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J. Ruud van Ommen
Reactor & Catalysis Engineering Delft University of Technology E-mail: email@example.com Glatt Seminar 18 March 2003
Fluidized bed: particles suspended in an upward gas stream
drag force equals gravitational force
Outline Classification: Particle size Hydrodynamic regime (~ gas velocity) Lay-out Design Applications Typical properties: Low pressure drop Heat and mass transfer Erosion / measurements Segregation and agglomeration Modelling Summary References .
Geldart’s powder classification .
Geldart’s powder classification C Cohesive 0-30 µm flour Drag Attraction A Aeratable 30-100 µm milk powder Gravity B Bubbling 100-1000 µm sand D Spoutable >1000 µm coffee beans .
Geldart’s powder classification A powder (30-100 µm) maximum bubble size B powder (100-1000 µm) bubbles keep on growing From CD-ROM: Laboratory Demonstrations in Particle Technology. M. Rhodes .
Geldart’s powder classification C powder (<30 µm) very cohesive D powder (>1000 µm) spouted fluidization From CD-ROM: Laboratory Demonstrations in Particle Technology. M. Rhodes .
0 0 4 8 Dimensionless kinetic rate constant [-] .0 0.Influence of particle size distribution 20 mass% 15 10 0 Conversion [-] 5 0 50 100 150 particle diameter [micron] 1.5 wide size distribution narrow size distribution 20 mass% 15 10 5 0 Adapted from Sun & Grace (1990) 0.
Fluidization Regimes fixed bed homogeneous bubbling slugging solids returns turbulent fast fluidization solids returns pneumatic transport solids returns gas gas only A powders at low gas velocity gas gas only narrow beds gas gas gas gas velocity .
Fluidized bed lay-outs laterally staged bed circulating bed turbulent bed bubbling bed vertically staged bed spouted bed riser downer floating bed twin bed .
Fluidized bed design product gas cyclones freeboard heat exchange tubes reactant gas windbox/plenum .
phtalic anhydride.. vinyl acetate.g.Applications Physical processes: heat exchange drying coating granulation gas purification via adsorption Chemical processes: Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Synthesis reactions (e. acrylonitrile) Polymerization of olefines (ethylene. propylene) Silicon production Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of gasoline Fluid Coking and Flexi-Coking Coal / biomass / waste combustion Coal / biomass / waste gasification .
Low pressure drop Packed bed pressure drop gas velocity pressure drop Fluidized bed Lower pressure drop lower power costs onset of fluidization gas velocity .
large bubbles decrease the mass transfer Research decrease bubble size Bubble: shortcut of gas Interstitial gas: effective .Heat and mass transfer Heat transfer: particle to wall or internal Mass transfer: gas to particle Fluidized beds show an excellent heat transfer Mixing of solids by (large) bubbles almost constant temperature throughout the reactor However.
TU Delft Fractal injector Pulsed gas injection Optimizing particle properties Coppens and Lems. TU Delft Coppens et al.. TU Delft Van Ommen et al.. Nagoya Inst of Techn.Ways to decrease the bubble size Vibration Magnetic field Electric field rel. TU Delft . bubble size 0.. Rosensweig..6 Mori et al. Exxon 1 0 field strength [kV/cm] 5 Kleijn van Willigen et al.
. Kentucky Energy Cabinet Lab.Erosion / measurements Fluidized bed: • often high temperature • often chemically aggressive • large mechanical stress Erosion Cross-sectional picture of thermocouple (Sethi et al.) High erosion rate Opaque nature Only few measurement techniques are available! Industrial fluidized beds: only pressure and temperature measurements on a routinely base..
. Kuipers. et al. Twente University More information presentation ‘Agglomeration detection’ this afternoon . Agglomeration problems occur in various fluidized bed processes Hoomans.Segregation and agglomeration Difference in size and/or density can lead to segregation of the particles.
. Hoomans. et al. Kuipers. of Techn. Oregon State Univ.. Twente Univ. Models still show shortcomings scaling-up remains troublesome . Delft Univ.Modelling Simple engineering models Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) ‘Two fluid’ model Two-region model Discrete particle model Levenspiel. Van Wachem. Van den Bleek. et al.
Mass transfer .Erosion .Summary Fluidized bed: particles suspended in a gas stream Particle size and gas velocity strongly influence the fluidized bed behaviour Large range of application and many different lay-out + Low pressure drop + Heat transfer +/.Segregation & agglomeration Improvement of models is still continuing .
. Chem. 102 (1999) pp. ISBN 0409902330 Gas Fluidization. Mell Pell. ISBN 0444883355 Circulating Fluidized Beds. Bi et al. Werther.. Powder Technol.nl/~vanommen . (2000) 55. ISBN 0751402710 Articles: Review turbulent fluidization.More information Books: Fluidization Engineering. 4789 Measurement techniques.Eng.htm This presentation: www.dct. Grace.Sci.erpt. 15 Web-sites: Tutorials: www. Kunii & Levenspiel.tudelft.org/technoar/fluidbed. pp.