You are on page 1of 16

University of the Cordilleras

Senior High School

A.Y. 2017 – 2018

Analyzing the Causes of the Misbehavior Among Grade 12 STEM Students

Members:

Banganan, Jerahmeel Zyra A.

Agsaoay, Placida S.

Tami-ing, Cleofe L.

Meriales, Ceasar T.

Rosales, Jerome

Salbino, Cyril C.

Salipio, Alghin G.

Sublino, Jethro Q.

STEM12-R

Submitted to:

Mrs. Jessica Corpuz


Analyzing the Causes of Misbehavior Among Grade 12 STEM
Students

Banganan, Jerahmeel Zyra A. Tami-ing, Cleofe L.

Agsaoay, Placida S. Meriales, Ceasar T.

Rosales, Jerome Salbino, Cyril C.

Salipio, Alghin G. Sublino, Jethro Q.

University of the Cordilleras Senior High School, Baguio City, Philippines

Background

Student misbehavior is also known as disruptive misbehavior, problem behavior, or student


deviance, student misbehavior tents to be defined by teachers in a very personal rather than
objective way “behavior that proves unacceptable to the teacher” (Fontana, 354). Charles
(1999) defines misbehavior as “behavior that is considered inappropriate for the setting or situation
in which it occurs”. Increasingly, disruptive and aggressive behavior has become a significant,
concern within schools, and the need for more effective management programs and techniques
continues to be an issue facing teachers.

In more serious cases, problem behavior can involve aggression immorality, or defiance of
authority and can threaten the safety of both and students and teachers. Kyriarcou (1997:121)
defines misbehavior as ” any behavior that undermines the teachers ability to establish and
maintain effective experience in the classroom”. When students disrupt the learning environment,
it takes up teaching time and affects the quality of the student learning experience, therefore it is
the teachers responsibility to address misbehavior in order to maintain a civil environment
conductive to productive learning. Jason(1995:51-65) Defines misbehavior as “ an act of behaving
badly and improperly by one or more students that perceived by the teacher to initiate a vector
of action that competes with or threatens the primary vector of action at a particular moment in
a classroom activity”.

Most misbehavior is related to attention, crowd control and getting work unaccomplished
in classroom, Intervention can repair temporary disturbance in the classroom, but action has
potential to disrupt students learning and planned classroom activities A Behavior management,
the actions take to decrease disruptive behaviors and increase desirable ones, is an essential
component of effective classroom management. To develop programs that effectively target
student problem behavior, there is a need for a greater understanding of student perspective of
their own misbehavior and that of others.
According to Pittman (1992), the school experience can influence four aspects of
development in children and youth that affect their well-being: a) confidence (i.e., selfesteem or
acceptance), b) character (i.e., accountability, self-control, compassion), c) connection (i.e.,
integration and membership), and d) competence (i.e., growth, social contribution, and mastery).
These developmental needs must be met for learning to take place. It has also been found that
students’ satisfaction with school is influenced by the classroom climate, specifically students’
feelings of being safe in their classrooms (Samdal et al., 1999). It is the goals students make for
themselves, their academic achievement, and their feelings of perceived competence that can
greatly affect their perceptions of wellbeing (Kaplan & Maehr, 1999). Kaplan and Maehr (1999)
described student wellbeing as a “product of students’ general self-evaluations and patterns of
behavior, coping, and emotion”.

Very few studies have examined the effect of students’ misbehaviour on their feelings of
well-being in the classroom directly; however, there is a large body of literature outlining the
negative effects of student misbehaviour on the overall classroom climate (MacAulay, 1990). The
perception of the classroom climate is an important determinant of student success and well-
being (Bandura, 1986). Literature on students’ perceptions of classroom climate has focused
specifically on students’ relationships with their teachers. It has been found that student well-being
is positively affected by teachers who create positive interpersonal relationships with their
students, maintain a safe and structured classroom environment, and strive to meet the needs of
their students in a positive, supporting, and caring way (De Fraine, 2003; Jennings & Greenberg,
2009; van Damme et al., 2002; Van Petegem, 2007).

Since the classroom environment and students and their behaviors are always interacting
(Bandura, 1986), student behavior is a significant determinant of a perceived positive or negative
classroom climate (MacAulay, 1990). When students misbehave, the cohesive, cooperative, and
productive classroom environment is disrupted, causing students to feel tension (MacAulay, 1990).
Classrooms that involve students working cooperatively and which foster mutual concern among
students can positively impact classroom climate perceptions (MacAulay, 1990). In addition, the
perception of a positive classroom environment is associated with positive cognitive and affective
learning outcomes, and efforts to improve classroom climates tend to improve student learning
greatly (Fraser, 1989; Fraser & Fisher, 1982). Furthermore, secure classroom environments are
characterized by both teacher-student and student-student relationships that are supportive and
respectful (Nelson, Lott & Glenn, 2000). Teachers must maintain a classroom environment that
supports social belonging, self-regulation, and the social intelligence of students, which ultimately
contributes to students’ sense of well-being (Gilman, Huebner & Furlong, 2009).

To gain a full understanding of student misbehavior, factors that affect the choices
students make about how they behave in a classroom setting must be examined. Bandura (1991)
explained that human behavior is not simply a result of moment-by-moment reactions to external
influences but involves a purposeful, voluntary, internal component that is referred to as “self-
efficacy”. The term self-efficacy refers to “a person’s belief in their ability to learn or perform
specific behaviors” (Evertson &
Weinstein, 2006, p. 10). A person’s sense of self-efficacy is the most influential factor affecting
their ownership and awareness of their behavior (Bandura, 1991). No study was found that
directly examined students’ self-efficacy perceptions in terms of their behavior in a classroom
setting. However, Bandura (1991) explained that “people’s beliefs in their efficacy influence the
choices they make, their aspirations, how much effort they mobilize in a given endeavor, how
long they persevere in the face of difficulties and setbacks, whether their thought patterns are
self-hindering or self-aiding, the amount of stress they experience in coping with taxing
environmental demands, and their vulnerability to depression.” This literature has reinforced the
notion that greater behavioral self-efficacy facilitates enhanced self-control over behavior.

Engels et al. (2004) defined student well-being as “a positive emotional state that is the
result of harmony between the sum of specific context factors on the one hand and the personal
needs and expectations towards the school on the other hand”.

Various factors are known to contribute to the development of student well-being


including the feelings related to the experience of being at school and satisfaction with the pursuit
of various school activities, in addition to relevant fears and psychological factors involved with
everyday school life (Eder, 1995).
Phenomenological Research
A particular behavior, is viewed as problematic may not necessarily be rule breaking but
inappropriate or disturbing in the classroom setting. For instance, day dreaming in class, not
completing homework’s talking in in class, lesson disruption, bullying and rudeness are named as
“problem behaviors”, “behavior problems”, or “disruptive behavior”. (Sun, 2011)

Qualitative Research

Shek D. (2011). Nothing that school misconduct is one of the manifest of the problem
behavior syndrome, all externalizing behaviors that violate explicit rules or implicit norms,
disturbing the classroom order, irritate the process of teaching and learning.

Crossman, A. (2017) Qualitative research is a type of social science research that collects
and works with non-numerical data that seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help us
understand social life through the study targeted populations or places. Qualitative researchers
investigate meanings, interpretations, symbols, and the processes and elations of social life.

STEM is an educational program develop to prepare primary and secondary students for
college and graduate in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. STEM
aims to foster inquiring minds, logical reasoning, and collaboration skills. Also, STEM focuses on
perceived education quality shortcoming in this fields, with the aim of increasing supply of
qualified high-tech workers.

This research is an association between student problematic behavior in the classroom.


There continues to be differences in philosophy of managing students in the educational setting.
School used to be punitive upon the disruptive behavior of students, consequence driven by
school system. Where students were expected to behave in proper and acceptable ways.
Students were simply given consequences, including suspension, and even expultion. While such
consequences still exist today in school systems, there are many research based strategies that
demonstrate a proactive and positive approach on teaching good behaviors to the students.

In the interest of reforming education and assisting every student to be successful, many
districts employ strategies that attempt to serve students proactively. These strategies typically
pinpoint antecedents, instead of focusing on the consequences of socially unacceptable
behavior. It is important to understand the strategies school administrators use to make data
based decisions, for individual students.

This research are curious about the ways administrators perceive and define the barriers
to serving all students. To gain a comprehensive understanding of this process, it is necessary to
gather data about the students perceptions about practices that do and do not work in their
schools, as they seek to facilitate positive outcomes that lead to behavior success. With a
deeper understanding of students perceptions of the impact of the misbehavior, educators and
administrator can make necessary improvement in classroom mamagement. For example,
Kalan, Gheen, and Midgley (2005) described problematic behavior as blurting out, disrespecting
others, failure to follow directions, and teasing other students.

Significance of the Study

This study was conducted in University of the Cordillera’s particularly senior high school
students of grade 12 STEM strand. The intent of this research is to know the reason why students
misbehave and to know what influence or drive them to do inappropriate behavior in their class.
Specially, this research also wants to contribute to the overall knowledge about students’
misbehaviors and to insight the good practices to avoid misbehaviors in the classroom especially
during class hour.

This research also wants to give knowledge and understanding to the teachers for them
to think how to deal with inappropriate behavior of students, also educate the senior high school
student for them to reflect on their action, because their misbehaviors can affect their
academic performance and their classmate academic performance.

METHODS

Design

Qualitative research implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes


and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured. Researchers seek answers to
questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaning. Qualitative forms of
inquiry are considered by many social and behavioral scientists to be as much a perspective on
how to approach investigating a research problem as it is a method. (Denzin, Norman and
Lincoln, Yvonna. Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2 nd edition, 2000)

The goal of a qualitative phenomenological research is to describe a “lived experience”


of a phenomenon. As this is a qualitative analysis of narrative data, methods to analyze its data
must be quite different from more traditional or quantitative methods of research. Essentially, you
are focused on meaning, the meaning of the experience, behavior, narrative, etc. (Dr. Janet
Waters, 2017)

Sample

We choose Grade 12 STEM students as our respondents based from their potential, may
also feel the obligation to reciprocate and complete and return the questionnaire, based on the
request to participate and the recognition that time, effort, and resources were invested by the
researchers.

The respondents were chosen according to the records of the students that had been at
the OSAS of the University of the Cordillera’s because of having misbehaviors in class, this records
can help us to have more knowledge about the perception of a student who had misbehaviors
in class.

Procedure

Respondent cooperation has been a preeminent concern of survey and opinion


researchers since at least the latter part of the twentieth century both because of its implications
for data quality, as well as its reflection upon research methods and the resulting ethical and
regulatory considerations. In this chapter, respondent cooperation is defined and explained in
detail. Specific attention is given to the importance of respondent cooperation in research,
theories, and evidence of how and why respondent cooperation has changed over time, and
the general profile of survey respondents.

Data gathering tool:

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR


SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Jerahmeel Zyra A. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Tabuk Institute 2012
Banganan
AGE: 17 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Tabuk Institute 2016

SEX: Female SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the


Cordillera’s
ADDRESS: #214 Poliwes, Kennon rd. Baguio City
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR
SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Placida S. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Balbalayang 2012
Agsaway National Highschool
AGE: 17 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Pines City 2016
National High School
SEX: Female SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordillera’s
ADDRESS: #18 Blk. 7 East Quirino Hill, Baguio City

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR


SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Cleofe L. Tami-ing ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Rizal 2012
Elementary School
AGE: 18 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Rizal National 2016
High School
SEX: Female SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordilleras
ADDRESS: #18 Blk. 7 East Quirino Hill, Baguio City

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR


SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Jethro Q. Sublino ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Lindawan 2012
Elementary School
AGE: 17 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Lindawan 2016
National Highschool
SEX: Male SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordillera’s
ADDRESS: #228 Purok 2 Lucnab, Baguio City

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR


SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Ceasar T. Meriales ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Magsaysay 2012
Elementary School
AGE: 18 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: San Vicente 2016
National High School
SEX: Male SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordillera’s
ADDRESS: #130 Poliwes, Baguio City
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR
SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Alghin Salipio ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Quirino Hill 2012
Elementary Highschool
AGE: 18 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Guisad Valley 2016
National High School
SEX: Male SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordillera’s
ADDRESS: #6 West Quirino Hill, Baguio City

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR


SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Cyril C. Salbino ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Easter College 2012

AGE: 17 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Baguio City 2016


High School
SEX: Male SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordillera’s
ADDESS: Acop, Tublay, Benguet

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: YEAR


SCHOOL ATTENDED COMPLETED
NAME: Jerome Rosales ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Virac Itogon 2012
Benguet Elementary School
AGE: 17 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: Saint Louis 2016
Aurora Hill
SEX: Male SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: University of the
Cordillera’s
ADDRESS: #15 Ambiong rd. Aurora Hill, Baguio City

RESULTS
Supporting the theory that misbehavior is a complex concept that is multifaceted within and
across individuals, numerous primary and supporting themes were identified in this study. In an
effort to organize and accurately convey this material, four categories were identified to
describe all of the study findings: the experience of misbehavior, the response to misbehavior,
reasons for their misbehavior and assimilation. Each category is amplified and supported by
primary themes that help define the categories. The first category the experience of misbehavior
encompasses on how students behave during class hours and a simple overview of misbehavior.
The second category, the response to misbehavior includes the ways in which the selections
responded to and coped with the experience of misbehavior. The third category, the reasons
for their misbehavior is supported by themes that illustrates how they misbehave in class. The
fourth category is how they assimilate and cope misbehavior.
The Experience of Misbehavior
The experience of misbehavior is characterized by three (3) different mind of
misbehavior. The mind of misbehavior is one of the primary themes we got from our selections
they gave quite a few intriguing details about having misbehavior. The selections classified
misbehavior a state of mind in which you are not intellectually capable of thinking something at
the moment which every idea of misbehaving for them is some also said that misbehaving is
doing something In private like talking, sleeping, and drawing.
Most of the selections described feeling of being bored or having too much to do their
experiences of misbehavior. They said the things they do when the teacher is in front while the
subject is boring. The selections also said that if the subject is not eye catching and boring they
lose their concentration
Not eye catching and it is boring… I lose my concentration and cannot focus
properly…, I try to do something else like eating food, sleeping…, and chit chatting with other
because it makes me happy. (student no.08)…..
The selections struggled to concentrate about the subject because they stated that not
eye catching and boring. Because they are just explaining the topic and they are not doing
something to makes their students excited to the subject. They also couldn’t listen because of
certain factor we will state as the analysis proceeds. The next supporting theme was they can’t
enjoy the topic. Mainly the selections described it as a pathological way of thinking nothing.
They cannot fully enjoy what the teacher was showing thus making them think of nothing and
leading to misbehavior this is also supported by the theme Lack of focus because they are
bored and they will have the tendency to not concentrate that is why they don’t understand
what the teacher is talking about and also vice versa they are not interested in the topic that
the teachers is saying or showing. The feeling of misbehaving, The primary theme the feeling of
boredom , included three supporting themes boring teacher ,seatmate is comfortable than the
teacher and interested with the work of seatmates. We asked about the experience of
misbehavior study participants described misbehavior with emotional such as sleepy, lack of
attentiveness, lack of focus and tend to escape. The supporting theme boring subject is one of
the common problem of the students in the study endorsed the feeling of bored on the subject.
bored was described it creates barriers among the students.
If the teacher is bore….ah ..teachi…the teachers teaching skills is vey boring then your
seatmate is much more interesting to talk to than recites, b-become more active in class.
the misbehavior was described as a inappropriate feeling. Three students also described it as
literally boring and they don’t feel like doing anything because the teachers teaching skills is
boring and all they want to do is talk to their seatmate. The supporting theme seatmate is more
comfortable than the teacher was something all of us do. It’s like being bored today so won’t
do anything exciting but to talk and talk, eat, sleep and play with your phones with your
classmates and wait until your break time. Interested with the work of seatmates is one of the
supporting theme which was viable reason on misbehaving and the reason not to think anything
but the work of the seatmate during the class hour and it is also stated the feeling of not
capable of thinking or doing what the teacher say.
RESPONSE OF MISBEHAVIOR
One of the reasons why student misbehave in class is they are bored or if there is no teacher
which lead to the acts that is negative like talking but some students prefer to make their time
wise like improving their skill in drawing and writing. “because I don’t want to be bored and
palaging gusting may ginagawa ma makakatulong sap ag-aaral.”
Some students tend to scape and leave the remaining class and have themselves happy by
playing computer games. Some of the selections say that they leave the class if they are bored.
“if they are bored to a certain subject they always invited me to escape and play computer
games.”
Some of the selection say that they just attend the class even with a personal problem or their
just go with the flow. No, even if I have a problem i always try overcome i it and listen to my
teachers because i will not gain anything if i let my problems affect me.
The student response is sometimes different to the way they act to the classroom some is bored
but they will sleep, some has no focus but prefer talking to their seatmate or scape in class.
REASONS FOR THEIR MISBEHAVIOR
Most of the selections say that they misbehave because of their subject teacher is boring and
talking nonsense things. “when the teacher is boring talking about nonsense things just like
reading a ppt presented on board and not explaining it properly I lose my interest to listen.” The
way the teacher teach also affect the student behavior . “example is if the teacher is very good
and has a lot of teaching technics if he/she caught my attention then I would listen and try to
enjoy the subject”
The subject affect also the student to misbehave and they prefer to talk with their seatmates
and do something in class.” the teacher is not interesting you and the lesson is not interesting
you have your classmates to talk to so it affects”
Some of the selections say that they want to listen to the subject if it’s comfortable for them then
they will easily understand the lesson “it is easy for me to concentrate and mas komporatable
ako sa subject so mas madali kong maintindihan yung lesson”
ADAPTATION
This topic shows different feelings the selections in doing the counter act not to misbehave in
class. Some of the selections say that being bored is not a reason to misbehave. “being bored in
class, I think no because if i-I personally I don’t get bored at class that easy so for me uhm being
bored is not a reason for you to misbehave it’s actually the, actually it’s the one who’s letting
you fix you on class because your ugh… most of the time you’re going to sleep the kind of things
like that”. Being participative in class is said by our one selection. “ugh, oo naman kapag yun
ugh… interest ka talaga na mag aral or pakinggan yung itinuturo ng teacher mo parang dun ka
nag fofocus yung talagang kailangan mong matutunan yung itinuturo nya as in na parang…
yung yun, marami akong matutunan pag siyay interesting”
DISCUSSIONS
The main purpose of this study was to explore the grade 12 STEM students towards the cause of
misbehaviors and to identify the most common, disruptive and unacceptable student problem
behaviors. The selections in this study are experiencing misbehavior in class like talking with
seatmate, sleeping, and drawing. Misbehavior in the classroom disrupts students’ attention and
negatively impacts the learning environment. Misbehavior was categorized by the experience
of misbehavior, the response to misbehavior, reason for their misbehavior and assimilation. In
addition, we investigated possible gender effect. They also reported responding to misbehavior
by controlling yourself, do not loss your focus, and escaping through distraction and avoidant
behaviors. Stressor that affected this group was widespread and included having a family
problem, lack of attentiveness, and loss of focus. Finally, coping with students’ misbehavior was
mostly identified in areas of spontaneous change, stay calm, and feeling more comfortable with
themselves.

There were some unique findings of this study, although most of the categories of
problem behaviors identified are similar to those reported in the previous studies. First, “lack of
attentiveness” was regarded as a student problem behavior in STEM12 students. In this
category, on top of dealing with personal stuff, doing other homework, reading, and drawing
that are unrelated to the lesson, this study showed that using electronic devices (e.g., mobile
phone, laptop etc.) for texting, playing games, surfing webpage, and listening to music were
regarded as problematic nowadays. With particular focus to STEM 12 students, mobile phones
are popular among adolescents. As these electronic devices are multifunctional and audio-
visual stimulating, some students would be tempted to use them for communication and fulfilling
personal satisfaction even during lesson that may lead to loss their focus and to misbehave.
Actually, doing something in private is an off-task behavior in which students are doing
something irrelevant to classroom learning. Others, like sleeping, and family problems were not
grouped together as a category of problem behaviors in this study because they were
mentioned as related to the fact that students were tired, lazy, or lacking learning motivation.
Bores was a single category, because it was an obvious off-task behavior and would be
disruptive if students imitate each other.

Limitations of the study


Interviews were administered after we are finish our data gathering tool this month, which
required students to reflect on their own current behavior. In the beginning of the school year,
the number of acts of misbehavior might have been fewer since students were focusing their
energy on adapting to the new physical and social environments, as well as to new routines.
Collecting data in the first semester of the school year might have resulted in a more accurate
measurement of students’ misbehavior since acts of misbehavior might have increased.
However, this issue is theoretical and may not have had a significant influence on the data
collected in the current study.
Although some unique findings were observed in this study, there were some limitations involved.
First, as only nine students from grade 12 STEM were involved, representativeness of the findings
should be viewed with caution. Second, as only students were interviewed, the findings may
reveal the assumptions and biases of the students due to their social role. Therefore, it would be
more comprehensive if the views of the teachers can be also included. Apart from looking at
the categorization and descriptions of student problem behaviors, it would be more insightful if
the antecedents of these behaviors or effective classroom management strategies could be
explored in future. In particular, it would be exciting to see how curricular-based programs can
help to reduce classroom misbehavior.

CONCLUSION

This study examined aspects of student’s well-being in the presence of misbehavior. It has been
well documented that the perception of a positive psychosocial classroom environment is
associated with positive cognitive and affective learning outcomes (Fraser, 1989). The
perception of the classroom climate is an important determinant of student success and well-
being. In a cyclical manner, presence of misbehavior could harm students’ perceptions of the
classroom environment and classroom climate, resulting in reduced student learning and an
increase in misbehavior (MacAulay, 1990). This study provides more support for the need to
develop better intervention programs and behavioral techniques to help teachers understand
the link between student perceptions and behavior and implement appropriate interventions.

In this study, students were asked about their behavior and what motivated them to misbehave.
In this way, a more current and specific idea of the factors that promote misbehavior was
gained, and problem areas that were in need of more attention were identified. This knowledge
is necessary to begin the process of guiding and changing student beliefs and perspectives of
behavior and promote greater behavior with all students. Students across STEM 12 agreed that
misbehavior often arose when students lacked engagement in classroom activities. This finding
emphasizes the role the teacher plays in promoting this lack of control, since they guide
classroom activities. This study provides support for current research indicating that to promote
good behavior, teachers must tailor their lessons to the learning, interest, and motivational needs
of their students in order to engage them fully in classroom activities.

When misbehavior occurs in classrooms, the well-being of all students is threatened and
classroom management techniques are employed. It is therefore the teacher who plays a
central role in controlling and maintaining a supportive classroom environment through the use
of classroom management techniques. Sadly, it is also likely that problems with classroom
management contribute significantly to the problem of student misbehavior in the classroom,
which ultimately undermines student learning (Lewis, Newcomer, Trussell & Richter, 2006). Results
of this study give educators insight into how best to guide theory and practice in the area of
classroom management. Importantly, the findings also give force to the nature and type of
positive interventions that will enhance student learning and behavior. This study also gives
educators some clues about how students are affected by and make decisions about their own
behavior and what motivates them to misbehave. With this knowledge, more effective
strategies and behavioral management programs can be developed that better target
problem behavior.
REFRENCES:

Allen, J. D. (1986). Classroom management: Students’ perspectives, goals, and strategies.


American Educational Research Journal, 23, 437-459.

Ajzen, I., & Madden, T. J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior:


Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental
Social Psychology, 22, 453–474.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning.


Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.

Bradshaw, C.P., Mitchell, M.M. & Leaf, P.J. (2010) Examining the effects of schoolwide
positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes. Journal of
Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.

Bru, E. (2009). Academic outcomes in school classes with markedly disruptive pupils.
Social Psychology Education, 12, 461-479.

D. F. Reed and C. Kirkpatrick, Disruptive Students in the Classroom: A Review of the


Literature, Metropolitan Educational
Research Consortium, Richmond, VA, USA, 1998.

H. L. Johnson and H. L. Fullwood, “Disturbing behaviors in the secondary classroom: how


do general educators perceive problem behaviors?” Journal of Instructional Psychology, vol.
33, no. 1, pp. 20–39, 2006.

C. Ho and J. Leung, “Disruptive classroom behaviors of secondary and primary school


students,” Journal of Educational Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 219–233, 2002.

Allen, J. D. (1986). Classroom management: Students’ perspectives, goals, and strategies.


American Educational Research Journal, 23, 437-459. Ashton, P. (1984).

Teacher efficacy: A motivational paradigm for effective teacher education. Journal of Teacher
Education, 35, 28-32. Ajzen, I., & Madden, T. J. (1986).

Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral


control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 453–474.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and actions: A social


cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative


Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

Brophy, J., & Evertson, C. M. (1978). Context variables in teaching 1. Educational


Psychologist, 12, 310-316. Bru, E. (2009). Academic outcomes in school classes with markedly
disruptive pupils. Social Psychology Education, 12, 461-479.

Charles, C.M. (1999). Building classroom discipline. New York, NY: Addison Wesley
Longman, Inc.
Crocker, R.K. & Brooker, G.M. (1986). Classroom control and student outcomes in grades
2 and 5. American Educational Research, 23, 1-11.

De Fraine, B. (2003). Cognitive and non-cognitive effects of achievement-oriented


climate, community-oriented climate, and social composition in classes and
schools: Explorations with multilevel models. Leuven, Belgium: Catholic University Leuven.

B. Thompson, “Disruptive behaviours in Barbadian classrooms: implications for universal


secondary education in the
Caribbean,” Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies, vol. 34, no.
3, pp. 39–58, 2009.

R. Jessor and S. L. Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A


Longitudinal Study of Youth, Academic Press, New York, USA, 1977.

R. Jessor, M. S. Turbin, F. M. Costa, Q. Dong, H. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Adolescent


problem behavior in China and the United States: a cross-national study of psychosocial
protective factors,” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 329–
360, 2003.

A. T. Vazsonyi, P. Chen, D. D. Jenkins, E. Burcu, G. Torrente, and C. Sheu, “Jessor’s


problem behavior theory: cross-national evidence from Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia,
Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 46,
no. 6, pp. 1779–1791, 2010.

M. Ding, Y. Li, X. Li, and G. Kulm, “Chinese teachers’ perceptions of students’ classroom
misbehaviour,” Educational Psychology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 305–324, 2008.

E. Little, “Secondary school teachers’ perceptions of students’ problem behaviours,”


Educational Psychology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 369–377, 2005.

M. B. Miles and A. M. Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New


Methods, Sage, Oaks, California, USA, 1994.

D. T. L. Shek and R. C. F. Sun, “Development, implementation and evaluation of a holistic


positive youth development program: project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong,” The International Journal
on Disability and Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 107–117, 2009.

I. T. Ho, “A comparison of Australian and Chinese teachers’ attributions for student


problem behaviors,” Educational Psychology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 375–391, 2004.

K. Wheldall and F. Merrett, “Which classroom behaviors do


primary school teachers say they find most troublesome,”
Educational Review, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 13–27, 1988.

S. Houghton, K. Wheldall, and F. Merrett, “Classroom behavior problems which secondary


school teachers say they find most troublesome,” Journal of British Educational Research, vol. 14,
no. 3, pp. 297–312, 1988.
C. Arbuckle and E. Little, “Teachers’ perceptions and management of disruptive
classroom behaviour during the middle years (years five to nine),” Australian Journal of
Educational & Developmental Psychology, vol. 4, pp. 59–70, 2004.

Travis, F. (1998). Cortical and cognitive development in 4th, 8th and 12th grade students:
The contribution of speed of processing and executive functioning to cognitive development.
Biological Psychology, 48, 37-56.

Patrick, H., Kaplan, A. & Ryan, A. M. (2007). Early adolescents’ perceptions of the
classroom environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 99, 83-98.

Perry, B., Donovan, M. P., Kelsey, L. J., Paterson, J., Statkiewicz, W., & Allen, R. D. (1986).
Two schemes of intellectual development: A comparison of development as defined by William
Perry and Jean Piaget. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 73-83.

Pittman, K. (1992). Let’s make youth work a field. Youth Today, 1, 27.

Rogers, C. & Freiberg, H.J. (1994). Freedom to learn, 3rd edition. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Samdal, O.,Wold B. & Bronis M. (1999). Relationship between students perceptions of school
environment, their satisfaction with school and perceived academic achievement: An
international study. School Effectiveness and School
Improvement, 10, 296–320.

Schunk, D. H. (1984). Self-efficacy perspective on achievement behavior. Educational


Psychologist, 19, 48-58.

Seal, D. W., Bogart, L. M., Ehrhardt, A. A. (1998). Small group dymanics: the utility of focus
group discussions as a research method. Group Dynamics: Theory,
Research, and Practice, 2, 253-266.

Seidman, A. (2005). The learning killer: Disruptive student behavior in the classroom.
Reading Improvement, 42, 40. Supaporn, S. (2000). High school students’ perspectives about
misbehavior. Physical
Educator, 57, 124–135.

Van Damme, J., de Fraine, B., Van Landeghem, G., Opdenakker, M.C. & Onghena, P.
(2002). A new study on educational effectiveness in secondary schools in flanders: An
introduction. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 13, 383–397.

Van Petegem, K., Aelterman, A., Rosseel, Y. & Creemers, B. (2007). Student perception as
moderator for student wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 83, 447-463.

Van Petegem, K., Aelterman, A., Van Keer, H. & Rosseel, Y. (2008). The influence on
student characteristics and interpersonal teacher behaviour in the classroom on student’s
wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 85, 279-291.

Walberg, H. J., House, E. R., & Steele, J. M. (1973). Grade level, cognition, and affect: A
cross-section of classroom perceptions. Journal of educational psychology, 64,142.
Welch, W. W. (1979). Curricular and longitudinal effects on learning environments.
Educational environments and effects: Evaluation, policy and productivity, 167-179.

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Mac Iver, D., Reuman, D. A., & Midgley, C. (1991). Transitions
during early adolescence: Changes in children's domain-specific self-perceptions and general
self-esteem across the transition to junior high school. Developmental Psychology, 27(4), 552.