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2010

POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL REPORT 1 (YEAR 3, DESIGN PROJECT GROUP 8)

WISDOM PATRICK ENANG


UNIVERSITY OF BATH
5/19/2010
POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN FOR


THE DESIGN OF A RICE TRANS-PLANTING MACHINE FOR RURAL AREAS OF
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

A PROJECT PRESENTED TO
THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BATH UNIVERSITY, BATH

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AN MEng DEGREE IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
WISDOM PATRICK ENANG
MAY, 2010

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

SUMMARY

It is in response to the growing need for the cultivation of more rice to feed the growing population
of rice eaters in Indonesia, that this project has been under taken. Considering the fact that the
manufacture of this machine is meant to be carried out in rural areas of Indonesia, some key
constraints like availability of materials, costs and availability of manufacturing techniques have
deeply been taken in to consideration at every phase of this project.

In furtherance of the power train feasibility studies, this detailed technical design has been carried
out. This technical design aims to make a final engine selection needed to power the rice
transplanting machine. In addition an engine carrier design was also under taken so as to address
the problems associated with direct engine mountings, such as need for height adjustability of
engines, and the need for easy adaptation of different engines in to the rice trans-planter. While
undertaking this design, all the engine power train interfaces were identified and well defined, also
all the necessary interface requirements were also identified and addressed accordingly.

In the end of the of this detailed design, the chosen engine is a Briggs and Stratton 3.5HP Model
series (91252-1049) engine with a 6:1 inbuilt gear box. This decision was arrived at, after vetting
that this engine was capable of meeting both the end user machine requirement specifications, and
their engine requirements specifications. The engine carrier design in the end was vetted to have
exceeded end user requirements. Possible power train risks were identified and possible preventive
and curative measures were equally provided. During the power train risk analysis it was noted that
no serious risk existed between in the engine carrier design. The only possible risk was over heat,
which is more to do with the engine. Engine carrier alternative design was also provided.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ACKNOLEDGEMENTS

Wisdom Enang, May 2010. (Power train technical design) – Rice trans-planter design project. The
author expresses his in depth appreciation to God, His parents, the members of the group 8,
Business Design Project 2010, and their supervisors, Supervisor (Graham Outram and Rod Veazey),
for their moral and technical support in the execution of this work.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Table of Contents
SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 3
ACKNOLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................................................................. 4

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................................... 8

LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................................ 9

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 10

ENGINE BACK GROUND INFORMATION - INDONESIA .......................................................................... 11

IDENTIFICATION OF END USER ENGINE REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................... 12

ENGINE SELECTION ............................................................................................................................... 13

ENGINE BRAND AVAILABILITY ............................................................................................................... 14

ENGINE MODEL SELECTION .................................................................................................................. 14

PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE WHEN THE MACHINE IS USED AS A RICE TRANSPLANTER ....................... 18

POWER TRAIN MODULARITY CONCERN ............................................................................................... 19

PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE WHEN THE MACHINE IS USED AS A ROAD VEHICLE................................. 21

BENEFITS OF THE CHOSEN ENGINE TO THE END USER......................................................................... 22

ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... 23

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 24

DEFINITION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS.................................................................. 24

DEFINITION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN CONSTRAINTS ..................................................................... 25

ENGINE CARRIER PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION ................................................................................ 27

DETAILED DESIGN ANALYSIS OF ENGINE CARRIER................................................................................ 28

ENGINE CARRIER FAILURE ANALYSIS RESULTS...................................................................................... 29

ENGINE CARRIER ASSEMBLY BOLT ANALYSIS ....................................................................................... 30

POWER TRAIN SOLUTION SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................ 31

ENGINE CARRIER MANUFACURING GUIDE ........................................................................................... 32

ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN COST AND WEIGHT ESTIMATION ................................................................ 34

ENGINE CARRIER ASSEMBLY GUIDE ...................................................................................................... 35

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

EVALUATION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN TO ENSURE COMFORMITY TO PERFORMANCE


REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................. 36

EVALUATION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN TO ENSURE COMFORMITY TO END USER REQUIREMENTS


.............................................................................................................................................................. 37

POWER TRAIN INTERFACES................................................................................................................... 39

FULL POWER TRAIN SUB ASSEMBLY ..................................................................................................... 44

DESIGN SOLUTION SPECIFICATIONS ..................................................................................................... 44

ENGINE CARRIER PRODUCT BENEFITS TO END USER ........................................................................... 44

ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN ALTERNATIVE ............................................................................................... 47

DESIGN RISK, FAILURE AND RELIABILITY ANALYSIS .............................................................................. 48

CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 49

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 50

Appendix 1 – Requirement Specification.............................................................................................. 51

Appendix 2 – Product Specification ...................................................................................................... 53

Appendix 3- Internal Specification ........................................................................................................ 54

Appendix 4: Power/ Torque Estimations assuming the machine is used as a rice Trans-planter ........ 55

Appendix 5: Power/ Torque Estimations assuming the machine is used as a Road Vehicle ................ 56

Appendix 6 – Rotational Speed estimations ......................................................................................... 57

Appendix 7 –Engine Requirement Specification ................................................................................... 58

Appendix 8 - Qualitative Comparison of performance, of the different 4 stroke gasoline engine


classifications, to stipulated Engine Requirements .............................................................................. 60

Appendix 9: - Detailed Evaluation of the Performance characteristics of 4 Briggs and Stratton Engines
Analysed for suitability in this design ................................................................................................... 63

Appendix 10 – Detailed Speed Reduction configurations .................................................................... 68

Appendix 11: - Detail On Chosen Engine .............................................................................................. 73

Appendix 12 – Adaptation of chosen engine for alternative purposes ................................................ 83

Appendix 13: - Detailed Manufacturing Material selection ................................................................. 84

Appendix 14 - Detailed Engine Carrier Deflection Calculations ............................................................ 86

Appendix 15 - Engine Carrier Assembly Calculations ........................................................................... 90

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 16 – Assembly Bolt Calculations ........................................................................................... 94

Appendix 17 - Bolt Torque Limit Calculation Reference: (NORD LOCK bolt security system) .............. 95

Appendix 18 – Forming process selection ............................................................................................ 96

Appendix 19 – Sprocket Selection Catalogue ....................................................................................... 99

Appendix 20 – Grub Screw calculations.............................................................................................. 100

Appendix 21 - Risk and Reliability analysis of the engine and the engine carrier assembly .............. 102

APPENDIX 22 – LIST OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS ............................................................................ 108

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1- Engine population by type 2008 ............................................................................................ 12

Figure 2 - Chosen speed reduction configuration - rice trans-planter ................................................. 17

Figure 3 - Performance characteristics of engine while the machine is operating as a rice trans-

planter ................................................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 4 - Chosen speed reduction configuration - road vehicle .......................................................... 20

Figure 5 - Performance characteristics of engine while the machine is operating as a road vehicle... 21

Figure 6 - Power train sub-assembly..................................................................................................... 39

Figure 7 - Alternative assembly configuration for the engine carrier................................................... 45

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 - Comparison of engine performance to required technical engine requirement specifications

.............................................................................................................................................................. 67

Table 2 - Speed reduction configuration comparison........................................................................... 72

Table 3 - Bending technique selection for engine carrier design ......................................................... 98

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

INTRODUCTION

Due to the rising need for improved rice yields, and reduction in rice farming labour time, this
project has been undertaken to provide a rice transplanting machine in rural areas of developing
countries, like Indonesia. In order to promote rural enterprise in Indonesia, the entire manufacturing
processes of the machine have been fashioned such that they could be performed in rural areas of
Indonesia. This thus puts constraints on the manufacturing processes, and materials prescribed for
the entire product manufacture.

As part of the overall project, a power train technical design has been carried out. This technical
design was carried out in order to investigate viable engine options that could power the rice trans-
planting machine. In order to facilitate this choice, investigations were carried out in to the quantity
of available 4 stroke engines and 2 stroke engines, as well the manufacturing brands responsible for
this availability. End user engine requirements and the machine power requirements were also laid
out, upon which all considered engines, were analysed.

In the end of this investigation, the most available engine brands were vetted for technical suitability
in this design. The final engine selection was made based on which engine best met the overall
product, and end user requirements of the design, at the least possible cost. Alternative uses of the
chosen engine, was also given.

In order to address the problems associated with direct mounting of engines to the main machine
frame, and to create room for easy adjustability of engine position (modularity), an engine carrier
design was also undertaken. The engine carrier manufacturing and materials selection constraints
were also identified and well dealt with.

The different interfaces between the power train and other sub systems of the machine design were
identified and particular emphasis was laid on their interface requirements. Design analysis was
carried out which showed that the designed engine carrier exceeds the product requirement
specifications, as well as the end user requirements.

Manufacturing guide and an overall cost and weight estimations was also carried out to ensure that
the engine carrier was able to meet the design cost and weight constraints, stated in the end user
requirement specifications. Risk analysis was also carried out on the entire power train, which
proved that engine carrier was very reliable. Design alternatives were equally specified along side
with their manufacturing implications in Indonesia.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE BACK GROUND INFORMATION - INDONESIA

The extraordinary increase in mobile power requirement in machines, cars and scooters has greatly
contributed to the development and spread of different brands of engines in Indonesia. Currently
there are 9 main engine manufacturers that are based there. These manufacturers include, Kubota,
Yamaha, Kohler, Kymco, Kanzen, APP-KTM, Honda, Kawasaki, and Suzuki. Besides these
manufacturers, other non Indonesia based companies like Briggs and Stratton, Techumeh, have
gained a very great reputation for being one of the highest suppliers of Engines to Indonesia for the
past 30 years.

Over the last 2 decades there have been an entirely new complex posed to both the major engine
manufacturers based in Indonesia and around the world. This problem was associated with the
demand for a small internal combustion engine, of low weight, smaller space requirement, and
specific high output during continuous operations. A comprehensive survey in to these
manufacturers led to the discovery that every one of them reacted to this problem, by introducing
the 4 stroke gasoline engine, which was aimed at replacing the 2 stroke gasoline engine with a more
pleasant user interface and higher fuel efficiency.

Ever since the introduction of the 4 stroke gasoline engine, there have been massive controversies
as to which engine was a better value for money in various automobile applications. In order to
address this controversy a technical investigation, detailed in the ‘’power train’’ technical feasibility
report was carried out. This study however led to the discovery that in terms of technical properties,
the 2 stroke engine, offered a higher torque value at low speeds, when compared to a 4 stroke
engine of the same size.

In order to fully confirm the viability of the 2 stroke gasoline engine in this design, it is important to
examine its availability in the environment that we are concerned with (Indonesia) so as to decide,
whether or not it could be adopted in to the rice trans-planter design. Figure 1 has been drawn, so
as to facilitate this analysis. With reference to this figure, in 2008, there was about 4,000,000 2
stroke gasoline engines and about 9,000,000 4 stroke engines in circulation in Indonesia. Although
these figures were obtained 2 years back, but there wouldn’t be a massive difference between then
and now. An inference from Figure 1, leads to the understanding that even up till now, 4 strokes
engines are quickly replacing the 2 stroke gasoline engines in Indonesia. Furthermore, most of the
engine producing companies supplying to Indonesia, have all stopped the production of 2 stroke

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engines, due to its high level of noise and high carbon emission. This discontinuation simply implies
that in the next 20 year all 2 strokes gasoline engines will completely be faced out. Based on these
facts the 4 stroke engines will further considered for a final engine selection for this design.

Figure 1- Engine population by type 2008

IDENTIFICATION OF END USER ENGINE REQUIREMENTS

Having certified the availability 4 stroke engines in Indonesia, a selection is needed to be made in
terms of engine type and brand for our design. In order for this selection to be made, the end user,
statutory and technical requirements of the engine detailed in Appendix 7 was composed. These
requirements were composed based on the End user requirement specification detailed in Appendix
1 and the Power and Torque values derived from the estimations detailed in Appendix 4 and 5.

Having identified all the requirements expected of the engine as detailed in Appendix 7, these
requirements will then be incorporated in to the final engine type selection, and the engine type
that closely meets all the stipulated requirements will be selected.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE SELECTION

Background Literature

Variegated motorisation demands in Indonesia and other parts of the world, has led to various
developments of different types of 4 stroke engines all round Indonesia and the world. Although
undertaken differently by different engine producing companies, the new developments were aimed
to fill in the gap, since existing engines at that point in time, wasn’t able to meet motorization
requirements any more.

As a result of these developments the following classifications of engines have been achieved under
the 4 stroke cc classification:

1. Utility - All purpose engines, e.g. Lawn mowers.


2. High Output engines – This includes motorcycle engines and single – purpose (Industrial
engines).
3. Maximum output engines (Not Applicable for use in this design and as such cannot be
evaluated for consideration) which includes Sports engines, road racing engines and light
plane engines.

Considering the Torque (5.2Nm) and the Power Requirement (3.2HP) of the engine required, a 150cc
stroke 4stroke engine needs to be sort after for this design.

Although this will offer a lot of speed than what is required, but a gearing mechanism will be needed
to bring down the output speed to 32rpm, which is what is required for the machine to function as a
rice trans-planter as well as 160rpm, which is what is needed for the machine to function as a road
vehicle.

Preliminary Engine Selection by Classification

In order to make a choice of what classification of a 4 stroke engine to make use of in this design,
Appendix 8 has been put together so as to make a comparison, of the performance characteristics of
the various classifications, against the stipulated engine requirements in Appendix 7

Due to the torque (5.2Nm) and power requirement (3.2HP) of the engine needed, a 150cc 4 stroke
engine has been considered, and the comparison in Appendix 8 is made based on this choice. In
order to averagely specify the technical properties of the different types of 4 stroke engines

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

considered in Appendix 8, mean values of their engine properties have been assumed. This also
compensates for the fact that different 150 cc 4 stroke engine manufacturers design their engines
differently.

At the end of the performance characteristics analysis detailed in Appendix 8, it was found that the
general purpose engine (lawn mower engine), will more closely meet all the engine requirements
stipulated, as compared to the scooter engines. Having decided that an all purpose 150 cc engines
will well suit our design, there is a need for the selection to be narrowed to a particular model and
then model.

ENGINE BRAND AVAILABILITY

Briggs and Stratton currently command an unrivalled reputation world wide as the World Largest
producers of air-cooled gasoline engines for outdoor equipments. Besides this, they also earn their
reputation as the world most reputable air – cooled engine suppliers. Currently most of their engines
are being patronize in items like, stand by generators, pressure washers, snow throwers, lawn and
garden equipments, blowers and vacuums worldwide. In Indonesia alone, Briggs and Stratton
supplies about 65% of the air cooled gasoline engines used on outboard equipments. Many
Indonesian based outdoor machine manufacturers like CV. ASA, karangtina , JOHELD PRIMATECH, PT
LARIS JAYA, and many more do outsource their engines from Briggs and Stratton. For example, In
2008 Briggs and Stratton were responsible about 6 million 4 stroke engines supplies to Indonesia,
which more than doubled the total value of 9 million 4 stroke engines that were in circulation at that
point in time. Based on the grounds of availability and reliability a 150 cc Briggs and Stratton Engine
will be considered an appropriate choice for this design.

ENGINE MODEL SELECTION

Having chosen Briggs and Stratton as a reliable and available 4 stroke engine brand In Indonesia, a
final model choice is needed to be made amongst their range of 4 stroke engines. This choice is
going to be made based on the following factors:

(1) Cost
(2) Torque - Speed characteristics
(3) Power - Speed characteristics

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

(4) Easy ability of speed reduction from engine output speed to required speed for the machine
to function both as a rice trans-planter and a road vehicle.

There are more than 100 different Briggs and Stratton 4 stroke engine model currently in circulation.
However in order to specify a suitable model for this design a comparison will be made between 3
models, that closely match the Technical requirements of the machine.

Machine Technical Requirements

Speed 32 -160 rpm

Torque 2.8Nm - 5.2Nm

Power 2.HP - 3.53HP

Weight 40Kg

Power to Weight ratio 0.25 Kg/Hp

The Technical Requirements stated above specifies that the highest Torque needed from the
machine is 5.2 HP and the highest power needed from the engine is 3.2 HP. The Briggs and Stratton
engine choice must be able to provide these technical requirements at the least possible cost. In
addition to these major criteria, weight, size, service life, durability and performance will be
considered.

Engine Models Analysed

(1) Briggs and Stratton 3.5 HP Model Series 91200 – 1016


(2) Briggs and Stratton 3.5 HP Model Series 91252 – 1049 (with gear box)
(3) Briggs and Stratton 6 HP VANGUARD ™ Model Series 118400
(4) Briggs and Stratton 6 HP VANGUARD ™ Model Series 86400

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Analysis of Results

Appendix 9 provides a detailed summary of the Torque – Speed and the Power – Speed
characteristic of each of the 4 brands of Briggs and Stratton engine considered. From the analysis
detailed in Appendix 9 – Table 1 it could be inferred that technically all the 4 considered engines
could be adapted in to the machine design. However the final choice factor will now be based on
price and ease ability of speed reduction to required transplanting or road vehicle speed. On the
basics of affordability the two cheaper engine options for further considerations are (Briggs and
Stratton – 91252 – 1049 with 6:1 gear box) and (Briggs and Stratton- 91252 – 1049). Amongst these
two engines, a final selection will be made at the end of the speed reduction technique analysis.

Speed Reduction and Final Selection of Engine


The two nominated engines (Briggs and Stratton – 91252 – 1049 with 6:1 gear box) and (Briggs and
Stratton- 91252 – 1049), although satisfactory for the design in terms of Torque and Power
requirements, has got a higher speed value than what is needed for the machine to function both as
a rice transplanted and a road vehicle. Hence the engine speed value needs to be reduced by some
sort of gearing to give the required speed at the wheel drive shaft. In the course of analysing the
different speed reduction techniques a final engine model will be decided on for this design. This
choice will be based on simplicity, reliability, size and weight of each of the speed reduction
technique(s), required for both engines.

Machine Technical Speed Requirements


As detailed in Appendix 6, the machine requires about 32 RPM to operate as a rice trans-planter and
about 162 PRM to operate as a road vehicle. However because this design is primarily aimed at
providing a rice transplanting machine for farmers in Indonesia, the target speed reduction will be to
32 RPM, which is the ideal speed required for the machine to function as a rice trans-planter.

In order to carry out the speed reduction analysis detailed in Appendix 10, an output engine speed
valued of 333.33 RPM was assumed for the 3.5 HP 91252-1049 Briggs and Stratton series and 2000
RPM for the 3.5HP 91200-1005 Briggs and Stratton engine.

Table 2 in Appendix 10 has been drawn out to make a comparison of all the 4 speed reduction
configurations considered as detailed in Appendix 10. In these configurations 2 different engines of
the same model series are used to draw a comparative literature on their overall suitability in this
design. Table 2 aims to facilitate this comparison and ultimately the choice of a final engine model.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Final Engine choice, and best speed reduction configuration

Having analysed all 4 speed reduction configurations, configuration 2 was decided as the most
suitable choice for this design. This configuration as detailed in Appendix 10 comprises of a Briggs
and Stratton 3.5HP Model series (91252-1049) with a 6:1 inbuilt gear box, which ultimately is the
final engine choice for our design. An extract of the Briggs and Stratton product manual for the
chosen engine, is detailed in Appendix 11. This extract is aimed at giving an overview of the different
features of the engine as well as provides maintenance and operational advices about the engine. A
pictorial overview of the chosen speed reduction configuration is shown below in Figure 2.

Figure 2 - Chosen speed reduction configuration - rice trans-planter

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE WHEN THE MACHINE IS USED AS A RICE TRANSPLANTER

Figure 3 below shows the performance characteristics of the chosen engine, when the machine is
operating as a rice trans-planter. The shaded portion shows the operating Torque and Power range
of the engine under the machine use as a rice trans-planter. Using the configuration in Figure 2, the
speed of the rice trans-planter is reduced to a range of (1.98MPH – 3.39MPH).

Figure 3 - Performance characteristics of engine while the machine is operating as a rice trans-
planter

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

POWER TRAIN MODULARITY CONCERN

In accordance with the machine’s specification requirement, the machine is required to function
both primarily as a rice trans-planter travelling at 2MPH, and in addition as a road vehicle travelling
at a speed of 10 MHP (capable of going up the hill of 10% gradient). However, the chosen speed
reduction configuration detailed in Figure 2 does only provide the speed range of 2 MPH to 3.4 MPH.
This speed range however satisfies the speed needed for the machine to operate as a rice trans-
planter, but not the 10MPH needed for the machine to operate as a road vehicle (going up the hill of
10% gradient). This thus implies that with this particular configuration the machine cannot be driven
up the hill, otherwise it will stall.

Recommendations to changes needed in order to transform the machine from a rice trans-planter
to a road vehicle

Rice transplanting is done 17 days a week, which implies that the machine will only be required to
function as a rice trans-planter for these 17 days, in which case the configuration in Figure 2 is used.
However, for the rest of the 348 days, the machine could be used as a transport vehicle. In order for
the machine to function as a vehicle, some changes are needed to be done on to the speed
reduction configuration used for rice transplanting. Since, the chosen rice transplanting
configuration (Detailed in Figure 2) does not have any adjustable gears, the only way of changing the
machine from a rice trans-planter operating at 2MPH at least to a vehicle operating at 9.41 MPH, at
least, is for the lay shaft to be flipped around. When this is done the ratio of the lay shaft output
sprocket to axle input sprocket becomes 1 (48:48) as shown in Figure 4. In order words the speed
step down occurs only between the engine output shaft sprocket and the lay shat input sprocket
(10:22). This then saves the cost of buying different sprockets. (PLEASE REFER TO THE DRIVE TRAIN
TECHNICAL REPORT) FOR SPECIFICATION OF SPLIT CHAIN USED TO LINK THE ENGINE SPROCKET TO
THE LAY SHAFT SPROCKET)

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Figure 4 - Chosen speed reduction configuration - road vehicle

With this configuration the speed range expected of the machine as a road vehicle is (9.41 MPH – 16
MPH). With this sort of speed range the machine could easily go up a 10% gradient hill without
stalling or sleeping downhill.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE WHEN THE MACHINE IS USED AS A ROAD VEHICLE

Figure 5 below represents the Torque and Power range of the engine, while the machine is
operating as a road vehicle. As detailed in Figure 4, the best way of changing the machine speed
range of (1.98MPH – 3.39MPH), which is used for rice transplanting, to the speed range of
(9.41MPH – 16MPH) which is needed for the machine to operate as a road vehicle, is by flipping the
lay shaft around. By doing this a 1:1 speed ratio is created between the lay shaft sprocket and the
drive wheel sprocket. That way through a slight adjustment in lay shaft orientation, 1 engine can be
used for both powering the machine as a rice trans-planter and as a road vehicle.

Figure 5 - Performance characteristics of engine while the machine is operating as a road vehicle

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

BENEFITS OF THE CHOSEN ENGINE TO THE END USER

(1) Big air box capacity, which improves filter access and ensure rapid cooling of engine.
(2) Integral fuel tank, which makes the engine compact.
(3) Integral gear box which makes further speed reduction easier to achieve without any further
expenses.
(4) Great power to speed ratio.
(5) Ability to be converted easily to a generator to supply electricity to rural homes, and ability
to be used directly to power a Lawn mower without any changes(Please Refer to Appendix
12) for directives on how to adapt the engine to become a generator
(6) Economical in terms of fuel consumption
(7) Clean engine emissions

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN

VIABLE ENGINE CARRIER CONCEPT

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

INTRODUCTION

The orientation of the engine on the rice trans-planter is very important if optimum power and
torque must be transferred from the engine to the drive train. Although an engine have been
specified for this design, it is important to note that there are a variety of engines that meet the
technical requirement specifications of the rice trans-planting machine and can equally be used as
engine alternatives. However the main concern is that engines of similar technical specifications may
differ in orientations of its output shaft. In order to make sure that the centre line of the engine’s
output shaft always aligns with that of the lay shaft, there is need for some form of engine mount
adjustability. In the wake of this concern, an adjustable engine carrier will be designed and
incorporated between the engine and main carrier interface.

DEFINITION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

All machine elements usually operate within an overall structure such as casings, carriage or frames.
This is usually to hold these elements in place, so it could perform its task. One of the most
considered factors for the design of any carrier is usually the cost and aesthetic considerations.
However the functional and end user requirements expected of the carrier included:

(1) Rigidity – Resistance to torsion and bending on the engine carrier when the engine is
operating.
(2) Service Access – Access for users to easily detach engine
(3) Safe and Secure
(4) Weight – Not more than 10 kg in total
(5) Corrosion resistant and environmentally safe
(6) Size – Large enough to accommodate all engine sub systems
(7) Assembly considerations – Able to permit interface between engine and drive train as well
as interface between the carrier and the main machine frame
(8) Life – Long cycle life
(9) Strength – Strong enough to with stand all possible loadings under the operation with failing
(10)Ergonomics – Low centre of gravity and light

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

DEFINITION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

Considering the fact that this design is aimed to take place in Indonesia, there are some constraints
as to what manufacturing materials and processes could be carried out. Other constraints include
cost ergonomics, environmental impact and maintenance.

Materials Availability and Suitability:


The construction of the rice trans-planter is aimed at the developing countries including Indonesia,
and as such it is important for a choice of manufacturing material for the carrier to be made based
on what materials are available in these areas. Investigations reveal that steel is the most available
metal in Indonesia. Steel universally also command a good reputation for its anti corrosiveness, and
high strength to weight ratio as proved in the material selection analysis detailed in Appendix 13.
Based on these facts, the steel type specified in the table below has been considered the most
suitable material for further calculations and further design considerations.

STEEL (AISI 1020 ANNEALED)

ULTIMATE TENSILE
448 MPa
STREGTH

YIELD STRENGTH 346 Mpa

ELONGATION % 36 %

REDUCTION OF AREA 59 %

HARDNESS (HB) 143 HB

Manufacturing Capability:
The fact that the manufacture of the engine carrier, is to be done in rural areas of Indonesia, puts
great constraints, on what processes are available for this manufacture and at what cost. A detailed
breakdown of the relevant manufacturing processes and related costs in Indonesia are shown
below.

Forming Processes Tooling costs Equipment costs Labour Intensity Steel


Cutting Low Medium Medium Yes
Drilling Low Medium High Yes
Filling of rough edges Low Low Low Yes

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Bending Processes Tooling costs Equipment costs Labour Intensity Steel


Air Bending Low Low low Yes
Bottoming Low Low low yes
Wiping Die Bending Low High low yes
V Bending Low Low Low Yes

Costs
As part of a non profit project, the cost of the engine carrier manufacture must be kept to a
minimum, in order to enable its price fit very well in to the target sale price of the machine aimed at
$250 USD (Appendix 2). This sale price in no way reflects the overall production costs. In order to
facilitate the production of this machine, Charity grants and government subsidies, will play a major
role, as rice serves as the main food for more than 70% of the rural population in Indonesia.

Environmental and sustainability Considerations


Indonesia has no real defined rules and regulations with regards, recycling and safe disposal of waste
materials, and as such the steel material considered for this engine carrier design will be derived
from scrap metals, and all manufacturing techniques used will be environmentally friendly.

Modularity
The engine carrier design must be able to allow for easy height and length adjustments in order to
suit different shaft configurations. The engine carrier should also be able to accommodate other
sorts of engines. With the height adjustments available, the required height, the height of any
replacement engine used could be set.

Weight and Ergonomics


Having decided on steel as the most commonly available and most suitable material for the
manufacture of the engine carrier, weight reduction will now be characterised as a function of size
and shape, of the carrier. Considering the fact that most of the field workers in Indonesia are women
of height 5ft.3 and weight 55kg, a target weight of not more than 10kg has been stipulated for the
engine carrier design. This will enable easy lifting and handling at any time.

Maintenance
Considering the fact that steel metal will be used for this design, regular painting of the engine
carrier with oil paint will be important, so as to serve as a protective covering to shield the carrier
from rusting, considering that the rice trans-planter will be used in humid conditions.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE CARRIER PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

To further advance the Engine carrier design, technical constraints such as deflection allowance,
Allowable stress and weight of the required carrier must be well defined, so as to ensure that the
engine carrier does conform to the end user requirement, as well as the overall product design
specification.

Deflection
One typical requirement for an engine carrier is for it to be able to limit deflection due to bending
when the engine is operating. That way, the centre line of the engine output shaft is always aligned
with the centre line of the lay shaft. As a design guide, the engine carrier will allow no deflections
under loading up to 150kg. 150kg has been estimated to be more than enough weight to make up
for additional fuel tanks, or any other attachments, that may be mounted on the carrier.

Allowable Stress
In order to enable the engine carrier have a great distribution of compressive and tensile stress due to
different loading conditions, a material selection of steel have been decided upon, which will make sure
the allowable stress of the engine carrier is 10 times or more than the maximum stress the engine carrier
is expected to operate in on daily basis.

Weight

In order to enable the engine carrier to be carried by a small Asian woman of 55kg, the carrier weight
must not exceed 10kg.

Summary of Engine carrier require specifications

Weight ˂ 10klg

Deflection = 0

Allowable engine carrier stress ≥ 10 X Normal Working stress.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

DETAILED DESIGN ANALYSIS OF ENGINE CARRIER

e= 42.0 mm Bolt Head Clearance


b= 15.0 mm Edge Distance
H= 300.0 mm Horizontal Fastener Spacing
v= 150.0 mm Vertical Fastener Spacing
D= 10.0 mm Fastener Nominal Diameter
n= 2 Number of Tension Fasteners Per Side
tc = 3.0 mm Thickness of Base of Angle Clip
tf = 3.0 mm Thickness of the Radius Filler
R= 5.0 mm Bend Radius
W= 400.0 mm Clip Width (Parallel to Bend Line)

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Properties of Manufacturing Materials:


(E) Young’s Modulus = 200 MPA

A deflection calculation detailed in Appendix 14, was carried out on the base plate of the engine
carrier model shown above. In the end of the calculation it was found that up to an applied load of
150kg, the engine carrier will not deflect. This result was further confirmed using an FEA of the
engine carrier base plate. From the FEA it was inferred that under the exaggerated load value of
150kg, the base of the engine carrier doesn’t deflect, and the max stress the engine carrier
experiences under this load is 8.7Mpa, which is way lower than the yield stress of the manufacturing
material of the Engine carrier which is 346Mpa.

Having ascertained the suitability of the carrier in terms of deflection, the engine carrier assembly
test calculations detailed in Appendix 15 was carried out. These calculations were aimed at
providing information about the safe load and failure load about the engine carrier, as well as vet its
overall suitability and reliability in this design. In the end of these calculations, the following key
values about the Engine carrier were found. These values will be ultimately be incorporated in to the
final solution specification.

ENGINE CARRIER FAILURE ANALYSIS RESULTS

Max allowable Tension to cause


ESTIMATED Stress to cause Tension to cause
Stress of permanent
PRODUCT LIFE Ultimate failure Ultimate Failure
Assembly deformation

8 YEARS 49.4 Mpa 19771 N 237.3 Mpa 94903 N

The above derived values shows that under a 1500N speculated maximum load, the carrier structure
will not deflect, and provided the applied load, is not up to 19771N, the structure will not deform
permanently. The failure load value gives more than a 300% safety margin, when compared to the
estimated maximum load of 1500N speculated for the engine carrier. Using FEA, it was estimated
the maximum stress, the structure will expect to have under the 1500N loading will be 8.7Mpa.
However the assembly calculations has led to the inference that the Maximum allowable stress of

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

the engine carrier is 49.4Mpa, which in fact gives more than a 300% safety margin on the carrier
design. This thus confirms that this engine carrier has been able to exceed the end user
requirements.

ENGINE CARRIER ASSEMBLY BOLT ANALYSIS

As detailed in Appendix 16, a calculation was done in order to ascertain the type of bolts to be used
for the engine carrier assembly, considering the target load of 1500N. In the end of this analysis the
bolts specified in the table below will be used for the engine carrier assembly. 16 of these bolts,
costing a total of $4.8 in Indonesia will be required for the overall engine carrier assembly. As
detailed in Appendix 17, the bolts will be torque to a value of 31.0Nm.

Bolt Yield Strength


Size Diameter (mm) Pitch Steel grade
(MPA)

M10x12 10 1.50 5.80 400.00

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

POWER TRAIN SOLUTION SPECIFICATION

Detailed Power train solution Specification

Final product Specification

Performance
Engine 3.5 Hp 4 stroke Engine
Price $125
Starting Method: Chord pull
Speed 300 rpm - 600 rpm
Key Features Integral fuel, and oil tan, Intergral gear box

Engine Carrier Dimensions


Weight: 6.40 kg
Width: 400 mm (When Assembled)
Height: 150 mm
Length: 600 mm (When Assembled)

Technical
Maximum Allowable stress 49.4Mpa
Tension to cause permanent 19771N
deformation
Stress to cause ultimate failure 237.3Mpa
Tension to cause ultimate failure 94903N
Maintance Interval Repaint Once a year

Features
Engine Carrier Height adjustability: up to 300 mm
Product life 8 years
Possibility of Alternative configurations, for easy
machine weight distribution and manoeuvre
Additional Features: ability

Operational conditions
Temperature Range: (-10 )degrees to 40 degrees
Humidity: 20-100% relative humidity

Social, Economic and Political Requirements


Price: $10.03

Engine specification
Keys
Engine carrier specification

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE CARRIER MANUFACURING GUIDE

From manufacturing processes investigation carried out in Appendix 18, V Bending, has been
selected as a viable bending process for the engine carrier manufacture.

The manufacturing plant of the engine carrier arm is detailed below

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

The manufacturing plant of the engine carrier base is detailed below

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN COST AND WEIGHT ESTIMATION

In order to keep the overall machine cost to the barest minimum, very basic materials and
manufacturing techniques have been selected for the engine carrier design. Materials prices are
evaluated per kilogram in Indonesia. The material used for both engine carrier parts is steel which is
estimated at $1.03/kg. As shown in the table below, the entire manufacturing and material cost of
the engine carrier has estimated at just about $10.03, which is considerably cheap.

Manufacturing and Material Cost for engine carrier design

The total engine carrier sub assembly cost is $139.83


TOTAL SUB ENGINE CARRIER ASSEMBLY COSTING
and the overall weight of the power train
subassembly including the engine without fuel is
ENGINE CARRIER
$10.03
MANUFACTURING COST 42.40kg.

ENGINE COST $125.00

COST OF 16 (M10X12)
$4.80
BOLTS

GRAND TOTAL COST $139.83

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE CARRIER ASSEMBLY GUIDE

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

EVALUATION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN TO ENSURE COMFORMITY TO PERFORMANCE


REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION

Deflection At the end of the engine carrier design, it was simulated using solid edge to check it
manner of deflection under safe load of up to 1.5KN. As detailed in Appendix 14, the engine carrier
plate has demonstrated a good anti deflection characteristic under the value of 1.5KN, which thus
means that the ‘’Deflection requirement specification’’, has fully been met.

Strength Using Solid edge, the design was also simulated to check the maximum possible stress that
could be experienced in the model, under the 1.5kN speculated load. In the end of this simulation as
detailed in Appendix 14 it was found that the maximum possible stress that may exist in the engine
carrier under the prescribe safe load of 1.5KN will be 8.7 Mpa, which is 24 times less than the
calculated failure stress of the Assembly (237.3 Mpa) (please refer to Appendix 15 for details of this
calculations)

Weight and Ergonomics According to performance specification of the engine carrier, the total
weight of the carrier is not allowed to exceed 10kg, so as to make it easy for a small Asian lady of
55kg to carry. Having taken this in to great consideration, the total engine chassis weight is 7.3kg.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

EVALUATION OF ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN TO ENSURE COMFORMITY TO END USER


REQUIREMENTS

In order to fully create a good appreciation of the engine carrier in the minds of our end users, the
design must be evaluated against the end user requirements, so as to make sure that most or all of
the end user requirements are met by the design.

Safety: The use of an engine carrier, as supposed to direct engine mounting, makes it possible for
the engine to taken off even when it is hot, without the fear of wounds and burns.

Comfort ability: The attachment of the engine carrier, also makes it possible for engine height
adjustments, in order to achieve an even weight distribution on the machine, thus preventing the
machine for feeling top heavy or tipping over while in use. This will help prevent injury to the users.

Able to withstand a lot of operational conditions, without failure: In order to make sure the engine
carrier is able to withstand a load of 1.5KN without deflecting, or failing a steel material with yield
strength of 346 Mpa have been chosen for the carrier manufacture. Having incorporated this
material in to the final design, An FEA analysis was done, which proved that the maximum stress
possible in the carrier under the speculated load of 1.5KN is 8.7Mpa. This stress is however far less
than the yield stress of the manufacturing material. Considering the fact that the rice trans-planter
will be used in different weather conditions, a protective paint will applied to the engine carrier
frame during its manufacture, so as to prevent it from rusting, due to high humidity and contact with
water from rain, or the paddy fields.

Maintenance: The entire assembly of the engine carrier is done using bolts, which makes it possible
for any faulty part of the assembly to be removed for repair or replacement should the need arise.
Especially if the engine carrier rust, it could be taken off the main machine frame and repainted
separately which will be cheaper than repainting the entire frame.

Socio Economic and Political requirements: The entire carrier will be made using recyclable
materials (Steel), which means that at the end of the working life of the engine carrier, it could
safely be disposed off under the already set Indonesian government recycling plan. The use of basic
manufacturing materials and techniques, keeps the price of the engine carrier low, and thus the
overall cost of the rice transplanting machine. The length and height adjustability of the engine
carrier makes it possible for it to suit a variety of engines, without the need for a purchase of
another engine carrier.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Materials and Manufacture: In order to make sure the engine carrier could easily be produced by
the end user, steel has been chosen as the manufacturing material. Steel is widely available in
Indonesia, and at a cheap cost of 1.03 per kg. In terms of manufacturing processes, the engine
carrier could be manufacturing through cutting, filling, V bending and drilling, which are all cheap,
available and harmless technological processes already in use presently in rural areas of Indonesia.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

POWER TRAIN INTERFACES

Having produced a fully working design for the engine carrier detailed in (Figure 6), and also chosen
an engine to power the rice transplanting machine, the interfaces between the power train
subassembly and the other parts of the machine must be defined. There are 3 interfaces between
the engine power train and the machine. Interface 1, is between the engine and the drive train,
Interface 2 is between the engine on its carrier and the main machine frame and interface 3 is
between the engine throttle control and the machine user controls.

Figure 6 - Power train sub-assembly

NOTE – SOME MODIFICATIONS HAVE BEEN MADE TO THE ORIGINALLY DESIGNED ENGINE CARRIER
DURING THE OVERALL MACHINE ASSEMBLY

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Power train – Drive train Interface

Interface Requirement
The main requirement for this interface is a sprocket and a chain on the engine shaft. A combination
of both creates a simple and effective power and torque transfer to the lay shaft, and then to the
wheels, planting and feeding mechanism. (PLEASE REFER TO DRIVE TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN
PROJECT FOR MORE DETAILS ON POWER TRANSFER TO FEEDING AND PLANTING MECHANISM).

Sprocket Selection
With reference to the chosen speed reduction technique detailed in Figure 2, a 48 tooth sprocket
has been specified as needed for the input sprocket of the lay shaft and the axle sprocket. A 22
tooth sprocket is also needed for the output sprocket of the lay shaft. The engine will make use of a
10 tooth sprocket.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

With reference to the RBL sprocket catalogue extract contained in Appendix 19, the values detailed
below were obtained for the engine shaft sprocket. (PLEASE REFER TO DRIVE TRAIN TECHNICAL
PROJECT FOR SPECIFICATION OF OTHER SPROCKETS, AND DRIVE TRAIN)

Outer Outer
No. of Diameter Diameter Pitch Pitch Length Length
teeth – OD - OD (Inches) (mm) (Inches) (mm)
(Inches) (mm)

10 1.38 35.052 0.375 9.525 0.75 19.05

Engine - Drive train reliability concern

One overriding concern in the drive train interface is the risk of a jam or a chain slack, which may
result in damage to the engine shaft and or the drive train, which will be very expensive to replace.
However in order to address this problem, a grub screw of size (M5X8), made of steel has been
incorporated in to the interface between the engine shaft and the engine sprocket. That way should
there be a jam or a chain slag the grub screw will get more stressed than the shaft. Detailed analysis
of this have been carried out and confirmed in Appendix 20.

Should the jam or chain slag get more serious the grub screw then reaches it failure stress and fails
by shearing, that way the engine shaft is protected from damaging.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Power train – Machine Interface

The second interface is between the power train assembly and the main machine frame. This
interface is very vital, when considering the comfort ability of the end user. Engines in general give
off a lot of vibrations and as such the mountings between the engine carrier and the main frame
must, be done using an anti vibration mounting rubber in between the mounting bolts. That way,
the vibrating effect of the engine is reduce from affecting the user. The engine carrier is then bolted
to the main machine frame, using the bolt specified below with a nut, and bolted to a torque value
of 31Nm.

Bolt Yield Strength


Size Diameter (mm) Pitch Steel grade
(MPA)

M10x12 10 1.50 5.80 400.00

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Engine User Control Interface

The chosen Engine for this design which is a Briggs and Stratton 3.5 HP Model Engine Series 91252 –
1049 (with a 6:1 gear box), has its speed control throttle on its main engine body. However for easy
throttle manoeuvre ability of the engine by the User, a hand throttle bar has been connected from
the engine to the main machine handle bar as shown in the picture below. This makes it possible for
the machine user to accelerate or decelerate the engine, easily without having to always reach back
to the engine which is quite far from the handle. While positioning this throttle control bar on the
machine, ergonomics have been taken in to considerations; such the throttle bar is wide enough to
accommodate the ergonomic needs of a variety of engine users.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

FULL POWER TRAIN SUB ASSEMBLY

DESIGN SOLUTION SPECIFICATIONS

Max Tension to Stress to Tension to


Recommended
allowable cause cause cause Product
Repainting
Stress of permanent Ultimate Ultimate Life
intervals
Assembly deformation failure Failure

49.4 Mpa 19771 N 237.3 Mpa 94903 N 8 Years Once a year

ENGINE CARRIER PRODUCT BENEFITS TO END USER

(1) Modularity: Whilst still maintaining the same engine mounting interface, the engine carrier can
be adjusted in terms of height so as accommodate different types of engines, with different
orientation of output shaft. This could be achieved using the spare bolt sluts on the side arms of
the engine carrier. Through height adjustment, the output shaft of the alternative engines can

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

easily be arranged in the required position, with no need for adjustment of drive train
components, which could be very complex. This engine carrier also gives room for engine
horizontal adjustment, along the carrier base plate. This is to ensure that the sprocket on the
engine is always aligned with the input sprocket on the lay shaft. The engine carrier also
provides an addition space where extra fuel tanks and engine attachments could be mounted,
should such the need arise.

Although for easy manoeuvre ability, a low centre of gravity is required between the engine and
carrier assembly, but in some occasions there may be a need for the engine carrier to be
remounted as shown in Figure 7 below, such that entire centre of gravity of the whole engine-
carrier assembly is raised up.

Figure 7 - Alternative assembly configuration for the engine carrier

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

(2) Portability: The engine carrier consists of 3 main parts, which could be taken apart when the
carrier is not in use. The fact that the engine carrier could be broken down in to 3 parts, makes it
easier to carry around.
(3) Weight Distribution: The engine carrier allows for a variety of engine orientations and height
adjustments. This makes it possible for the engine height to be adjusted such that a good weight
distribution is achieved on the machine. Having a good weight distribution creates stability of
the machine while in the use and also makes the manoeuvrability of machine very easy.
However when adjusting the engine height care must be taken so the engine doesn’t get soaked
up in the paddy fields which could be as deep as 0.5 meters.

(4) Easy Maintenance: Over a long period of steel exposure to the atmosphere, rusting is bound to
set in. Having a separate engine carrier makes it possible and easy for the engine carrier to
either be painted separately to prevent rusting, or replaced, following the onset of a potential
defect.

(5) Resistance to Vibrations and Damping: Considering the fact that the engine is capable of
generating a lot of vibrations, there is need for an interface between the engine and the main
machine chassis. The engine carrier however acts as this interface, which takes up most of the
Initial engine vibrations, thus reducing the vibration taken by the rice transplanting machine and
its user. That way, the machine is more comfortable for the operator to use, and the possibility
of premature failure of welded joints in the main machine chassis is avoided.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

ENGINE CARRIER DESIGN ALTERNATIVE

Shown in figure 8 below, is an engine carrier design alternative. This design alternative works very
similar to the viable design option. However the drilled holes in the main designed carrier side bar
have in this case been replaced with 2 slots on the carrier side arm. Considering the fact that slut
cutting and milling are highly technical and expensive manufacturing process, making this engine
carrier in rural areas of developing countries may not be easy, never the less it is still possible.

Figure 8 - Engine carrier Design Alternative

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

DESIGN RISK, FAILURE AND RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

Detailed in Appendix 21, is a long table containing risks, reliability and failure analysis of the engine,
the engine carrier, and the entire power train. This table was composed in order to throw more light
on the high risk areas of the entire power train sub assembly and its interfaces with other sections of
the machine. Potential preventive and curative solutions are also given in Appendix 21 to counter
these risks in order to maintain a safe and reliable power train sub assembly. At the end of this
analysis it was found that the greatest source of risk with regards the engine is over heat. It was also
found that the greatest risk associated with the engine power train sub assembly is non alignment of
the engine sprocket with the drive train, which may be due to manufacturing fault. On the overall
the risk priority numbers indicates that the engine carrier design is very reliable.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

CONCLUSIONS

In the summary of this technical design, a Briggs and Stratton 3.5HP Model series (91252-1049)
engine with a 6:1 inbuilt gear box was chosen as a viable engine for this design. This engine was
vetted to have met all end user engine requirements. Besides this engine’s suitability for use in the
rice trans-planter, it could also easily be used on lawn mowers and can also be easily converted to
become a generator to provide electricity to the rural homes in Indonesia.

In order to address most of the problems associated with direct engine mounting, a detachable
engine carrier was designed to create an interface between the trans-planting machine, and the
engine. Advantages of this include, reduction of vibration effect on machine and end user, as well as
height and length adjust abilities of different engines. This design have been tested and proved to
exceed both the product specifications, and the requirement specifications of the end user. An
alternative engine carrier design which will equally exceed the product specifications and
requirement specifications of the end user, have also been provided.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

REFERENCES

Abbott Aerospace ‘’ Online ‘’ http://www.abbottaerospace.com/(17/04/2010)

Thee Kian Wie (February, 2006). ‘’Technology and Indonesia’s Industrial Competiveness’’

RBL catalogue ‘’ http://www.ringball.com/pdf_files/RCS2006.pdf’’, (19/04/2010)

R.S Khurmi, J.K.Gupta, ‘’ A text book of Machine Design’’ (2005). Eurasia Publishing House (PVT.) LTD.

Timothy J. Cyders. ‘’Design of a Human – Powered Utility Vehicle for Developing Communities’’
(2008,Novermber).

Performance of manually operated paddy trans-planter, (18 May 1998). University of Putra Malaysia
Press ISSN-0128-7680

Simon badocock ‘’Chassis design and integration technical feasibility study’’ (2010), University of
Bath.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 1 – Requirement Specification

Requirements Date: 03/03/2010


Specification Issue: 3

Demand Wish Requirement Modified


Weighting
H/M/L
Performance
H Plant a minimum of 2 rows simultaneously in order to maximise productivity 03/03/2010
H Modular design to allow for further banks of planters to be added 03/03/2010
H Planting row spacing of 300mm to optimise yield
Variable planting pitch to accommodate users preferred planting
M methodology 03/03/2010
H Maximum planting pitch of 300mm to enable SRI planting methodology 03/03/2010
M Ability to plant up to 6 seedlings of 4mm diameter per planting action 03/03/2010
H Maximum planting depth of 50mm to accommodate all rice varieties
M Depth adjustable to allow operation in paddies with uneven paddy floors
Desired planting rate of between 0.05 – 0.0625 hectares per hour
H Minimum transplanting speed of 1.7kph 12/03/2010

Features
M Storage space onboard the device in order to store spares and valuables
M Method to lock, secure or disable the device to prevent theft
Core device must be portable to allow for transportation using private
H vehicles 03/03/2010
M Core device must be compact to allow for storage within users home 03/03/2010
H Ability to accept a variety of rice types and seedling sizes
H Suitable for safe operation by an average sized woman of Asian origin
H Ergonomically suitable or adjustable for a broad range of users
H Operated and transported by one person

Safety
Guards employed to protect users from hot surfaces and exposed
M mechanisms
H Weight of core device limited to 30kg to enable lifting by two small women

Operational conditions
H Temperature range of operation of 0-45 degrees centigrade
H Humidity Range of operation of 20-100% relative humidity
M Ability to operate in mud and water up to 0.5m deep
M Robust enough to operate after a 360 degree roll

Maintenance and Reliability


H Service Interval of 52.5 hours (1 week)
M MTTR of 105 hours and MTTF of 1050 hours
L Prototype must be extensively field tested for a minimum of 7 full days
Key parts are not secured using permanent fixings to allow for
H servicing/repair

Materials and Manufacture


L Where available and suitable materials which do not corrode to be used
H Production of distinct processes to facilitate flat packed factory ideology 03/03/2010

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

H Designed for manufacture using processes available in developing countries 03/03/2010


H Jigging used to ease the manufacture of the main components 03/03/2010
M Manufacturing processes suitable for factories without specialised machinery 03/03/2010
L Manufacture and assembly can be completed without skilled workers 03/03/2010

Social, Economic and Political Requirements


M Designed for disassembly to allow parts to be re-used
M Use of recycled and recyclable materials where possible
H Product designed to encourage purchase using microfinance 03/03/2010
H Target cost to customer of US$ 250 to appeal to selected market
H Must not infringe on existing patents registered in market countries

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 2 – Product Specification

Product Date: 16/03/2010


Specification Issue: 1

Initial Product Specification Modified

Performance
Engine: 3.5Hp 4 Stroke Engine
Starting Method: Pull Chord
3.3kph (during off-road planting operation)
16kph (maximum speed on-road)
Speed:
NOTE: requires additional seat and trailer unit for on-road duty
conversion
0.05 – 0.0625 hectares per hour planting rate (single planting
Performance: module)

Dimensions
Weight: 90kg inc. all liquids (during off-road planting operation)
100kg inc. all liquids (during on-road configuration)
Load carrying
Capacity: 100kg (during on-road configuration)
200kg not inc. operator (road configuration at maximum load
Total Kerb Weight: capacity)
Width: 800mm
Height: 1500mm
2500mm (main tractor unit including 1500mm handlebar length)
Length: 3000mm (off-road planting configuration)
3500mm (on-road configuration)

Features
User Control Height: Adjustable (1000mm – 1500mm)
Planting Depth: Adjustable (20mm – 50mm)
Planting Width: 300mm
Planting Pitch: Adjustable (150mm – 300mm)
Additional Features: Ability to accept a variety of rice types and seedling sizes

Operational conditions
Temperature Range: 0-45 degrees centigrade
Humidity: 20-100% relative humidity
Fording Depth: 500mm
Gradient: +/- 10% Maximum

Social, Economic and Political Requirements


Price: 250 US$ (off-road transplanting configuration)
On-road configuration price TBC

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 3- Internal Specification

Internal Date: 12/03/2010


Specification Issue: 3

Demand Wish Requirement Modified


Weighting
H/M/L

Internal Design Brief


Create a multi-purpose vehicle that achieves the required transplanting rate
and
productivity, whilst also functioning as a small, road going transport vehicle.

Modula design is key to achieving this with different modules being designed
to
for different operational conditions.

The transplanting assembly should be detachable and a storage container


designed for the same mounting point.

Performance
Maximum transplanting speed of 3.3kph 12/03/2010
Maximum road speed of 16kph 12/03/2010
Maximum Weight limit of 90kg (transplanting walk-behind configuration) 12/03/2010
Maximum carrying load of 100kg (road going configuration) 12/03/2010
Maximum kerb weight including user and cargo of 250kg 12/03/2010

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 4: Power/ Torque Estimations assuming the machine is used as a rice Trans-
planter

RICE TRANS - PLANTER

Power / Torque Calculator

Planting and
Coefficient Drive Total
CdA Wheel x 3 Driver Vehicle Feeder
of friction Efficiency (Mass)
Mechanism

(Cd x m²) (no unit) (%) (kg each) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg)

0.5625 0.0250 80 5 0 200 10 210

Power
Human
Needed to
Wind Temp ± Pressure Slope ± Acceleration Velocity power
run the
Limit
vehicle

(km/h) (Cº) (mm Hg) (%) (km/h/h) (MPH) (watts)

10 23 762 10.0 2 2 1859.1

Engine
Linear Angular
Safety Factor Output shaft Torque
velocity Velocity
radius

No unit (m) m/s rads/s Nm

2.0 0.015 20 1333.3 2.8

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 5: Power/ Torque Estimations assuming the machine is used as a Road Vehicle

Vehicle

Power / Torque Calculator

Planting and
Coefficient Drive Total
CdA Wheel x 3 Driver Vehicle Feeder
of friction Efficiency (Mass)
Mechanism

(Cd x m²) (no unit) (%) (kg each) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg)

0.5625 0.0250 80 5 80 200 0 280

Power
Needed to
Wind Temp ± Pressure Slope ± Acceleration Velocity
run the
vehicle

(km/h) (Cº) (mm Hg) (%) (km/h/h) (MPH) (watts)

10 23 762 10.0 2 20 2350

Engine
Linear Angular
Safety Factor Output shaft Torque
velocity Velocity
radius

No unit (m) m/s rads/s Nm

2.0 0.015 20 1333.3 5.2

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 6 – Rotational Speed estimations

(A) PLANTING MACHINE

Technical Assumption
2 MPH speed required for the machine to run as a planting machine

Calculations:
2MPH is 0.894m/s
Radius of driving wheel is 0.265
Circumference of wheel is 1.665m
Rotating Speed for the Machine to operate as a rice trans-planter = 0.89/1.665 = 0.53 RPS
Or 32 RPM

(B) ROAD VEHICLE

Technical Assumption
15 MPH speed required for the machine to run as a planting machine

Calculations:
10MPH is 4.4704m/s
Radius of driving wheel is 0.265
Circumference of wheel is 1.665m
Rotating Speed for the Machine to operate as a rice trans-planter = 2.685rps or 161.15 RPM

Thus a rotational speed of 32 rpm at the wheel for the machine to operate a rice transplanting
machine running at 2 MPH, and 161.15 RPM in order to operate as a road vehicle running at
161.15 MP

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 7 –Engine Requirement Specification

(1) End user Engine requirements

 Economic Factors

 Cheap purchase Cost

 Availability of Engine locally to save transport cost

 Use of existing technical know-how in repair engine work, with little or no

retraining needed

 Servicing Interval of at least once in 2 months

 Resistance to and compatibility with dust, humidity, types of lubricants.

 Simple to repair

 Cheap cost of repair and availability of repair tools

 Low fuel consumption

 Strategic Factors

 Modularity in used and ability to be used for various applications

 Possibility of spare part purchase locally, in the event of a break down

 Easy to start in cold conditions

 Start Mechanism easy to operate by an average Indonesian lady of weight 55kg

 Variation of speeds to suit different road profiles e.g. up hills, flat lands, down

hills, muddy areas etc.

 Operation temperatures should range between -100 C to 50Oc (Extreme

temperatures in Indonesia)

 Service life 3000 hrs

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 Ability to start at very low speed values

 Safe e.g. Explosion proof in case of fuel leakage

 Variation of assemblies

 Easy adaptability to extreme altitudes and climates.

(2) Statutory requirements

 Sound level about 90 db

 4% CO2 content at idle

(3) Technical requirements

 Torque Characteristics

 2.8Nm Required for the machine to function as a rice trans-planter

 5.2Nm Required for the machine to function as a road vehicle

 Power Requirements

 1.9KW or 2.5HP for the machine to function as a rice trans-planter

 2.35KW or 3.2HP for the machine to function as a road vehicle

 Power to weight ratio 3kg/hp

 Speed Requirements

 32 (Appendix 6) rpm output speed needed for the machine to function as a rice

trans-planter

 160 (Appendix 6) rpm output speed needed for the machine to function as a road

vehicle

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 8 - Qualitative Comparison of performance, of the different 4 stroke gasoline


engine classifications, to stipulated Engine Requirements

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

All purpose
Criteria Specifications Engines - (Lawn Comments Scooter Engines Comments
Mower Engines)
(1800 -3600)
Speed 32 -160 rpm (2500 - 8000) rpm ˅ rpm ˅

Torque 2.8Nm - 5.2Nm 7.5Nm ˅ 7Nm ˅

Power 2.HP - 3.2HP 10Hp ˅ 8Hp ˅

Weight 40Kg 42kg x 37kg ˅


Power to Weight
ratio
0.25 Kg/Hp 0.667kg/Hp ˅ 0.667kg/Hp ˅

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS

All purpose
Scooter
Criteria Specifications Engines - (Lawn Comments Comments
Mower Engines)
Engines

Noise level 90db 75db ˅ 70db ˅


CO content at
Idle
6% 3% ˅ 3% ˅

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

END USER REQUIREMENTS

Economic Factors
All purpose
Scooter
Criteria Specifications Engines - (Lawn Comments Comments
Mower Engines)
Engines

Cost $250 $180 - $400 ˅ $200 - $ 600 ˅


Quantity in As much as 6.5 million as at 5.5 million as at
Indonesia Possible 2008
˅ 2008
˅
Once in 4 Once in 3
Servicing interval
months
Once in 6 months ˅ months
x

Resistant to dust
and humidity
Very Resistant Very Resistant ˅ Very Resistant ˅

Adaptability to
different types of Easy Easy ˅ Easy ˅
Lubricants

Complexity of
Repair
Simple Simple ˅ Simple ˅
Fuel 20 - 40 20 - 40
consumption
30 miles/ Gallon
miles/gallon
˅ miles/gallon
˅

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Strategic Factors

All purpose Comme


Criteria Specifications Engines - (Lawn Comments Scooter Engines
nts
Mower Engines)
Not very, due to a
Modularity in
kick start
Use and Very Very ˅ mechanism, meant
x
Applications
for scooters
Availability of Highly available
Spare part in the due the high Not so much
event of a break
High
volume in ˅ available x
down circulation
Not very simple
Complexity of
Very simple (pull (Crank Start) or Key
starting Very Simple
start)
˅ start & Battery is
x
Mechanism
required.
Complexity of
mode of Very simple Very simple ˅ Very simple ˅
operation

Temperature of -10 to 50 -20 to 50 degrees -20 to 50 degrees


operation degrees Celsius' Celsius' ˅ Celsius' ˅

More than
Service life 3000hrs
3000hrs
˅ More than 3000hrs ˅
Ability to start at
low speed values
Very Very able to ˅ Very able to ˅

Ability to vary Not able to, due


Able to due to in
output Speeds to to no inbuilt gear
suit different
Very
box, or a non
x built adjustable ˅
gears
road profiles adjustable gear
Not very safe
Very safe due to
unless mounted
Safety Very custom made ˅ inside the
x
enclosures
component
Adaptability to
extreme
altitudes and
Very Very able to ˅ Very able to v
climates

V - Means
Keys suitable
X - Means not
suitable

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 9: - Detailed Evaluation of the Performance characteristics of 4 Briggs and


Stratton Engines Analysed for suitability in this design

Briggs and Stratton 3.5 HP Model Series 91200 – 1016

TOP FEATURES

 Dura-Bore cast iron cylinder sleeve for


extended life
 Dependable aluminium alloy Pulsa-Jet
carburettor
 Maintenance-free Magnetron electronic
ignition for quick, dependable starts
 Dual-Clean air cleaner pleated paper filter with
a foam pre-cleaner ensures maximum protection for
extended engine life

Cost of second hand In Indonesia: $ 120

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Briggs and Stratton 3.5 HP Model Series 91252 – 1049 (with gear box)

TOP FEATURES

 Dura-Bore cast iron cylinder sleeve for


extended life
 Dependable aluminium allay Pulsa-Jet
carburettor
 Maintenance-free Magnetron electronic
ignition for quick, dependable starts
 Dual-Clean air cleaner pleated paper filter
with a foam pre-cleaner ensures maximum protection
for extended engine life

Cost of second hand In Indonesia: $ 125

Briggs and Stratton 6 HP VANGUARD ™ Model Series 118400

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

TOP FEATURES

 Dura-Bore cast iron cylinder sleeve for


extended life
 Float carburettor for consistent easy
starting
 Maintenance-free Magnetron electronic
ignition for quick, dependable starts
 Dual-Clean ™ air cleaner pleated paper
filter with a foam pre-cleaner ensures maximum
protection for extended engine life
 Oil Guard ® low oil engine shutdown
device
 Overhead valve design (OHV) for cooler
operation and longer valve life

Cost of second hand In Indonesia: $ 350

Briggs and Stratton 6 HP VANGUARD ™ Model Series 86400

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

TOP FAETURES

 Dura-Bore ™ cast iron cylinder sleeve for


extended life
 Float carburettor for consistent easy
starting
 Maintenance-free Magnetron ® electronic
ignition for quick, dependable starts
 Dual-Clean air cleaner pleated paper filter
with a foam pre-cleaner ensures maximum
protection for extended engine life
 Oil Guard ® low oil engine shutdown device
 Overhead valve design (OHV) for cooler
operation and longer valve life
 Buyer protection package provides two-
year commercial engine warranty

Cost of second hand In Indonesia: $ 320

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Table 1 below shows a detailed comparison of all the technical characteristics of the 4 Briggs and

Stratton engine models, analysed for suitability in this design.

Table 1 - Comparison of engine performance to required technical engine requirement


specifications

Series 91252 - Series 91200 -


1049 with 6:1 1016 without
inbuilt gear box any gear box Series 86400 Series 118400

Power 1.7HP
Range 2HP - 1.7 - - 1.9HP - 3.2HP -
required 3.5HP 3.5Hp Suitable 3.5HP Suitable 4HP Suitable 4.6HP Suitable
Torque 2.8Nm 5.7Nm 5.7Nm
range - 5.2 - - 7.80Nm 8.0Nm -
required Nm 6.7Nm Suitable 6.7Nm Suitable - 8.7Nm Suitable 11.5Nm Suitable
Speed 32 - 300 - 1800 - 1800- 1800 -
range 160 600 Not too 3600 Too 3600 Too 3600
required rpm rpm high rpm High rpm High rpm
Required Too Too
cost $240 $125 Suitable $120 Suitable $320 high $350 High

Selected Engines

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 10 – Detailed Speed Reduction configurations

Detailed pictures of the different speed step down configurations are contained in figures 2-5, Please
note that on these figure (U.L) stands for lower limit and (U.P) – stands for upper limit.

Configuration 1

Configuration 1 – Speed Reduction using Briggs and Stratton 91200-1005 series with 2 lay shafts

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Configuration 2

Configuration 2 – Speed Reduction using Briggs and Stratton 91252-1049 series with 1 lay shaft

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Configuration 3

Configuration 3 - Speed Reduction using Briggs and Stratton 91200-1005 series with 1 lay shaft and
an External gear box

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Configuration 4

Configuration 4 - Speed Reduction using Briggs and Stratton 91200-1005 series with 1 lay shaft

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Table 2 - Speed reduction configuration comparison

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 11: - Detail On Chosen Engine


Declaration: All the contents of this Appendix have been extracted from the Briggs and Stratton
Engine manual for (91252-1049) 4 Stroke Engine. This extract is aimed at providing operational, and
maintenance advises on the engine.

Engine Name: Briggs and Stratton 3.5HP Model series (91252-1049) WITH 6:1 speed reduction gear
box.
Specifications

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

Displacement 9.02 cl (148cc)


Bore 65.08 mm
Speed range 300 – 600 RPM
Torque 6.6NM
Power 3.5HP
Stroke 44.45 mm
Oil Capacity (0.54 - 0.59L)
Gear Reduction oil 80W - 90W

TUNE UP SPECIFICATIONS

Spark Plug Gap 0.76 mm


Spark Plug Torque 20Nm
Armature Air gap (0.15 - 0.25 mm)
Intake valve clearance (0.13 - 0.18 mm)
Exhaust valve clearance (0.18 - 0.23 mm)

FACTORS THAT AFFECT ENGINE PERFORMANCE

Altitude 3.5% decrease in engine power for every 300 meters height above sea level

Temperature 1% decrease in engine power for every 25 degrees change in temperature

Gradient Engine performance will be satisfactory up to 15 degrees gradient


Engine Part List

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

(1) Engine Model 91252-1049

(2) Rope Handle

(3) Fuel Tank

(4) Stop Switch

(5) Fuel Fill

(6) Air cleaner

(7) Muffler

(8) Spark Plug

(9) Blower Housing

(10) Finger guard

(11) Carburettor

(12) Spark arrester if equipped

(13) Oil filter plug

(14) Drain Plug

(15) Oil Level

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Pre-Use Requirements

Checking and Addition of Oil

Guide lines:

(1) Check oil level before starting the engine

(2) Recheck oil level every 8 hours of use

(3) Do not over fill oil level at any point in time

How to add or Change Oil

Oil Recommendations

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

High quality detergent oil ‘’SAE 30’’, without adding any special additives and choose
viscosities using the SAE viscosity chart detailed below.

CAUTION ABOUT OIL SELECTION

SAE 30 oil if used below 4 degree Celsius will result in hard starting and possible engine bore
damage as a result of inadequate lubrication.

Fuelling and Checking of fuel level

Addition of Fuel:
(1) Fill fuel tank outdoors or in well ventilated area away from sparks, and open flames
(2) In the event fuel spills wait until it evaporates before starting
(3) When refuelling, turn the engine off and let the engine cool at least 2 minutes before
removing the gas cap.
(4) Remove the cap and then fill the tank to approximately ½ inch below the lowest portion
of the fill opening to allow for fuel expansion.
(5) Replace the cap before staring the engine.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Fuel Recommendations

Clean fresh, regular gasoline with a minimum of 77 Octane. Fuel quantity should be used up within
30 days of purchase. Avoid using fuels with methanol as well as fuels formed from gasoline mixed
with oil.

Engine Starting
The following procedures detailed below should be taken to start the engine

Procedures to stop the Engine

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Engine maintenance Chart

Note:
(*) Change oil after first 5 to 8 hours of first used, then every 50 hours or every season.
Change oil every 25 hours when operating in high conditions.

(**) Clean more often under dusty conditions and replace air cleaner parts if very dirty.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

How to change Oil in the engine

How to Remove and Install air cleaners

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Guide Lines:

(1) Loosen screws and remove covers


(2) Remove pre-cleaner and cartridge carefully so as to prevent debris from entering the
carburettor
(3) Re-install clean air cleaner assembly in base
(4) Replace cover and tighten screws.

Cleaning of Combustion Deposits

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

After every 100 hours of engine use, it is recommended that the air cooling system be cleaned.

Cleaning of Debris
It is important for the engine to be kept clean, so as to reduce the risk overheating, and ignition of
accumulated debris. Parts that needs daily cleaning includes Finger guard, Linkage, springs, Controls,
Muffler and Spark Arrester.

Engine Speed Adjustments

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Sometimes there may be need for adjustment of the engine idle speed so as to enable it to be
adapted for different uses, or make the engine run smoothly. The factory idle speed has been set to
292 rpm. However if any speed reduction is required, the following steps could be followed in order
to achieve this.

(1) To adjust the idle speed, start the engine and warm up for about 5 minutes
(2) Then with the engine running, place equipment throttle control in slow position
(3) Rotate the carburettor lever against the throttle stop and hold it while adjusting the idle
speed screw to the desired value.

Engine Storage
When the engine is not in use and needs to be stored over 30 days, then the fuel needs to be
drained so as to prevent gum from forming in the fuel system or any essential carburettor parts. It is
also important to clean engine parts before storage and when storing, it must be in a dry area that is
spark free.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 12 – Adaptation of chosen engine for alternative purposes

(A) As already explained, one great advantage of this engine is its ability for it to be utilized for
other purposes. One of this uses is converting it in to a generator, so as to supply electricity
to rural homes, when the transplanting machine is not in use. In order to achieve this, the
following steps are could be taken.

(1) Remove the engine and its carrier from the machine by losing the M10 bolts
attaching the engine – carrier assembly to the machine.
(2) Mount an alternator on to the engine carrier and connect it to the engine
(3) Attach a motor pulley to the engine
(4) Place the attachment belt between the fan blade and the pulley attached
(5) Wire the motor to the alternator and then to an external battery to get it working
(6) Test the alternator, and make necessary adjustments to stop any rattling.

(B) Besides converting it to a generator, it could be used directly on a lawn mower without any
further change.

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 13: - Detailed Manufacturing Material selection

End User Profile: Indonesia (Developing Country)

End User Material Requirement:

(1) Light Weight


(2) High Strength
(3) Low price
(4) High Availability

Materials Selection Technique for Engine Carrier design

In order to suit the above stated material requirements of the end user, the engine carrier must be
manufactured using a material that is cheap, strong and light.

In order to achieve this, a merit index was inputted in to the CES EDU pack software. The merit
index was created in the form M = E1/3/ρ which could be written as Log E = 3 Log ρ + Log M. The
defined merit index, used in the CES EDU pack as shown below, makes sure all selected materials
have very high Strength to weight ratio. In order to finally narrow the material results down, a price
constraint of £1.5/kg, was also put in to the CES EDU pack constraints section. The final material was
then selected amongst the remaining list on the basics of availability.

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In the end of the Analysis the chosen manufacturing material was:

STEEL (AISI 1020 ANNEALED)

ULTIMATE TENSILE
448 MPa
STREGTH

YIELD STRENGTH 346 Mpa

ELONGATION % 36 %

REDUCTION OF AREA 59 %

HARDNESS (HB) 143 HB

Durability of STEEL (AISI 1020 ANNEALED)

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

Appendix 14 - Detailed Engine Carrier Deflection Calculations

The deflection characteristic of the I Beam above is:


𝝏 = (𝑭 × 𝑳 × 𝑳 × 𝑳)/ E × I
Considering the fact that the manufacturing materials have already been specified as steel, the
carrier deflection is now a function of size and shape.

Engine carrier base plate deflection calculations:

Free Body Diagram of Base Engine carrier base plate

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POWER TRAIN TECHNICAL DESIGN – RICE TRANSPLANTER

In order to undertake the bending analysis and make the carrier safe for loads up to 150kg without
deflecting, the following assumptions have been made:

(1) Plate thickness is 0.003m


(2) Plate breadth is 0.2m (Wide Enough to carry the chosen engine)
(3) Plate length is 0.6m (Long enough to accommodate alternative engine mounting patterns
and mounting of other engine attachments).
(4) Engine base plate is considered approximately as a uniform I beam.

Properties of Manufacturing Materials:


(E) Young’s Modulus = 200 MPA

Properties of plate:
Length = 0.6m, breadth = 0.2, thickness = 0.003m

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Deflection Calculations

The figure below represents a set of graphs computed, considering a point centre load of 1500N. The
total engine weight without fuel is 36kg (360N), but the 1500N load, has just been exaggerated to
accommodate all approximations, and assumptions made, as well as make up for any future change
in engine to a heavier option or addition of a bigger fuel tank on to the engine carrier.

Max Bending Moment = 0.8KN


Location = 0.3 m

Max Bending Moment = 0.1KN.m


Location = 0.0 m

Max Bending Moment = 0.000


Location = 0.3 m

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Analysis of Deflection calculation results

Inferring from the figure above, the exaggerated load value of (1500N) gives a 0 deflection,
which is exactly what the engine carrier needs in order to make sure that the output shaft of the
engine always aligns with the lay shaft. In confirmation of this Bending analysis, an FEA analysis
has been done as shown below. These analyses have equally been done, considering a total safe
load of 1.5KN, which makes up for the weight of any additional component or a heavier engine
that may be used in future. From the FEA it could be inferred that under the speculated load of
(1.5KN) the plates will experience no deflections, and very little stresses. This thus agree very
much to the calculations carried out in the Bending analysis, which implies that in terms of
sustainability and durability, the designed engine carrier has met the required engine carrier
design specifications, as well as the ultimate end user requirements.

FEA Showing Engine carrier Stress distribution under 150kg load

FEA Showing Engine carrier plate deflection under 150kg load

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Appendix 15 - Engine Carrier Assembly Calculations

Having ascertained in the bending analysis that the specified top plate of the assembly
configuration, is fully capable of carrying a more than 5 times the 36kg estimate as weight of the
engine, there is need to ascertain the strength of the entire assembly from which the maximum
weight to cause deformation and failure can be specified and incorporated in to the design safety
warnings.

In order to make this analysis the calculations, detailed below were made.

Detailed Engine Carrier Assembly Calculations

LIMITATIONS TO ANALYSIS

1. Material applicability - the methods and factors are considered to be valid for clips and fittings
made from homogenous alloys for which FTY > 0.65 FTU and material maximum elongation >= 4%.
2. A normal washed is used under the nut.
3. These limits to geometric ratios apply: 0 ≤ tf/tc ≤ 5.0 and 2.0 ≤ e/(tc + tf) ≤ 15.0.
4. The clip bend radius should not be less than 1.5tc (thickness of base of angle clip)

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EQUATIONS INVOLVED

For maximum elastic load, or load for zero permanent deformation in the angle:

t cFty t c  t f  [N/mm] Eq'n 1


PA (MEL ) 
3e

For load for 0.25 tc permanent deformation:

t cFty t c  t f  [N/mm] Eq'n 2


PA(SPD) 
e

For ultimate failure load:

1.6t cFty t c  t f  [N/mm] Eq'n 3


PA(ULT ) 
e

For tension failure of fasteners (applicable to thick angles):

PFU
PA ( FAS )  [N/mm] Eq'n 4
W
e b  1
n

Where: PFU = Minimum Axial Ultimate Tensile Strength of Fastener

Note: Eq'n 4 is based on tests conducted on assemblies having one or two fasteners per side where
there is no doubt as to how much of the load was resisted by each.

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Design Assembly Calculations

CALCULATIONS

e= 42.0 mm Bolt Head Clearance


b= 15.0 mm Edge Distance
H= 300.0 mm Horizontal Fastener Spacing
v= 150.0 mm Vertical Fastener Spacing
D= 10.0 mm Fastener Nominal Diameter
n= 2 Number of Tension Fasteners Per Side
tc = 3.0 mm Thickness of Base of Angle Clip
tf = 3.0 mm Thickness of the Radius Filler
R= 5.0 mm Bend Radius
W= 400.0 mm Clip Width (Parallel to Bend Line)

Material = STEEL AISI 1020

Ftu = 346 MPa Tensile Yield Strength of Angle Material


Fty = 346 MPa Tensile Yield Strength of Angle Material

PT = 150 N Applied Load (Ultimate)


f= 2 mm Fitting Factor

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PA(MEL) = 49.4 N/mm Maximum Elastic Loading (Eq'n 1)


PA = 19771 N Tension to Cause Zero Permanent
Deformation, PA = PA(MEL) W

PA(SPD) = 148.3 N/mm Max. Loading to Cause 0.25tc Deformation (Eq'n 2)


PA = 59314 N Tension to Cause 0.25tc Perm. Def., PA = PA(SPD) W

PA(ULT) = 237.3 N/mm Max. Loading to Cause Ultimate Failure (Eq'n 3)


PA = 94903 N Tension to Cause Ultimate Failure, PA = PA(ULT) W

PFU = 133891 N Minimum Axial Ultimate Tensile Strength of Fastener


PA(FAS) = 176 N/mm Maximum Loading to Cause Fastener Failure (Eq'n 4)
PA = 70469 N Tension to Cause Fastener Failure, PA = PA(FAS) W

For no permanent deformation the margin is:

MS = 2PA / f PT - 1 = 13081%

Margin for the tension failure of fasteners is:

MS = 2PA / f PT - 1 = 46879%

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Appendix 16 – Assembly Bolt Calculations

Bolt Yield Strength


Size Diameter (mm) Pitch Steel grade
(MPA)

M10x12 10 1.50 5.80 400.00

Assembly Bolt Characteristics

16 (M10X12) bolts are needed for the overall assembly and at an individual cost of $0.3; the total
cost of all the needed M10 bolts will be $4.8.

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Appendix 17 - Bolt Torque Limit Calculation Reference: (NORD LOCK bolt security
system)

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Appendix 18 – Forming process selection

Bending definition and Introduction:

Bending is a manufacturing process by which metal can be formed by plastically deforming the
material thus changing its shape. By so doing the material is stress beyond its yield strength but well
below its Ultimate tensile strength. In this process little or no change is notice on the material
surface, as it usually involves deformation about one axis only.

In bending the variety of shapes are formed using a set of standard die or bench brakes. The press
brakes used usually range from 20 to 200 tons so as to accommodate metal stocks form 1m to 4.5m

Air Bending:

This is a type of bending process in which the punch touches the work piece and the work piece does
not touch the lower cavity. In this sort of bending as the punch is released the work piece springs
back giving the material a slight bend. The amount of spring back, is however dependent on the
material, and its thickness. The inner radius of the bend is usually exactly the same radius on the
punch. Although in this sort of bending the forces required is quite slow, but accurate control of the
punch stroke is however necessary to obtain the desired bend angle.

Air Bending

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Bottoming:

Bottoming is a bending process where the punch and the work piece touches on the die. This thus
creates a controlled angle of 90 degrees bend with very little spring back effect. In the Bottoming
bending process a heavier punch than that of the air bending is required in order to form the
material.

Bottoming

V Bending:

In V bending, the clearance between the punch and the dies is usually constant (equal to the
thickness of the sheet formed. It is widely used with little or no specialist knowledge needed.

V Bending

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Wiping Die Bending:

Wiping die bending is otherwise known as flanging, where one edge of the metal sheet is bent to 90
degrees while the other end is restrained by the material itself and by a force from the blank holder
and pad. The bend radius in this sort of process is determined by the radius of the edge of the die.

Wiping Die Bending

Comparison of Bending Methods and Choice of Viable bending method

Table 3 below shows a comparison of all the available bending methods available in Indonesia that
are applicable to this design. Having considered the factors shown on the table below, V bending
was chosen as the most viable method that should be incorporated in to the engine carrier
manufacturing processes.

Table 3 - Bending technique selection for engine carrier design

Weight
Punch Spring back Level of
Max of Total
Method Score force Score effect Score angle Score Availability Score
Score Punch Score
required experienced control
needed

Air
5 Low 4 Low 4 Very high 2 Low 2 Medium 2 19
Bending

Bottoming 5 High 2 High 2 Low 4 High 4 Medium 2 19

V Bending 5 Low 4 Low 4 Low 4 High 4 High 4 25

Wiping
5 High 2 High 2 High 2 High 4 Medium 2 17
Bending

High Best
Keys Low values
values Bending
Required
required Method

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Appendix 19 – Sprocket Selection Catalogue

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Appendix 20 – Grub Screw calculations

Calculation of Torsional Stress in Shaft:

Diameter of shaft = 15mm, Transmitted Torque of Engine (T) is 5.2 Nm

ɽ max = (TxR)/J

J = πD4/32

J = 5 x10-9 m4

ɽ max = (5.2x0.0075)/5x10-9

ɽ max = 7.8 Mpa (Engine Shaft)

Calculation of Bending Stress in Shaft:

The grub screw experiences a Shearing force:

Calculation of bending stress in Grub screw:

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Diameter of grub screw = 5mm, Transmitted Torque of Engine (M) is 5.2Nm

ɽ max = (MxR)/I

I= πD4/64

J = 3.067 x10-11 m4

ɽ max = (5.2x0.0025)/3.067x10-11

ɽ max = 425 Mpa (Grub Screw)

CONCLUSIONS

Under the normal working conditions of the engine at a 6.8Nm torque, the grub screw takes up
more shear stresses (425Mpa), than the engine shaft experiences Torsional stress (7.8 Mpa), this
means that should there be a jam in the drive train, the grub screw is going to fail first due to shear
stress, thus preserving the engine shaft from failure due to Torsional stress.

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Appendix 21 - Risk and Reliability analysis of the engine and the engine carrier assembly

Detailed below is the risk, reliability and failure analysis for the entire engine and the entire engine
carrier assembly. From this analysis, engine over heat is the biggest concern.

Risk and reliability table keys

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Potential Potential

OCC

RPN
SEV

DET
Part and Potential Risk Prevention
# Effect(s) of Cause(s)/Mechanism(s)
Function Mode Plan
Risk of Failure

Check for fuel


leakage when
filling the fuel
tank, as well as
1 10 Fuel Leakage 10 1 100
cracks on the
tank. Replace fuel
tank where
necessary

Engine should not


be inclined above
Tipping of engine at angle or below 15
2 10 10 1 100
more than 15 degrees degrees angle
about the
horizontal

Engine, Power Ensure that the


and Torque Severe burns or plugs used are
Fire approved ones for
transmission to death
3 drive train 10 Sparks from starting engine 10 the engine and 1 100
that the engine
spark arrester is
correctly installed

Set choke to
open/run position
Engine fuel flood leading to
and then place a
4 10 Fire out break on exposure 10 2 200
throttle in Fast
to heat
and crank engine
until its starts

When contained
Machine contact with with fuel, keep
5 10 furnaces, stoves and 10 machine out of 2 200
heaters flame inducing
substances

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Potential Potential

OCC

RPN
SEV

DET
Part and Potential Risk Prevention
# Effect(s) of Cause(s)/Mechanism(s)
Function Mode Plan
Risk of Failure

Do not over fill the


fuel tank. Fill to
approximately 1/2
inch below the
lowest portion of
Spilled fuel during fuel the opening. In
7 10 10 4 400
expansion the event of a
spill, wait for
gasoline to
evaporate before
switching on the
engine

Check out for


increasing engine
temperature,
Engine, Power
when in use to
and Torque Severe burns or
Explosion avoid explosion.
8 transmission to death 10 Over heated engine 7 6 420
Also turn off
drive train
engine and let it
cool before
removing the gas
cap

When stopping
the engine, move
throttle control to
Choking Carburettor to stop
9 10 8 slow, and the to 1 80
Engine
stop, then push
the stop switch to
off

Fuelling should be
10 10 Using Pressurized Fuels 9 done outdoors in 1 90
ventilated area

11

Engine, Power Release of


Starting engine in enclosed Start and Run
and Torque Poisonous gas Nausea, Fainting
12 10 area, leading to incomplete 8 engines, 2 160
transmission to (Carbon or Death
combustion of the fuel Outdoors only
drive train Monoxide)

13

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Potential Potential

OCC

RPN
SEV

DET
Part and Potential Risk Prevention
# Effect(s) of Cause(s)/Mechanism(s)
Function Mode Plan
Risk of Failure

(1) Operate
14 10 8 equipment with 2 160
guards in place

(2) Keep hands


15 10 8 and feet away 2 160
from rotating parts
Engine, Power
Traumatic Rotating Engine parts
and Torque
Injury amputation or coming in contact with any (3) Long hair
transmission to
severe laceration parts of the body should be ties up
drive train
16 10 8 and all 2 160
Jewelleries
removed

(4) Do not wear


loose-fitting
17 10 8 2 160
clothing close to
the engine

18

When starting the


Engine, Power Broken bones,
engine, pull chord
and Torque fractures, bruises Rapid retraction of engine
19 Kick Back 10 6 slowly until 1 60
transmission to or sprains could starter cord
resistance is felt,
drive train result
then pull rapidly

20

Engine, Power
Wash hands after
and Torque Health birth defects, and Exhaust gases and engine
21 10 10 every use of the 1 100
transmission to Complications cancer chemicals
engine
drive train

22

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Potential Potential

OCC

RPN
SEV

DET
Part and Potential Risk Prevention
# Effect(s) of Cause(s)/Mechanism(s)
Function Mode Plan
Risk of Failure

Use Specified
23 5 (1) Using wrong fuel 7 1 35
fuels
Engine, Power
and Torque Use specified oil
Hard start Engine damage
transmission to (2) refilling or adding oil at and refill oil at
24 drive train 5 8 1 40
wrong temperature recommended
temperatures

25

Check oil seals


26 8 (1) Damaged oil seals 8 4 256
from time to time
Engine, Power
and Torque Make sure in
Water in Oil Engine damage rainy conditions
transmission to (2) Careless exposure of
drive train the engine is
27 8 engine to very wet condition 7 4 224
properly shielded
with open oil tank
to avoid water
from getting in

When fuelling
engine, look out
28 6 (1) Fuel tank Leakage 7 for cracks on the 1 42
Engine, Power tank and any
and Torque leakage
Engine out of fuel Engine damage
transmission to
drive train
Use bigger engine
29 6 (2) Fuel tank very small 7 1 42
tank if necessary

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Potential Potential

OCC

RPN
SEV

DET
Part and Potential Risk Prevention
# Effect(s) of Cause(s)/Mechanism(s)
Function Mode Plan
Risk of Failure

Clean regularly to
(1) Deposit of dirt on the avoid dirt on
30 6 6 3 108
moving engine parts rotating engine
Engine, Power
parts
and Torque
Over heating Engine damage
transmission to
Allow engines to
drive train
(2) Operating of engine cool if too hot and
31 6 7 1 42
indoors use engines out
door at all times

32

Lots of losses in
chain Adjust engine
Engine shaft not
transmission or height, using the
33 aligning with Lay 5 Machine assembly fault 5 7 175
break down of adjustable engine
shaft
chain chassis design
transmission

Engine sprocket Stops


free wheels transmission of Replace broken
34 5 Broken grub screw 5 1 25
Engine assembly around the engine engine power to grub screw
with sprocket and output shaft drive mechanism
Engine carrier
In order to
prevent this make
sure the bolt
Water gets in to attaching the
Engine falling off
the engine and Loosen nuts from the base engine to its
35 its chassis in to 8 4 2 64
causes and of the engine chassis is well
the paddy fields
engine knock torque to an
appropriate value
before the
machine is used

36

Paint Engine
carrier upon
manufacture, and
repaint, when the
Crack initiation, previous pain
None painting of Engine
which may lead begins to wear to
37 Rusting 7 carrier, before exposing it to 4 1 28
to stress due to prevent direct
damp weather conditions
cyclic loading exposure of the
engine carrier
Engine and material to direct
Engine carrier atmospheric
assembly, conditions
Creates an
interface Make sure engine
between the nut and bolts are
Engine Falling off
engine and the Uncontrolled tightened to
frame, or unable
main machine engine vibrations, specified Torque
to transmit torque
38 frame and inefficient 3 Loosen nuts` 4 limit before the 6 72
and power
torque and power machine is used,
efficiently to drive
transmission and chain worn
train
out bolts should
need be
Avoid loading
Over loading of Engine Engine carrier up
Ultimate Failure
39 Engine damage 6 carrier beyond the Ultimate 2 to the estimated 4 48
of Engine chassis
failure load failure load of
95KN

40

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APPENDIX 22 – LIST OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

(Please see attached engineering drawings for details)

1. Power train assembly drawings

2. Power train exploded view, with part list

3. Engine carrier assembly

4. Manufacturing drawings for engine carrier base plate

5. Manufacturing drawings for engine carrier arm

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