by thecompany from their operating plants (Seider, 2003). This
expenses are mostly related with distribution of product, administrative of
employee (indirect labor), and other general possible expense beside costs that we
have obtained before.

Table 8.3 Cost of Manufacture


Variable Cost [USD/year]
Raw Material Cost 1,590,918,270
Direct Operating Labor 1,377,300
Utiliy Cost 533,075
Total Variable Cost 1,592,828,645
Fixed Cost
Indirect Labor 1,479,333
Maintenance Cost 37,771,314
Safety and Environmental Cost 64,869
Property Taxes and Insurance Cost 10,789,784
Royalties Cost 1,642,231
Total Fixed Cost 51,747,532
Direct Production Cost 1,644,576,177
General Expense
Sales Expense 328,915,235

Direact Research 15,787,931

Allocated Research 1,644,576

Administrative Expense 6,578,305

Management Incentive Compensation 4,111,440

TOTAL GE 357,037,488

ANNUAL PRODUCTION COST 2,001,613,665

8.11 Operating Cost (OPEX) Breakdown


If we have calculated cost of manufacture and general expenses, we can
calculate total production cost for our plant. It represents total plant outcome that
involves all aspect. This expense will be a consideration of business investation of
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the plant which is also compared by sales income later. The formula of total
production cost (C) is shown below: Total Production Cost = Cost of Manufacture
(COM) + General Expenses (GE) Total production cost of our plant is around 2
billion USD, consist of variable cost, fixed cost, and general expense.

Table 8.4 OPEX Breakdown

Variable Cost [USD/year]


Raw Material Cost 1,590,918,270
Direct Operating Labor 1,377,300
Utiliy Cost 533,075
Indirect Labor 1,479,333
Maintenance Cost 37,771,314
Safety and Environmental Cost 64,869
Insurance Cost 10,789,784
General Expenses 357,037,488
Total [USD/year] 1,999,971,434

OPEX Breakdown

18%
Raw Material Cost
2% 0% 1%
Direct Operating Labor
1% 0%
0% Utiliy Cost
Indirect Labor
Maintenance Cost
Safety and Environmental Cost
Insurance Cost
78% General Expenses

Figure 8.1 OPEX Breakdown Diagram

Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER IX
ECONOMIC EVALUATION

9.1 Investment Feasibility Analysis


9.1.1 Income
Our product included copper cathode is a main product, slag and gypsum as
waste product, we decided to sell our waste to cement Plant. Sulfuric acid to
fertilizer plant and anode slime for gold and silver refining industries. The price of
commodity is determined by the market supply and demand, operational cost, etc.
Income of our plant is shown in table below.

Table 9.1 Income of The Plant

Capacity
Product Product Price [USD/ton] Total [USD/year]
[tonnes/year]
Copper 321565 6.700,00 2.154.485.500,00
H2SO4 265000 250,00 66.250.000,00
Slime 70000 3.510,00 245.700.000,00
Slag 387265 150,00 58.089.750,00
CaSO4 64000 1.100,00 70.400.000,00

9.1.2 Cash Flow


Calculation of cash flow involves the income before tax, after taxes,
depreciation, and salvage value of equipment called the after-tax cash flow (ATCF).
Revenue in this factory is the revenue generated from the product ferronickel and
slag meanwhile the cash flow-out can be derived from investment, cost, and loans.
Percentage of tax is 30 %. We estimate our plant age is 30 years. Our cash flow
calculates using Microsoft Excel. The annual cash flow contains inflow and
outflow. Inflow comes from income before and after taxes and residual value or
salvage value. Cash flow out of which is the cost of investment, and operating.
Details of the calculation of the cash flow in and out can be seen on Appendix F.
So, the figure below is the cash flow before and after tax. For calculating
the cash flow, the selling product is 100% sold out.

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The reasons why we brave to sell it 100% from the first year because our product
is cheap and the consumer is determined and only one. The graph below on
Appendix F cash flow diagram of our plant.
For after tax cash flow, this cash flow is calculated with tax. The income tax
we assume is 30% after depreciation according to Direktorat Jenderal Pajak,
2013.Because it is after tax, the cash flow will have the lower cumulative income;
this after tax cash flow is used for calculating the profitability analysis such as,IRR
and Payback Period. The calculations of after tax and before tax cash flow are
shown in the appendix.

9.2 Profitability Analysis


9.2.1 IRR

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is a measure of the maximum of interest rate


paid on project and still break even at the end of the project life. In other words, the
IRR is the interest rate when NPV = 0, so that the formula used to calculate the IRR
is:
=

= = 0 (9.1)
(1 + )
=1

With the value of r is the IRR. Calculating cash flow by using Microsoft excel, we
obtain IRR of 35,17 % from our copper smelter plant. If we compare the IRR with
MARR (35,17% (IRR) > 23,46% (MARR)), the difference is quite high (11,71%).
According to the definition of IRR Itself, It means that IRR will be used to compare
the working capital as project with minimum probability. Comparing IRR of our
plant to other competitors, the value is below other bigger plants that have IRR
value about 35,17%. Its almost equal with our plant. Those facts give us a good
impact, so that our plant and product may be compared with other plant and also
visible to be built.

9.2.2 NPV
Net Present Value (NPV) shows the net benefits received by a project over
the life of the project at a certain interest rate. NPV can also be interpreted as the
present value of the cash flows generated by the investment. In calculating the NPV
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is necessary to determine the relevant interest rate. In this calculation, the interest
rate used is the interest rate on the bank loan for start-up capital, average amounting
to 11,7%.
A project can be counted as feasible if the NPV>0, which means the project
is profitable or provide benefits if implemented. If NPV<0, the project is not
eligible to run because it does not generate profit. Cash flow in year-n drawn into
present value with a reasonable interest rate by using the following formula:

,0 = (9.2)
(1 + )
MARR value for our product is 23,46% based on average WACC. By MARR
23,46%, we obtained NPV $ 2.164.107.388,44. The rule of thumb of NPV is the
NPV should be positive with high interest (higher than 10%). If the NPV is negative
the project will be stopped. Our NPV is positive and high. It means that the project
can be implemented. Analysis for negative NPV will be explained in sensitivity
analysis.

9.2.3 Payback Period


Payback Period is the duration (in years) of an investment will be returned.
Here isthe formula for calculating payback period taking into account the Time
Value of Money:
() +
()
=
(9.3)
( + )

If the payback period is less than a pre-determined period, the project is acceptable.
If the payback period exceeds the predetermined period, the project is rejected. The
payback period for this plant is 4,39 years, after calculate use Microsoft Excel.
Our payback period is matched with the rule of thumb. The rule of thumb
said that the tolerable payback period is about 10 years and should be done after all
the loan are fully paid. Figure below shows the cumulative cash flow

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12,000

Millions
10,000
Cummulative Cash flow(USD)
8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

-
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
(2,000)
Years

Figure 9.1 Profile of Cummulative Cash Flow

9.2.4 Break Event Point (BEP)


Breakeven point (BEP) is an analysis to determine and find the amount of
goods or services to be sold to consumers at a given price to cover the costs incurred
and the profit / profit. Calculation to find the BEP is:

= (9.4)
( )
The total fixed cost is the fixed cost values tend to be stable and not
influenced by the amount of production and the variable cost is the variable cost of
the value depends on the amount of goods produced. In this case the BEP can be
previously seen from the graph, Payback Period occurs on 4.4 years.
164.121.246
= = 24495 (9.5)
($6700/)
This analysis is almost the same with payback period however this analysis used
the number of goods or package that we sell to get the profit. We should sell at least
24495 tonnes copper cathode, and for the by product we should sell at least 32728
tonnes.

164.121.246
= = 32728 (9.6)
($5010/)

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9.3 Cost Breakdown
Cost breakdown is consisted of cost breakdown for capital cost and
operational cost. Cost Breakdown is used to map out the contribution of the details
for capital and operating costs. Capital cost breakdown consisted of direct cost
breakdown, indirect cost breakdown, total capital cost breakdown.

Capital Cost Breakdown

15%
Direct Cost
9%
Indirect Cost

56% Additional Cost


20% Working Capital

Figure 9.2 Capital Cost Breakdown

9.4 Sensitivity Analysis


There is always unstability condition in factory. It can happen because of
the changes experienced by a plant and can be caused by various factors. These
changes can give benefit or even destruction to a plant. Therefore, the sensitivity
analysis against some changes need to be done to analysis what variables that can
affect the stability of manufacturing. Sensitivity analysis will provide an overview
of the extent to which a decision will be consistent despite the change in the factors
or parameters that influence it. Sensitivity analysis is an analysis tool to see the
feasibility of investment decision if the influence factors or parameters changed.
Decision is called sensitive decisions when each change parameter values or factor
calculation will change investment
In this section, were going to make a sensitivity analysis from cash flow.
The variable that we use to see the effect towards the cash flow is selling price,
and raw material cost. Even though there are utility cost that higher than both of
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the raw material and distribution cost, utility is rarely become fluctuated than the
distribution especially which is include the gasoline price. Parameters used in the
sensitivity analysis is NPV, IRR, and Payback Period.

Table 9.2 Raw Material Price Flutuation


Change Raw Material Price Unit (USD) IRR NPV(USD) PP (years)
-10% 1,431,826,443 57,46% 5,167,220,679 3,33
-7% 1,479,553,991 49,75% 4,266,286,692 3,55
-5% 1,511,372,357 45,2% 3,665,664,033 3,76
0% 1,590,918,270 35,2% 2,164,107,388 4,39
5% 1,670,464,184 26,8% 662,550,742 5,240
7% 1,702,282,549 23,5% 61,928,084 5,690
10% 1,750,010,097 19,4% -839,005,902 6,550

Table 9.3 Product Price Fluctuation


Change Product Price (USD) IRR NPV (USD) PP (years)
-10% 2,335,432,725 17.04% -1,235,763,467 7,11
-7% 2,413,280,483 22,3% -215,802,210 5,93
-5% 2,465,178,988 25,9% 464,171,961 5,36
0% 2,594,925,250 35,2% 2,164,107,388 4,39
5% 2,724,671,513 45,0% 3,864,042,816 3,75
7% 2,776,570,018 49,8% 4,544,016,987 3,56
10% 2,854,417,775 57% 5,563,978,244 3,32

Since the most material that changed significantly is copper concetrate as


raw material, and copper cathode as our main product we choose this material to
analyze. The detail of the most significantly material is shown IRR sensitivity
analysis, NPV sensitivity analysis, and payback period sensitivity analysis.

9.4.1 IRR Sensitivity Analysis


Were going to analysis the IRR based on price product fluctuation, and raw
material. We can see that the change of price and raw material give an impact for
IRR. When the price of product change lower, then IRR is lower. When the price
of raw material change to higher, then the IRR is lower. Lower IRR because income
is low then outcome is higher. When the IRR is bigger because income is bigger
than outcome.

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IRR Sensitivity Analysis


70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%
Raw Material Price
30.00% Product Price
20.00%

10.00%

0.00%
-15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15%

Figure 9.3 IRR Sensitivity Analysis

9.4.2 NPV Sensitivity Analysis


Were going to analysis the NPV based on price product fluctuation, and
raw material. NPV is being increase and decrease because of product price and raw
material price change. When the price is change on 10% lower than price product
now. Its result impact is NVP being negative. Based on the rule of thumb NPV must
higher than 1. When its negative, the project not eligible to run. when change of
price raw material higher 10% than normal price.

NPV Sensitivy Analysis


$6,000,000,000.00

$5,000,000,000.00

$4,000,000,000.00

$3,000,000,000.00
Raw Material
$2,000,000,000.00
Product Price
$1,000,000,000.00

$0.00
-15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15%
-$1,000,000,000.00

-$2,000,000,000.00

Figure 9.4 NPV sensitivity Analysis

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9.4.3 Payback Period Sensitivity Analysis
Were going to analysis the payback period based on price product
fluctuation, raw material. We see that the impact price fluctuation of product and
raw material is giving effect for payback period. When the change of price is higher
than normal price, then payback period is being faster. When the raw material is
being higher then payback period is being longer.

Payback Period Sensitivity Analysis


8

4 Raw Material
Product Price
3

0
-15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15%

Figure 9.5 Payback Period Sensitivity Analysis

Product price is the most significant parameter that affected our plant. In
order to maintain this parameter, we have to find out which from all our product
that play the biggest role. Based on our calculation in revenue section, it is known
that copper cathode is the biggest parameter that play affected the product price. It
is because copper cathode is the most expensive from our product,and also the the
biggest product that we sell.

Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER X
OUTSTANDING ISSUES

10.1 Technical Aspect


Since raw material of copper smelter plant is copper concentrate that
contain copper, sulfur, oxygen, and other metal impurities, it need process to
separate that impurities. In our copper smelter, we use Mitsubishi process to recover
copper. Concentrates are processed continuously in high-temperature furnaces
(>1200oC) by Mitsubishi process which is very feasible to produce high purity
copper anodes. Then copper anodes convert to copper cathodes in refining
section.
Concentrate burning obtained SO2 which converts to H2SO4 in sulphuric
acid plant with double contact processes. The oxygen consumption is supplied by
pressure swing adsorption processes. These plants need electricity supplied
by heat recovery from copper smelter plant. Comparing to the existing copper
smelter plant, PT. Smelting Gresik, we are offered to build, is more efficient due
to the the process system selected. It is also beneficially implemmented by using
pressure swing adsorption. In the existing copper smelter plant, they use cryogenic
process of the oxygen plant. Since cryogenic process is cold process that need
temperature below zero, it will need refrigerant and extra treatment like insulation.
Of course, it will need more investment cost due to the expensive of building plant
by using cryogenic processes.The utilities consumption of the existing copper
smelter is bigger than our plant design. The use of crygenic process also influence
the total utilities consumption need. Therefore, the total capital investment cost of
our plant is reasonable and can be acceppted.
The production capacity of copper cathode is around 320,000 tons/year
which will be used as electronic product, industry machinery and equipment,
construction, transportation, and others. Besides, sulfuric acid produced has
capacity 265,000 tons/year which plays significant roles as fertilizer feed,
chemical feedstock, metal-ore leaching, and pulp-paper industries.

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10.2 Economical Aspect
Comparing profitability analysis with existing copper smelting, our
plant has more profitable. Investment cost of our plant 165 million USD.
Furthermore, our plant has investment cost that lower compared than existing plant
which has investment 340 million USD. Lower of investment cost of our plant
because there is difference process in oxygen plant. Our plant used pressure swing
adsorption (PSA) process, while PT. Smelting Gresik used cryogenic process.
Beside that, our copper smelter has operating cost is about USD 1.99 billion,
payback period is 4.28 years, IRR 35.17%, and MARR 23.46 %. Based on data,
other copper smelter has IRR around 20% and payback period 7-9 year. So, we
can conclude that value of IRR and payback period of our plant is logic.
Market target of our plant is domestic and foreign contries like China and
India. Copper makes vital contribution to sustaining and improving society such
as creates job opportunities for many field and local people. Building an integrated
copper smelter plant is great opportunity to support government regulation in
reducing the export of copper raw material. Furthermore, the high value-added
products obtained not only empower Indonesia mineral sector, but also support
other industries in ASEAN and in the world.

Universitas Indonesia
CHAPTER XI
CONCLUSION

Based on the discussion above, we can conclude that:

1. Raw material for our plant is natural gas, silica, copper concentrate,
limestone and coal
2. PT. Smelco Indonesia has the capacity 320,000 tonnes/year to produce
copper cathode, and the needs for copper concentrate is 876 tonnes/year.
3. PT. Smelco Indonesia main product will be focused to sell overseas, since
domestic market is not profitable.
4. PT. Smelco Indonesia is divided into several areas, which is office area and
process area. Office area (blue zone) includes parking area, mosque,
laboratory, firefighting, clinic, and mechanical and electrical building.
While process area (red zone) includes all of the process, from utility to side
process plant, and main process plant, storage area, and unloading and
loading dock. Our plant will be built in 6.582 ha land construction in Gresik,
Jawa Timur.
5. Copper smelter method we use is Mitsubishi process, oxygen plant method
we use pressure swing adsorption process, and for sulfur acid plant is double
contact process.
6. Mass efficiency for copper smelter is 37%, for oxygen plant is 95,33%, and
for sulfuric acid plant is 99,2%
7. Utility system in our plant consist of water, air, electricity, and fuel. Total
water consumption of our plant as the cooling feed is 1780.95 tonne/hr
which source is treated water from Bengawan Solo River. Fuel needed in
our plant is 62 tonne/day of bituminous coal which is used for combution
process of the furnace in our copper smelter plant. Air utility used to produce
pure oxygen for sulfuric acid plant and copper smelter plant requirement is
527 tonne/day.
8. Total electricity needed in PT. Smelco Indonesia is 106852.97 kWh/day
which will be consumed as the power source of our main equipment in

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copper smlter plant, oxygen plant, and sulfuric acid plant meanwhile our
power plant could be produced 280320 kWh/day.
9. Our plant has 19 process equipments such as belt conveyor, packed bed
reactor, heat exchangers, absorber, adsorber, compressor, pump, expander,
filter, storage tank, furnace, electrorefining, casting machine, and steam
turbine.
10. The piping instrumentation diagram includes a graphic representation of the
equipment, piping, and instrumentation.
11. The controlled parameter for our plant is temperature, flow rate, pressure,
level and concentration.
12. PT. Smelco Indonesia need some Health, Safety, and Environment analysis
based on HAZID and HAZOP to support our production process. For
supporting HSE, we need to analyze. In our plant, protective actions for life
safety include evacuation area and process, firefighting, plant shutdown,
PPE for all the workers, and also four assembly points in case of emergency.
13. The liquid waste of our plant is waste water from the heat exchanger
process. The solid waste is copper slag and anode slime, the gas waste is
flue gas.
14. The capital investment (CAPEX) for our product is USD 164,225,587
Meanwhile, operating cost consists of manufacturing cost and general
expenses. The total operating cost (OPEX) in our project is USD
1,999,971,434 per year.
15. The price of copper cathode is USD 6,700/ton
16. The payback period of our company is 4.4 year. It is indeed fast payback
period.
17. The BEP of our company is 24495 ton for copper cathode and 32728 ton for
byproduct until we have profit.
18. IRR of our company 35.7% which is actually high enough for investor.
19. NPV, or Net Present value of our product with MARR 23.46% the
calculation result is USD 2,164,108,000
20. Based on Sensitivity Analysis, the problem will occured if material cost
suddenly increased by 10% resulting in negative value of IRR.

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REFERENCES

Ashar, N. G. and Golwalkar, K.R. 2013. A Pratical Guide to Manufacture of


Sulfuric Acid. Springer.
Daniela Rojas et al., 2013. Copper Market Trends Report, s.l.: A Cochilco Research
and Policy Planning Department Publication.
Davenporth, William G. et al. 2002. Extractive Metallurgy of Copper 4th Edition.
Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Davenporth, William G. et al. 2011. Extractive Metallurgy of Copper 5th Edition.
Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Davenporth, William G. and E. H. Partelpoeg. 1987. Flash Smelting: Analysis,
Control and Optimization. Pergamon Press.
Dattilo, M. and Lutz, L.J. (1999) Merrlin composite anodes for copper
electrowinning. In copper 99-Cobre 99 Proceedings of the Fourth
International Conference, Vol. I l lElectrorefining and Electrowinning of
Copper, ed. Dutrizac, J.E., Ji, J. andRamachandran, V., TMS, Warrendale,
PA, 597 601.
Delplancke, J.L., Winand, R., Gueneau de Mussy, J.P. and Pagliero, A. (1999)
Newanode compositions for copper electrowinning and copper
electrodeposition at highcurrent density. In Copper 99-Cobre 99 Proceedings
of the Fourth InternationalConference, Vol. III Electrorefining and
Electrowinning of Copper, ed. Dutrizac, J.E., Ji,J. and Ramachandran, V.,
TMS, Warrendale, PA, 603 608.
Douglas, Louie. 2010. Sulfuric Acid Plant Fundamentals. Vancouver, Canada:
WorleyParsons.
Hanniala, P., Helle, L. and Kojo, I.V. (1999) Competitiveness of the Outokumpu
Flash Smelting technology now and in the Third Millennium. In Copper 99-
Cobre 99Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Vol. V
Smelting Operations and Advances, ed. George, D.B., Chen, W.J., Mackey
P.J. and Weddick, A.J., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 221 238

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International Copper Study Group, 2016. Preliminary Data For May 2016, s.l.:
International Copper Study Group.
Ivanova, Svetlana and Robert Lewis. 2012. Producing Nitrogen via Pressure Swing
Adsorption. AICHE group.
Jaya, Aprilia. 2013. Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant
Solutions: Engineering Design Guideline for Air Separation Units.
Malaysia
Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral., 2012. Kajian Supply Demand
Mineral, s.l.: Pusat Data dan Informasi Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral.
KLM Technology Group. 2013. Air Separation Units (Engineering Design
Guideline). Malaysia: KLM Technology Group.
Kojo, Ilkka V. and Hannes Storch. 2006. Copper Production with Outokumpu Flash
Smelting; an Update. ResearchGate.
Kojo, Ilkka V. et al. 2000. Flash Smelting and Converting Furnaces: A 50 Year
Retrospect.
Liu, Jin and Torstein A. Utigard. Study of Oxygen Flash Smelting of Nickel/Copper
Concentrates. Paper.
Metal Mining Agency of Japan. 1988. Flash Furnace Copper Smelting. DOWA
Mining Co., Ltd.
NFM BREF. 2014. Process to Produce Copper and Its Alloys.
Scott, Peter. Oxygen Pressure Swing Adsorption. IChem Ltd.
Sugiyono, Agus. 2014. Kebutuhan dan Penyediaan Energi di Industri Smelter
Tembaga. Indonesia: ResearchGate.
Smale, D., 2015. Review and Outlook for Copper, Nickel, Lead, and Zinc. Tokyo,
International Copper Study Group,International Lead and Zinc
Group,International Nickel Study Group
Seider, W.D., Seader, J.D. and Lewin, D. R. 2003. Product and Process Design
Principles. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Smith, Robin. 2007. Chemical Process Design and Integration, 2nd Edition. UK:
University of Manchester.
Smith, A.R. 2000. A Review of Air Separation Technologies and Their Integration
with Energy Conversion Process. USA: Elsevier.

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st
The Mitsubishi Process, Copper Smelting for the 21 Century.
The World Copper Fsctbook. 2014. International Copper Study Group (ICSG).
Ziaeee, M. and M. Naser Zare. 2015. Combination Mutual Pressure Swing
Adsorption and Cryogenic Distillation to Optimize Separation Unit.

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APPENDIX

APPENDIX A:
Mass and Energy Balances

A.1 Mass Balance of Copper Smelter Plant


1. Smelting Furnace

Figure A.1 Smelting Furnace Equipment

Table A.1 Smelting Furnace Mass Balance


In (tonne/day) Out (tonne/day)
Component
1B 2B 3B 11B 1 4B 5B
CuFeSs 2385.5 - - - - - -
SiO2 - - 516 - - 62 -
O2 - 1120 - - - - 321
CaCO3 - - - - - - -
Cu2S - - - - - 1033.5 -
Cu - - - - - - -
Fe2S3 - - - 25.04 - 537.4 -
FeO - - - 16.54 - 16.54 -
FeSiO3 - - - - - 999 -
Fe3O4 - - - - - - -
CaO - - - 25.4 - - -
CaO.Fe3O4 - - - 488.6 - - -
SO2 - - - - - - 915.2
CO2 - - - - - - -
Coal - - - - 14.5 - -
Total 2385.5 1120 516 537.4 14.5 1236.2 2586.44

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2. Slag Cleaning Furnace

Figure A.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Equipment

Table A.2 Slag Cleaning Furnace Mass Balance


Component In (tonne/day) Out (tonne/day)
4B 6B 7B
CuFeSs - - -
SiO2 62 - 62
O2 - - -
CaCO3 - - -
Cu2S 1033.5 1033.5 -
Cu - - -
Fe2S3 537.4 537.4 -
FeO 16.54 16.54 -
FeSiO3 999 - 999
Fe3O4 - - -
CaO - - -
CaO.Fe3O4 - - -
SO2 - - -
CO2 - - -
Total 2648.44 1587.44 1061

3. Converting Furnace

Figure A.3 Converting Furnace Equipment

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Table A.3 Converting Mass Balance
Component In (tonne/day) Out (tonne/day)
6B 8B 9B 2 10B 11B 12B
CuFeSs - - - - - - -
SiO2 - - - - - - -
O2 - - 600 - 71.36 - -
CaCO3 - 186 - - - - -
Cu2S 1033.5 - - - - - 103.35
Cu - - - - - - 749.3
Fe2S3 537.4 - - - - 25.04 -
FeO 16.54 - - - - 16.54 -
FeSiO3 - - - - - - -
Fe3O4 - - - - - - -
CaO - - - - - 25.4 -
CaO.Fe3O4 - - - - - 488.6 -
SO2 - - - - 848 - -
CO2 - - - - - - -
Coal - - - 47 - - -
Total 1587.44 186 600 47 71.36 537.4 852.65

4. Anode Furnace

Figure A.4 Anode Furnace Equipment

Table A.4 Anode Furnace Mass Balance


Component In (tonne/day) Out (tonne/day)
12B 13B 3 14B 15B
CuFeSs - - - - -
SiO2 - - - - -
O2 - 40 - 6.4 -
CaCO3 - - - - -
Cu2S 167 - - - -
Cu 719 - - - 881.25
Fe2S3 - - - -
FeO - - - - -
FeSiO3 - - - - -
Fe3O4 - - - -
CaO - - - - -
CaO.Fe3O4 - - - - -
SO2 - - - 67.2 -
CO2 - - - - -
Coal - - 0.48 - -
Total 886 40 0.48 73.6 881.25

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5. Casting
Table A.5 Casting Machine Mass Balance
Component In (tonne/day) Out (tonne/day)
15B 16B
CuFeSs - -
SiO2 - -
O2 - -
CaCO3 - -
Cu2S - -
Cu 881.25 881.25
Fe2S3 - -
FeO - -
FeSiO3 - -
Fe3O4 - -
CaO - -
CaO.Fe3O4 - -
SO2 - -
CO2 - -
Total 881.25 881.25

6. Electrolytic Cell

Figure A.5 Electrolytic Cell Equipment

Table A.6 Electrolytic Cell Mass Balance


Component In (tonne/day) Out (tonne/day)
16B 17B 18B
CuFeSs - - -
Cu 881.25 876 -
Fe2S3 - - -
FeO - - -
FeSiO3 - - -
Fe3O4 - - -
CaO - - -
SO2 - - -
CO2 - - -
Other metals - - 5.25
Total 881.25 876 5.25

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A.2 Mass Balance of Oxygen Plant

Table A.7 Mass Balance

in out
Component
4 1 5
O2 (tonnemole/day) 82 82 0.000
N2 (tonnemole/day) 357 357 0.000
Dust 0.001 0.001 0.001
Total 440 440 0.001
P [atm] 1 1 1
T [K] 300 300 300

Table A.8 Compressor Mass Balance


in out in out
Component
1 1a 1e 2a
O2 (tonnemole/day) 82 82 82 82
N2 (tonnemole/day) 357 357 357 357
Dust 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Total 440 440 440 440
P [atm] 1 5 2.45 5
T [K] 300 425 305 297

Table A.9 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-201 and E-202


E-201 E-202
Component in out in out
1a C1 1b C2 1b 18 1c 19
m (tonne/day) 7652 6878 7652 6878 7652 700 7652 700

Table A.10 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-201 and E-202


E-203 E-204
Component in out in out
1c 14 1d 14a 1d 14a 1e 16
m (tonne/day) 7652 800 7652 800 7652 800 7652 700

Table A.11 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-205 and E-206


E-205 E-206
Component in out in out
2a C3 2 C4 2 13 2b 13a

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Table A.12 Heat Exchanger Mass Balance E-207
E-207
Component in out
2b 13a 2c 15
m (tonne/day) 7652 6734 7652 6734

Table A.13 Adsorber Mass Balance


in out
Component
2 7 6
O2 (tonnemole/day) 82 78 4
N2 (tonnemole/day) 357 8.6 348
Total 440 87 352
P [atm] 5 5 5
T [K] 302 302 302

A.3 Mass Balance of Sulfuric Acid Plant


1. Heat Exchangers

Table A.14 Heat Exchanger E-301 and E-302 Mass Balance


E-301 E-302
Stream In Out In Out
1 21 1 15 1 15 2 16
m (tonne/day) 1860 700 1860 800 1860 800 1860 800

Table A.15 Heat Exchanger E-303 and E-304 Mass Balance


E-303 E-304
Stream In Out In Out
2 C1 2 C2 2 20 3 21
m (tonne/day) 1860 6878 1860 6878 1860 700 1860 700

Table A.16 Heat Exchanger E-305 and E-306 Mass Balance


E-305 E-306
Stream In Out In Out
4 13 5 14 6 14 7 15
m (tonne/day) 2560 800 2560 800 2560 800 2560 800

Table A.17 Heat Exchanger E-307 and E-308 Mass Balance


E-307 E-308
Stream In Out In Out
8 18 9 19 10 19 11 20
m (tonne/day) 2560 700 2560 700 2560 700 2560 700

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2. Converter
Table A.18 Bed Converter Mass Balance
1st Converter 2nd Converter 3rd Converter 4th Converter
Stream In Out In Out In Out In Out
3 22 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
m(tonne/day) 1860 700 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560

3. Absorber
Table A.19 Absorber Mass Balance
In Out
Stream
11 23 25 26
m (tonne/day) 2560 2100 100 1000
Stream 24 26 27 28
m (tonne/day) 4560 1000 100 5560

A.4 Energy Balance of Copper Smelter

Table A.20 Total Energy Requirements of Copper Smelter Plant

Operation Feed (tons) 104 kJ Total (104kJ)


Smelting Furnace Mitsubishi Reactor 2385 128.6934 306949.5

Cleaning Slag Mitsubishi Reactor 2648 65.875 174437

Converting Furnace Mitsubishi Reactor 1587 31.8308 50514.2

Anode Furnace Mitsubishi (2) 886 95.5 84604.14


Electro Refining Electric Furnace 881 59.1294 51979.2

Hazelet Caster 881 18 15858


TOTAL 684341.84

A.5 Energy Balance of Oxygen Plant


1. 1st Compressor

Table A.21 Energy Requirements of 1st Compressor


Input Output
Condition
Q-compressor 1 1a
Temperature (K) - 300 426
Pressure (atm) - 1 2.5
Heat Flow (MW) 10.8 0.5 11.3
Total Heat Flow (MW) 11.3 11.3

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nd
2. 2 Compressor

Table A.22 Energy Requirements of 2nd Compressor


Input Output
Condition
Q-compressor 1b 2a
Temperature (C) - 303 424.3
Pressure (Bar) - 2.5 5
Heat Flow (MW) 8.18 0.57 8.75
Total Heat Flow (MW) 8.75 8.75

A.6 Energy Balance of Sulfuric Acid Plant


1. Heat Exchangers

Table A.23 Heat Exchanger E-301 and E-302 Energy Balance


E-301 E-302
Stream In Out In Out
1 21 1 15 1 15 2 16
o
T[ C] 1200 115 1100 109 1100 114 950 250
P[bar] 2 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.3
Heat Flow (MW) -5.6 -11 -5.8 -10.8 -5.8 -12.6 -6 -12

Table A.24 Heat Exchanger E-303 and E-304 Energy Balance


E-303 E-304
Stream In Out In Out
2 C1 2 C2 2 20 3 21
o
T[ C] 950 6878 800 6878 800 700 377 700
P[bar] 1.8 1.4 1.6 0.98 1.6 1.8 1.54 1.7
Heat Flow (MW) -6 -12.5 -6.4 -12.4 -6.4 -11.8 -7.2 -11.0

Table A.25 Heat Exchanger E-305 and E-306 Energy Balance


E-305 E-306
Stream In Out In Out
4 13 5 14 6 14 7 15
o 776 27 357 115 634 115 327 294
T[ C]
P[bar] 1.65 2 1.35 1.7 1.36 1.7 1.35 1.6
Heat Flow (MW) -7.1 -14.6 -8.3 -13.4 -8.3 -13.4 -9.2 -12.5

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Table A.26 Heat Exchanger E-307 and E-308 Energy Balance


E-307 E-308
Stream In Out In Out
8 18 9 19 10 19 11 20
o
T[ C] 479 22 317 117 329 117 127 125
P[bar] 1.4 2 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.8 1.1 1.75
Heat Flow -9.2 -12.8 -9.6 -12.3 -9.6 -12.3 -10 -11.8
(MW)
2. Converter
Table A.27 Bed Converter Energy Balance

1st Converter 2nd Converter 3rd Converter 4th Converter


Stream In Out In Out In Out In Out
3 22 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
o 377 27 776 357 634 327 479 317 329
T[ C]
P[bar] 1.54 2 1.65 1.35 1.36 1.35 1.4 1.2 1.2
Heat Flow (MW) -7.2 0.01 -7.1 -8.3 -8.3 -9.2 -9.2 -9.6 -9.6

3. Absorber
Table A.28 Absorber Energy Balance
Intermediete Final
Stream In Out In Out
11 23 25 26 24 26 27 28
o 127 30 130 130 27 130 130 130
T[ C]
P[bar] 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.2
Heat Flow (MW) -10 -3 -5.2 -5.2 -3.5 -5.2 -6.4 -6.4

4. Pump

Table A 29 Pump Energy Balance

P-301 P-302
Stream In Out In Out
13 13 18 18
T[K] 27 27 22 22
P [atm] 1 2 1 2

Heat Flow (MW) -14.6 -14.6 -12.8 -12.8

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APPENDIX B:
BFD and PFD

Figure B.1 BFD of Copper Smelter Plant

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To Flare Stack
Dust,
Condensate

O2 To Copper Smelter
O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
Air Filter Compressor Drum Adsorber Drum Plant & Sulfuric
N2 N2 N2 N2 Acid Plant

N2 To Copper Smelter
Drum Plant

Figure B.2 BFD of Oxygen Plant

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H2SO4

O2
SO3
To Flare Stack

Heat Heat
SO2 Reactor Adsorber
Exchanger SO3 Exchanger SO3
+ Vanadium
to H2SO4
catalyst Storage
H2SO4

Figure B.3 BFD of Sulfuric Acid Plant

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Figure B.4 PFD Before HEN Copper Smelter I

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C-109 TK-102 / TK-103
C-108 P-101 P-101
Belt Conveyor Storage
Belt Conveyor Pump Electrolytic Cell

From
16B
Casting
C-108

17B Cu
C-109

P-101
TK-103

H2SO4 19B CV-101 18B


V-101

P-101

Anode Slime

TK-102

16 B 17 B 18 B 19 B

T (K) 1523 1523 1523 299

P (a tm) 1 1 1 1

Compone nt (tonne / da y)

CuFe S s - - - -

S iO 2 - 876 - -

O2 - - - -

Ca CO 3 - - - -

Cu2 S - - - -

Cu 881.3 - - -

Fe 2 S 3 - - - -

Fe O - - - -

Fe S iO 3 - - - - DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


Fe 3 O 4 - - - - FAKULTAS TEKNIK
NAME Group 13
Ca O - - - - UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Ca O . Fe 3 O 4 - - - - CORRECTED BY
PFD
SO2 - - - -
PICTURE NO. PFD 001/2016
CO 2 - - - -
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
O the r me ta ls - - 5.25 - WITHOUT SCALE
SMELTER

Figure B.5 PFD Before HEN Copper Smelter II

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FG-201 K-201 P-201 E-201 K-202 E-202 R-201 R-202
Pump Heat Exchanger Compressor Heat Exchanger Adsorber D-201 / D-202
Air Filter Compressor Adsorber Drum

7
CV-210

Power Plant, O2
CV-203 CV-208
Water Utility
D-201
Power Plant,
Water Utility CV-205

Air C4

C2
4

2
V-202
2a E-202 R-202
R-201
1
1a E-201
V-201 1b
CV-204

FG-201

CV-201 CV-206

5 C3
K-201
C1 CV-202 CV-207
K-202

6 N2
CV-209

Water
Utility D-202

P-201

Dust To Flare
DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
NAME Group 13
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Stream 4 5 1 1a 1b 2a 2 6 7 C1 C2 C3 C4 CORRECTED BY
T (K) 302 302 300 425 305 397 302 302 302 305 337 304 329
PFD
PICTURE NO. PFD 002/2016
P (atm) 1 1 1 2.5 2.45 5 5 5 5 1.5 0.98 1.5 0.98
Mass Flow
7652 0 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 6878 6878 6734 6734
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF
(tonne/day) WITHOUT SCALE
COPPER SMELTER

Figure B.6 PFD Before HEN Oxygen Plant

162 Universitas Indonesia


E-301 / E-302 P-301 E-303 / E-306 / E-307 R-301 E-304 / E-305 P-302 R-302 R-302 TT-301
Heat Exchanger Pump Heat Exchanger Packed Bed Reactor Heat Exchanger Pump Intermediate Final Acid Storage
Adsorber Adsorber Tank

H2SO4
Storage

To Flare
25
Stack

11
23
E-307
9 10

O2
22 19 To Flare
Storage 27
Stack
20 R-302

24
8

Economizer, E-306 26
Copper Smelter Plant 21'
6
7
R-303
4
5
18
Water E-305
17
Utility 14
3 28
R-301
P-301

15 TT-301
E-304
SO2 1 1' 2
13
12
Water
E-301 E-302 E-303 Utility
16 21 Economizer,
Copper Smelter Plant P-302

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


1 1' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 21' 22 23 24 25 26 FAKULTAS TEKNIK
T (K) 1473 1373 1073 650 1049 630 906 600 751 590 602 400 298 500 388 566.5 297 295 390 398 473 491 303 303 403 403 403 NAME Group 13
P (atm) 2 1.85 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.97 1 2 1.8 1.6 1 2 1.7 1.7 2 2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Component (tonne/day) CORRECTED BY
O2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
PFD
SO2 1860 1860 700 700 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PICTURE NO. BFD 003/2016
H2O - - - - - - - - - - - - 800 800 800 800 700 700 700 700 700 700 - - - 100 -
SO3 - - - - - - - - - - - 2560 - - - - - - - - - - - -
4560
- - PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
H2SO4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3100 2100 - 1000 WITHOUT SCALE
SMELTER

Figure B.7 PFD Before HEN Sulfuric Acid Plant


163 Universitas Indonesia
FG-201 K-201 P-201 E-201 / E-202 / E-203 / E-204 K-202 E-205 / E-206 / E-207 R-201 R-202 D-201 / D-202
Filter Compressor Pump Heat Exchanger Compressor Heat Exchanger Adsorber Adsorber Drum

CV-210
To Oxygen
Plant 7
O2
CV-203 CV-208

D-201
To Sulfuric
Acid Plant CV-205

13a
C2
19 14a C4

Air
4

2a 2 2b 2c
1b 1c 1d
V-202 E-205 E-206 E-207
1 E-201 E-202 E-203 E-204 1e R-201 R-202
FG-201
V-201 1a

CV-204
5 13
C1
16 C3 CV-206
18 14 CV-201
15
K-202
K-201
CV-202 CV-207

6 N2
Water CV-209
Utility
P-201 D-202
To Sulfuric
Acid Plant

From Sulfuric
Acid Plant

From Sulfuric To Sulfuric


From Sulfuric
Acid Plant Acid Plant
Acid Plant

Dust To Flare
DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
NAME Group 13
Stream 4 5 1 1a 1b 2a 2 6 7 C1 C2 C3 C4 UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
T (K) 303 303 303 415 303 424 303 303 303 305 337 304 329 CORRECTED BY
P (atm) 1 1 1 2.5 2.45 5 5 5 5 1.5 0.98 1.5 0.98 PFD
Mass Flow PICTURE NO. PFD 002/2016
7652 0 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 6878 6878 6734 6734
(tonne/day)
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
WITHOUT SCALE
SMELTER

Figure B.8 PFD After HEN Oxygen Plant

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P-301 E-302 / E-303 / R-301 E-305 / E-306 P-302 R-302 R-302 TT-301
E-301
Pump E-304 / E-307 / E-308 Packed Bed Reactor Heat Exchanger Pump Intermediate Final Acid Storage
Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger Adsorber Adsorber Tank

H2SO4
Storage

To Flare
25
Stack

11
23
E-308
9 10

O2
22 19 To Flare
Storage 27
Stack
20 R-302

24
8

Economizer, E-307 26
Copper Smelter Plant 21'
6
7
R-303
4
5
18
Water E-306
17
Utility 14
3 28
R-301
From P-301
C1
O2 Plant TT-301
15
E-305
SO2 1 1' 2 2'
13
12
Water
E-301 E-302 E-303 E-304 To O2
C2 Utility
16 21 Plant
Economizer, P-302
Copper Smelter Plant

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


1 1' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 21' 23 24 25 26 27
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
T (K) 1473 1373 1073 650 1049 630
P (atm) 2 1.85 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.3
906
1.3
600
1.3
751
1.3
590
1.2
602 400 298 500 388 566.5 297 295 390 398 473 491 303
1.2 0.97 1 2 1.8 1.6 1 2 1.7 1.7 2 2 1.2
403
1.2
403
1.1
403
1.2
403
1.2
NAME Group 13
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Component (tonne/day)
O2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CORRECTED BY
SO2 1860 1860 700 700 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PFD
H2O - - - - - - - - - - - - 800 800 800 800 700 700 700 700 700 700 - - 100 - 100
PICTURE NO. BFD 003/2016
SO3
H2SO4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2560
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3120 2120
-
-
-
4560
-
-
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
WITHOUT SCALE
SMELTER

Figure B.9 PFD After HEN Sulfuric Acid Plant

165 Universitas Indonesia


Figure B.10 PFD of Pre-Water Treatment

166 Universitas Indonesia


P-401 E-401 E-402 E-403 / E-404 E-405 T-401
Pump Heat Exchanger Evaporator Heat Exchanger Condenser Steam Turbine

From Economizer,
6A From Economizer,
Copper Smelter Plant 3A
Copper Smelter Plant

5A
6A

A B C D E

E-401 E-402 E-403 E-404

4A
7A

Z
P-401
Electricity F

T-401
H

2A

From Oxygen
C4 G
Plant

E-405
Stream C4 A B C D E F G H 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
P (Kpa) 98 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 50 45 45 90 85 133 120 110 120 110 90
T (celcius) 56 79 264 280 320 400 81 78 78 70 78 400 485 320 300 276 132 From Oxygen
1A
Mass Flow Plant
1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 6000 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
(tonne/d)

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


FAKULTAS TEKNIK
NAME Group 13
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
CORRECTED BY
PFD
PICTURE NO. BFD 004/2016
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COPPER
WITHOUT SCALE
SMELTER

Figure B.11 PFD of Power Plant

167 Universitas Indonesia


APPENDIX C:
PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION

C-101 / C-102 / C-103 / F-102 F-103 F-104 E-101 PM-101 C-107 TK-101
F-101
C-104 / C-105 / C-106 Slag Cleaning Converting Furnace Anode Furnace Economizer Casting Machine Belt Conveyor Storage
Smelting Furnace
Belt Conveyor Furnace
TRC
TT

TAL TAH
TI PI TE

Steam to TI PI
3
Power Plant 10" Sch 40 CS
1 SO2 to Acid Plant
TE TE 5" Sch 40 CS
1.25" Sch 40 CS

TT TT
TCV TCV
TAH TAH

TRC

5"
TRC TY

5"
TY
TAL TAL
TRC TAH
14B PI
TI
TAL TAH
TRC
TY Steam from Sulfuric
TCV
TY 2
TCV TAL
Acid Plant
0.75" Sch 40 CS

5B 3" E-101
4"
Oxygen- 9B
10B 1.5" Sch 40 CS
Oxygen- TI Enriched Air
2B 3" Sch 40 CS
Enriched Air 4" Sch 40 CS

TCV
CuFeS2 1B
C-101

1 1/2"
MCC ST
M TE TAH
TT TY
SIC
PI 4B TI
TRC
SiO2 3B TI TY
MCC ST
C-102 TI
M TAL
TCV
PI
SIC
5" Sch 40 CS
F-101 1"
Coal 1 Oxygen-Enriched
6B TT TE
MCC ST C-103 F-102 Air
M 1" Sch 40 CS
PI
SIC
8B TI TI
11B
CaCO3 PI
C-104 TI PI
MCC ST
M 7B TT TE
13B

SIC
F-103 TI PI
15B 16B
Coal 2 12B MCC ST C-107
TI M
MCC ST
M
C-105 PM-101 SIC

SIC

3 F-104

Coal
ST C-106 Slag
MCC
M
SIC

TI PI

1B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 9B 10 B 11B 12 B 13 B 14 B 15 B 16 B 1 2 3 TK-101
T (K) 299 299 299 1523 1473 1523 1523 299 299 1473 1523 1523 299 1473 1523 1523 303 303 303

P (a tm) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Compone nt (tonne / da y)

CuFe S s 2386 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

S iO 2 - - 516 62 - - 62 - - - - - - - - - - - -

O2 - 1120 - - 321 - - - 600 71.4 - - 40 6.4 - - - - -

Ca CO 3 - - - - - - - 186 - - - - - - - - - - -

Cu2 S - - - 1034 - 1033.5 - - - - - 103 - - - - - - -

Cu - - - - - - - - - - - 749 - - 881.3 881 - - -

Fe 2 S 3 - - - 537.4 - 537.4 - - - - 25.04 - - - - - - -

Fe O - - - 16.54 - 16.54 - - - - 16.54 - - - - - - - - DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


Fe S iO 3 - - - 999 - - 999 - - - - - - - - - - - -
FAKULTAS TEKNIK NAME Group 13
Fe 3 O 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Ca O - - - - - - - - - - 25.4 - - - - - - - - CORRECTED BY
Ca O . Fe 3 O 4 - - - - - - - - - - 488.6 - - - - - - - -

SO2 - - - - 915 - - - - 848 - - - 67.2 - - - - - P&ID PICTURE NO. P&ID 001/2016


CO 2 - - - - 64 - - - - 14 - - - 1.5 - - - - -

Coa l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14.5 47 0.48 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF WITHOUT SCALE


O the r
me ta ls
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
COPPER SMELTER

Figure C.1 P&ID of Copper Smelter Plant

168 Universitas Indonesia


C-108 TK-102 / TK-103
C-107 P-101 P-101 Belt Conveyor Storage
Belt Conveyor Pump Electrolytic Cell

From
16B
Casting
MCC ST
M C-107 PI
SIC

FAH

TI PI TI
FRC
FT

FAL
19B
17B Cu
FY
PI TI FE
FCV ST C-108
MCC
M
SIC

P-101
8" TK-103
H2SO4 & 8" Sch 40 CS
18B
CuSO4
8" Sch 40 CS

P-101

PI TI

Anode Slime

TK-102

16 B 17 B 18 B 19 B

T (K) 1523 1523 1523 299

P (a tm) 1 1 1 1

Compone nt (tonne / da y)

CuFe S s - - - -

S iO 2 - 876 - -

O2 - - - -

Ca CO 3 - - - -

Cu2 S - - - -

Cu 881.3 - - -

Fe 2 S 3 - - - -

Fe O - - - -

Fe S iO 3 - - - - DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


Fe 3 O 4 - - - -
FAKULTAS TEKNIK NAME Group 13
Ca O - - - -
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Ca O . Fe 3 O 4 - - - -
CORRECTED BY

SO2 - - - - P&ID PICTURE NO. P&ID 001/2016


CO 2 - - - -
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF WITHOUT SCALE
O the r me ta ls - - 5.25 -
COPPER SMELTER
Figure C.2 P&ID of Copper Smelter Plant

169 Universitas Indonesia


K-202 R-201 / R-202 FRC
FG-201 K-201 P-201 / P-202 E-201 / E-202 / E-203 / E-204 E-205 / E-206 / E-207
Compressor Adsorber
Filter Compressor Pump Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger
FY
FCV
FT
FI
FE 1"

Dust To Flare 7 O2
1" Sch 40 CS

TCV TCV

5 PRC PRC

1"

1"
PY PY

PAH PAL
To Oxygen

0.5" Sch 40 CS
FI
Plant 1" Sch 40 CS
PAH PAL

TI
TI

FI To Sulfuric PE PT

16" Sch 40 CS
TAH PT PE
Acid Plant

16" Sch 40 CS
TY TRC
TAL
PI
TAH

3" Sch 40 CS
TI TCV
TI
TRC
PSV TI
PSV TY

FI TAL TI
TI TCV
FI PI
4"
5" 5" Sch 40 CS
5" 5" Sch 40 CS
4"
4" Sch 40 CS
C4 13a
TI FI TT TI
C2 4" Sch 40 CS PC PT FI
FI 19 TI FI 14a TI
PC TI TT
TI PI PT PT TE
R-202
TE R-201
5" Sch 40 CS 5" Sch 40 CS 2a 2 2b 2c
1b 1c 1d 5" Sch 40 CS 5" Sch 40 CSTE
6 N2
Air 4 E-205 5" Sch 40 CS TE 1"
5" Sch 40 CS 5" Sch 40 CS TE 5" Sch 40 CS E-206 E-207 1" Sch 40 CS
PT E-201 TE E-202 E-203 TE
E-204 5" Sch 40 CS
5" Sch 40 CS 1 TI TT TT
C1 TT TT FI
TT
FG-201 18 14 TAH TAL 13 TAH TAL

FI C3
TAH TAL TAH TAL 1e
5" Sch 40 CS 1a TAH TAL

TRC TRC 5" Sch 40 CS


TRC TRC TRC

TCV
FAH 16 TCV

15
TCV TCV TCV

4"
16"
TY

M TY
16"

4"
3"
TY TY TY

FRC
K-202
K-201
FAL

FCV FY

4" Sch 40 CS
TI
5" Sch 40 CS
FT FE TI TI
TI
16" TI

Water

4" Sch 40 CS
4" Sch 40 CS
Utility
16" Sch 40 CS TI
P-201
PI TI
3" Sch 40 CS

FI

4" Sch 40 CS
To Sulfuric
Acid Plant

FAH

From Sulfuric
Acid Plant
FRC 16" Sch 40 CS

FAL
FT
From Sulfuric From Sulfuric
FCV FY To Sulfuric
Acid Plant Acid Plant
TI PI
Acid Plant
FE

16"
Water
Utility

P-202 DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE


Stream 4 5 1 1a 1b 2a 2 6 7 C1 C2 C3 C4 FAKULTAS TEKNIK NAME Group 13
T (K) 303 303 303 415 303 424 303 303 303 305 337 304 329 UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
P (atm) 1 1 1 2.5 2.45 5 5 5 5 1.5 0.98 1.5 0.98 CORRECTED BY
Mass Flow
7652 0 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 7652 6878 6878 6734 6734 P&ID PICTURE NO. P&ID 002/2016
(tonne/day)

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF WITHOUT SCALE


COPPER SMELTER
Figure C.3 P&ID of Oxygen Plant

170 Universitas Indonesia


P-301 E-303 / E-304 / E-307 / E-308 R-301 E-305 / E-306 P-302 R-302 R-303 T-301
E-301 / E-302
Pump Heat Exchanger Packed Bed Reactor Heat Exchanger Pump Intermediate Final Acid Storage
Heat Exchanger
TY Adsorber Adsorber Tank
TCV

TRC

3"
H2SO4 TAL
PSV

To Flare
TI TAH 25 Stack
1" Sch 40 CS 0.75" Sch 40 CS
3/4"

1" Sch 40 CS TAH TAL


TT

1" Sch 40 CS TRC TT


TY
TCV 3/4"

6" Sch 40 CS
TI TE

5"
11
TE 1" Sch 40 CS
FAH E-308 TE TI
TT
TI TI
PI PI PSV

FRC
TI 23
1" Sch 40 CS LE To Flare
9 10 27
TI PI Stack
0.75" Sch 40 CS
FAL TI
LT 3/4"

4" Sch 40 CS
TRC

4" Sch 40 CS
FCV
FY O2 TAH TAL LAH
22
Storage
LAL
H2SO4 24

3"
TY 3/4"
TAH TAL
LIC
TCV TY
3" TI 1.5" Sch 40 CS TI TCV R-302
20 TRC TT

Water PI
17 1/2" 26
Utility TT TE TI
4" Sch 40 CS TE
19 TI TI

1.5" Sch 40 CS 2.5" Sch 40 CS LY PI


TRC
LCV
FT 8 TAH 1/2" PI LE

Economizer, TAH
1" Sch 40 CS TY
TRC
TAL
Copper Smelter Plant E-307 TAL TI
5"
TI TCV
LT
TY
FE PI LAH

TI PI TCV 6 7 8" Sch 40 CS


21' 4" LAL
To Flare
18 TT
Stack
3" R-303
LIC
TE
28 3/4"
TI

4" Sch 40 CS 4

E-306 5
PI

TI LY 3/4"
P-301 TI
1" Sch 40 CS
TY LCV
PI 14 PI
TCV TI
TI TI

5" Sch 40 CS
3 PI
TCV TI 5"
16" 8" Sch 40 CS
From R-301

4"
TY
TAH TAL TI
O2 Plant TCV 8" Sch 40 CS 5"
LE
16" Sch 40 CS 1.5" Sch 40 CS TAH TAL
TI

4"
3"
T-301
4" Sch 40 CS

TAH TY LCV
C1 TRC LY
TY TI
TRC TAH TAL
TAL TCV
TE LT
FAH
TI TRC 1.5" Sch 40 CS FRC
E-305 TT
LIC
4"
15 LAH LAL
5" Sch 40 CS
PI TI TI
TI TI 13 FT
FAL
FY
FCV
1.25" Sch 40 CS

5" Sch 40 CS
1.25" Sch 40 CS
1.25" Sch 40 CS
SO2 1 1' 2 2'
FE
1.25" Sch 40 CS 1.25" Sch 40 CS TE TE TE
TE
E-302 E-303 E-304
E-301 TAH
TRC 4"
TT
TI TT TT
4"
TY TRC TT 21
TCV
16 C2 Water
TAL
12
TI 5" Sch 40 CS Utility
PI TI
3" P-302
4" Sch 40 CS

TI PI
DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA NAME SIGNATURE DATE
Economizer,
5" Sch 40 CS
Copper Smelter Plant FAKULTAS TEKNIK NAME Group 13
16" Sch 40 CS

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
CORRECTED BY
1 1' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 21' 23 24 25 26 27
T (K) 1473 1373 1073 650 1049 630 906 600 751 590 602 400 298 500 388 566.5 297 295 390 398 473 491 303 403 403 403 403
P (atm) 2 1.85 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.97 1 2 1.8 1.6 1 2 1.7 1.7 2 2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 To O2
Component (tonne/day)
Plant P&ID PICTURE NO. P&ID 003/2016
O2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF
SO2 1860 1860 700 700 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 2560 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
PI TI
H2O - - - - - - - - - - - - 800 800 800 800 700 700 700 700 700 700 - - 100 - 100
SO3 - - - - - - - - - - - 2560 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
WITHOUT SCALE
COPPER SMELTER
H2SO4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3120 2120 - 4560 -

Figure C.4 P&ID of Sulfuric Acid Plant

171 Universitas Indonesia


P-401 E-401 E-402 E-403 / E-404 E-405 T-401
Pump Heat Exchanger Evaporator Heat Exchanger Condenser Steam Turbine

TAH

TY TRC
TAH
TAL From Economizer,
TI TCV
5A TY
TRC
Copper Smelter Plant
TAL

TI TCV

4"
From Economizer,
Copper Smelter Plant 4" Sch 40 CS 5"
PSV
5" Sch 40 CS

5" Sch 40 CS
3A
5" 5" Sch 40 CS
TT
8A 6A
4" Sch 40 CS TE

TI TI TI
TI TT

TE

5" Sch 40 CS
B C D E PC TI