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ESS221 Schools and Society



By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of socialization and the dimensions of socialization;
2. Cite examples of socialization inside and outside the classroom;
3. Explain the characteristics of socialization inside the classroom and
outside the classroom;
4. Suggest activities that can encourage socialization in and outside the
5. Differentiate a dominative and an integrative teacher.

Key words: socialization, behavior conformity, moral conformity, cultural
conformity, elite school, classroom culture, hidden curriculum, friendship,
gender, classroom size, outside classroom, playground, dominative behavior,
integrative behavior


In chapter 1 you were introduced to the sociological aspects of education, its
importance to society and the processes of education in schools. In this module
we will further examine the processes of education in terms of its socialization

2.1 Socialization in Comparative and Historical Perspective

What do we mean by socialization?
Socialization is the instilling of the language, values, rules and knowledge of
the culture in which you are born. During this process, we learn who we are,
and we form a social identity. Since society deems its importance, therefore,
socialization has become an important part of the schooling system and an
integral part of our life course.

We are taught to socialize at every stage of our life course, we learn new
knowledge and social skills appropriate for our age group. Whatever we
acquire at one stage becomes the foundation for the socialization of the next
stage. For example, at the primary school level, for example, we learn reading,
writing and mathematics and these became the foundation for introducing
other more difficult and complex subjects. Similarly, at this stage of the child’s

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ESS221 Schools and Society

life he learns the primary socialization; basic knowledge and values of his
society. In other words, the socialization that evolves around his family. As he
grows older, he learns the secondary socialization; synthesis, creativity, logic,
emotional control and advanced knowledge. Thus, secondary socialization
extends beyond his family to include institutions, groups and organisations and
prepares him for the outside world.

Activity 2.1
What do you understand by socialization?

Dimensions of socialization
In order to understand socialization, we need to understand the various aspects
that constitute socialization. The first aspect or dimension of socialization is
behavior conformity. If a student conformed to the rules and procedures in a
school, then we label the student as being “good.” For example, in schools we
have rules to govern students’ behaviour during the classroom lessons.
Students know that they have to raise their hands if they need to ask or answer
the teacher. If students do not comply with this expected behavior then it is the
duty of the teacher to use her power to socialize the students to conform to the
required behavior.

Similarly, socialization trained students to conform to moral behavior (moral
conformity) that are perceived as the “correct action.” Students are instilled
with moral behavior such as honesty, generosity, fairness, kindness and hard
work. In the Malaysian school curriculum, subjects such as moral and religious
subjects are taught to instil these moral behaviors.

Finally, socialization trained students for cultural conformity or acculturation.
What do you mean by cultural conformity? It means that members of a society
incorporate norms and values from other cultures into their own. The process
of cultural conformity happens through intercultural contact and the borrowing
or imitation of cultural norms. For example, English Language became the
second language in Malaysia due to earlier British colonization. Cultural
conformity may also mean acquiring approved styles and outlooks. For
example, we tend to approve students who are academically inclined rather
than those who are less inclined. This could be due to our society placing
higher emphasis on those who excel in the national examinations. Thus, the
child grows up to fit into his society.

The three types of conformity are emphasised in our schools but it is unlikely
schools will be able to successfully instil the three types. For example, in the

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broad- mindedness. cultural conformity sets in to accommodate the need to socialize with the world. Similarly. we find that in religious schools there is a higher emphasis on moral conformity where the students are expected to conform to “good behaviour. Classroom environments are conducted in informal settings and schools do not stressed on school attendance. This style of schooling is still prevalent among underdeveloped countries in the world. This was the setting during the nineteenth-century schools where children were taught virtues that reflect moral traditions. In addition. the pattern of socialization changed with very high focus on behavioural training and moral conformity.5 hours waiting during adult meetings.5 hours spent at school by the children… 30. As industries depend on export and import and international trade. and patriotism. Let us now compare the socialization changes seen in the school system as the culture of the society surrounding it transforms. politesse. and 2.  At the beginning. schools need to ensure that they implement a certain minimum level of each of the three types of conformity.  Later. 3. work ethic of industry. A portion of the class time was allocated for cleaning up the classroom. courageousness in battle. This is seen when we compare the life styles of children in the 40s and 50s with those of today. 3. ESS221 Schools and Society military academy or college. Teachers too are least committed in their daily teachings. and compassion.5 hours in sports competitions. truthfulness.5 hours in line-up activities” (p. classroom attentiveness and academic performance. love of goodness. This scenario is clearly seen in a report by Nancy Hornberger in 1987 when she visited schools in rural Peru. emphasising family and village cultures. planning. there is a higher emphasis on behaviour conformity where students are required to obey military rules and regulations. when countries became industrialized. love of independence.5 hours in which teachers were absent during school. schools need to be aware that socialization does change over time.211). the village or community activities had a slow and laid- back life style with less emphasis on the three dimensions of socialization. and prudence. out of 50. Over the seven day period.5 hours in recreation periods. respect for the rule of law and the Constitution and 3|P age . 4. endeavour. especially in terms of the messages and the techniques used.” Thus.5 hours were [spent out of the classroom] as follows: 16.

subject matters such as engineering and technical were seen fit to prepare students for the industries that were booming during that time. Cempaka. These waves of social changes had an impact on the social objectives and practices of schools throughout the world. organization becomes bureaucratic in nature with rules and routines to control the daily activities.  With increase in industries. with differences in their outlook compared to the rest. Teachers are now responsible to equip their students with mental abilities instead of the previous focus on character building. the elite few emerged as the upper class within a society to form its own pattern of socialization. schools in United States and later in Europe and the rest of the industrialised world began preparing students for jobs in bureaucracies and consumer-oriented life style of choice and variety. With this transformation. and cultural conformity. is the famous Eton school. When countries developed into industries and became capitalist. During this period. Examples of elite schools in Malaysia are those run privately such as Sri Inai.  As industries expand.2 Explain behavior conformity. moral conformity. authoritarian methods were no longer the favoured structural forms of control but instead schools became the place for active exploration and learning. ESS221 Schools and Society responsible participation in the institutions of political society. multiethnic awareness among its population has lead schools to be more sensitive on moral topics. schools tried to exposed students to the bureaucratic organization and mass consumption of the industrialized world. bureaucracy sets in.K. Aspects of cognitive development became the niche areas of most school curriculum. Activity 2. Thus. there is less emphasis on moral conformity. and International School and in U. Characteristics of elite schools 4|P age . In this new school system.

while in France. Socialization in elite schools may also reflect the types of activities these group of community practices. where their children were distanced from the normal children in the society. With every change in socialization we will also see a change in the school curriculum. transforming young Frenchmen into military. In England. with its bildungsbergertum values to cater for the upper middle class society. in United States these schools were set up in rural New England where the curriculum focus on high level of self control. Groton. industrial. The children bring to classes their refined manner which can be a model to fellow classmates. Phillips-Andover. For example. For example. To cater for the elite English society. and groom them to the privileges and power of high social status (Brint. multitasking activities. In addition. Most of these privately run schools were founded by the wealthy members of the society to cater for their children. the famous Eton public school had curriculum to groom the English aristocracy (McConnell. these children may express aloof attitude towards those who they perceived as lower in social status and may only want to socialize with peers of the same social background. while Choate. ESS221 Schools and Society The fees in these schools are expensive and thus. the British Empire was eager to spread the Christian faith in all the colonised countries thus. in Malaysia we have the Malay College Kuala Kangsar which was set up to cater for the children from the royal families as well as the wealthy Malay society. Similarly. the public schools were situated outside of London and the curriculum were designed to meet the demands of colonial administration during the British Empire. However. These schools inculcate values and expectations of the society into their curriculum to prepare the children for future leadership and administrative roles in the society. emphasising on physical fitness to groom for the battlefield. and Lawrenceville prepare students to enter elite colleges. the religious aspects was incorporated into their school curriculum. and administrative statesmen. grandes ecoles became part of the school system. 1998). On the other hand. in other European countries for example Germany. the private day and boarding schools in United States and England were meant for prominent families. instil knowledge that can be used in the future. 1985). Similarly. we have to be couscous as these changes cannot be 5|P age . only the wealthier families can afford to enrol their children in these schools.

In the early years. ESS221 Schools and Society generalized to all society. they believed that children go through two stages in their childhood. teachers tend to be more personal in their approach to the young children compared to secondary school teachers. the poorest part of the country. at the secondary schools teachers are more specialised in their course of duty to cater to the demands of more matured students and expectations of society. On the other hand. In industrialized society. in south of France a village school allows a child who is favoured by teachers to move around the school and into classes where each teacher will give her a hug. For example. Parents on the other hand. the behavioral conformity prevails where children are monitored and are expected to conform to rules and regulations. While the elite style of socialisation is still predominant among the private and boarding schools. upper-middle-class parents believed that schools should focus more on self-directed and creative schoolwork. However. At the primary school level. requiring adults to provide unconditional support. Parents on the other hand have different perceptions of schooling due to their class socialization. the child goes through a period of experimenting things around him. For example. The children lead a less disciplined life at this stage but as they grow older a highly discipline life style sets in. among Hispanic and immigrant communities. For example. On the 6|P age . Socialization also differs in the primary and secondary schools. in the United States we find that majority of people from the middle and upper middle class are prone towards bureaucracy. we may find that certain schools may want to practise certain elements of socialization that only prevails in their schools. insist that schools set strict discipline in the classes and even encouraged punishment wherever necessary. that is. in Japan. The teachers do spend time on those children who are not doing too well in school. the local economy or socio-economic status of the parents that have children in the school may create variations in the socialization of the children. not all students will have this privilege as teachers have different expectations for every child. Besides the environment of the school. Similarly. we find that they still practice the village or communal pattern of socialization. the years of innocence and the years of responsibility. For example. In such an environment the schools focused more on rote memorisation where children are assigned to task that are not challenging and undemanding. However.

patterns of socialization in a country are not static but tend to change with time. Thus. Jackson (1968. Let us enter the school and peep into the classrooms to observe the culture within it. As we can see. we see societies with higher socio- economic status moved from industrial to bureaucratic and this again has made schools shift their pattern of socialization to fit into the demand of the outside world. As we have learned earlier in this topic.3 Describe the characteristics of elite schools 2. p. these countries may not have similar pattern of socialization but the schools will fall under one of the three dimensions of socialization. Activity 2. schools tend to focus more on behavioral control and moral conformity. ESS221 Schools and Society other hand. working class parents stressed on tough discipline and strict monitoring under the supervision of the teacher. Classroom Culture As we all know classrooms are filled with children. When countries moved into the industrialization era. 10) termed it as “one teacher-many students” where these students are placed within a close proximity (classroom) and the teacher (a central figure) is in- 7|P age . However. As have been mentioned earlier. we also see the change when huge industries were built to cater for the demand in jobs. schools tend to tailor their curriculum inline with society expectations of what the younger generation should be taught. school socialisation environment prevails in all communities throughout the world.2 Socialization Inside the Classroom Malaysian schools: classroom One of the functions of schooling is socialization. Again. Today. countries started with free-flowing village pattern of socialisation.

cheating during test or exams. As we know the teacher-student interactions 8|P age . In order to understand the dynamics of classroom socialization you have to understand and recognise the importance of the classroom environment. This process may include daily features such as queuing. This practice is common among developed countries. In Japan. these school rules define the seriousness of the offence and set the punishment for the offender. in developing countries. The interactions that occur within the classroom environment will have to depend on the teacher styles. What are the types of interactions in the classroom? 1. For example. following instructions made by the teacher. belief and orientations set by the school. Students are free to interact within the boundaries of these rules but when they act beyond the accepted behaviours such as hurting other students. and to channel the desired behaviour. ESS221 Schools and Society charge to maintain control through discipline techniques. The culture of the classroom comprised routines imposed by teachers onto the students. attitudes towards others and power relations. At times it could be through messages conveyed verbal or nonverbal made by teachers such as expectations. These interactions may occur between teacher-student and students-students. rules are heavily embedded in the primary and secondary school system. The socialising rules in schools differ by society. in the United States there is higher emphasis on rules at the elementary level and once students internalised them it becomes less as they proceed through high school. As such we can say that rules are part of the bureaucratic system in school which decide the do’s and don’t. However. These routines are school and classroom rules and regulations made to maintain control and discipline the students in the classrooms. doing class exercise independently. On the other hand.4 What are the aspects in classroom culture? So what is this hidden curriculum? The hidden curriculum is found in the major process in the classroom which is the interactions or socialization. and the like. rules may differ in terms of culture. there is high emphasis on moral behaviour throughout the primary and secondary schooling. These embedded routines are not part of the formal curriculum but rather informally or better known as the hidden curriculum. disrupting lessons. even though it is a developed nation. Activity 2. doing group work and keeping the classroom clean and neat.

how much information to be conveyed and received (Bernstein. For example. These interactions may be in spoken form and also those that are unspoken. students have no choice but to seat according to the seating assigned. These codes may also include the curriculum and pedagogy. tone. 2. This style fits well for children from the working class status. Besides teacher-students interaction another form of interaction that creates the atmosphere in the classroom is the student-student socialization. if teachers perceived themselves as facilitators they tend to allow students more freedom to speak and have less control over them. Let us take a look at the interactions that goes on during a class lesson. 9|P age . Slowly they “hang out” together in the school canteen and after school and friendship developed from here. ESS221 Schools and Society and student-student interactions create the atmosphere of the classroom. knowledge is transmitted via the teaching methods used by the teacher. On the other hand. Activity 2. practices and these determine the power of relationships between teachers and students. Curriculum refers to the structured knowledge whereas pedagogy is the method of transmission of the structured knowledge. different approaches to handling students have different effect on the classroom interactions and this in turn creates the socialization within the class. Thus. thus. these classroom interactions have their own “code” which sets the classroom rules.5 Explain the importance of hidden curriculum. the teaching materials. According to Bernstein (1996). Kalekin-Fishman (1991) found “noise” patterns in kindergartens in Germany and Israel to be the result of the goals and structure of the classrooms. Teachers who practiced an authoritarian teaching style tend to control noise in the classroom where students can only speak when permitted to do so. During the interaction between the teacher (transmitter) and the students (acquirer). 1990). gesture and physical movements. So how does this student-student socialization developed? One of the norms of the traditional classroom culture is that the teacher imposed a structured seating arrangements in the class. All these silent language create the atmosphere in the classroom. This friendship becomes an important part of their informal learning experience. There may be around a few hundred interactions taking place in a 40 minute class lesson. the skills to be incorporated. Thus. facial expressions. the teacher has control over how knowledge is to be transmitted. 3. a sociologist. Students then start to get to know those seated around them. 2.

Open classrooms further encourage more and longer lasting friendships. This further helps the socio-emotional growth of the child. as a place for self-closure and to seek advice. and sense of belonging. It is at this stage that the adolescent sees friendship as an important part of their teenage life style. They perceived social peers and close friends as someone to whom they can associate with. A child who is able to interact with peers will tend to be popular. 1990). a greater chance for every student to be popular. ESS221 Schools and Society Frienship Friendship Student friendship socialization differs in terms of classroom setting. A classroom with affective setting will further increase interactions and shared activities. This is children first encounter with the outside world. The preschool years are filled with play and informal learning where there is plenty of opportunity to make friends. as they assumed that loyalty and 10 | P a g e . This socialization skill is an important tool as the child grows into adolescent. Socialization begins here and develops as they go through childhood. in the traditional classroom students have the opportunity to make friends who are seated near them. When we compare open classroom with traditional classroom we found that students in the open classes tend to have fewer best friends but more general friendships. a classroom that practices a democratic setting will develop the affective or emotional development of students (Grubaugh & Houston. As such adolescents tend to place friends above their parents. According to a study. When does friendship begin? Friendship begins in preschool years. and this helps to increase opportunity to be good at something. On the other hand. whether the classroom is structured in a traditional way or an open manner. as a source of mutual intimacy.

Activity 2. However. boys are likely to be popular because of their athletic capability.. It is interesting to note that because of these differences in the way they socialize. In addition. and competent in cross-gender relations. socialisation plays an important role in creating friendship in the classroom. 11 | P a g e . Boys on the other hand tend to adopt an insensitive and aggressive attitude to cope with the pressure for success (Edler et al. it was reported that girls tend to have close friends and are more open as they share their secrets and problems with each other. ESS221 Schools and Society commitment are important aspects of friendship. social skills. the boys are unlikely to have close friends but they tend to associate with each other in terms of common interest. For example. their physical looks. especially in sports. What other factors may contribute to students’ pattern of socialization? 1. The organizational structure of the school can play a part in the socialization pattern among the students.6 Is friendship important in a child’s life? Explain Do gender influence the way students socialise? Yes. grouping students on the basis of their ethnic group may hinder them from socializing with those from other ethnic groups. Thus. In a study by Corsaro and Eder (1990). girls who are popular tend not to socialize with those from the lower status. and school performance (Adler. Interracial friendship is important to prepare them for future work environments. hardiness. On the other hand. according to a study there are clear differences in the way male and female students socialize. Kless & Adler. aloofness. Similarly. Thus. 1995). the girls become popular based on their parents’ socioeconomic status. the teacher should put this aspect of socializing as her main agenda and create a conducive classroom environment by rearranging seats and regrouping students every few weeks so as to give them a chance to socialize with all the students in the class. streaming students according to their academic ability may restrict students to socialize with students who may not have the same academic level. Segregating students in this manner will not allow them to understand nor provide the opportunity for them to socialise with various races that are found in a multiracial society like Malaysia. 1992).

Students’ seating position may also encourage a pattern in their socializing manner. On the other hand. This may be advantage to the teacher as she holds a strategic position in front of the classroom and is able to monitor the students’ activities. At the college or university level. they are noticed by the teacher as well as their peers. Studies have shown that teachers tend to be permissive towards those in the first row and imposed fewer formal directives. Because they are seated in front. like the lecturer better. As we know most classrooms have a common set up where the teacher is in front of the classroom and faces the students. Another aspect of the classroom that may influence students’ socialization is the seating arrangements and physical conditions in the classroom and school. we can find students who are particular in choosing their seats in class because of the need for privacy or even select a seat away from the teachers’ focus area. ESS221 Schools and Society Sittings in the classroom 2. This in turn makes the students more involved in the learning process. students in the front rows tend to be brighter and more interested to get better results. Students who are seated in the first two rows in front have the advantage to participate more compared to those seating at the back of the classroom. If there is disruption during the lesson then the teacher should rearrange the seating to avoid further disturbance. as these students can see and hear better. 3. Size of classrooms 12 | P a g e .

schools with large enrolment may create a distance between teachers and students. The students offer their services.7 There are four factors that contribute to students’ pattern of socialization. Opportunity for students’ participation and interaction with teachers may be minimal. not only confined to the teachers. example. Size of classroom also determines children’s socialization pattern. a. d. Activity 2. students have the opportunity to participate actively in school life and this may lead to more informal interactions with teachers and administrators. Thus. there should be closer relations between the students in the classroom irrespective of age. For example. b. instil in students to show their appreciation of the work of others in their group. f. classroom duties should be regularly changed through criticism and discussion at class meetings. teachers should not be directly involved nor have too much control over the running of activities in the classroom. be in charge of the field trip or to accept a particular responsibility. c. Explain each of the factor’s contribution. e. less time on discipline. ESS221 Schools and Society 4. Smaller class size means lesser students per teacher and this allows for positive classroom climates. g. and there will be more time for interaction and communication between the teacher and students. in school and out of class that may be related to their school work. In contrast. we should allow a gradual process of socializing where we train the students in the ways of the adult society by gradually allowing them more and 13 | P a g e . prefects and class monitor. students should be involved in making their own classroom rules. ethnic and academic performance. Thus. There is also the chance for small group interactions. responsibility towards the welfare of the students in the classroom should be shared by everyone. If the number of students in the classroom is smaller this will mean the teacher will impose less control. leading to less socialization. How do we engage students to socialize in the classroom? If we see the classroom as a place for children to socialize then we should allow them to have a voice in certain matters that concerned them. more opportunities should be given to the students to learn to organise and view their opinions. encourage students to tell their experience in life.

14 | P a g e . Children who are labelled as “lions” may perceive it positive compared to the other two labels. As John Dewey said: “The only way to prepare for social life is to engage in social life” and the classroom is the place to do so. Conflict theorists on the other hand see a conflict between school staff who are the dominant adults in the school and students who are being controlled. coerced. Interactionist theorists believed that each student view the classroom differently. how he views the world of the classroom and responds to it. students may be labelled as “lions. Functional theorists argue that the socialization of the classroom is important as it prepares children for societal roles. Within this socialization. On the other hand the other two groups may perceived teachers to socialize less with them. This conflict has been described as “war” between the two over requirements. How well children socialized into these aspects and how well they cooperate with the adults in the school becomes the criteria for “selection” of students. As such the daily routines and rituals in the school reflect the dominant culture practiced that the children will be taught. and set the rules in the classroom. a self-fulfilling prophecy sets in. For example. elephants and buffaloes. This socialization begins in primary school and extends into secondary. How the child views will again depend on his cultural background and this will also depends on the degree of conflict between the teacher and the child. Thus. and their cooperation on all these aspects helps to run the school system. These different perceptions by teachers on students are correlated with the students’ social class where we see those labelled as “lions” come from higher class compared to the other two labels. children learn obedience and cooperation. and co-opted through various ways. initiate exchanges.” These labels will leave an impact on the emotions of the child where the child will act according to the labels given. What theorists have to say about socializing Let us now examined what theorists have to say about socialization in the classroom. what is expected of them. How children socialize in this classroom will depend on how dominant the teacher is and the culture that she instilled in the children. Teachers too may show more positive interaction towards those label as “lions” whereas the rest may received less attention. Teachers are the ones who set up the time table. teachers tend to pay more attention to this group of students where they received more interactions with teachers. ESS221 Schools and Society more independence. they should learn and experience more freedom and responsibility as they grow up.

ESS221 Schools and Society Activity 2. 15 | P a g e . What happens outside the classroom helps to prepare students for the adult world as it is here that they learn about self-esteem and self-control among peers. The school playground School playground The school playground is an important place for students to socialise. for example. Even though the time they spent outside the classroom is less compared to the hours they spent in the classroom. It represents the informal setting for friendship. Most schools ensure that students leave the classrooms during recess time and this allows them to socialize with other students. and interactional theory explains students’ socialization in the classroom? 2. at the playground and performing duties outside the classroom. conflict.8 How does the functional. we discussed socialization in the classroom. we should not ignore the fact that there are interactions and socialization do happen. Students do interact with other students throughout the school hours. However.3 Socialization Outside the Classroom Outside the classroom Earlier. socialization does not only occur within the four walls of the classroom.

Therefore. What goes on at the playground are basically lessons on how to socialize. during primary school. snobs. However. these adults are in the background.  how do I deal with aggressiveness. tag-alongs. Thus. When adults stay away then there is opportunity for children to perform group-directed activity. in the form of monitoring. What types of socialisation occurs at the school playground? There could be some inequality differences between indoor and outdoor socializing among boys and girls.  is giving in means I’m being bullied. Interacting with peers reduces social distance between children. ESS221 Schools and Society Why is the school playground important to children’s socialization? When students are out on the school playground they are distance from adults. Thus. For example. not necessarily their neighbours or relatives.  how much personal information should I reveal. and  when should I speak and when should I listen. Most of the time. children who lack experiences in socializing outside the classroom may be less prepared for adult life. how and problems of social relationships. make friends and they learn to handle bullies. If they are around then it is to keep students out of mischief. For example.  what is the effective way to make friends. sociologists see the experiences outside the classroom as an important socialization agent in addition to the limited interactions within the classroom. tattletales and other childhood types. If children are confronted by such issues then they may become skilful at handling relationships later in their adult life. They also feel at ease to mix around and chose who they want to play with without being observed by an adult. false friends. the children choose to play with children similar to their age group.  when do I report a friend’s misbehave. They will be learning how to react to different types of behaviour and this helps them in their judgment of others. boys are found to be energetic and tend to control large open play spaces and invade places where groups of girls play. if they interact with children of children of various age groups then this allows an opportunity for getting to know. develop new relationships and breaking relationships. The various social interactions enable children to develop an understanding of what. Most of the time they are on their own and even if there are adults. playground provide a platform for 16 | P a g e .

a place where children learn to use abusive language to defend themselves against bullies. Responsibilities for more difficulty duties which may be appointed to students at the higher levels.00 in the afternoon when school ends. ESS221 Schools and Society socialising that may be in the form of gender-related aggressiveness. care of the bicycle shed. sports and athletics in their groups and team. a place where children make new friends and even breaking friendships. we as teachers need to examine our behaviour towards our students. These routine duties may cover the simplest form such as ringing the school bell at the beginning and end of school and waiting at the school gate to close it when the school bell rings at 7. Activity 2. Carrying out these duties will involve interactions and at the same time students learn to be responsible people.40 in the morning and open it at 2. there are other duties such as being captains of houses. Now that we know socializing is an important part of children’s development. The responsibility towards other students in the school is the highest of all and is given to the prefects. In addition. Teachers who are domineering tend to have these characteristics:  usually thinks she knows best. and a place where children may try out new identities. managing the school book store. 17 | P a g e . Do we have dominative or integrative behaviour? Dominative behaviour refers to autocratic way in handling students where the teacher dominates and controls students’ behaviour. perform duties for the whole school community wider than just their own classroom.9 What benefits do playground contribute to children’s socialization? Duties outside the classroom Schools do plan duties outside the classroom such as prefects carry out duties during recess where they are in-charge of various sections of the school ground. games. example. duties at the library and the laboratories.

With such characteristics the dominative teacher tends to create conflict. and adaptive in nature.4 Perspectives across Asian Schools After the World War II.  recognise and is generous with praise for good ideas.  make decisions on her own without allowing the students to participate on matters that may concerned them. As such.  appreciates the value of student’s knowledge and experience. desires or criticism.  tend to apply the technique of threats and blame.  gives vital commands and orders on what should be done.  is able to share responsibility with her students. She believes in students’ participation.10 What is the difference between a dominative teacher and an interactive teacher? 2. and  behaves aggressively when students resist her orders. the Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia. Therefore. these two types of behaviour may to a certain extent influence the students’ socialization in the classroom. and  able to tolerate disagreement with students. ESS221 Schools and Society  ensures that students behave in her way without any respect for students’ experience. teachers must be aware that they have to create a happy and harmonious atmosphere in the class to ensure students are given the opportunity to socialize and develop their social skills. overt or hidden in respond to students enquiries. an integrative teacher has the following characteristics:  can work with students instead of against them. Malaysia. encourages initiative and as a teacher is able to co-ordinate the students’ work and create a happy and conducive atmosphere among students in her class.  does not believe in blame. Activity 2. Singapore and the Philippines which were previously colonised were 18 | P a g e . incites aggressive.  makes requests rather than gives orders.  ask for opinions from students wherever possible on matters which concern them.  willing to co-operate and adapt her objectives to fit those of her students. permissive. On the other hand. The integrative teacher is thus flexible.

ESS221 Schools and Society pursuing not only their political freedom but also economic and social prosperity. schools and educational agencies need to train and produce students in line with the nation vision. Whereas in Singapore. Therefore. manpower production and citizenship were found to be the vital factors in developing the nations. These two aspects. religious or social class of the society. The next assignment for the school is to nurture citizenship in the students. schools were required to use the Malay language as the medium of instruction. Children were taught history. 19 | P a g e . focusing on battle victories. schools need to know which workers should be trained for what skill and which program will cater for the type of skill needed. schools had also to devise a nationalistic-focused social studies curricula. In Malaysia. In Thailand it was the Thai language. the economists predict the types and number of man power needed to handle the country’s economic growth for future years. emphasised students to master two languages. English and one other language. the school’s task is to arm the students with common communication skills. To help achieve this. This will mean looking at the school curriculum. In order to develop their countries. Similarly. Pilipino. This is not an easy task and the only Asian country that is able to effectively achieve this is Singapore. Besides implementing a national language as the medium of instructions in schools to help develop “good” citizens in the children. cultural contributions. In addition. and glories of ancient empires that conquered land the country now stands. economic and social-welfare aspects. instead of a particular ethnic. In order to achieve this. they proposed a five-year or eight-year national development program to ensure a systematic and progressive national growth. Both factors were perceived as requirements to obtained jobs in the new economy. a multicultural society. Included in this program is the educational component which sets to achieve the objectives of the political. Therefore. In the Philippines it was the national language. Thailand which managed to avoid being colonized joined the other Southeast Asian neighbours in pursing their dreams. such as a national language. The first task the government need to focus on was the economic aspect. the schools need to instil a strong sense of loyalty to the ruling government. schools in Indonesia used the national Indonesian language.

the patterns of socialization differs in each of this context. Next. To instil universal welfare schools implemented health and safety practices as they wanted the children to be energetic and free from diseases and injuries. till today. This is done by introducing educational and vocational guidance to help students plan for their future.  Socialization is also affected by teacher’s behavior. subgroup welfare. schools serve individual welfare by allowing more opportunities for students to choose their field of interest and skills. Thus.  Compare the socialization patterns that changes within the various contexts. This could be categorised under universal welfare. In addition. students are exposed to varied curriculum choices. in order for schools to serve subgroup welfare. they had to focus on teaching regional language’s literature that emphasised cultural traditions and history as well as the arts of the ethnic region. However. Socialization in school focused on:  Dimensions of socialization in the school context. and cultural conformity. In addition.  Socialization has an influence on the school curriculum and the curriculum differs between the primary and secondary schools. We learnt that: 1. and personal welfare. Finally. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This chapter introduced you to the meaning of socialization in the classroom and outside the classroom. none of the ASEAN country’s effort could achieve this national development plan fully. industrialized.  Socialization happens in and outside the classroom. behaviour. special schooling was introduced to cater to their needs. The national development plan was designed to include all the three components discussed above and this could be done through the schooling system in each of the ASEAN country. starting from the village/community. 20 | P a g e . and bureaucratic. moral. This is because there is always some degree of mismatch. As for the handicap and gifted children. each ASEAN country allows children to pursue religious studies based on their family’s faith. ESS221 Schools and Society The last aspect that the Asian countries focused on was social welfare. there should be similar interest between what the people desire and what the country needs in terms of manpower and political unity.

J. Vol. and try to learn why. Kalekin-Fishman. McConnell. Carefully record everything the teacher does to help this student. codes and control. Select a teacher in your school who is popular with the students. 3. REFERENCES Bernstein. London: Herbert. D. Brint. ESS221 Schools and Society SELF-CHECK 1. Which social context has influenced you most. PROJECTS 1. S. (1991). Latent messages: The acoustical environments of kindergartens in Israel and West Germany. 4. B. Schools and societies. (1985). Make a case study of a boy or girl who is having difficulty in a classroom. Sociology of Education. Describe the agents of socialization discussed in this chapter in terms of the special contributions that each makes to the socialization of the young. (1990). Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. 21 | P a g e . Class. The structuring of pedagogic discourse. inside or outside the classroom? Why? 2. Describe the ways that these roles have influenced the behavior of these students. What she or he did that students like? 2. Observe and analyse the roles students play in primary and secondary school classrooms. (1998). How much of our human characteristics comes from “nature” (heredity) and how much from “nurture” (the social environment)? 3. English public schools. 64(3): 209-222. London: Routledge.