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CE114 - CE415

Dr. Venkata Dilip Kumar Pasupuleti

Assistant Professor
School of Engineering Sciences

Ecole Centrale
College of Engineering
Module 1
Introduction to building materials
Civil engineering background Role of civil engineers
in society
Functions of buildings role of materials in
Classification of materials requirements selection of
Properties of materials Physical, mechanical,
chemical, biological, aesthetical
Module 2
Stones, Bricks and Cement
Building Stones types requirements tests
Bricks and tiles classification - manufacturing -
characteristics tests ceramic tiles paving blocks
Cement manufacturing processes properties types
- tests

Module 3
Floor and Roofing material
Floors types floor finishes
Roofs types materials used steel, aluminum,
asbestos, GI sheets light weight roofing materials
Glass types and uses
Wood types and uses defects preservative
treatments wood composites

Module 4
Modern building materials
Modern materials Neoprene, thermocole, decorative
panels and laminates, architectural glass and ceramics,
ferrocement, PVC, polymer base materials, fibre
reinforced plastics,

Module 5
Construction components
Principles of construction - Masonry brick, stone and
block masonry
Surface finishes pointing and plastering materials -
Paints and varnishes types and uses
Damp proof course (DPC) anti-termite measures and
Construction joints need and materials used
Scaffolding and centering
Reference books
Engineering materials by S.C. Rangwala
Fundamental building materials by Ken Ward-Harvey
Materials of construction by Ghosh
Building Construction by Arora.S.P & Bindra.S.P.
Concrete Technology by Shetty, M.S
Building construction by B.C. Punmia

Glass is a hard substance which may be transparent or translucent
and brittle in nature. It is manufactured by fusion process.
In this process sand is fused with lime, soda and some other
admixtures and then cooled rapidly.
Glass is used in construction purpose and architectural purpose in

Glass cont..
Glass is a material made from liquid sand. It is the name given to
any amorphous (non-crystalline) solid that displays a glass
transition near its melting point which is around 1700C (3090F).
This means that materials transform from a hard and brittle state into
a molten state, or vice versa depending on whether the glass
transition temperature is the melting or solidifying point. An
amorphous solid has some of the crystalline order of a solid and
some of the random molecular structure of a liquid.
Silicate glass is the most common form, which consists mainly of
silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2. Impurities or additional elements and
compounds added to the silicate to change the color and other
properties of the glass.
Glass is a very commonly used material because, whilst still molten,
it can be manipulated to into forms suitable for a very wide range of
different uses, from packaging and household objects to car
windscreens, glazing and so on.
Pilkington manufacturing process
The Pilkington process for manufacturing glass involves the following
basic stages:

Raw materials (clear sand, calcium oxide, sodium carbonate) are

weighed and mixed proportionally along with the addition of
admixtures to provide specific technical or visual properties.
The mixture is heated in a gas-fired furnace or electric smelter, pot
furnace or kiln.
Molten glass is formed at around 1700C (3090F) and is floated on
molten tin to form glass of the desired thickness.
The glass is cooled, the precise process determining its overall

Composition of glass
There are many different types of glass, each with different chemical
and physical properties dependent upon their application. The main
types of glass include:
Borosilicate glass: Made of 70-80% silica, 7-13% boric oxide, smaller
amounts of alkalis and aluminium oxide. Widely used by the chemical and
pharmaceutical industries as well as for common household items, under the
trade name Pyrex.
Commercial glass: This is the most common type of glass, made primarily
from sand. As it is normally colourless, this glass is popularly used for

Composition of glass Cont
Glass fibre: The composition of glass fibre varies according to its
application. For building insulation, the glass used is normally soda lime,
whereas for textiles, an alumino-borosilicate glass with very low sodium
oxide content is preferred because of its good chemical durability.
Lead glass: This is used to make predominately decorative glass objects.
Calcium oxide is replaced by lead oxide, and potassium oxide replaces all or
a high proportion of the sodium oxide. Lead glass sparkles brightly and has a
relatively soft surface, both properties that make it so suitable for decorative

The composition of glass and the
cooling rate can be varied to give a
range of properties depending on
the end use required:

Engineering Properties of Glass

U value
Recycle Property 16
Engineering Properties of Glass
Transparency of Glass
Transparency is the main property of glass
which allows the vision of outside world
through it. The transparency of glass can be
from both sides or from one side only. In
one side transparency, glass behaves like
mirror from the other side.

Comparisons of 1. opacity, 2. translucency, and

3. transparency; behind each panel is a star
Engineering Properties of Glass
Strength of glass depends on modulus of rupture value of glass. In
general glass is a brittle material but by adding admixtures and
laminates we can make it as more strong.

It increases the ability of glass to resist deformation, shearing or

shattering under load.

Engineering Properties of Glass
A glass can be molded into any shape or it can be blown during melting.
So, workability of glass is superior property of glass.

Engineering Properties of Glass
The visible fraction of light that passing
through glass is the property of visible

Engineering Properties of Glass
U value of Glass
U value represents the amount of heat
transferred through glass. If a glass is
said to be insulated unit then it should
have lower u value.

Engineering Properties of Glass
Recycle Property of Glass
Glass is 100% recyclable. Scraps of waste glass are used as raw materials
in glass manufacture and as aggregates in concrete manufacture. The
number of times glass has been recycled does not affect its quality,
strength or functionality.

Different types of Glasses

Laminated Glass Stained Glass

Toughened Glass Beveled Glass
Fusion Glass Figured Glass
Mirrors Cast Glass
Etched Glass Frameless Doors
Float Glass Tinted Glass

Laminated Glass
.Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together
when shattered.
.In the event of breaking, it is held in place by an interlayer,
typically of Poly Vinyl Butyral (PVB), between its two or more
layers of glass.
.The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when
broken, and its high strength prevents the glass from breaking
up into large sharp pieces.
.This produces a characteristic "spider web cracking pattern
when the impact is not enough to completely pierce the glass.

Laminated Glass

Toughened Glass
Toughened or tempered glass is glass that has been processed by
controlled thermal or chemical treatments.

It has increased strength compared with normal glass and will

usually shatter into small fragments, rather than sharp shards,
when broken.

Tempered glass is strong, has enhanced thermal resistance, and

breaks into small cuboid fragments rather than irregular shards
of glass and therefore is less likely to cause injury.

Toughened Glass

Fusion Glass
Fused glass is a term used to describe glass that has been fired
(heat-processed) in a kiln at a range of high temperatures from
5930 C (11000 F) to 8160(15000 F).

There are 3 main distinctions for temperature application and

the resulting effect on the glass.

Fused glass consists mainly of silica. While the precise origins of

glass fusing techniques are not known with certainty

Fusion Glass

Fusion Glass

A mirror is an object with a surface that has good specular
reflection; that is, it is smooth enough to form an image.

The most familiar type of mirror is the plane mirror, which has a
flat surface.

Curved mirrors are also used, to produce magnified or

demagnified images or focus light or simply distort the reflected
image.Mirrors are most commonly used for personal grooming,
decoration, and architecture.

Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes

and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery.


Etched Glass
Attend your meetings with this exclusive Etched Glass.

Etching refers to the technique of creating art on the surface of

glass by applying acidic, caustic, or abrasive substances.

Glass with excellent finish to match your interiors.

Etched Glass

Float Glass
Float glass is a sheet of glass made by floating molten glass on a
bed of molten tin.

This method gives the sheet uniform thickness and very flat
surfaces. Modern windows are made from float glass.

Most float glass is soda-lime glass, but relatively minor

quantities of specialty borosilicate and flat panel display glass
are also produced using the float glass process.

Float Glass

Stained Glass
As a material the term stained glass generally refers to glass that
has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its

The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which

small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures,
held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a
rigid frame.

Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the

The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which all

the colours have been painted onto the glass and then annealed
in a furnace.
Stained Glass

Beveled Glass
Beveled glass is usually made by taking one-quarter inch-thick
clear glass and creating a one-inch bevel on one side around the
entire periphery.

These bevels act as prisms in the sunlight creating an interesting

color diffraction which both highlights the glasswork and
provides a spectrum of colors which would ordinarily be absent
in clear float glass.

"Beveled glass" can be obtained as clusters which are arranged

to create a specific design.

These can vary from simple three or four piece designs.

Beveled Glass

Figured Glass
We are figured glass dealers in India.

We deal both clear and colored figured glass from 3mm to 4mm,
in more than 40 different patterns, including: flora, kasumi,
mistlite, Pin Head, Reeded, Yozura, Konoha, Karatachi etc.

Our quality is one of the best in Andhra Pradesh, our price is also
very competitive.

Figured Glass

Cast Glass
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is
(usually) poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of
the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.

The solid casting is then ejected or broken out to complete the


Casting may be used to form hot liquid metals or various

materials that cold set after mixing of components (such as
epoxies, concrete, plaster and clay).

Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that

would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other
Cast Glass

Frameless Doors
The frameless doors include bypass, framed, frameless, and
heavy glass door units.

Standard units can be customized with side panels or return

panels as well as custom sizes.

Tinted glass
Goutam Glass Incorporation can supply a full range of tinted float
glass, including colors of dark blue, lake blue, ocean blue, French
green, dark green, dark grey, bronze, and pink.

Tinted glass