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CHAPTER 11 APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING OF METAL ALLOYS Page 1/17

CLOSED-BOOK PRACTICE
CHAPTER 11: APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING OF METAL ALLOYS
CONCEPT CHECK
1. Explain why ferritic and austenitic stainless steels are not heat treatable. Hint: you may want to consult the
first portion of Sec. 11.3.
Ans:
Ferritic and austenitic stainless steels are not heat treatable since "heat treatable" is taken to mean that
martensite may be made to form with relative ease upon quenching austenite from an elevated temperature.
For ferritic stainless steels, austenite does not form upon heating, and, therefore, the austenite-to-martensite
transformation is not possible. For austenitic stainless steels, the austenite phase field extends to such low
temperatures that the martensitic transformation does not occur.
2. It is possible to produce cast irons that consist of a martensite matrix in which graphite is embedded in
either flake, nodule, or rosette form. Describe the treatment necessary to produce each of these three
microstructures.
Ans:
For graphite flakes, gray cast iron is formed (as described in Sec. 11.2), which is then heated to a
temperature at which the ferrite transforms to austenite; the austenite is then rapidly quenched, which
transforms to martensite. For graphite nodules and rosettes, nodular and malleable cast irons are first
formed (again as described in Sec. 11.2), which are then austenitized and rapidly quenched.
3. What is the main difference between brass and bronze?
Ans:
Both brasses and bronzes are copper (Cu)-based alloys. For brasses, the principal alloying element is zinc
(Zn), whereas the bronzes are alloyed with other elements such as tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), or
nickel (Ni).
4. Strengthening of a wrought aluminum alloy is usually accomplished by cold working. Would it be advisable
to use welding technique to fabricate a structure made of cold-worked aluminum components, assuming the
structure requires a high value of yield strength? Explain why. Hint: You may want to consult Sec. 7.12.
Ans:
Because strengthening of a wrought aluminum alloy is usually accomplished by cold working, it is NOT
advisable to weld a high yield-strength structure made of cold-worked aluminum components since welding
will cause the aluminum to experience recrystallization and a resultant loss of yield strength, which had
been gained during cold-work.
5. On the basis of melting temperature, oxidation resistance, yield strength, and degree of brittleness, discuss
whether it would be advisable to hot work or to cold work (a) aluminum alloys, and (b) magnesium alloys.
Hint: You may want to consult Secs. 7.10 and 7.12.
Ans:
Most aluminum alloys may be cold-worked since they are ductile and have relatively low yield strengths.
On the other hand, magnesium alloys are normally hot-worked inasmuch as they are quite brittle at room
temperature. Also, magnesium alloys have relatively low recrystallization temperatures.

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6. (a) Cite three advantages of powder metallurgy over casting.


(b) Cite two disadvantages.
Ans:
(a) Advantages of powder metallurgy over casting are as follows:
1) It is used for alloys having high melting temperatures.
2) Better dimensional tolerances result.
3) Porosity may be introduced, the degree of which may be controlled (which is desirable in some
applications such as self-lubricating bearings).
(b) Disadvantages of powder metallurgy over casting are as follows:
1) Production of the powder is expensive.
2) Heat treatment after compaction is necessary.
7. What are the principal differences between welding, brazing, and soldering? You may need to consult other
references.
Ans:
For welding, there is melting of the pieces to be joined in the vicinity of the bond; a filler material may or
may not be used.
1

For brazing, a filler material is used which has a melting temperature in excess of about 425C (800F); the
filler material is melted, whereas the pieces to be joined are not melted.
1

For soldering, a filler material is used which has a melting temperature less than about 425C (800F); the
filler material is melted, whereas the pieces to be joined are not.
8. Name the three factors that influence the degree to which martensite is formed throughout the cross section
of a steel specimen. For each, tell how the extent of martensite formation may be increased.
Ans:
The three factors that influence the degree to which martensite is formed are as follows:
1

1) Alloying elements; adding alloying elements increases the extent to which martensite forms.
2) Specimen size and shape; the extent of martensite formation increases as the specimen cross-section
decreases and as the degree of shape irregularity increases.
3) Quenching medium: the more severe the quench, the more martensite is formed. Water provides a more
severe quench than does oil, which is followed by air. Agitating the medium also enhances the severity
of quench.

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QUESTIONS & PROBLEMS


Ferrous Alloys
(a) List the four classifications of steels.
(b) For each, briefly describe the properties and typical applications.
Ans:
The four classifications of steels, their properties, and typical applications are as follows.
(a) Low Carbon Steels:
Properties: nonresponsive to heat treatments; relatively soft and weak; machinable and weldable.
Typical applications: automobile bodies, structural shapes, pipelines, buildings, bridges, and tin cans.
Medium Carbon Steels:
Properties: heat treatable, relatively large combinations of mechanical characteristics.
Typical applications: railway wheels and tracks, gears, crankshafts, and machine parts.
High Carbon Steels:
Properties: hard, strong, and relatively brittle.
Typical applications: chisels, hammers, knives, and hacksaw blades.
High Alloy Steels (Stainless and Tool):
Properties: hard and wear resistant; resistant to corrosion in a large variety of environments.
Typical applications: cutting tools, drills, cutlery, food processing, and surgical tools.
(a) Cite three reasons why ferrous alloys are used so extensively.
(b) Cite three characteristics of ferrous alloys that limit their use.
Ans:
The four classifications of steels, their properties, and typical applications are as follows.
(a) Ferrous alloys are used extensively because:
1) Iron ores exist in abundant quantities.
2) Economical extraction, refining, and fabrication techniques are available.
3) The alloys may be tailored to have a wide range of properties.
(b) Disadvantages of ferrous alloys are:
1) They are susceptible to corrosion.
2) They have relatively high densities.
3) They have relatively low electrical conductivities.
What is the function of alloying elements in tool steels?
Ans:
The alloying elements in tool steels (e.g., Cr, V, W, and Mo) combine with the carbon to form very hard and
wear-resistant carbide compounds.
On the basis of microstructure, explain why gray iron is brittle and weak in tension.
Ans:
Gray iron is weak and brittle in tension because the tips of the graphite flakes act as points of stress
concentration.

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Compare gray and malleable cast irons with respect to:


(a) composition and heat treatment
(b) microstructure
(c) mechanical characteristics
Ans:
This question asks us to compare various aspects of gray and malleable cast irons with respect to:
(a) Composition and Heat Treatment:
Gray cast iron: 2.5 to 4.0 wt% C and 1.0 to 3.0 wt% Si. For most gray irons there is no heat treatment
after solidification.
Malleable cast iron: 2.5 to 4.0 wt% C and less than 1.0 wt% Si. White/malleable irons are heated in a
nonoxidizing atmosphere and at a temperature between 800 and 900C for an extended time period.
(b) Microstructure:
Gray cast iron: Graphite flakes are embedded in a ferrite or pearlite matrix.
Malleable iron: Graphite clusters are embedded in a ferrite or pearlite matrix.
(c) Mechanical Characteristics:
Gray cast iron: Relatively weak and brittle in tension; good capacity for damping vibrations.
Malleable cast iron: Moderate strength and ductility.
Compare white and nodular cast irons with respect to:
(a) composition and heat treatment
(b) microstructure
(c) mechanical characteristics
Ans:
This question asks us to compare various aspects of white and nodular (ductile) cast irons with respect to:
(a) Composition and Heat Treatment:
White cast iron: 2.5 to 4.0 wt% C and less than 1.0 wt% Si. No heat treatment; however, cooling is
rapid during solidification.
Nodular (ductile) cast iron: 2.5 to 4.0 wt% C, 1.0 to 3.0 wt% Si, and a small amount of Mg or Ce. A
heat treatment at about 700C may be necessary to produce a ferritic matrix.
(b) Microstructure:
White cast iron: There are regions of cementite interspersed within pearlite.
Nodular (ductile) cast iron: Nodules of graphite are embedded in a ferrite or pearlite matrix.
(c) Mechanical Characteristics:
White cast iron: Extremely hard and brittle.
Nodular (ductile) cast iron: Moderate strength and ductility.
Is it possible to produce malleable cast iron in pieces having large cross-sectional dimensions? Why or why
not?
Ans:
It is not possible to produce malleable iron in pieces having large cross-sectional dimensions. White cast
iron is the precursor of malleable iron, and a rapid cooling rate is necessary for the formation of white iron,
which may not be accomplished at interior regions of thick cross-sections.

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Below is a list of metals and alloys:


(a) Plain carbon steel (b) Stainless steel (c) Tool steel (d) Gray cast iron
(e) Magnesium (f) Platinum (g) Titanium alloy (h) Zinc
Select from this list the one metal or alloy that is best suited for the base for a milling machine. Cite the
reasons for your choice based on mechanics and economics.
Ans:
Gray cast iron will be best suited for the base for a milling machine since:
i) As an iron-carbon alloy, it has a high density (around 7.3 g/cm3). From Newtons law: F ma . It
implies the acceleration (hence dynamic motion) generated by the transmitted force due to ground
motion will be very small.
ii) Although steels has even higher densities (around 7.8 g/cm3), gray cast iron possesses better damping
property to damp out dynamic motion.
iii) Gray cast iron is produced by casting, which is relatively cost effective, especially for large-quantity
manufacturing.
What are the principal differences between 1020 steels and cast irons in terms of:
(a) carbon content,
(b) melting temperature, and
(c) common fabrication technique. Explain why for Part (c).
Sol:
(a) carbon content: 1020 steels contain 0.20 wt%C while cast irons are a class of ferrous alloys with
carbon content above 2.14 wt%C (typically between 3.0 to 4.5 wt%C).
(b) melting temperature: The melting temperature Tm for 1020 steels is very high (around 1500C)
whereas Tm for cast irons is much lower (within the range of 1150C to 1300C).
(c) fabrication technique: Because of their low carbon content, 1020 steels have relatively low yield
strength and high ductility. They are machinable and are commonly manufactured by metal-forming
techniques, such as forging, extrusion, rolling, etc. On the other hand, the exceedingly high carbon
content makes cast irons very brittle and not suitable for machining since forming or shaping by
appreciable deformation is not possible. Cast iron parts must be fabricated by casting (that is, cooling in
a mold from the liquid state) due to their brittleness and low melting temperatures.

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Nonferrous Alloys
Brass is an alloy of a copper (Cu, atomic number 29) matrix diffused by zinc (Zn, atomic number 30)
impurities.
(a) Which type of point defect does the solid imperfection belong to? Vacancy, self-interstitial,
substitutional or interstitial? Justify the reason.
(b) Will brass be harder, about the same or softer than copper? Explain why.
(c) Cite one of coppers non-mechanical properties, which will be greatly affected when it is alloyed to
become brass. Explain why.
Ans:
(a) Since the atomic numbers Cu & Zn are very close (29 vs. 30), it implies that their atomic radii will also
be very close (1.278 for Cu vs. 1.332 for Zn). Thus, the point defect is of substitutional type.
(b) An effect of the larger Zn substitutional impurities is to induce tensile residual stress field, which will
impede the dislocation motions in the copper matrix; thus, solid-solution strengthening. Since hardness
is proportional to strength, brass is harder than copper.
(c) Two of the non-mechanical properties in copper, which are prominently affected due to the alloying of
Zn atoms, are 1) the increase in electrical resistivity and 2) the reduction in thermal conductivity. Both
changes can, again, be explained by the decrease in dislocation motion, causing the hindrance of
electron movement.
What is the principal difference between wrought and cast alloys?
Ans:
The principal difference between wrought and cast alloys is as follows: wrought alloys are ductile enough so
as to be hot- or cold-worked during fabrication (that is, amenable to mechanical deformation), whereas cast
alloys are brittle to the degree that forming or shaping by appreciable deformation is not possible and they
must be fabricated by casting (that is, cooling in a mold from the liquid state).
Some aviation-grade aluminum alloys (e.g., 2017), which may age at room temperature, are often first
solution heat-treated to increase its strength before being driven plastically as rivets in aerospace vehicles.
Explain why these rivets need to be stored in refrigeration before they are used?
Ans:
Rivets of an aero-space grade, solution heat-treated 2017 aluminum alloy must be refrigerated before they
are used because after being solution heat-treated, they precipitation-harden at room temperature. Once
precipitation-hardened, they are too strong and brittle to be driven, which is a metal forming operation
requiring plastic deformation.
What is the chief difference between heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable alloys?
Ans:
The chief difference between heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable alloys is that heat-treatable alloys may be
strengthened by a heat treatment wherein a precipitate phase is formed (precipitation hardening) or a
martensitic transformation occurs. Non-heat-treatable alloys are not amenable to strengthening by such
treatments.

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Give the distinctive features, limitations, and applications of the following alloy groups: titanium alloys,
refractory metals, superalloys, and noble metals.
Ans:
This question asks us for the distinctive features, limitations, and applications of several alloy groups.
Titanium Alloys:
Distinctive features: relatively low density, high melting temperatures, and high strengths are possible.
Limitation: because of chemical reactivity with other materials at elevated temperatures, these alloys are
expensive to refine.
Applications: aircraft structures, space vehicles, and in chemical and petroleum industries.
Refractory Metals:
Distinctive features: extremely high melting temperatures; large elastic moduli, hardnesses, and strengths.
Limitation: some experience rapid oxidation at elevated temperatures.
Applications: extrusion dies, structural parts in space vehicles, incandescent light filaments, x-ray tubes,
and welding electrodes.
Superalloys:
Distinctive features: able to withstand high temperatures and oxidizing atmospheres for long time periods.
Limitation: expensive.
Applications: aircraft turbines, nuclear reactors, and petrochemical equipment.
Noble Metals:
Distinctive features: highly resistant to oxidation, especially at elevated temperatures; soft and ductile.
Limitation: expensive.
Applications: jewelry, dental restoration materials, coins, catalysts, and thermocouples.
Metal Forming Operations
Cite advantages and disadvantages of hot working and cold working.
Ans:
The advantages of cold working are:
1) A high quality surface finish.
2) The mechanical properties may be varied.
3) Close dimensional tolerances.
The disadvantages of cold working are:
1) High deformation energy requirements.
2) Large deformations must be accomplished in steps, which may be expensive.
3) A loss of ductility.
The advantages of hot working are:
1) Large deformations are possible, which may be repeated.
2) Deformation energy requirements are relatively low.
The disadvantages of hot working are:
1) A poor surface finish.
2) A variety of mechanical properties is not possible.

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(a) Cite two advantages of forming metals by extrusion as opposed to rolling.


(b) Cite two disadvantages.
Ans:
(a) The advantages of extrusion as opposed to rolling are as follows:
1) Pieces having more complicated cross-sectional geometries may be formed.
2) Seamless tubing may be produced.
(b) The disadvantages of extrusion over rolling are as follows:
1) Nonuniform deformation over the cross-section.
2) A variation in properties may result over a cross-section of an extruded piece.
Casting
List four situations in which casting is the preferred fabrication technique.
Ans:
Four situations in which casting is the preferred fabrication technique are as follows:
1) For large pieces and/or complicated shapes.
2) When mechanical strength is not an important consideration.
3) For alloys having low ductilities.
4) When it is the most economical fabrication technique.
Compare sand, die, investment, lost-foam, and continuous casting techniques.
Ans:
Sand casting: Sand is the mold material, a two-piece mold is used, ordinarily the surface finish is not an
important consideration, the sand may be reused (but the mold may not), casting rates are low, and large
pieces are usually cast.
Die casting: A permanent mold is used, casting rates are high, the molten metal is forced into the mold
under pressure, a two-piece mold is used, and small pieces are normally cast.
Investment casting: A single-piece mold is used, which is not reusable; it results in high dimensional
accuracy, good reproduction of detail, and a fine surface finish; and casting rates are low.
Lost foam casting: The pattern is polystyrene foam, whereas the mold material is sand. Complex geometries
and tight tolerances are possible. Casting rates are higher than for investment, and there are few
environmental wastes.
Continuous casting: Casting, at the conclusion of the extraction process, the molten metal is cast into a
continuous strand having either a rectangular or circular cross-section; these shapes are desirable for
subsequent secondary metal-forming operations. The chemical composition and mechanical properties are
relatively uniform throughout the cross-section.
Miscellaneous Techniques
Describe one problem that might exist with a steel weld that was cooled very rapidly.
Ans:
If a steel weld is cooled very rapidly, martensite may form, which is very brittle. In some situations, cracks
may form in the weld region as it cools.

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Annealing Processes
In your own words describe the following heat-treatment procedures for steels and, for each, the intended
final microstructure:
(a) full annealing
(b) normalizing
(c) quenching
(d) tempering
Ans:
(a) Full annealing: Heat to about 50C above the A3 line, Fig. 11.11 (if the concentration of carbon is less
than the eutectoid) or above the A1 line (if the concentration of carbon is greater than the eutectoid) until
the alloy comes to equilibrium; then furnace cool to room temperature. The final microstructure is
coarse pearlite; the grain size is relatively small and the grain structure is uniform.
(b) Normalizing: Heat to at least 55C above the A3 line Fig. 11.11 (if the concentration of carbon is less
than the eutectoid) or above the Acm line (if the concentration of carbon is greater than the eutectoid)
until the alloy completely transforms to austenite, then cool in air. The final microstructure is fine
pearlite.
(c) Quenching: Heat to a temperature within the austenite phase region and allow the specimen to fully
austenitize, then quench to room temperature in oil or water. The final microstructure is martensite.
(d) Tempering: Heat a quenched (martensitic) specimen, to a temperature between 250C and 650C, for
the time necessary to achieve the desired hardness. The final microstructure is tempered martensite.
The symbols: A1 , A3 and Acm in the Fe-C phase
diagram at right are critical temperatures useful for
annealing processes for steels.
(a) Draw schematically on the figure the range of
carbon composition (wt% C) and temperature for
full-annealing heat treatment. What is the
purpose of full annealing?
(b) What is the severity of quenching for full
annealing? That is, furnace-cooled, air-cooled,
oil-quenched or water-quenched? Explain why.
(c) What is the microstructural product of full
annealing? Justify the reason.
Ans:
(a) The range of wt% C and temperature for full-annealing heat treatment is shown in the figure above. The
temperature is about 50C above the A3 (or A1 ) line to form austenite for wt% C less (or higher) than
the eutectoid composition (0.8 wt% C). Full annealing is often used in low- & medium-carbon steels
after metal-forming or machining (i.e., experiencing extensive plastic deformation) to relieve internal
stresses and to recrystallize the grain shape from elongated to equiaxed.
(b) Furnace-cooled is used for full annealing, which takes several hours, so that the grain recrystallization
process has enough energy and time to complete.
(c) Due to the long furnace-cooled processing time, the microstructural product of full annealing is coarse
pearlite, which is soft and ductile.
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Cite three sources of internal residual stresses in metal components. What are two possible adverse
consequences of these stresses?
Ans:
Three sources of residual stresses in metal components are:
1) plastic deformation processes,
2) nonuniform cooling of a piece that was cooled from an elevated temperature, and
3) a phase transformation in which parent and product phases have different densities.
Two adverse consequences of these stresses are:
1) distortion (or warpage), and
2) fracture.
What is the purpose of a spheroidizing heat treatment? On what classes of alloys is it normally used?
Ans:
The purpose of a spheroidizing heat treatment is to produce a very soft and ductile steel alloy having a
spheroiditic microstructure. It is normally used on medium- and high-carbon steels, which, by virtue of
carbon content, are relatively hard and strong.
Heat Treatment of Steels
Explain the difference between hardness and hardenability.
Ans:
Hardness is a measure of a materials resistance to localized surface deformation due to indentation,
whereas hardenability is a measure of the depth to which a ferrous alloy may be hardened by the formation
of martensite. Hardenability is determined from the ensuing hardness tests after Jominy quenching.
What influence does the presence of alloying elements (other than carbon) have on the shape of a
hardenability curve? Briefly explain this effect.
Ans:
The presence of alloying elements (other than carbon) causes a much more gradual decrease in hardness
with position from the quenched end for a hardenability curve. The reason for this effect is that alloying
elements retard the formation of pearlitic and bainitic structures which are not as hard as martensite.
How would you expect a decrease in the austenite grain size to affect the hardenability of a steel alloy?
Why?
Ans:
A decrease of austenite grain size will decrease the hardenability. Pearlite normally nucleates at grain
boundaries, and the smaller the grain size, the greater the grain boundary area, and, consequently, the easier
it is for pearlite to form.
Name two thermal properties of a liquid medium that influence its quenching effectiveness.
Ans:
The two thermal properties of a liquid medium that influence its quenching effectiveness are: (1) thermal
conductivity and (2) heat capacity.

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The figure at right shows the hardenability curve for


the 8640 steel alloy, which contains:
0.4wt%C 0.55wt%Ni 0.5wt%Cr 0.2wt%Mo
Draw schematically on the figure the hardenability
curve for the 1040 steel. Justify the reason.
Ans:.
The hardenability curve for the 1040 steel will appear
on the left-lower side of the hardenability curve for
the 8640 steel alloy, as shown in the figure at right.
That is, as the distance from the quenched end
increases, the hardenability of 1040 decreases more
quickly than that of 8640. The reason lies in the fact
that the additional alloying elements (e.g., Ni, Cr, Mo,
etc.) hinder diffusion mechanisms of carbon atoms,
thus delaying the austenite-to pearlite/bainite
reactions. This permits more martensite to form for a
particular cooling rate (or equivalently, at a specific
distance from the quenched end), yielding a greater hardness in the alloyed 8640 steel.
Precipitation Hardening
What is the principal difference between natural and artificial aging processes?
Ans:
For precipitation hardening, natural aging is allowing the precipitation process to occur at the ambient
temperature; artificial aging is carried out at an elevated temperature.

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING
Which of the following elements is the primary constituent of ferrous alloys?
(A) Copper (Cu)
(B) Carbon (C)
(C) Iron (Fe)
(D) Titanium (Ti)
Ans: C. Iron (Fe) is the primary constituent of ferrous alloys.
All ferrous alloys have similar microstructures.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: False. Ferrous alloys have a wide range of microstructures that depend on composition and
processing.
Which type of steel contains only residual amounts of alloying elements?
(A) Plain carbon steel
(B) Alloy steel
Ans: A. Plain carbon steel contains only residual amounts of alloying elements.

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Which of the following microconstituents/phases is (are) typically found in a low-carbon steel?


(A) Austenite
(B) Pearlite
(C) Tempered martensite
(D) Ferrite
(E) Martensite
(F) Both pearlite and martensite
(G) Both pearlite and ferrite
Ans: G. Pearlite and ferrite are the microconstituents/phases typically found in a low-carbon steel.
Which of the following microconstituents/phases are most commonly found in stainless steels?
Ferrite, Pearlite, Martensite, Austenite, Tempered martensite
(A) Ferrite, Pearlite, and Tempered martensite
(B) Ferrite, Martensite, and Austenite
(C) Pearlite, Martensite, and Austenite
(D) Pearlite, Austenite, and Tempered martensite
Ans: B. Microconstituents/phases most commonly found in stainless steels are ferrite, martensite, and
austenite.
Which of the following stainless steel types may be magnetized?
(A) Ferritic, martensitic, and austenitic
(B) Ferritic and martensitic
(C) Martensitic and austenitic
(D) Ferritic and austenitic
Ans: B. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels may be magnetized.
Which of the following characteristics distinguishes the stainless steels from other steel types?
(A) They are more corrosion resistant.
(B) They are stronger.
(C) They are more wear resistant.
(D) They are more ductile.
Ans: A. Stainless steels are more corrosion resistant than other steels.
The strengths of typical low-carbon steels are often improved by heat treatment.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: False. The strengths of typical low-carbon steels are not generally improved by heat treatment since
these steels do not easily transform to martensite.
What is the typical carbon concentration range for medium-carbon steels?
(A) 0.05 wt%-1.00 wt% C
(B) 0.10 wt%-0.50 wt% C
(C) 0.25 wt%-0.65 wt% C
(D) 0.25 wt%-1.00 wt% C
(E) 0.50 wt%-0.75 wt% C
Ans: C. The typical carbon concentration range for medium-carbon steels is 0.25 wt%-0.65 wt% C.

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Which of the following is the typical carbon concentration range for cast irons?
(A) 1.0 wt%-1.5 wt% C
(B) 1.0 wt%-2.0 wt% C
(C) 2.0 wt%-3.0 wt% C
(D) 2.0 wt%-3.5 wt% C
(E) 3.0 wt%-4.0 wt% C
(F) 3.0 wt%-4.5 wt% C
Ans: F. The typical range of carbon concentration for cast irons is 3.0 wt%-4.5 wt% C.
Hot working takes place at a temperature above a metals
(A) melting temperature
(B) recrystallization temperature
(C) eutectoid temperature
(D) glass transition temperature
Ans: B. Hot working takes place at a temperature that is above a metals recrystallization temperature.
Which of the following may occur during an annealing heat treatment?
(A) Stresses may be relieved.
(B) Ductility may increase.
(C) Toughness may increase.
(D) A specific microstructure may be produced
(E) All of the above.
Ans: E. During an annealing heat treatment: stresses may be relieved, ductility may increase, toughness may
increase, and a specific microstructure may be produced.
Which of the following influences the hardenability of a steel?
(A) Composition of the steel
(B) Type of quenching medium
(C) Character of the quenching medium
(D) Size and shape of the specimen
Ans: A. The hardenability of a steel is influenced by its composition.
Which type of steel has the designation 4330?
(A) Plain carbon steel
(B) Alloy steel
Ans: B. A steel with the 4330 designation is an alloy steel.
Which four elements in the list below are alloyed with high-carbon steels to improve their hardnesses?
Silicon (Si), Tungsten (W), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo), Chromium (Cr), Vanadium (V)
(A) Si, W, Ni, Mo
(B) W, Mo, Cr, V
(C) Ni, Mo, Cr, V
(D) Si, Cu, Ni, V
Ans: B. Tungsten (W), molybdenum (Mo), chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V) are alloyed with high-carbon
steels to improve their hardnesses.

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Which of the following microconstituents/phases is (are) most commonly found in gray cast irons?
Graphite, Ferrite, Austenite, Pearlite, Martensite
(A) Graphite
(B) Pearlite, Martensite
(C) Graphite, Ferrite
(D) Ferrite, Austenite, Pearlite
(E) Graphite, Pearlite, Ferrite
Ans: E. Graphite, pearlite, and ferrite are the microconstituents/phases most commonly found in gray cast
irons.
Which of the following cast iron types is stronger and more ductile?
(A) Gray irons
(B) Nodular irons
Ans: B. Nodular irons are stronger and more ductile than gray irons.
Which of the following changes occur(s) when white cast irons are converted to malleable irons?
(A) The ductility increases.
(B) The ductility decreases.
(C) The ductility remains about the same.
(D) The cementite is converted into graphite.
(E) The graphite is converted into cementite.
(F) Both A and D above.
(G) Both B and E above.
Ans: F. When white cast irons are converted to malleable irons, the cementite is converted to graphite and
the ductility increases.
Most copper alloys may be hardened by heat treatment.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: False. Most copper alloys cannot be hardened by heat treatment. They are normally hardened by cold
working and/or by solid solution strengthening.
Which of the following elements, when alloyed with copper, results in an alloy that is precipitation
hardenable?
(A) Beryllium (Be)
(B) Zinc (Zn)
(C) Gold (Au)
(D) Tin (Sn)
(E) Lead (Pb)
Ans: A. Copper-beryllium alloys are precipitation hardenable.
On the basis of specific strength (strength/weight), aluminum alloys are stronger than steel alloys.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: True. On the basis of specific strength, aluminum alloys are stronger than steel alloys. The reason for
this is that the densities of aluminum alloys (about 2.7 g/cm3) are much lower than for steel alloys (about
7.8 g/cm3).
ME 46100: ENGINEERING MATERIALS CLOSED-BOOK PRACTICE
CHAPTER 11 APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING OF METAL ALLOYS Page 15/17

For which of the following reasons have magnesium alloys replaced engineered plastics with comparable
densities?
(A) Magnesium alloys are stiffer.
(B) Magnesium alloys are more recyclable.
(C) Magnesium alloys are cheaper to produce.
(D) All of the above.
Ans: D. Magnesium alloys have replaced engineered plastics with comparable densities because they
(magnesium alloys) are stiffer, are more recyclable, and are cheaper to produce.
In which of the following groups are all the metals refractory metals?
(A) Niobium, molybdenum, iron, and aluminum
(B) Molybdenum, tantalum, and copper
(C) Tungsten, tantalum, copper, and titanium
(D) Niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, and tantalum
Ans: D. Niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, and tantalum are refractory metals.
Superalloys are commonly used in which of the following applications?
(A) Aircraft structural components
(B) Jet engines
(C) Nuclear reactors
(D) Electronic devices
(E) A and B
(F) B and C
(G) C and D
Ans: F. Superalloys are commonly used in jet engines and nuclear reactors.
In which of the following environments do nickel and its alloys perform extremely well?
(A) Acidic
(B) Basic
Ans: B. Nickel and its alloys perform very well in basic environments.
Which of the following alloys is most suitable for a drill bit?
(A) Titanium alloy
(B) Aluminum
(C) Tool steel
(D) Platinum
(E) Stainless steel
(F) Magnesium
(G) Gray cast iron
Ans: C. A tool steel would be the best choice for a drill bit because it is very hard and wear resistant; thus,
will retain a sharp cutting edge.

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Which of the following alloys is most suitable for high-temperature furnace elements to be used in oxidizing
environments?
(A) Titanium alloy
(B) Aluminum
(C) Tool steel
(D) Platinum
(E) Stainless steel
(F) Magnesium
(G) Gray cast iron
Ans: D. Platinum is the best choice for high-temperature furnace elements to be used in oxidizing
atmospheres because it is very ductile, has a relatively high melting temperature, and is highly resistant to
oxidation.
Casting operations are only used for metals that have low ductilities such that hot or cold working would be
difficult.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: False. Casting operations are not only used for metals that have low ductilities such that hot or cold
working would be difficult, but they may also be used as the final step in refining ductile metals, for
complicated shapes, and when casting is most cost-effective.
Normalizing a ferrous alloy causes the average grain size to
(A) increase
(B) decrease
Ans: B. Normalizing a ferrous alloy causes the average grain size to decrease.
A normalizing heat treatment is terminated by cooling
(A) in air (outside a furnace)
(B) in a furnace
Ans: A. A normalizing heat treatment is terminated by cooling in air (outside a furnace).
The rate of heat transfer from the specimen during a Jominy end-quench test is nearly independent of
composition.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: True. The rate of heat transfer from the specimen during a Jominy end-quench test is nearly
independent of composition.
Which of the three quenching media is most commonly used for alloy steels?
(A) Water
(B) Oil
(C) Air
Ans: B. Oil is the most commonly used quenching medium for alloy steels.

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For parts that are to be used in moderately stressed applications, what percentage of the part's interior should
be martensite?
Ans: For parts that are to be used in moderately stressed applications, 50% of the part's interior should be
martensite.
For precipitation hardening, the solution heat treatment consists of:
(1) heating the alloy to a temperature such that all solute atoms are dissolved to form a single-phase solid
solution, and
(2) quenching to produce a nonequilibrium supersaturated solid solution.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: True. In a solution heat treatment, the alloy is (1) heated to a temperature such that all solute atoms are
dissolved to form a single-phase solid solution, and (2) then quenched to produce a nonequilibrium
supersaturated solid solution.
An alloy that has been precipitation hardened may be used at elevated temperatures without compromising
its hardness and strength.
(A) True
(B) False
Ans: False. The hardness and strength of a precipitation hardened alloy may be compromised when it is
exposed to elevated temperatures; at elevated temperatures, the precipitation particles increase in size,
which may result in overaging.

ME 46100: ENGINEERING MATERIALS CLOSED-BOOK PRACTICE