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PROJECT REPORT On
“ JOB SATISFACTION”
Submitted to Punjab Technical University In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree Of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
BATCH - (2009 – 2011)
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. Singh Ritu Khurana Parminder Roll No. 95142238974
CHAPTER No. 1
in construction industry and for haulage operation. Tractors are capital intensive. India's gross cropped area is next only to United States of America and Russia and along with fragmented land holdings has helped India to become the largest tractor market in the world. Tractor is a highly versatile piece of machinery having a multitude of uses. It is a typical sector where both imported technology and indigenous developed technology have developed towards meeting the overall national requirements. U.R. The global spotlight on tractors manufacturers certainly in terms of volume seems to be swinging away from the USA. and only a few Western European countries exceed the current production of tractors in India. in electricity generation. But it 4 . In India tractor industry has played a vital role in the development. The tractor industry in India has made a significant progress in terms of production and capacity as well as indigenization of technology.. used in agriculture both for land reclamation and for carrying out various crop cultivation and also employed for carrying out various operations connected with raising the crops by attaching suitable implements and to provide the necessary energy for performing various crop production operations involved in the production of agricultural crops.S. Farm mechanization program in India aims to integrate the use of available human and animal farm power with mechanical sources of power for increasing the productivity.INDUSTRY PROFILE TRACTOR INDUSTRY IN INDIA Higher productivity and greater output are the two major contributions in farm mechanization. The spectacular achievement reflects the maturity and dynamism of tractor manufacturers and also the policies adopted by the government to enable it to effectively meet the demand.S. comparatively young by world standards have expanded at a spectacular pace during last four decades. It has now become an integral part of farm structure . Indian tractor industry.A. Consequently it now occupies a place of pride in India's automobile industry. UK and Western and Eastern Europe towards India where growth in the number of producers and the total volume in recent years have been impressive. U. labor displaying used as a mode of transport. Tractors form an integral part of farm mechanization and have a crucial role to play in increasing agricultural productivity. but in terms of growth India's growth is unmatched even with countries of long history of tractor manufacturing.The application of tractor for agricultural activities which swept India during the last twenty years have erased the problem of farmers.S.
About 20% of world tractor production is carried out in our country only.8 10. also labor shortage during harvesting increased the use of tractor. It is to be noted that while the overall automobile industry is facing recession the tractor industry is growing at 9%. Four factors have contributed to the steady progress: * Government laid stress on the mechanization of agriculture with a view to boost food grain production. Therefore agriculture sector started receiving financial assistance. One out of every four tractor is being purchased here. Tractor market in India is about Rs.Uttar Pradesh is the largest tractor market in our country. Mechanized operations are preferred to eliminate drudgery and delay. * There is an increase in awareness among the farmers for the need of farm mechanization and are keen to acquire tractor with the help of credit facilities from financial institutions. Indian tractor market has to be viewed considering its position in the world with respect to key parameters as given below: INDIAN TRACTOR MARKET WORLD TOTAL/AVG 1444 249.6 28 DESCRIPTION Arable Land Irrigated Area Tractors In Use UNITS Mn Hectare Mn Hectare Tractors/000 Hectares INDIA 170 45. * Agronomists believe that there is need for more tilling due to depletion of moisture and repeated cultivation of land . On an average around 400000 tractors are produced and their sale is 260000. only 3% of total tractors used all over the world . * Animal power available is too inadequate to meet power demand of our farmers. The arable land in India is high as 12% of the total arable land in the world. 6000 corers. At the end of the day there are enough reasons to believe that the industry will grow because: 5 .drops to eight position in terms of total tractor in use in the country when compared to international figures.5 INDIA RANK 2 2 8 The Tractors available in developed countries have advanced features and accessories that is not found in Indian tractors .It is precisely for this reason that the demand for tractors was well maintained even during a draught period.Tractor industry has made a steady and satisfactory progress even in drought areas.
* Cost of tractors in India is the cheapest in world . * 95% of tractor sales are on credit.S.deteriorating foreign exchange situation in African countries and their poor buying capacity.This reduces the cropping cycle to 3-4 months from the traditional 5-6 months. Hence there exists tremendous scope for exports. * The tractors between the 31-40 horse power and 31-40 hp range dominate the market .The reason for medium horse power tractors being more popular are that the major tractor demanding states like Punjab Haryana and Uttar Pradesh have plenty of alluvial soil which does not require deep tilling. Philippines and Bangladesh. Reduced cropping cycle require deep tilling which translates into higher demand for tractors. * FOREIGN COLLABORATION 6 . but also the potential export markets can be explored by Indian in the future. Lately it is visualized that higher hp segment has the maximum growth potential Higher horse powered tractors will be the future requirement with the government intention to encourage contract farming through the leasing in and leasing out of farm lands.R. * Regarding exports India of latter has been exporting tractors to a number of countries. Credit is extended by commercial banks. state land development banks and regional rural banks. Nepal and U.The major reason for the decline in exports of tractors of tractor from India is being the failure to find an extensive market overseas .S. Since Indian tractors confirm to the international standard by virtue of their foreign collaboration it is possible for India to export to more tractors to the rice and wheat growing countries like Canada.* More farmers are opting for multiple cropping over last decade. comparatively cheaper imports of second hand tractors by South East Asian countries from developed countries and the disintegration of erstwhile U. Since purchase of tractor involves a big investment its demand in affected by the availability and easiness of credit. * Irrigation facilities reduce reliance on the monsoon and allow for quick yielding varieties of food -grain . * According to a study conducted by PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry . but predominantly to Sri Lanka.A .S.The cost of a finished tractor here is as much as the cost of gear box in developed countries. This indicates the increased popularity of multiple cropping. A higher availability of credit will lead to a higher demand for tractors. Country's net cropped area had remained virtually stagnant while gross cropped area increased by about 4.However the study reveals that exports from India are going down in the recent years .7%.
USSR . "National Register of Foreign Collaborations". which envisages review and analysis of imported technologies in the country and suggested measures for appropriate choices acquisition and implementation of foreign know-how. * Co-ordinate with Ministry of Industry. List of tractor manufacturers.WEST GERMANY. DSIR has introduced a scheme. economic and legal analysis of set of data on foreign collaboration. Major objective of scheme is: * To undertake financial. their collaborators and the year of commencement of production: 7 . * Carry out a technological analysis of the imported technology and provide a stage of art technology in the country and status of implementation of collaboration. * Selective support to strength measures in Research and Development for technology absorption.UK.CZECH SLOVAKIA . Most of the models which were taken up for manufacture in India were developed overseas. Soon after the decision for the manufacture of tractors was made during second plan. Commerce and Finance by providing technology data input. government approved number of foreign collaboration agreements.The manufacture of tractors started in India mainly with the help of foreign collaboration secured from internationally reputed companies from the USA . POLAND .Tractor industry along with others benefited from this policy which allowed free inflow of foreign technology . The establishment and present status of tractor industry owes a great deal to the support received by the Indian entrepreneurs from foreign collaboration during the initial phase of manufacture.
USA New Holland Tractors . Motokov -Praha. Japan Uzina Tractorul. UK Ford .MANUFACTURERS AND COLLABORATORS MANUFACTURER Eicher Tractors Ltd Gujarat Tractors Ltd TAFE Escorts Ltd COLLABORATOR Gebr.Ursus Poland Mahindra And Mahindra +Escorts Tractor Ltd Hindustan Machine Tools *Kirloskar Tractors Limited Punjab Tractor Limited *Pittie Tractor Limited *Harsha Tractor Ltd *Auto Tractor Ltd *Pratap Steel Rolling Mill Vst Tillers *United Auto Tractor Ltd *Asian Tractor Ltd Bajaj Tempo Ltd International Tractors Larsen And Tourbo Ltd New Holland Tractor Greaves Ltd International Harvestor. Germany CMERI. Own know-how Mitsubishi. Romania Own know-how Own know-how Own know-how John Deere. Czechoslovakia Klochner-Humboldt Deutz.INDIA Own know-how Moto Import. Czechoslovakia Messey Ferguson. U.K. Italy 1965 1971 1971 1974 1974 1974 1975 1981 1983 1983 1986 1989 1987 1998 1999 1999 1999 YEAR 1961 1963 1961 1964 8 .Fahr. Russia British Leyland. West Germany Motokov –Praha.U.K. UK Moloimport Arazawa Zaklady Mechaniczne .Italy Same Deutz. Eicher Tractor.
History reveals that innovation is the key to continued progress and when applied to technology that touches human life. spread in acres.to write another success story. 9 . engines and various farm equipments. encouraging there members to do more. Sonalika is the one of the top 3 tractor manufacturing companies in India. Leadership Forum. Today the group stands tall with an approximate turnover of 3200 Crore INR. hard earned. No. Sonalika has state of manufacturing. doubt that the sonalika products has created a position for themselves not only in India but also in foreign market. With unique initiatives like the Thought leadership Forum. Tractor and car plants work in 2 to 3 shifts depending upon volume of work for maximum production. As they step in to their fifth decade of existence. solutions and technologies. They continue to march ahead on road to success and glory driven by the force of initiative and determination to have a leading position in the tractor industry in the days to come. An average growth of 30% makes it one of the fastest growing corporate in India. from the industry and beyond. to make a major impact on the development. Group has strength of about 2000 employee & technocrats. The industry has gradually transformed themselves into a world-class player involved in building stateof-the-art products. They have ventured in to automobile sector also with the launching of Rhino –MUV. other products include Multi utility vehicles. it can unfold a whole new economic phenomenon that has the power to change the world.COMPANY PROFILE ABOUT THE SONALIKA GROUP Established in 1969. they have been able to create a unique platform for learning through success stories of industry leader. To maintain quality even a micro level is being taken care of and rectified. It has been their vision to cater to the needful agriculture and auto industry with quality products through untiring dedication and activities. It is also one of the few debt free companies. located at Hoshiarpur and tax free zone at AMB in Himachal Pradesh. capturing best practices for quality and harnessing a greater range of resources. Sonalika group from the very beginning has tried to understand customer need so that they get better value for their money. Sonalika Foundation intends to become a catalyst. they continue to lead the development.
fascination. not just because it is for good business. And Orange surroundings the complete logo represents enthusiasm. encouragement. and desire of company.VISION The Dream Project of Sonalika group is to cater the agricultural and auto industry with quality abrasive products through untiring dedication and leadership. company has earned a reputation for high quality and integrity. and generates the same. the ownership. commitment. and not merely sell the products they build. Their core values are never to be compromise for immediate success. harmony. They strive to live up to these expectations. building a business as great as their products. They are committed to living their values doing so. quality. They are proud of reputation as service & solution provider and innovator in agro industries. ETHO STATEMENT OR LOGO RATIONALE Red symbolizes the strength. determination. and management go to great lengths to treat each customer like a member of the family and provide them with the best choice of products and highest quality of service in the industry. MISSION Sonalika pay personal attention to their customers so that. In a time marked by rapidly changing technology. they have developed best of the R & D team and have also developed the excellent quality control system to deliver high quality results in the industry. All this permutation of persona represents the Sonalika group as an asset in the industry. Their actions are guided by their core values of integrity. Black underlining the logo associates with power. power. Over the years they have completed transaction in over 30 countries around the globe and are well experienced in the international market for wide variety of machinery and tractor in comfortable price and range. Sonalika is a team that has carved in itself successful entrepreneurship over the 10 . stimulates mental activity. happiness. CORE VALVES To accomplish their mission. and innovation. and this has been an asset of incalculable value. and stimulation. Yellow surrounding the Sonalika produces a warming effect. Throughout their history. staff. Company is manned by cream of the industries best of technocrat and service staff. and formality. elegance. arouses cheerfulness. creativity. Green Leaf in the center symbolizes growth. freshness. but also because it is the right thing to do. they can build products they need. and fertility.
The company is in-process of developing its own Common Rail Direct injection (CRDI) engines. The Company has manufactured MUV with the name of RHINO RX & the same MUV boasts of Rover engines. Everything they did was with lot of innovation and creativity. vendors.S. problems and obstacles. Vice Chairman & Mr. is a Group Company of the Rs 1200 Crores SONALIKA Group. The same scenario was repeated while developing MUV RHINO. INTERNATIONAL CARS & MOTORS LIMITED (ICML). Himachal Pradesh. UK. This became their competitive advantage and helped them in touching great heights in the shortest possible time. The Company.. The company has the installed capacity to manufacture 2000 MUVs in a month i.years. A. In the first full year of production in 2006-2007. revenue & industrialization in the state. with centrally air-conditioned.D.e. dust & pollution free environment. The Company is having its state-of-the-art production facility. When they decided to take up manufacturing of Tractors. Deepak Mittal. The Company has entered into Technical Collaboration Agreement with MG Rover of UK.Mittal. who are having vast experience in manufacturing of tractors. The Sonalika group is among the India’s leading agricultural conglomerates in the high growth sector of agro machinery. Managing Director. The Company is a ‘Mother Unit’ as its establishment shall attract many other ancillary & small units for meeting the raw material requirements yielding manifold employment avenues. in Amb. they wish to accomplish all the great promises hidden in the future. They always kept in mind that it is TIME which is wealth not money. always seeing light at the end of the tunnel. With their help and good wishes. Chairman. L. So their effort was to do everything in much less time than competition. The Company is promoted by Mr. 24000 MUVs in a year. it was a decision to tread a path fraught with difficulties. ICML is a project of its kind and is the ‘Pride of Himachal Pradesh’. Farm machines & Automobiles. But they carried on with a clear vision. off course at the speed of light. ICML is aiming to churn out about 5000 MUVs & expects to achieve a turnover of 250 Crores. with the technical know – how from MG Rover. They wish that it should be a matter of great happiness for their associates to deal with them.Mittal. to manufacture multi-utility vehicles / sports – utility vehicles. This has been a great experience involving their ICML team. Mr. suppliers and dealers which is a fairly large family now. besides catering to the 11 . and material handling equipments and components having pioneered from mechanization in the country Sonalika has played a fundamental role in the agricultural growth of India for over five decades.
various kinds of threshers. INTERNATIONAL AUTO TRAC FINANCE LIMITED is a non banking finance company approved by RBI.. Tractor/Self Driven straw reapers. manufacture and test the modern products for the modern farmer. Bangladesh & Indonesia are also in an advanced stage. This plant is equipped with advanced technology to develop. but also in various others countries across the globe. etc. Its product line includes Combine Harvesters. Sonalika Agro is a pioneer in manufacturing tractors mounted combine harvester. The Company is eligible for the Central & State Govt. Its parent company Sonalika Group ranks among the largest tractor & farm equipment manufacturer in India 12 . also has an eye on exports & exports to Malaysia. Tax sops. exemption from the excise duty & income tax for 10 years. a dream come true.domestic market. highly qualified and experienced staff is working as a family in the manufacturing facility at Hoshiarpur (Pb). which shall add to its viability & future expansion. SONALIKA AGRO Sonalika Agro was established in 1971 to support the Indian farmers with mechanization technology to facilitate persistence of green revolution. IAFL provide finance to customers of International cars & motors limited in rural & semi urban areas across India through customer friendly schemes. It has a large dealer network spread all over country and have approximately 80% share in Indian market of farm machinery. Nepal. It will also offload the product in African continent soon. 1000 Crores in Himachal Pradesh over the next 2 -3 years in the upcoming ICML plant & ICML has an ambitious plan to play a major role in the Indian Automobile Industry. Today. Its products are also exported to Asian & African countries through various export promotion counsels.Fertilisers Drills. Potato Planters. the group’s maiden venture is one of the foremost Farm equipments and implements manufacturing companies in India with 80% share in threshers alone. Maize seller –cum-Dehuskers. Sonalika Group intends to inject Rs. The company has a wide range of farm equipments and implements to facilitate the farmers in all kinds of farming activities. Seed –Cum. Sonalika Agro Industries Corporation. the company is supporting the farmers with world class farming equipment to ease the process of making the Green Revolution II. In the light of the company's mission. which is not popular in India.
others INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LTD International Tractors Limited was incorporate on October 17. and CLASS brand between 70 hp to 90hp. ITL has entered into strategic alliance with YANMAR of Japan for joint manufacturing tractors in India. who have providing constant feedback and support to allow the company to turn their dreams into products. Second Phase: In the second phase. Haryana. Zambia. ITL has a marketing arrangement with TATA International for development of selected South American and African market. Australia.P (Done). and 450 sub dealers. It bears 13 . the area of operations will be extended to whole India. Ghana etc. They are the first Tractor manufacturing company in the country to be accredited with ISO-14001. Whom to Finance Salaried Agriculturist Self Employed Partnership Pvt. Canada. . Algeria.BUSINESS PLANS OF IAFL First Phase: In the first phase. Bangladesh. minimum fuel consumption and low emission. ITL is manufacturing various Tractors of Sonalika brand between 30 H. Jammu. Zimbabwe. co. the area of operations will be in the state of Punjab. the area of operations will be extended to other parts of Northern India. Their Manufacturing Process. Such a networking has enabled the company to grow like a well-knit family whose roots lie in its customers.P. Senegal. Sri Lanka. All this makes ITL one of the top five tractor selling companies in India. by the joint Accreditation system Of Australia and New Zealand. quality and reliability in the market because of their maximum pulling power. Third Phase: In the third phase. The tractors manufactured by company have secured a reputation of performance.P to 90 H. Quality Control systems and Research & Development facilities are ISO-2000 certified. These tractors are also exported to various countries including South Africa. 1995 for the manufacture of Tractors and has since then built a distinct position for itself in the Tractor industry. H. The company’s marketing efforts are promoted by dealer network of 600.
Pune. United States Environmental Norms Agency. They are also manufacturing tractors. the performance of ITL tractors is unparallel. power steering. but also provided a quantum jump to the quality of assembled tractors. Tractors from ITL offer the perfect combination of power and economy in the agriculture utility segment. All the Models of Tractors and Combines Harvesters manufactured by us are tested & approved by central Farm Machinery and Tractors Training & Testing Institute. maintaining controls and systems of international Standard and Environment norms. Quality. according to EEC and other international standard and homologations. meeting norms of Smoke & Mass Emission. Sonalika tractors are easy to handle. For fast efficient operation in the rows and a minimum width. low center of gravity and a tight turning radius. These certifications enabled SONALIKA Tractors to enter into world Market. Assembly & Testing Tools: Hydraulic Test Rig Up to 1600Kg Lifting Capacity Millipore Testing Equipment. Tested and certified by ARAI. with outstanding maneuverability. Several productivity improvements in assembly line over the years have made it possible to manufacture nearly 37000 tractors per Year. differential lock and advanced safety devices Production ITL has fully integrated and state of the art assembly facilitation for producing world class tractors. that combine to give fast and efficient operation in the field or yard. (the Government of India Institute authorized for issuing test reports). Washington DC has also certified our Engines. which is typical to small land holdings. Bundi (MP) India. ITL assembly line producing tractors in broad range from 30HP to 90HP with effective planning of resources.testimony to fact that company is having world-class R&D facilities. including hydrostatic transmission. They also manufacture tractors whose specifications are approved and tested dimensionally and structurally. Some of their tractor models offer the most technically advanced features available on the market today. Torque calibrator Hydraulic presses A unique 3-Stage oil filtration system having modern facility of centrifuge filtration 14 . Atomization of assembly line not only increased production capacity.
Batch type Special purpose machines (SPM) at various locations for washing of heavy castings. components & subassemblies Pipe flushing machine for proper cleaning of hoses & pipes Induction Heaters for controlled heating of bearings Standard testing procedures for final product Roller testing Road testing Field Testing 15 .
Brief of R & D : ITL R & D center is recognized by government of INDIA ITL R&D is a complete dep’t in itself starting from designing up to development. Having a team of exceedingly competent & remarkable squad of engineer’s proficient of designing most excellent Engines in technology. implementation Capabilities : Highly qualified team of engineers for designing of transmission & vehicle areas Vendor development is capable for the development of new projects components of R&D through vendors & commercial settlement Vendor quality control is capable for ensuring quality requirements of components through verification at vendor end High skilled workers are capable for making any types of prototypes Facilities : High configuration workstations are used for design activities Team center is used for PLM concepts I-Deas. radial drilling & turning centre Sonalika have In House Design Engine R&D department with up-to-date technology. 16 . Solid-Edge & AutoCAD is used for 3D & 2D design activities Two transmission test rigs Circular test track (mgr) & Roll over protection test rig Hydraulic system test rig Endurance test rig for operator seat & fenders Pto test bed & Endurance test rig for MUV gearbox under commissioning Proto machine shop with HMC. Sonalika has started spreading roots in MUV manufacturing with own R&D team and designed two exclusive engines with latest technology. Engines developed so far available in rating of 28-90 HP.
The in house R&D has all supplies required for complete design of engine from structural parts to emission development. Top of Form In-house R&D capabilities : 17 . While Emission test cell is also being commissioned using equipment imported from AVL Austria world leader in emission measurement for conducting in house emission measurement.Engines are designed with Rotary FIE from BOSCH & (CRDi) Common Rail Diesel that gives variable geometry turbocharger for superior engine response . Use of CAD and FEA is made to design robust parts.
CHAPTER No. 2 INTRODUCTION 18 .
fellow workers. and machines and tools. participation. attitudes towards people in community. These are: 1.INTRODUCTION Jo b satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or stateof mind regarding nature of theirw ork. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.supervisory treatment. leaves policy and favoritism. overtime regulations. 19 . 3. four important areas. etc. dangerous. neighbors. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationshipw ith theirsu p evisor. participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier. Job-nature of work (dull. Management. Social relations. r quality of physical environment in which they work. 4. physical environment.friends and associates. According to pestonej Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of em ployee‟s feelings in ee. degree of fulfillment in their work. interesting). rewards and punishments. Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job. interest in work. praises and blames. 2. Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been defined variously from time to time.th eir evaluation may rest largely upon one‟s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these ends. opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects). In short job satisfaction is a person attitude ‟s towards job. hours of work.
which the possessions of feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals. ful fy This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job of the employees. while job satisfaction is more an individual state of mind. as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. absenteeism. 20 . Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances. Scope of the study This study emphasis in the following scope: To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job. It is help to identi the em ployer’s level of satisfaction towards welfare m easure. turnover. Absenteeism.Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship. Turnover. Morale is the by-product of the group. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. This study is helpful to that organization for conducting further research. and termination.
CHAPTER No. 3 JOB SATISFACTION 22 .
By: Locke 23 .1 DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION Different authors give various definitions of job satisfaction.” ly ed Job satisfaction is defined.M . Some of them are taken from the b oo ko f D .3. By: Weiss Job satisfaction is general attitude. physical. as it is result of various attitudes the person hold towards the job. towards the related factors and towards the life in general. Peston “MotivationandJob Satisfaction” w hi h are givenbelow: jee c Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable. A n effective reaction to one‟s job. „I am satisfi w ithmy job. state resulting from appraisal of one‟s job. as em ployee’s judgment of how well his job on a w holeis satisfying his various needs By: Mr. and environmntal circu m sances th at e t cause a person truthful say. emotional. Smith Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resulting from appraisal of one‟s job or job experiences. psychological. By: Glimmer Jo b satisfaction is defined as “any contribution. which is the result of many specific attitudes in three areas namely: Specific job factors Individual characteristics Group relationship outside the job By: Blum and Naylor Job satisfaction is defined.
Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. 24 . Principles of Scientific Management. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influence the satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Job satisfaction. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay. However.3. causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. sought to fin dthe effects of various conditions (m ostnotably illumination) on workers‟ productivity. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. not from the new conditions. physiological and env iron mntal circu m sances. Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job.. “I m e t Satisfiedw i t h my job”. financial & job status & priding group cohesiveness One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne study. which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies. T hat causesa person to say. Frederick Winslow Taylor‟s 1911 book. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). He revived 35 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observes that Job satisfaction is combination of psychological. These studies (1924-1933). argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. identification with the co. workers became exhausted and dissatisfied. thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. but from the knowledge of being observed. management. It was later found that this increase resulted. primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School. personal adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953) considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job content.2 HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935).
social needs. Walter Dill Scott. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs. and Hugo Munsterberg set the tonefo r Taylor‟s work. laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory.It should also be noted that the work of W. a motivation theory.L. self-esteem needs. Bryan. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories 26 . safety needs. and self-actualization. Some argue that Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs theory.
3.3 IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as deviant work behavior. citizenship. Thus it can be saidthat. This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly related to one anothe. Absenteeism. Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.” r organizational. 27 . This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied with the life tends to be satisfied with their jobs and the people who are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied with their life.“A happy w orker is a productive w orker. Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. Turnover.
the quantity and quality of output per hour worked.seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequiste to satisfying or delighting customers.3. innovative. self-respect. and loyal. who are motivated by fear of loss of job. job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance.4 IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction. i e 28 . Though fear is a powerful motivator. Although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. Increased productivity. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. and also as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. studies dating back to Herzberg‟s (1957) have show n at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. flexible. and termination. thusprot cting the “b o tom line”. and self-development. absenteeism. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances. it is also a temporary one. job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that can often leads to a positive work attitude. Unhappy employees. H ow ever. For the organization. self-esteem. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. To the worker. turnover.
Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often results in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. Employer‟s value and rewards excellent reading. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. This will relive boredom and often gets one noticed. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the w ork itself. Acquire new job related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. See the value in your work. surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and wellbeing on the job. listening. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities.3.5 WORKERS ROLE IN JOB SATISFACTION If job satisfaction is a worker benefit. with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. Plan to avoid burn out by developing healthy stress management techniques. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. Develop teamwork and people skills. T his help to give m eaning to one’s existence. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. writing and speaking skills. Accept the diversity in people. 29 . Learn to de-stress. Know more. Develop excellent communication skills.
interest and preparation of worker Security Loyalty Herberg. mausaer. The facility with which he adjusted himself with other person The relative status in the social and economic group with which he identifies himself The nature of work in relation to abilities. These are briefly defined one by one as follows: 1. generally influences job satisfaction. 2. Intrinsic aspect of job It includes all of the many aspects of the work. These are as under: The way the individual reacts to unpleasant situations. Supervision. Peterson and capwell in 1957 reviewed more than 150 studies and listed various job factors of job satisfaction. as a factor. which would tend to be constant for the work regardless of where the work was performed. Supervision This aspect of job satisfaction pertains to relationship of worker with his immediate superiors.6 FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION Hoppock. 30 . the earliest investigator in this field. in 1935 suggested that there are six major components of job satisfaction.3.
8. 5. Working conditions This includes those physical aspects of environment which are not necessary a part of the work. Company & management It includ the aspect of w orker’s im m ediate es situation. Social aspect of job It includes relationship of worker with the employees specially those employees at same or nearly same level within the organization. 7. 6. organizational status or professional experience. It also involves the relationship of employee with all company superiors above level of immediate supervision. Security It is defined to include that feature of job situation. either within the same company or within same type of work profession. w hich is a function of organizational Administration and policy.3. 31 . Hours are included this factor because it is primarily a function of organization. affecting the individuals comfort and convenience in much the same way as other physical working conditions. which leads to assurance for continued employment. Wage and salaries This factor includes all aspect of job involving present monitory remuneration for work done. Opportunities for advancement It includes all aspect of job which individual sees as potential sources of betterment of economic position. 4.
information on company line of authority. 10. old age. Communication It includes job situation. etc. are used in literature to represent this factor. Company allowances for holidays. which attempts to prepare the worker for emergencies. which involves spreading the information in any direction within the organization. also. leaves and vacations are included within this factor. 32 . suggestion system. illness. Term s such as inform ation of em ployee‟s status. inform ation on new developments.9. Benefits It includes those special phases of company policy.
Not being opportunity paid for what they do. Conflict between supervisors. 33 . Have little or no say in decision making that affect employees. 4.3. Fear of losing their job. 5.7 REASONS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION Reasons why employees may not be completely satisfied with their jobs: 1. 2. 3. Conflict between co-workers.
HIGH TURNOVER In human resource refers to characteristics of a given company or industry relative to the rate at which an employer gains and losses the staff.8 EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION 1. If the employer is said to be have a high turnover of employees of that company have shorter tenure than those of other companies. If there will be low job satisfaction among the employees the rate of absenteeism will definitely increase and it also effects on productivity of organization. As the job satisfaction is high the rate of both turn over and absenteeism is low and vise a versa. 34 . HIGH ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty or obligation.3. 2.
For example. of factors that influence job satisfaction. shows that feedback from job itself and autonomy are two of the major job related motivational factors.9 INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION There are no. So that the training expenditure will increases. but complex. 3. 35 . TRAINING COST INCREASES As employees leaves organization due to lack of job satisfaction. multidimensional factor in job satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organization. Fringe benefits are also important. and the job that provides status. However. Some of the most important ingredients of a satisfying job uncovered by survey include interesting and challenging work. research related to the job characteristics approach to job design. one recent study even found that if college students majors coincided with their job . Money not only helps people attain their basic needs but need satisfaction. The work itself: relationship will predicted subsequent job satisfaction. this dimensions identified above.3. work that is not boring. Then Human resource manager has to recruit new employees. Pay: Wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant. For example. the main influences can be summarized along with the The concept of work itself is a major source of satisfaction.
If the employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within a total package. 36 . Promotions: Promotional opportunities are seem to be have avarying effect on job satisfaction. called a flexible benefit plan. This is because of promotion take number of different forms. there is a significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.
good performance would automatically fallow.in another proposition. Recognition as an individual 2. it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism What job satisfaction people need? Each employee wants: 1. Job security for himself and his family 37 . if m an agement could keep the entire worker‟s happy”. An opportunity to do something worthwhile. and consequently organization can gain from lower turnover in terms of lower hiring and training costs. both satisfaction and performance are considered to be functions of rewards. is that satisfaction is the effect rather than the cause of performance. There are two propositions concerning the satisfaction performance relationship. but when job satisfaction is low.WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION? Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is necessarily good worker. Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction affects employee turnover. which results in a certain level of satisfaction . Also research has shown an inverse relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism. Meaningful task 3. The first proposition. 4. This proposition says that efforts in a job leads to rewards. which is based on traditional view. When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism. In oth er words.
Competence leadership. Opportunity to advance 8. Good wages 6.bosses whom he can admire and respect as persons and as bosses. Satisfactory working conditions 10. Adequate benefits 7. 38 .5.a voice a matters affecting him 9. No arbitrary action.
and the factors related to the job will probably be loyal and devoted. the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can contribute to morale and morale can contribute to job satisfaction. result in a behavior detrimental to the organization. A wide range of factors affects an individual‟s level of satisfaction. supervisors. It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms. a high level of job satisfaction lead to organizational commitment. whereas satisfaction reflects the individual‟s attitude towards the situation. job satisfaction is primarily determine by factors that are usually not directly controlled by the organization. Motivation is a drive to perform. For example. Motivation. employee who like their jobs. or dissatisfaction. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if they are given the freedom to make their own decisions.However. The result of high job satisfaction is increased commitment to the organization. the level of job satisfaction is largely determined by the comfits offered by the environment and the situation . on the other hand is largely determine by value of reward and their dependence on performance. while a low level. The factors that determine whether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from those that determine whether he or she is motivated. 39 . While organizational rewards can and do have an impact. which may or may not result in better performance.
4 40 .CHAPTER No.
MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION 41 .
Judge 1988) T w o -Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) (Frederick Herzberg‟s) J o b Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham) R a t i n g scale P e r s o n a l interviews A c t i o n tendencies J o b enlargement J o b rotation C h a n g e of pace S c h e d u l e d rest periods 42 .MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION There are various methods and theories of measuring job satisfaction level of employees in the organization given by different authors. List of all the theories and methods measuring job satisfaction level is given below: A MODEL OF FACET SATISFACTION f f e c t theory (Edwin A. Locke 1976) A D i s p o s i t i o n a l Theory( Timothy A.
1 MODEL OF FACET OF JOB SATISFACTION Skill Experience Training Efforts Age Seniority Perceived personal job inputs Perceived inputs & outcomes of referent others Perceived amount that should be received (a) Level Difficulty Time span Perceived job Perceived outcome of characteristic referent others Actual outcome received P received (b) 43 .3.
dissatisfaction a=b satisfaction a>b a<b guilt I 44 .
The higher outcome level of his referent other the lower his outcome level will appear. 45 .lawler in 1973 proposed a model of facet satisfaction.2 Model of determinant of facet of job satisfaction Edward E.Fig. This model also focuses on his perception on reward level. His perception influenced by his perception of what his referent others receive. This model is applicable to understand w hat determines a person‟s satisfaction w ithany facet ofjob. According to this m odelactualoutcom e level plays a key role in a person‟s perception of w hat rewards he receives.no.
When a person valu es ed a particular facet of a job. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. if Emplo A values autono y in the workpl ce and yee m a Employee B is indifferent about autonomy. To illustrate. 46 . Locke‟s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the mostfamousjob satisfaction model. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfi one becom esw hen expectationsare/aren‟t m et. the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.2 AFFECT THEORY Edwin A. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job.3. compared to one who doesn‟t value that facet. regardless of one‟s job. Further.g. Thisapproach becam e a notable explan ation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B.3 DISPOSITIONAL THEORY Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory it is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met). 3.
locus of control. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations thatdeterm ineone‟s disposi towards job satisfaction: self-esteem. as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction.A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Selfevaluations Model. lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction 47 . Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. This model states that higher levels of selfesteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one‟s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Judge in 1998. general tion self-efficacy. Finally. and neuroticism. proposed by Timothy A.
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job. in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction. autonomy. absenteeism. or the work carried out. the theory does not consider individual differences. task significance. company policies. conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. work motivation. supervisory practices.. task identity. etc. 48 .The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job.). This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors. and other working conditions.3. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety. and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness.4 TWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY) Frederick Hertzberg‟s Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research. and knowledge of the actual results). the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured 3. including job satisfaction. which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes.4 JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model. which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay. respectively. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform. and provide people with satisfaction. Finally. experienced responsibility for outcomes. with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact Furthermore.
I innovativeness is encouraged to meet business problems. Management is extremely fair in personal policies 4. Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the employees 3. Managemen t hasa clear path for em ployee‟s advancem ent 2. Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining targets 5. My supervisor treats me fairly and with respect 49 .6 MODERN METHOD OF MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION In this method of measuring job satisfaction the comparison between various organizational terms and conditions at managerial level and also the organization at a large. I feel I can trust what my supervisor tells me 2. SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICIES OF THE ORGANIZATION: 1.3. SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION 1.
Overall I am satisfi w ith the co m p a y‟s compensationpackag e ed n 2. I get frequent appreciation of work done from supervisors 5.3. I am satisfied with the retirement benefits 50 . Individual initiative is encouraged SATISFACTION WITH COMPENSATION LEVELS 1 . I am satisfied with the conveyance allowance 4. I am satisfied with the medical benefits 3. I get enough support from the supervisor 6. My supervisor handles my work-related issues satisfactorily 4.
My skills and abilities are adequately used at work From all above we can conclude level of job satisfaction of our employees. I get opportunities to handle greater responsibilities 3. Management decisions are Ad Hoc and lack professionalism (reverse scaled) 2. I have adequate opportunities to learn and grow 2. Rules and procedures are followed uncompromisingly 3. I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilities SATISFACTION WITH TASK CLARITY 1.5. I am satisfied with the reimbursement of the expenses as per the eligibility 6. My job responsibilities are well defined and clear SATISFACTION WITH CAREER DEVELOPMENT 1. 51 .
7 RATING SCALE It is one of the most common methods of measuring job satisfaction.3. The popular rating scale used to measure Job satisfaction is to include: Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires: It helps to obtain a clear picture of pertinent satisfactions and dissatisfactions of employees. Porter Need Identification Questionnaires: It is used only for management personnel and revolves around the problems and challenges faced by managers. Job Description Index: it measures Job satisfaction on the dimension identified by Smith. 52 . Kendall. Hullin.
10 ACTION TENDENCIES By this method. 2. In his study on American employees. Job satisfaction can be measured by asking questions and gathering information on how they feel like behaving with respect to certain aspects of their jobs.09 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS This method facilitates an in-depth exploration through interviewing of job attitudes. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations. 3. H is relative s status in th e social & econom group w ithw hichhe identifi him self. interest & preparation of the workers. 3.3. This method provides employees more opportunity to express their in-depth feeling.8 CRITICAL INCIDENTS Fredrick Hertz berg and his Associates popularized this method of measuring Job satisfaction. hoppock identified six factors that contributed to job satisfaction among them. The main advantage in this method is that additional information or clarifications can be obtained promptly. The nature of work in relation to the abilities. 53 . These are as follows: 1. 3. The facilities with which he adjust himself to other persons. ‟ ic es 4. 5. It involves asking employees to described incidents on job when they were particularly satisfied or dissatisfied. Security. Then the incidents are analyzed in terms of their contents and identifying those related aspects responsible for the positive and negative attitudes.
6. They are concern with Job satisfaction or general job attitudes with the employees. 54 . Loyalty. Because human resource manager often serve as intermediaries between employees & management in conflict.
Social status and political & soci l ‟s a activities can all contrib te to the Job satisfaction. Worker has more control over the work 3. Monitory benefits & 5. Output will increase if 1. actual and potential.as 1.11 JOB ENLARGEMENT The concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. 3. Attitude towards work group. General working conditions. Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more and different tasks to a specialized job. 3. 2. Job enlargement is oblivious forerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design.Philip apple white has listed the five major components of Job satisfaction . It is simply the organizing of the work so as to relate the contents of the job to the capacity. 4. add variety. of workers. A person attitude toward his or her job may be u ‟s positive or negative. It may widen the number of task the employee must do that is. Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated. Workers abilities are fully utilized 2. Stephan offers three basic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement. level of aspiration. 55 . Attitude towards supervision Other components that should be added to this five are individual stateof mind aboutthe work itself an d ‟s abo u tthe life in general . Attitude towards company.the individual health. age.
This also presumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom. the process is called horizontal job enlargement. the assembly lines can be shortened so that there will be more lines and fewer workers on each line. instead of assigning one man to each job and then allowed to decide for himself how to organize the work. Such changes permit more social contacts and greater control over the work process. Moreover. Perhaps. To check harmful effects of specialization.When additional simple task are added to a job. the engineering factors involved in each individual job must be carefully analyzed. 56 .
3.12 JOB ROTATION
Job rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completely different sets of job activities. One way to tackle work routine is to use the job rotation. When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee is rotated to another job, at the same level that has similar skill requirements. Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom through systematically moving workers from one job to another. This practice provides more varieties and gives employees a chance to learn additional skills. The company also benefits since the workers are qualified to perform a number of different jobs in the event of an emergency. 3.13 CHANGE OF PACE
Anything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when he wishes will lend variety to his work. Further if workers are permitted to change their pace that would give them a sense of accomplishment. 3.14 SCHEDULED REST PERIODS
Extensive research on the impact of rest periods indicates that they may increase both morale and productivity. Scheduled rest periods bring many advantages: They counteract physical fatigue They provide variety and relieve monotony They are something to look forward to- getting a break gives a sense of achievement. They provide opportunities for social contacts.
Once you have applied critical thinking skills to the findings of past 60 . It must be written in such a way that it keeps reader‟s attention and don‟t m akehim bore. that are the foundation of the research and are taken to highlight the problem. Concentrate on the most widely cited authors and the most significant findin No Wastage of efforts. A literature review ensures that you are at least familiar with the body of research in your field before starting your own investigations. Though it is based on assumptions but the researchers must use them near to the fact. All the details in a review should be synchronized in such a manner that it w ill no t leave any flaw in th e readers‟ mind. Remember it is not a fiction or the researcher embossed his writing skills on the readers mind.Characteristics of Good Review of Literature A Literature review is the summary and critical evaluation of pervious published or unpublished researches made by various scholars and researchers. A s a review tells us w hat has already find out abouta specific problem so it will help the future researcher to plan out their framework in different dimensions using different type of variables in the different situations to reach the result. He must be very clear to the objectives of the research and follow them accordingly. should be simple and easily understandable for the readers as it increases the readers‟ confid ence in the ability. methodological issues and suggestions for future research. findings and feelings of the researcher comprehensively otherwise the reader lose the interest & attention. thesis. articles. reports etc. Simplify discussion. Variables. com pet ency and professionalism of the researchers. Writing a literature review also provides practice in critical thinking. It must be written clearly and accurately. Simple and easily understandable wording should be used in a review and unnecessary statements. A review of literaturetellsthe researchers‟ knowedge ab ou tthe gs. Here Comprehensiveness does not mean that you should mention every research report. there focus upon the specific problem whether they are logically developed and plan about the research area & major issues. article or paper that has ever been published on your subject. A good literature review gives only the relevant details. jargon should be avoided. It may also include discussions. journals. When a researcher studies various research articles and thesis. D on‟t m akeit too com plex. The source of literature review may be newspapers. magazines. The literature review provides the bases for the development of theoretical fame work by identifying variables that are very important. as determined by the previous research findings. books. he should write them in literature review as it is either he is agreed with it or not. l topic.
what kind of strategy should be taken to avoid them. variables that are taken and kind of questionnaire that are asked. After reading your 61 . situation. A comprehensive literature review enables the researcher to select most appropriate method of research. you are in a better position to apply these same skills to your own work. You have to avoid this if you want to engage the reader till the end. A review tells the whole story of the research so it should comprehensively precise including all necessary details about the topic. It tells us that which procedure and methods was used in previous studies and if there is any problem with these procedure and methods. Repetition is never being appreciated in any literature as it bothers the reader.researchers.
Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. Demographic information regarding age and tenure were examined. donation and the 62 . Identifying these can lay the foundation for new insights. organization policies & administration. “The good hopeis hard to find. salary & quality of life etc. gaps are the result of methodological or theoretical "blind-spots". It was demonstrated that tenure is related to job satisfaction and having positive & low relation. A good literature review setsout the gaps in current understanding.is even truer these days than ever before because the job m arket in becomin g increasingly tight”. In other cases. Some problems have not been thoroughly investigated for technical or practical reasons. (Eskildesen. JOB SATISFACTION is regard to one‟s feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their work. Employers have a need to keep employee from leaving and going to work for other organizations. Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as kind of supervision. Theresa take sample from single organization which in non profit organization. The best way of retaining employees is to provide the job satisfaction and opportunities to build up their careers. the reader should come away with a deeper understanding of your topic. Hammer) Theresa gave the study to examine the job satisfaction and intent to turnover using the co relational design. There was little evidence that suggest that age was significantly related to either job satisfaction or intent to turnover. Two instruments were utilized that measure the overall (Specter job satisfaction) and facet job satisfaction and intent to turnover (Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire). A review of the literature on Job Satisfaction & Employee Turnover The industrial and business sectors of various countries specially developing countries including Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are facing the problem of job dissatisfaction among the employees and high rate of turnover. It seeks to explain these reasons why gaps persist. The non profit organizations are some extent running by the charity & remunerations for the employees in such organizations are low. The result from the study suggests that there is a significant and negative correlation between job satisfaction and intent to turnover.literature review. He takes the sample (n = 107) consist of direct support professional who worked for non profit organization located in South Carolina that served People with disabilities development.
1 Bhatti & Qureshi collect the information regarding the Name of organization, Life of organization in years, Number of employee, Employee participation, Job satisfaction, Employee commitment & \Employee Productivity from the first line managers and their immediate 1 Theresa Ricke-Kely. USA bosses. The Managers were given a questionnaire and were asked to give the answer at their best knowledge with reference to working conditions in their organization.
Questionnaire was divided in to two portions. First line manager had to answer the question regarding name of organization, life of organization, number of employees, employee participation, job satisfaction and employee commitment. While the immediate bosses was to answer the question from the portion of employee productivity. The questionnaire consists on relationship among job satisfaction, employee commitment, and employee productivity. They used Likard scale questionnaire. They take sample from communication sector, banking sector and oil & gas sector of Pakistan. 34 organizations were selected for study. They measured job satisfaction by using the variables, employee productivity, employee commitment and employee participation and their hypothetical research found strong and positive relationship between the job satisfaction and mentioned variables. The finding suggests that management of organization should increase the satisfaction among employees with compensation, policies and working conditions in order to attain high level of employee commitment and reduce turnover.2 The sample size was not enough to reflect image of the organizations functioning in Pakistan. Data collection method for research is very common. Other methods could have been used for this research study like group discussion / discussion forum. The late 1920s one of the first studies of job satisfaction undertaken by Mayo & Hawthorne. This study referred to & focused on employee attitude and its impact on production levels. The study highlighted that employees & workers develop their own perceptions of the work situation and the social environment, which affects their 2 Komal Khalid Bhatti & Tahir Masood Qureshi. attitudes towards their work. The findings of the study provided consistent results with the observations of Taylor in 1911, that individual workers wants economic incentives/monetary rewards and are willing to work harder for it. He used the global approach to measure job satisfaction. The study found that 88% of the surveyed were classified as being satisfied, and there was a direct linear relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction3 This section examines the literature regarding theories and models used to explain the determinants of job satisfaction. There are two broad categories to classify job satisfaction theories, that is, process and content theories. Content theories are predominantly concerned with the identification of specific needs or motives most conducive to ‟s job satisfaction. The M aslow Need H ierarchy and Herzberg‟s Two-Factor theory are examples of content theories. Process theories go further than identifying basic needs that motivate people. T hey focus o n th e individual‟s Facet- Satisfaction attitudes and 64 Model, dynamic thought processes and how they produce certain types of behavior/attitudes. Equity Theory, Need-Fulfillment Theory, Social Comparison Theory, Job Characteristics Model. To better understand employee
motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from that causing job 3 Mayo & Hawthorne study dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfier hygiene factors, using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction.
Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. social. Social needs create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Recognition. but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. job satisfaction does not necessarily create a high level of motivation or productivity. Relationship with Boss. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position.Frederick Herzberg 1959 employees and provide them job satisfaction through management style. and job security. and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. job design. He says that these needs must be satisfied in the order listed. 4 The two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. esteem and at last self actualization need. Advancement and Growth and the factors which leads to dissatisfaction are Company policy. True motivation comes from within a person and not from KITA factors (Kicks in the Pants). There are opportunities to motivate 4. there are some important implications for management. and compensation packages.5 Physiological needs provide lunch breaks. Work conditions. Maslow's theory says. commencing with physiological needs then safety. Responsibility. company events. Furthermore. Relationship with co workers Herzberg argued that management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs. Herzberg's theory has been broadly read and despite its weaknesses. retirement benefits. Supervision. Salary. 66 .He describes that factors leads to job satisfaction are Achievement. rest breaks. Work itself. Safety needs provide a safe working environment. SelfActualization provides employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.
5.The literature review given above is easy to understand and covered findings of home (Pakistan) and abroad researcher also. The Source which I used for study was internet.Evaluation of Literature Review. Some researcher used single variable to check the job satisfaction and some use two or more. I discussed both. I have read almost 14 articles & theories about my topic and discussed some of them which were easy to understand for me. I used the way which attract the readers and tried to carry them till end.(www.Maslow 1943 6.netmba. The variables used by the researchers are discussed in detail and their dependency & impact on problem.com) 67 . At the end of every researcher‟s finding the criticism on theirresearch is also given in such a comprehensive manner that it shows the clear picture of all findings and lacking area of research.
experienced responsibility for outcomes. Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes. etc. absenteeism. Some of the theories are discussed in detail here. The literature shows the clarity and accuracy.). including job satisfaction. and feedback). The bad factor of my literature review is that I have only discussed five researches & Theories but that was only because of shortage of time and restrictions. The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job. These impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness. Theoretical Foundation Many theories support The Topic Job satisfaction and Employee Turnover and define the characteristics of satisfaction and to some extent dissatisfaction. It provide the base for further working and having complete knowledge about the topic that what has been done in the field so far. which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. autonomy.The review given tells that there are many factors which influence the job satisfaction in an organization but in Pakistan are remunerations and monetary rewards as the research work done by Komal Khalid Bhatti & Tahir Masood Qureshi. work motivation. in turn nfluencing work outcomes (job satisfaction. task identity. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety. task significance. 68 . I tried to avoid the reputation of statements and convey the whole story in short wordings. and knowledge of the actual results).
Safety needs provide a safe working environment. Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. retirement benefits. commencing with physiological needs then safety. esteem and at last self actualization need. According to theory. there are some important implications for management. job design. Maslow says that these needs must be satisfied in the order listed. There are opportunities to motivate employees and provide them job satisfaction through management style. and compensation packages. and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization provides employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential. company events.Maslow Hierarchy of Need Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs.Physiological needs provide lunch breaks. and job security. social. rest breaks. 69 . Social needs create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events.
Factors Affecting Job Attitudes • Com pa y policy n • Su pervision • Relationship w/Bo ss • Work con diions t • Salary • Relationship /Peers w • Achievem ent • Recognition • Work itself 70 .Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory) To better understand employee attitudes and motivation. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from that causing job dissatisfaction. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors. using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction.Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Herzberg's Motivation . The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. The following table presents the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing satisfaction. listed in the order of higher to lower importance. Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
employee attendance. Employers have a need to keep employee from leaving and going to work for other organizations. Therefore. maintaining and retaining them in their organization. organization policies & administration. Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as kind of supervision. What is Employee Turnover? Employee turnover is a ratio comparison of the number of employees a company must replace in a given time period to the average number of total employees. developing. and these can stem from both the employer and the employees. salary & quality of life etc. and job performance are all factors that play a significant role in em ployee turnov r. less job commitment. 71 . The best way of retaining employees is to provide the job satisfaction and opportunities to build up their careers. company benefits. and increasing turnover. Wages.is even truer e th esedays thanever before because the job m arket in becoming increasingly tight”. Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of training. m anagers at all costsmustminimize employee‟s turnover. “The good hopeis hard to find. (Eskildesen. Many factors play a role in the employee turnover rate of any company.• Resp o n isbility • Advancemen t • Growth Summary of Literature Review The industrial and business sectors of various countries specially developing countries including Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are facing the problem of job dissatisfaction among the employees which is causing the less productivity. What is Job Satisfaction? Jo b s Satisfaction is regard to one‟s feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their w ork.
Two instruments were utilized that measure the overall (Specter job satisfaction) and facet job satisfaction and intent to turnover (Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire). The result from the study suggests that there is a significant and negative correlation between job satisfaction and intent to turnover. Bhatti & Qureshi collect the information regarding the Name of organization. 72 .Hammer) Theresa examine he job satisfaction and intent to turnover using the co relational design. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. Job satisfaction. The Managers were given a questionnaire and were asked to give the answer at their best knowledge with reference to working conditions in their organization. Demographic information regarding age and tenure were examined. It was demonstrated that tenure is related to job satisfaction and having positive & low relation. Employee commitment & Employee Productivity from the first line managers and their immediate bosses. Employee participation. Life of organization in years. Number of employee.
employee commitment and employee participation and their hypothetical research found strong and positive relationship between the job satisfaction and mentioned variables. They take sample from communication sector. The study found that 88% of the surveyed were classified as being satisfied. The finding suggests that management of organization should increase the satisfaction among employees with compensation. job satisfaction and employee commitment. e l productivity success. The questionnaire consists on relationship among job satisfaction. He used the global approach to measure job satisfaction. and employee productivity. employee productivity. policies and working conditions in order to attain high level of employee commitment and reduce turnover. The late 1920s one of the first studies of job satisfactionundertaken by Mayo & Hawthorne. They used Likard scale questionnaire. life of organization. The study highlighted that employees & workers develop their own perceptions of the work situation and the social environment. This study referred to & focused on employee attitude and its impact on production levels. The study of job satisfaction and its effects have been of concern and of interest to organ izations and researchers sin ceHop pock‟s first study of th e to pic in 1 93 5 . They measured job satisfaction by using the variables. T urn over is a serious problem is and it‟s seriousy effect the quality of service. that individual workers wants economic incentives/monetary rewards and are willing to work harder for it. and ultimately overall organizational 73 . One is the intent to turnovr. First line manager had to answer the question regarding name of organization. number of employees. employee commitment. The findings of the study provided consistent results with the observations of Taylor in 1911. employee participation. banking sector and oil & gas sector of Pakistan.Questionnaire was divided in to two portions.Studies have found that the lack of satisfaction can have serious consequences. and there was a direct linear relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction. which affects their attitudes towards their work. While the immediate bosses was to answer the question from the portion of employee productivity.
Questionnaire will be divided in to two parts dissatisfaction factors and satisfaction factors.Methods of Data Collection The broader purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship among employee job satisfaction and employee Turnover. Methods of Data Analysis Data will be analyzed according to job experience with respect of salary and secondary data will be used to make calculations and analysis. A questionnaire technique will be used in order to obtain data and employees will be asked to give the answers of questions in accordance to their best knowledge. Data will be collected from the accounts employees of various organizations. 75 .
CHAPTER No. 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 77 .
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems. correct or verify knowledge. organizing and evaluating data: making deductions and reaching conclusions: and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. 78 . To detect the functional area and locate the exact problem is most important part of any research as the whole research is based on the problem. tabulation and analysis and drawing the conclusions. Thus formulation of the problem is the first and foremost step in the research process followed by the collection. formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions: collecting. whether that knowledge aids in construction o f th eo or in th e practice of an art” ry In short. recording. concepts or symbols for the purp of of ose generalizing to extend.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4. Research can be defined as “th e m anipulation things. the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The problem formulation starts with defining the problem or number of problems in the functional area. It is a systematic method of collecting and recording the facts in the form of numerical data relevant to the formulated problem and arriving at certain conclusions over the problem based on collected data.1 INTRODUCTION Research refers to a search for knowledge.
4. All questions are closed ended.3SAMPLING It was divided into following parts: Sampling universe All the employees are the sampling universe for the research. Hence it should be carefully constructed. Such type of questionnaire is inexpensive to analysis and easy to administer. quicker and analysis will become easier. Structured questionnaire consist of only fixed alternative questions.2 DRAFTING QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire is considered as the most important thing in a survey operation. 79 .4. The advantage of sampling are that it is much less costly. Sample size taken was 100 employees. Sampling technique Judgmental sampling Sample was taken on judgmental basis.
Ltd.4. To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of Sonalika Pvt Ltd. 80 .4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research has been undertaken with following objectives. To study the factors affecting job satisfaction among the employees of Sonalika Pvt.
which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. The primary data were collected through well-designed and structured questionnaires based on the objectives. which have already been collected by someone else and passed through statistical process.6 RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job satisfaction level of the employees of Sonalika.4. Primary Data: The primary data are those. Secondary Data: The secondary data are those. the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz. 4. 81 . Primary and secondary data. and Internet etc. While deciding the method of data collection to be used for the study.5 DATA COLLECTION The task of data collection begins after the research problem has been defined and research design chalked out. the study was restricted to Sonalika only and other being the time as constraint. The secondary data required of the research was collected through various newspapers. Limitation for the study.
7 82 .CHAPTER No.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 83 .
The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories. the researcher should have to explain the findings on the basis of some theory. They have been presented along with their interpretation in this manner. That made possible counting of classified data easy. The data has been collected from 100 employees of Sonalika through questionnaire. It is known as interpretation . Tabulation is the part of technical procedure where in the classified data are put in the form of tables. From the master table various summery tables were prepared. After analyzing the data. the researcher turns to the task of analyzing them. The data thus collected was in the form of master table. the application of these categories to raw data through tabulation and drawing statically inferences. 84 .DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION After data have been collected.
Of respondents 31 49 12 5 3 Percentage 31 49 12 5 3 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Above Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied table are with work 61% are with shows that 31% employees strongly satisfied their place employees satisfied Satisfied Strongly dissatisfied their workplace. Are you satisfied with the workplace of organization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No.\ 85 . It means over all 92% employees are satisfied and other 18% are not satisfied with the work place.1.
86 . It n erpreted be res are inf an dis inf of ca int Satisfied Slightly satisfied that 30% are not satisfied with infrastructure which not more in number.2. Are y o u satisfied with the infrastructure of organization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 50 20 10 16 4 Percentage 50 20 10 16 4 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Above table shows Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied that 70% pondents satisfied with rastructure d 30% are satisfied with rastructure sonalika.
Are y o u satisfied with the canteen facility provided by orgarization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 56 17 16 9 3 Percentage 56 17 16 9 3 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Satisfied Above table shows that 88% employees are satisfied with the canteen facility provided by the organization.3. Only 12% employees are not satisfied with canteen facility 87 .
88 . Of respondents 51 23 10 11 6 Percentage 51 23 10 11 6 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Satisfied Above table shows that 84% employees are satisfied with implementation of rules and responsibilities. And 16% of respondents are not seems to be satisfied with the implementing rules and responsibilities.4. Are you satisfied with the implementation of rules and responsibilities? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No.
Are y o u satisfied with the freedom given at work? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 30 36 14 16 4 Percentage 30 36 14 16 4 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Slightly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied 89 .5.
Are you satisfied with the team spirit in organization? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied No. Of respondents 52 21 7 16 4 Strongly satisfied Percentage Percentage 52 21 7 16 4 Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Satisfied 90 .Above table shows that 80% respondents are happy with the freedom at work given by management but only 20% of respondents are not satisfied with freedom given at work place 6.
Above table shows that 80% employees are satisfied with team sprit built in organization and other employees are not satisfied with team spirit in the organization. 91 .
And only 28% employees are not much satisfied with the working hours. 92 .7 Are y o u satisfied with working hours? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 20 41 11 23 5 Percentage 20 41 11 23 5 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Satisfied Above table shows that 20% employees strongly feels that the working hours decided by organization are most convenient for them. Other 52% employees are satisfied with these working hours.
Of respondents 13 18 11 12 46 Percentage 13 18 11 12 46 Percentage Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Above table shows that only 31 % employees are satisfied with the job security. And remaining 69% of employees are not satisfied with the job security provided by the organization. Are you satisfied with Job security? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No.8. 93 .
Of respondents 64 21 11 11 4 0 Percentage 64 21 11 4 0 Percentage Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Slightly satisfied Satisfied Strongly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Above table shows that 96% employees are strongly in favor that the targets given are achievable and only 4% are not feels that the targets given are achievable. Are you satisfied with the targets given to you? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No.9. 94 .
And most of the employees nearly 78% are not satisfied with opportunities of promotions. Are y o u satisfied with the opportunities for promotions? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No. Of respondents 8 14 6 26 46 Percentage 8 14 6 26 46 Percentage Strongly satisfied Satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Only 22% of the employees are satisfied with the opportunities of promotions given by organization. 95 .10.
Only 40% of the employees are not much satisfied with the payment of salaries on time. Of respondents 44 16 4 32 4 Percentage 44 16 4 32 4 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Satisfied Strongly dissatisfied Above table shows that 60% of employees are satisfied with the payment of salaries on time. 96 . Are you satisfied with the payment of salary in regard to time? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied No.11.
Of respondents Percentage 42 36 4 Strongly dissatisfied 14 42 Percentage 36 4 14 Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied4 Slightly satisfied Strongly 4 satisfied Satisfied From the above table it shows that 76% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of training and induction program and only 97 .12 Are you satisfied with the quality of formal training and induction program? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied No.
98 . Are you satisfied with the working of HR division? Satisfaction Level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied 18 2 6 2 No. Of Respondents 72 Percentage 72 18 2 6 2 Percentage Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Strongly satisfied Above table shows that 92% of the respondents are satisfied with the HR division Only 8% of the respondents are not satisfied with the proactive and proper HR division.13. which is very negligible in number.
14 Are you satisfied with the performance appraisal system? Satisfaction level Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied No. Of respondents 62 28 4 4 Percentage 62 28 4 4 2 Strongly dissatisfied2 Percentage Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Slightly satisfied Strongly satisfied Strongly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied Satisfied Above table shows that 90% respondents are satisfied with the performance appraisal system and only 10% of the respondents are not much satisfied with the performance appraisal system implemented in organization. 99 .
Are you satisfied with acceptan ce of employee’s suggestions? Satisfaction Level Strongly Satisfied Satisfied Slightly Satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly Dissatisfied No. 100 . Of Respondents 4 22 4 45 25 Percentage 4 22 4 45 25 Percentage Strongly Dissatisfied Strongly Satisfied Satisfied Strongly Satisfied Satisfied Slightly Satisfied Dissatisfied Slightly Satisfied Strongly Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Above table shows that the 26% of the respondents are satisfied with the positive acceptance of the suggestions given by the respondents but most of the respondents 70% are dissatisfied with this point.15.
8 FINDINGS 102 .CHAPTER No.
And similarly in case of infrastructure 70% of the employees are satisfied and very small number of employees are not happy with the infrastructure of sonalika and the canteen facilities.FINDINGS All the findinds are drawn based on the analysis and interpretation of the primary data regarding the job satisfaction of the employees of sonalika. From the analysis and interpretation. According to analysis and interpretation. which are negligible in number. It is notice that near about 84% the employees are satisfied with implementation of rules and responsibilities. From this it seems that the team spirit in the organization is strong. This study shows that only few employees strongly feel that the working hours decided by organization are most convenient for them. it is concluded that 80 % of the employees are satisfied with the workplace and only 20% employees are not satisfied with the workplace. And only some of them are not seems to be satisfied with the implementing rules and responsibilities. which satisfies the employees. From the study it is clear that the 70% percentage of employees are happy with the freedom at work given by management but only some of them are not feeling satisfied with the freedom given at work place. So it is clear that the management kept the main consideration about working conditions and the hours. 60% of the employees are satisfied with the team spirit built in organization and only few are not happy with team spirit in the organization. Other is not in favor with these working hours.structure of sonalika is good or satisfactory. 103 . It means the workplace and infra. Therefore it shows that implementation of rule and responsibility is done fairly.
Few suggestions are given as under: In case of working hours decided by the organization are not convenient for the employees of sonalika. From analysis we concluded that the period of in house training is very short that is of only 3 days. The criteria for Job security is not much satisfactory so management need to concentrate on job security of employees so that they can work without fear of job loss in the organization. Opportunities of growth of employees are very less so that there can be employee turnover hence management has to give emphasis on increasing the promotion opportunities for according to the performance of employees. Hence from this analysis it is cleared that there is feeling of fear of job loss in the employees of sonalika. Hence the training period should extend up to 5 days.30AM to 5 PM. SUGGESTIONS The suggestions are drawn from the analysis and observations. These hours should minimize up to 5 hours. And remaining most of the employees are not satisfied with the job Security provided by the organization. 104 . The working hours are 6 hours per day that from 8. The study shows that very small numbers (32%) of employees are satisfied with the job security. which is not sufficient to get complete knowledge about the work. An analysis shows that about 75% of employees are strongly in favor that the targets given are achievable and only are not feels that the targets given are achievable. Hence the targets set by management are achievable.
It will help to increase the motivation and ultimately the Job satisfaction of the employees of sonalika. 105 . As there is an active participation of employees in decision making but rarely the suggestions given by them are drawn in action. Hence the confidence of employees gets demotivated. So to motivate the employees management can take into consideration some proper suggestions given by the employees.
In case of performance appraisal system and the office events and parties organized by the organization near about all the employees are satisfied. From the analysis it is clear that half of the employees are satisfied and other half are not satisfied with the encouragement given to the suggestions of the employees. Only little number of the employees is satisfied with the opportunities of promotions given by organization. The birthdays of all the employees are remembered and celebrated in the organization. But the period of training is not satisfactory to the employees. From the analysis it is clear that management is able all the promises 106 . It shows that the employees do not have any growth of opportunities. From the analysis and interpretation it is clear that very large number of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of training and induction program and in house training held by the management. But only few thinks that there is positive acceptance of the suggestions given by the employees.CONCLUSION From the analysis it is concluded that very small number of employees are satisfied with the payment as per their roles and responsibility and remaining all are not satisfied with the payment according to their roles and responsibilities. Hence from this analysis it can be cleared that payment according to roles and responsibilities are not much satisfied. It is concluded that the employees are not much satisfied with the forum for face-to-face communication. From the analysis it is clear that HR division is most satisfactory to all employees only few are not satisfied with the HR division in the company. Analysis shows that the payment of salary is made always on time. And few are not satisfied with the quality of in house training.
CHAPTER No. 9 107 .
BIBLIOGRAPHY 108 .
Newstrom John W.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Hitt.google. M iller.com 109 .. M. McGraw “ Hill 7 Edition. th Wiley Stu de n‟s t Lu th an s Fred “Organ izational Behavior”.com www. Edition. Limited. 9 th Edition. “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”. Davis Keith.com www. 1 s t Edition.hrcouncil. “Organizational Behavior Human Resource At Work”. Colella “Organ izational Behavior A Strategic Approach”. Tata McGraw Hill Edition.workforce. Macmillan India Pestonjee D. Websites: www.
CHAPTER No. 10 110 .
ANNEXTURE 111 .
OCCUPATION- 1 Are you satisfied with the workplace of organization? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 2. Are you satisfied w i t h t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of organization? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 3 Are you satisfied with the canteen facility provided by organization? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 112 .ANNEXTURE Questionnaire NAMEAGEMOBILE No.
Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 7. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 6. Are you satisfied with freedom given at work? 1. Are you satisfied with convenient working hour? 1.4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 4. Are you satisfied with the team spirit in organization? 1. Are you satisfied with the implementation of rules and responsibilities? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 5. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 113 .
Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 114 . Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 10.4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 8. Are you satisfied w i t h t h e opportunities of promotion? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 9. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 11. Are you satisfied with the payment of salary in regards to time? 1. Are you satisfied with the targets given to you? 1. Are you satisfied with job security? 1.
Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 15. Are you satisfied with the performance appraisal system? 1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 14. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 13.12. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied 5) Strongly satisfied 115 . Are you satisfied with positive acceptance of employee’s suggestion? 1. Are you satisfied with the working of HR division? 1. Are you satisfied with the quality of formal training and induction program? 1.
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