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2010

Faculty of Engineering
NUS

Faizan Abid
U096070W
Lab Group:
2C1

[ME2134-2 FLOW & ENERGY LOSS]


Laboratory Report
Objectives
Following are the objectives for this experiment:

 To familiarize with the various flow measuring devices such as the Venturi meter, Orifice
meter and the rotameter.

 Understand what the coefficient of discharge, Cd is and how to measure Cd for Venturi
meter and the Orifice meter.

 Understand how a rotameter could be calibrated by measuring the flow rate and length.

 Understand the difference between theoretical and actual readings, by calculating the
energy losses in Venturi meter, Orifice meter, Rotameter, Wide Angle Diffuser and the
90o, and estimating the pressure losses in the mentioned devices.

Computation
Question 1
Table 1: Raw Data Sheet

Trial Manometer Reading Rotameter Weig Time


Diameters
No. A B C D E F G H I Reading ht (s)
(kg)
DA = DC =26 1 324 178 300 307 317 151 178 143 29 160 5.0 14.56
DB =16 10.0 28.64
DD = DE = DG 2 298 186 279 285 294 164 185 159 50 140 5.0 17.10
=
DH51= DI = 26 10.0 32.50
3 275 192 260 263 270 177 192 174 68 120 5.0 19.25
Areas 10.0 38.42
AC = 531 4 259 197 248 251 256 185 196 183 78 100 5.0 22.56
AB =201 10.0 44.57
AD = AG =2043 5 245 201 237 239 243 196 200 191 87 80 5.0 24.35
AF =2043 10.0 50.73
AH =531 6 234 204 227 228 231 200 205 199 97 60 5.0 33.71
10.0 65.40

Temperature (T) = 25oC


Table 2: Processed Data Sheet 1

Venturi Orifice Diffuser Elbow


Rotameter
QT Q'T Loss Loss Loss Loss Rotameter Loss
Trial QA Venturi Orifice
Reading HV HO HD HE HR
No. (mm3/s) (mm3/s) (mm3/s)
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

1 60 1.506 1.667 2.480 7 19.568 2.824 2.176 102

2 80 2.012 2.018 3.053 8 26.587 4.825 2.175 104

3 100 2.230 2.396 3.753 11 45.933 5.384 4.616 105

4 120 2.600 2.772 4.295 15 58.920 8.397 6.603 106

5 140 3.000 3.220 5.078 19 84.627 9.174 10.826 109

6 160 3.463 3.677 5.738 24 105.537 13.219 14.781 114

Table 3: Processed data sheet 2

Trial Actual Velocity Reynolds Velocity Reynolds Velocity Reynolds Velocity Reynolds Loss Loss Loss Loss Loss
No Flow VB No VC No VO No VH No Factor Factor Factor Factor Factor

QA NRB NRC NRO NRH KV KO KD KR KE

(mm3/s) (mms-1) (mms-1) (mms-1) (mms-1)

X105 X104 X104 X104 X104

1 1.506 749.0 1.343 283.65 0.8265 479.37 1.0740 283.65 0.8265 0.2448 1.671 0.6886 24.87 0.5306

2 2.012 1001 1.795 378.96 1.1040 640.44 1.4350 378.96 1.1040 0.1566 1.272 0.6592 14.21 0.2971

3 2.230 1109 1.988 420.02 1.2240 709.83 1.5910 420.02 1.2240 0.1755 1.789 0.5988 11.68 0.5134

4 2.600 1293 2.318 489.71 1.4270 827.60 1.8550 489.71 1.4270 0.1760 1.688 0.6870 8.672 0.5402

5 3.000 1492 2.675 565.05 1.6460 954.93 2.1400 565.05 1.6460 0.1675 1.821 0.5637 6.698 0.6653

6 3.463 1722 3.088 652.25 1.9000 1102.3 2.4710 652.25 1.9000 0.1588 1.704 0.6096 5.257 0.6817
Question 2

4.000
3.500 y = 0.9343x + 0.016
3.000
QA x 105 (mm3/s)

2.500
2.000
Q_A vs Q_T
1.500
Linear (Q_A vs Q_T)
1.000
0.500
0.000
0.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000
QT x 105 (mm3/s)

Coefficient of discharge,

Question 3

4.000
3.500 y = 0.5717x + 0.1439
3.000
QA x 105 (mm3/s)

2.500
2.000
1.500 Q_A vs Q_T'
1.000 Linear (Q_A vs Q_T')
0.500
0.000
0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000
Q'Tx 105 (mm3/s)

We are given that,


After algebraic manipulation

Substituting values, we have

Question 4
Calibration curve for the rotameter

4.000
3.500 y = 0.0187x + 0.4069
3.000
QA x 105 (mm3/s)

2.500
2.000
Q_A vs L
1.500
Linear (Q_A vs L)
1.000
0.500
0.000
0 50 100 150 200
L (mm)
Question 5
HV, HO, HD, HE, HR vs QA

120
y = 5.8666x + 92.185 (H_R)

100
Head Loss ΔHV ΔH0 ΔHD ΔHE ΔHR (mm)

y = 46.667x - 58.336 (H_O)


80

H_V
60 H_D
H_E
H_R
40
H_O

y = 9.2425x - 8.8151 (H_V)


20
y = 6.9074x - 10.188 (H_E)

y = 5.2093x - 5.5554 (H_D)


0
0.000 0.500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000

QA x 105 (mm3/s)
Question 6
KV, KO, KD, KE, KR vs corresponding NR

Question 7
Sample Calculations for trial 6

I.

II.

III.
IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

X. Graph plotted for calibration curve

XI.

XII. Kinematic Viscosity of water

We are given that

T (0C) v (m2s-1)
20 1.004 x 10-6

30 0.801 x 10-6

Measured temperature = 25.5oC


Using interpolation,

XIII.

XIV.

Discussion
1. Comment on the relative advantages and disadvantages of Venturi meter, orifice plate
meter and rotameter as flow measuring devices.

Venturi Meter
Advantages

 More accurate than the rest of the flow devices

 Can be used for a wide range of flows


 More pressure can be recovered

 Smooth internal contours enable self-cleaning

Disadvantages

 Bulky and heavy, so it’s not easy to maintain

 Expensive as it is precisely engineered.

 Occupy more space, so usability might be limited

Orifice Meter
Advantages

 Easy to install, remove and maintain

 Can measure a variety of flows

 Very cheap and easy to transport

Disadvantages

 Not accurate at high rate of flows. Energy is lost to turbulence created due to
sudden constriction.

 Less pressure is recovered

Rotameter
Advantages

 Ability to measure very small flows

 Minimal pressure loss; relatively constant

 Easily read off the readings

 No external power is required

 Easily be manufactured at low costs.

Disadvantages

 Needs to calibrated for different fluids


 Must always be vertically aligned with the fluid flowing upward. Thus, usability
is limited

 Energy is lost by the fluid against gravity. This is indicated by the Head Loss,
which is highest for the Rotameter

2. Comment on the head losses associated with all the flow meters studied in this
experiment, emphasizing the relationship between mechanism of loss generation and its
magnitude.

Rotameter
Rotameter has the largest head losses which is mainly because more energy is lost by the
fluid in the Rotameter. While there is friction between the walls and the fluid, some
energy is also lost in sustaining the float’s height and moving against gravity. It can be
observed, however, that the head losses in Rotameter show less variation and dependency
on the change of flow rate (as the gradient of ΔHR against QA is smallest).

Orifice Meter
The head loss of Orifice meter is generally smaller than the Rotameter but higher than the
Venturi meter. But the head losses and hence the energy losses increase with the increase
in flow rate which is indicated by the high slope of the head loss versus flow rate line for
the Orifice Meter. This constriction causes the formation of eddies downstream after the
Orifice plate resulting in energy loss.

Venturi Meter
The average head loss for Venturi meter is much smaller than both other devices.
Moreover, the energy loss with the increase in flow rate is also low (slope of head loss
versus flow rate graph is low). This is mainly due its design, which doesn’t cause any
abrupt changes in flow. Only a small amount of energy is lost, mainly due to friction with
walls.
3. Explain with the aid of simple sketches what is the vena contractor of an orifice meter?

As the fluid passes through the orifice place, encounters a sharp change in the stream’s
diameter. Once it crosses the constriction downstream, there is a point where the stream
has the smallest diameter possible. This point is known as the vena contracta. Since there
could be no smaller diamieter, fluid flow separation occurs right after the vena contracta.

7. Comment on the limitations and major sources of error in this experiment.

Limitations:

 This experiment cannot give accurate measurements for high flow rates as that
would cause large head losses in the orifice meter and the rotameter

 The apparatus cannot be used for highly viscous fluids.

Sources of errors:

 Parallax error may occur while reading from the manometer and rotameter
markings

 The meniscus is often not clearly visible

 Human reaction time error when noting down the time taken for water to be
collected in the tank

 The pump was powered by an AC motor and thus, any changes in the motor’s
speed would affect the Mass flow rate. Thus, there might be fluctuations in the
mass flows rate, that would directly affect the readings taken from manometer and
rotameter
 The readings on manometer are never exactly stable (meniscus keeps on
oscillating)

Conclusion
This experiment gave a hands-on experience with the main apparatus used for measuring fluid
flow. The computation and readings taken from the apparatus reveal much about their working
and give an idea regarding the relative advantages and disadvantages of each. Calculation of the
head losses enables one to decide which apparatus is better for measuring fluid flow. Most
importantly, by understanding the characteristics of each apparatus, one is able to decide what is
the most appropriate apparatus for measuring different fluid flows, keeping in mind their relative
costs.