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To Improve The Student Conceptual Understanding Using Thermal

Radiation Experiment Tool

Adam Malik1*, Syifa Nurfalah1, Nurhayati1, Rizki Zakwandi1

Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati, Jl. A.H. Nasution 105 Bandung, West Java,


Keywords: Experiment learning, Conceptual Understanding, and Experiment Tool

Abstract: The thermal radiation process is one of much of abstract phenomenon. Learn of radiation process
using the conventional method will make the student boring in the class and make the passive
learning. This study aims to improve the student conceptual understanding of the thermal
radiation matter through the experimentally learning using thermal radiation experiment tool. The
method that uses in this research is Pre-Experiment with One-Group Pre-Post Test design. The
subjects in this study are students of XI-MIA II of Al-Ma’soem Senior High School. The data was
collected using the instrument of pretest-posttest and to analyze using N-Gain Result of the study
give the pre-knowledge of the student with value 43.7 and the post-knowledge after learning with
value 49.7. The Increase of The student conceptual understanding is shown by the value of N-
Gain 0.093 and deviation with value 0.334. The conclusion of this research is the experimentally
learning use thermal radiation experiment tool may improve the student conceptual understanding
of thermal radiation matter.
1 INTRODUCTION. experiment learning is fun, take enthusiasm,
improve the perception and increase the creativity.
The physic learning has studied the natural But the weakness of the experiment learning in
phenomenon. Therefore the matter in the learning need of cost and time more. Else the experiment
must be oriented to the real phenomenon. [1]. The learning may take more ability of the teacher and
student during the learn [7].
physic learning demand of the students to building
The experiment learning will be effective if
the conceptual through experiment. Although The
measure with authentic assessment. One of them is
result of field studies give the information that
a portfolio. Portfolio assessment may to use during
much of the physic teachers still using the or end of the experiment learning. Chen (2006)
conventional method. says that portfolio is the work of the student is
Experiment tool is an alternative to solve the collected to get the value and as the recapitulation
problem. Experiment tool helping the teacher to of student development [8].
teach the matter. Else, the experiment tool possible Based on the explanation and references to the
the teacher to make experiment learning and it may problems this research aims to increase the student
take enthusiasm of the student [2]. The past conceptual understanding through the experiment
research has shown the result that the experiment learning use the experiment tool of thermal
tool obtains to increase the student conceptual radiation. The portfolio assessment uses the pre-
understanding and their critical thinking [3]. test, post-test, and the worksheet.
Indonesian curriculum of 2013 say that physic
learning in senior high school have some purpose
such as 1) to develop student understanding about
natural phenomenon, concept, science principal 3 METHOD
that give the benefit for the live, 2) to develop
curiosity, positive attitude and awareness about the The research is kind of description research that
relation of science, environment, technology and use a Pre-Experimental method and one group pre-
the people, 3) to increase the knowledge, concept, test posttest design. The subject of this research is
and skill of thinking as the foundation to take the student of physics education department of UIN
higher education, 4) doing the inquiry science to Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung and the student of
below the skill of thinking, attitude, act, and Al-ma'soem senior high school. Before the learning
communication as an scientist. The statement is students given the pre-test in 7 question. The data
shown the science essence as the process is needed will be used to diagnose of students pre-knowledge.
to make the learning that empirical and factual. The The treatment of the research is learning use the
process of science in physic learning is done by experiment tool of thermal radiation. The students
inquiry learning that teaches the student how to get are doing an experiment to get the data. The data
the science product [4]. must be must be calculated and the students must
Asy’ari (2006) says that the process skill that be written an experimental report on their
must be developed in the science learning as worksheet. In the end of learning the student must
observe, measuring, clarify, communication, be answered the post-test to diagnose the
knowing relation of time and place, design and knowledge after treatment [9]. The instrument test
doing the experiment, build a hypothesis, take the is referred to the indicator of conceptual
variable, build the operational definition, understanding [10].
interpreted data, analyse, and synthesise data [5].
Poedjiati (2005) add the statement about the Table 1. Indicator of conceptual understanding
foundation skill in science process as observe,
calculating, clarify and build a hypothesis [6]. No Indicator
Based on the explanation we get the conclusion 1 Explaining
that process skill of scientific methods including 2 Comparing
the fundamental skill and integration skill. Both
may to train the student to found and solve the 3 Summarizes
problem using the scientific method and will 4 Conclude
produce the science product such as fact, concept, 5 Classify
law, and theory. 6 Give an Example
The experiment learning in physic using
experiment tool make the student skill of creative 7 Interpreted
thinking and science attitude increase as
significant. Student response to the learning in a The indicators of conceptual understanding are
general way is good. So the learning based on the using to measure of student ability that classifies in
experiment must be adapted to the each of matter in three that translation, interpretation, and
physic learning. The study about the response of extrapolation. Translation is the student ability to
learning gives information that student happy after understanding the matter in another way to
doing an experiment. Their opinion about explaining. Interpretation as the student ability to
understanding the matter and can to representation 4 Conclude 0,00 Low
the matter in the other type such as curve table or 5 Classify 0,52 Middle
diagram. Extrapolation is the student ability to
6 Give an Example 0,06 Low
summarizing of the matter and may to write the
result in another type based the data and may to 7 Interpreted 0,05 Low
predict of consequence [11]
Data analyze is use Gain Normalized (N-Gain) Data in table 3 is shown the value of the
and effect size (d-value) to see the effect of average of effect size. Molefe says the interpreted
learning using the experiment tool of thermal of effect size classify in three that low, middle and
radiation toward student conceptual understanding. high. The value of effect size is low if d-value<0.3
The value of effect size is calculating in and it means the learning is not given effect to the
mathematically using the equation as follow [12]: student. The middle of effect size with value d-
value ≥0.3 and it means the learning give the

M l  M B  (1)
significant effect on the student [14].
Based on table 3 we have the highest number of
SD p d-value is 0.86 at explanation aspect that indicates

SD 
that student can to explain the thermal radiation
 SDl2 very well. The lowest value contained in the aspect
SD p  B
(2) of concluding in the interpreted the learning is not
given the increase of student skill to make a
with d is effect size, M1 is the post-test average, M2
conclusion of the data or learn. The result is
pre-test average and the SDP is pooled of the
different with the earlier research by Asmi that say
standard of deviation.
student get the effect size in each aspect with value
0.57 or interpreted middle [15].
In the whole of student attainment is shown in
4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION table 4 as follow:
Table 4 Pre-test and Post-test value
The result of the research is shown the increase Experiment Classes
of student conceptual understanding in thermal No Subject
radiation matter. The Analysis is done to get the Pretest Posttest
information of the effect of the experiment learning 1 A1 32.1 42.9
using the tool toward the student conceptual 2 A2 41.1 33.9
understanding. The classify base the indicators in 3 A3 33.9 41.1
cognitive aspect of taxonomy Bloom as follow:
Table 2 Value of N-Gain each indicator 4 A4 30.4 37.5
No Indicator N-Gain Interpreted 5 A5 53.6 51.8
1 Explaining 0,03 Low 6 A6 32.1 37.5
2 Comparing -0,005 Low 7 A7 21.4 17.9
3 Summarizes 0,02 Low 8 A8 40.0 75.7
4 Conclude 0,00 Low 9 A9 72.9 66.4
5 Classify 0,016 Low 10 A10 72.9 75.7
6 Give an Example -0,003 Low
11 A11 50.0 65.7
7 Interpreted -0,002 Low
Average 43,7 49,7
Data in table 2 give the information that the
increase of student conceptual understanding is N-Gain 0,093
low. It is seen in the value of N-Gain average < 0.3. d-value 0,334
Generally, the learning of thermal radiation uses
the experiment tool of thermal radiation in no effect
to student conceptual understanding [13].
The N-Gain analyze is not shown the increase
of the student conceptual understanding. Another
analyze using effect size may be used to show the
minimum effect of the learning. Effect size may to
calculated use the equation (1) and (2).
Table 3 d-value number of each indicator
No Indicator d-value Interpreted
1 Explaining 0,86 High
2 Comparing 0,22 Low
3 Summarizes 0,68 Middle
5 The worksheet very help 2,75
A11 65.7
50.0 The worksheet makes student
A10 75.7 6 2,75
72.9 into the scientist
A9 66.4 The worksheet make student
A8 75.7
7 to solve the real-life problem 2,75
40.0 in physic
A6 37.5
32.1 8 Interesting design 2,75
A5 51.8
53.6 9 Easy to use 2,75
A3 41.1 10 Simply to collect the data 2,75
A2 33.9 The tool represents concept
41.1 11 2,75
A1 42.9 very well
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 12 The tool has good operate 2,75
13 The tool is new innovation 2,75
Figure 1. Curve of pre-test and post-test
Based on table 3 and figure 1 we have the pre- The tool makes the curiosity
14 2,75
knowledge of the student in the thermal radiation and creativity increase
matter with average 43.7. After the treatment, the EXPERIMENT LEARNING
student gets an increase of the value until 49.7. The practicum make the
Analyse using N-Gain give the increase of the 15 curiosity and creativity 3,33
student conceptual understanding with amount increase
0.093. The result in the interpreted included to the
The practicum is new
low category [13]. Also, based on Molefe method 16 2,75
innovation in physic learning
to using the effect size given the value of d-value
0.334 with the interpreted middle. The result The practicum increases the
indicates that the experiment learning uses the 17 conceptual understanding of 2,75
experiment tool of thermal radiation give the effect thermal radiation matter
of increases the student conceptual understanding The practicum teach how to
but is not too significant. 18 2,75
be the scientist
The success of the learning is caused by the
success of experiment so the data that collect is The practicum teach how to
19 2,75
correct. The good data make the student easy to solve the physics problems
analyze and easy to get the conclusion about
thermal radiation process. Teamwork and student Based on table 5 the students gave a response
being active is the principal key to get the good with average value 2.75. Interpreted of the value is
give the statement that students "agree" to use the
The student response to the learning is obtained
from the questionnaire that included 19 expressions experiment tool in the experimental learning of
with 4 level of answers. The data of response as thermal radiation matter [16]. In the average value
follow: in percentage the student giving a good response
Table 5 Percentage of student response with value 70% agree. Based on the response we
may take the conclusion that the experiment tool is
No Expressions Average
able to adapt as the solution of limitations of
Student Activity Sheet experiment tool at the school [17]. Especially, in
1 Interset design 2,75 this research, the experiment tool may to increases
the student conceptual understanding through the
experiment learning. Arsyad says that the student
2 Communicative language 2,75
response to the learning is the good way to make a
conclusion of the learning. Generally, students have
3 The worksheet is details 2,75 fun with experimental learning use the experiment
tool of thermal radiation [18].
The worksheet easy to
4 2,75
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Generally, experimental learning uses the Microcomputer-Based Methods In
experiment tool be able to increase the student Kinematics. Disertasi pada University for
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