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Fastener Handbook

BLACKS FASTENERS LTD


AUCKLAND
930c Great South Road
T: (09) 589 1036 F: (09) 589 1037

NELSON
Corner Brilliant Place and Nayland Road
T: (03) 547 5102 F: (03) 547 0189

CHRISTCHURCH Established
39a Gasson Street, Sydenham 1989
T: (03) 365 2460 F: (03) 365 2464

CHRISTCHURCH
521c Blenheim Road, Sockburn
T: (03) 348 0340 F: (03) 348 0346

INVERCARGILL
156 Bond Street
T: (03) 214 4499 F: (03) 214 4489

Freephone: 0800 652 463 Freefax: 0800 652 464

www.blacksfasteners.co.nz
Fastener
Handbook
Bolt Products

This book has been published to help our customers choose the right
fasteners for the job. The majority of the information is based on Ajax
Spurway Fasteners. The fasteners may vary slightly to other
manufacturers.
BLACKS FASTENERS LTD accepts no responsibility for any loss due
to this publication.
This publication is distributed on the basis and understanding that the
publisher is not responsible for the results of any actions being taken
on the basis of information in this publication nor for any error in or
omission from this publication.
Index F A S T E N E R S

Page No.

1 Headmarks (Bolts)
2 Standard Bolt Product Range
3-4 Thread Forms and Fits
5-6 Testing of Bolts and Nuts
7 Strength-grade Designations for Amercian and
British Standard Fasteners
8-13 Breaking and Yield Loads
14-15 Bolt Shear Capacity
16-20 Design of Bolted Joints for General Engineering
21-30 Tightening of Bolted Joints
31-35 Tightening of Structural Bolts
36-44 Structural Design using Black's Bolts
45-48 Black's Structural Bolts
49 Black's High Strength Structural Bolts
50-51 Coronet Load Indicators
52 High Tensile Hexagon Bolts
53 Hexagon Head Set Screws
54-55 Metric Hexagon Bolts and Set Screws
56-57 Hexagon Head Bolts
58-59 Cup Head Square Neck Bolts
60 Coach Screws
61 Elevator Bolts Four Peg
62-63 Metric Hexagon Nuts
64 Hexagon Nuts and Hexagon Lock Nuts
65 Nyloc Nuts Metric
66 Nyloc Nuts BSW
67 Nyloc Nuts UNC/UNF
68 Correct Use of Jam or Lock Nuts
69-74 Corrosion Protective Coatings
75-76 Tapping Drill Tables
77 Thread Screw Pitches
78-80 Hardness Conversion Table
81 The Torquing of Stainless Steel
82-83 Mechnical Properties of Stainless
84 Material Compatibility
F A S T E N E R S Headmarks
A manufacturer’s brand, usually a The following table indicates the
letter or symbol on the head of Blacks Fasteners range of stocked
each fastener is mandatory for bolt products which comply to
compliance with the relevant New Australian standards.
Zealand Standard.
• Mechanical properties
• Chemical composition
• Source of manufacture –
“Manufacturer’s Identification”.

Head Marking Bolt Type New Zealand Standard

Hexagon Head AS 1111


M Metric Commercial

Hexagon Head AS 2451


BSW Mild Steel

Hexagon Head Precision AS 1110-8.8 metric


Metric High Tensile Grade 5 Imperial

Hexagon Head AS 2465


Unified High Tensile (UNC/UNF) (SAE) Grade 8

Hexagon Head High Strength AS 1252


Structural
8.8

FJ

Cup Head BSW AS 1390


Square Neck
M
Cup Head Oval Neck Fishbolts AS 1085

Cup Head BSW AS B108


Square Neck
Cup Head Oval Neck Fishbolts (AS E25)

Hexagon Head AS 1393


M Metric Coach Screws

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1
Standard Bolt Product Range F A S T E N E R S

Table 1 Standard Standard Australian


Range Range Standard
Product Bolt & Nut Bolt only
ISO Metric Threads
Commercial Hexagon Head Bolts BGZ AS 1111
Commercial Hexagon Head Set Screws BGZ AS 1111
Cup Head BGZ AS 1390
Cup Head Oval Neck Fishbolts B AS 1085
Precision Hexagon Head High Tensile
Bolt Property Class 8.8 BZ B AS 1110
Precision Hexagon Head High Tensile
Set Screws Property Class 8.8 BZ AS 1110
Precision Hexagon Head High Tensile
Fine Thread Bolts Z
Precision Hexagon Head High Tensile
Fine Thread Set Screws Z
High Strength Structural Bolts
Property Class 8.8 BG AS 1252
Hexagon Head Coach Screws GZ AS 1393
BSW Threads
Mild Steel Hexagon Head Bolts BGZ AS 2451
Mild Steel Hexagon Head Set Screws BGZ AS 2451
Cup Head BZ AS B108
Cup Head Oval Neck - Fish Bolt B (AS E25)
Four Peg - Elevator Bolts B
UNC Threads
High Tensile Hexagon Head Bolts
Grade 5 BZ B AS 2465
High Tensile Hexagon Head Set Screws
Grade 5 BZ AS 2465
High Tensile Hexagon Head Bolts
Grade 8 BZ B AS 2465
High Tensile Hexagon Head Set Screws
Grade 8 BZ AS 2465
UNF Threads
High Tensile Hexagon Head Bolts
Grade 5 BZ B AS 2465
High Tensile Hexagon Head Set Screws
Grade 5 BZ AS 2465
High Tensile Hexagon Head Bolts
Grade 8 BZ B AS 2465
High Tensile Hexagon Head Set Screws
Grade 8 BZ AS 2465
NOTES:
1) Restricted range for some products. Check availability of particular sizes.
2) B = Plain finish 3) G = Galvanised finish to AS 1214 4) Z = Zinc Plated finish to AS 1897

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2
F A S T E N E R S Threads Forms & Fits
All standard Blacks screws are Standard products, unless
made in accordance with the latest specifically requested, are
issues of the thread specifications manufactured to the Australian
shown in Table 2. Other standard (AS) specifications which
dimensional features conform with are designed to ensure
the specifications listed in Table 1. interchangeability with
corresponding International (ISO)
American (ANSI/ASME) and
British (BS) standards.
Table 2 Thread Specifications
Screw thread system Specification Title
British Standard AS 3501 Parallel Screw Threads of
Whitworth B.S.W. Whitworth Form
Unified National
Fine
UNF AS 3635 Unified Screw Threads
Unified National
Coarse
UNC
ISO Metric AS 1275 Metric Screw Threads for
Coarse Pitch Series Fasteners
ISO Metric AS 1721 General Purpose Metric
Fine Pitch Series Screw Threads
Screw Thread Terminology

FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2
Standard Thread Forms

FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4

FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6

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3
Threads Forms & Fits F A S T E N E R S

Thread Fits allowance is made in the nut


(which is tapped after galvanising)
Screw thread standards provide to accommodate the thick coating
for various classes of fit using a on the male thread. Only
hole basis tolerancing system (ie Free/1A/8g and Medium/2A/6g
maximum metal limit of the threads should be galvanised.
internal thread is basic size),
allowances for fit being applied to Table 3 consists of the three thread
the external (bolt) thread. class combinations which apply to
the majority of commerical
Exception is made for galvanised applications.
fasteners where an additional

Table 3

Thread class
Whitworth United Application
(BSW & (UNC & ISO
BSF) UNF) Metric
Applies to the majority of nuts and
Bolt Free 1A 8g bolts of ordinary commerical
Nut Normal 1B 7H quality. The clearance permits
rapid assembly without excessive
play.
Bolt Medium 2A 6g Represents a precision quality
Nut Normal 2B 6H screw thread product.
An exceptionally high grade
Bolt Close 3A 4h threaded product, recommended
Nut Medium 3B 5H only for applications where a close
snug fit is essential. (See note.)

NOTE: These higher classes do not make any allowance for fit (ie maximum bolts
and minimum nuts have a common size) and under some circumstances
selective assembly may be necessary.

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4
F A S T E N E R S Testing of Bolts & Nuts
The normal tensile properties of
metals; tensile strength, proof
stress, 0.2% yield stress,
elongation, reduction of area; are
determined on machined test
pieces. While these properties
and testing methods can be
applied to bolt materials, it is the
usual practice to test bolts in
(1) Proof Load Test. This
their full size to more adequately
consists of applying a proof load
reproduce the conditions under
(derived from a “proof load” stress)
which they will be used in service.
with the bolt head supported on a
This procedure of tensile testing parallel collar. The bolt length is
bolts in their full size is recognised measured accurately before and
and adopted by many after application of the proof load.
standardising bodies, including the It is required that the bolt shall not
International Organisation for have permanently extended. A
Standardisation (ISO), British 0.0005” or 12.5 micrometers
Standards Institution, Standards allowance is made for errors of
Association of Australia, American measurements. This test provides a
Society for Testing and Materials guide to the load to which the bolt
(ASTM) and Society of Automotive will behave elastically.
Engineers (SAE).
(2) Wedge Tensile Test. The
The bolt is screwed into a tapped bolt is assembled as described
attachment (Figure 7) with six full previously but with the head
threads exposed between the face supported on a tapered wedge
of the attachment and the collar. The angle of the wedge is
unthreaded shank. The bolt head is varied for bolt diameter and grade,
initially supported on a parallel and for bolts with short or no
collar for the proof load test, and a plain shank length, but in most
tapered or wedge collar for the cases for bolts up to 1" or 20mm
second stage when it is broken in diameter it is 10°. The bolt is
tension. loaded until it fractures, and the
In this test, the bolt load is breaking load must be above the
calculated from the tensile strength specified minimum. The load is
of the material, and the Tensile calculated from the tensile strength
Stress Area of the thread. The of the material and the Tensile
Tensile Stress Area is the area Stress Area of the thread.
calculated from the mean of the
minor and pitch diameters of the The test requires that, in addition
thread. Tensile Stress Areas for to meeting the specified minimum
common sizes and thread forms breaking load, fracture must occur
will be found in Tables 5-11. in the thread or plain shank with
no fracture of the head shank
The test, as indicated above, is junction. The bolt head must,
carried out in two stages: therefore, be capable of

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

5
Testing of Bolts & Nuts F A S T E N E R S

conforming with the required tensile precision nuts. Metric nuts


wedge taper angle without to AS 1112 - 1980 were designed
fracturing at its junction with the with greater knowledge of bolt/nut
shank. This latter requirement assembly behaviour to satisfy the
provides a very practical test for functional requirement that they
ductility. could be used to tighten (by
torque), a mating bolt of the same
Where the capacity of available
strength class up to its actual (not
testing equipment does not permit
specification minimum) yield stress
testing of bolts in full size, a
without the assembly failing by
hardness test is carried out. This is
thread stripping. To satisfy this
performed on a cross section
design requirement both the
through the bolt thread at a
thickness/diameter ratio and proof
distance of 1 x diameter from the
load stress were increased and
end.
now vary with diameter.
(3) Proof Load Test for Nuts.
The nut is assembled on a
The preferred method of testing
hardened, threaded mandrel
nuts follows that of bolts in
(Figure 8) and the proof load
adoption of a test in full size to
applied in an axial direction. The
measure the load which the nut
nut must withstand this load
will carry without its thread
without failure by stripping or
stripping. This is also referred to as
rupture, and be removable from
a Proof Load Test and it was
the mandrel after the load is
traditional for the nut “Proof Load
released.
Stress” to be the same as the
specified minimum tensile strength Again, where nut proof loads
of the mating bolt. This “rule of exceed the capacity of available, it
thumb” still applies for products to is usual to carry out hardness tests
the older standards such as BSW on the top or bottom face of the
commercial and unified high nut.

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6
F A S T E N E R S Strength-Grade Designations
for American and British
Standard Fasteners
Table 4 American SAE Standard (AS 2465 is identical for Grades 2, 5, 8 only).

Tensile
SAE Head Diameter Strength “Proof Load” Rockwell
Grade Marking lbf/in2 Stress lbf/in2 Hardness
(min.)

1 1/4" to 11/2" 60,000 33,000 B70-Bl00

2 1/4" to 3/4" 74,000 55,000 B80-Bl00


over 3/4" to 11/2" 60,000 33,000 B70-Bl00

4 None 1/4" to 11/2" 115,000 65,000 C22-C32


(studs only)

5 1/4" to 1" 120,000 85,000 C25-C34


(Note 1) Over 1" to 11/2" 105,000 74,000 C19-C30

5.1 No.6 to 5/8" 120,000 85,000 C25-C40


(Note 2)

5.2 1/4" to 1" 120,000 85,000 C26-C36


(Note 3)

7 1/4" to 11/2" 133,000 105,000 C28-C34


(Note 4)

8 1/4" to 11/2" 150,000 120,000 C33-C39


(Note 5)

8.1 None 1/4" to 11/2" 150,000 120,000 C32-C38


(studs only)

8.2 1/4" to 1" 150,000 120,000 C33-C39

NOTES:
1. Medium carbon steel, quenched and tempered.
2. Sems (captive washer) assemblies. These are of low or medium carbon
steel, quenched and tempered.
3. Low carbon boron steel, quenched and tempered.
4. Medium carbon alloy steel, quenched and tempered. Thread rolled after
heat treatment.
5. Medim carbon alloy steel, quenched and tempered.

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7
Breaking & Yield Loads F A S T E N E R S

When bolts are broken in tension, diameters of the thread. This


breaking will normally occur in calculation gives a figure which is
the threaded section, and it might known as the “Stress Area”, and
be expected that the breaking load this is now generally accepted as
could be calculated on the basis of the basis for computing the
the material strength and the area strength in tension of an externally
at the root of the thread. threaded part. Stress Area is
adopted for strength calculations
Tests have proved, however, that in I.S.O. recommendations and in
the actual tensile breaking load of specifications issued by the
a bolt is higher than the figure Standards Association of Australia,
calculated in this manner, and the British Standards Institution,
most accurate estimate is based on American Society of Automotive
the mean of the pitch and minor Engineers (SAE).

Blacks BSW Bolts AS 2451


Table 5
Based on: Tensile Strength = 28 tonf/in2 min.
Yield Stress = 16 tonf/in2 min. (to 3/4” diameter)
15 tonf/in2 min. (over 3/4” diameter)

Area of Stress Yield Load Breaking Load


Size Root of Area of of bolt (min.) of bolt (min.)
Thread Thread*
Sq. in. Sq.in. Tonf lbf Kn Tonf lbf Kn
3/16 BSW 0.0141 0.0171 0.27 600 2.73 0.48 1070 4.77
1/4 BSW 0.0272 0.0321 0.51 1140 5.12 0.90 2010 8.96
5/16 BSW 0.0457 0.0527 0.84 1880 8.40 1.47 3290 14.7
3/8 BSW 0.0683 0.0779 1.25 2800 12.4 2.18 4880 21.7
7/16 BSW 0.0941 0.1069 1.71 3830 17.0 2.99 6700 29.8
1/2 BSW 0.1214 0.1385 2.22 4970 22.1 3.88 8690 38.6
5/8 BSW 0.2032 0.227 3.63 8130 36.2 6.35 14220 63.3
3/4 BSW 0.3039 0.336 5.38 12050 53.6 9.41 21080 93.7
7/8 BSW 0.4218 0.464 6.96 15590 69.3 13.00 29120 129
1 BSW 0.5542 0.608 9.12 20420 90.9 17.05 38190 170
11/8 BSW 0.6969 0.766 11.50 25760 114 21.42 47980 214
11/4 BSW 0.8942 0.980 14.70 32920 146 27.40 61480 273
11/2 BSW 1.300 1.410 21.15 47370 211 39.45 88370 393
13/4 BSW 1.753 1.907 28.60 64060 285 53.39 119590 532
2 BSW 2.311 2.508 37.60 84220 375 70.21 157270 700

* See introductory paragraph to this section for definition of “Stress Area”.

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8
F A S T E N E R S Breaking & Yield Loads
Blacks Cup Head BSW Bolts AS B108
Table 6
Based on: Tensile Strength = 26 tonf/in2 min.
Yield Stress = 13 tonf/in2 min.
Area of Stress Yield Load Breaking Load
Size Root of Area of of Bolt (min.) of Bolt (min.)
Thread Thread*
Sq. in. Sq.in. Tonf lbf Kn Tonf lbf Kn
3/16 BSW 0.0141 0.0171 0 22 500 2.22 0.44as 1000 4.43
1/4 BSW 0.0272 0.0321 0.41 940 4.16 0.84 1880 8.32
5/16 BSW 0.0457 0.0527 0.69 1540 6.83 1.37 3070 13.7
3/8 BSW 0.0683 0.0779 1.01 2270 10.1 2.03 4540 20.2
7/16 BSW 0.0941 0.1069 1.39 3110 13.8 2.78 6230 27.7
1/2 BSW 0.1214 0.1385 1.80 4030 17.9 3.60 8070 35.9
5/8 BSW 0.2032 0.227 2.95 6610 29.4 5.90 13220 58.8
3/4 BSW 0.3039 0.336 4.37 9780 43.5 8.74 19570 87.0

* See introductory paragraph to this section for definition of “Stress Area”.


Blacks Unified High Tensile Hexagon
Head Bolts and Set Screws
(AS 2465/SAE Grade 5)
Table 7
Based on: Tensile Strength = 120000 lbf/in2 min. (827 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 1” incl.
= 105000 lbf/in2 min. (724 MPa) Sizes 11/8” - 11/2” incl.
Yield Stress = 92000 lbf/in2 min. (634 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 1” incl.
81000 lbf/in2 min. (558 MPa) Sizes 11/8” - 11/2” incl.
Proof Load Stress = 85000 lbf/in2 (586 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 1” incl.
74000 lbf/in2 (510 MPa) Sizes 11/8” - 11/2” incl.
Size Area of Stress Proof Load Breaking Load
Root of Area of of Bolt of Bolt (Min.)
Thread Thread*
Sq. in. Sq. in. lbf kN lbf kN
1/4 UNF 0.0326 0.0364 3100 13.8 4350 19.3
5/16 UNF 0.0524 0.0580 4900 21.8 6950 30.9
3/8 UNF 0.0809 0.0878 7450 33.1 10500 46.7
7/16 UNF 0.1090 0.1187 10100 44.9 14200 63.2
1/2 UNF 0.1486 0.1599 13600 60.5 19200 85.4
5/8 UNF 0.240 0.256 21800 97.0 30700 137
3/4 UNF 0.351 0.373 31700 141 44800 199
7/8 UNF 0.480 0.509 43300 193 61100 272
1 UNF 0.625 0.663 56400 251 79600 354
11/8 UNF 0.812 0.856 63300 282 89900 400
11/4 UNF 1.024 1.073 79400 353 112700 501
11/2 UNF 1.521 1.581 117000 520 166000 738
* See introductory paragraph to this section for definition of “Stress Area”.
Blacks stock range shown in bold face. Other sizes to special order.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

9
Breaking & Yield Loads F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Hexagon
Head Bolts and Set Screws
(AS 2465/SAE Grade 5)

Table 8
Based on: Tensile Strength = 120000 lbf/in2 min. (827 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 1” incl.
= 105000 lbf/in2 min. (724 MPa) Sizes 11/8” - 11/2” incl.
Yield Stress = 92000 lbf/in2 min. (634 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 1” incl.
81000 lbf/in2 min. (558 MPa) Sizes 11/8” - 11/2” incl.
Proof Load Stress = 85000 lbf/in2 (586 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 1” incl.
74000 lbf/in2 (510 MPa) Sizes 11/8” - 11/2” incl.

Size Area of Stress Proof Load Breaking Load


Root of Area of of Bolt of Bolt (Min.)
Thread Thread*
Sq, in. Sq. in. lbf kN lbf kN
1/4 UNC 0.0269 0.0318 2700 12.0 3800 16.9
5/16 UNC 0.0454 0.0524 4450 19.8 6300 28.0
3/8 UNC 0.0678 0.0775 6600 29.4 9300 41.4
7/16 UNC 0.0933 0.1063 9050 40.3 12800 56.9
1/2 UNC 0.1257 0.1419 12100 53.8 17000 75.6
5/8 UNC 0.202 0.226 19200 85.4 27100 121
3/4 UNC 0.302 0.334 28400 126 40100 178
7/8 UNC 0.419 0.462 39300 175 55400 246
1 UNC 0.551 0.606 51500 229 72700 323
11/8 UNC 0.693 0.763 56500 251 80100 356
11/4 UNC 0.890 0.969 71700 319 101700 452
11/2 UNC 1.294 1.405 104000 463 147500 656

* See introductory paragraph to this section for definition of “Stress Area”.


Blacks stock range shown in bold face. Other sizes to special order.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

10
F A S T E N E R S Breaking & Yield Loads
Blacks Hexagon
Head Bolts and Set Screws
(AS 2465/SAE Grade 8)

Table 9
Based on: Tensile Strength = 150000 lbf/in2 min. (1034 MPa) Sizes 1/4” - 11/2” incl.
Yield Stress = 130000 lbf/in2 min. (896 MPa)
Proof Load Stress = 120000 lbf/in2 (827 MPa)

Size Area of Stress Proof Load Breaking Load


Root of Area of of Bolt of Bolt (Min.)
Thread Thread*
Sq, in. Sq. in. lbf kN lbf kN
1/4 UNF 0.0326 0.0364 4350 19.3 5450 24.2
5/16 UNF 0.0524 0.0580 6950 30.9 8700 38.7
3/8 UNF 0.0809 0.0878 10500 46.7 13200 58.7
7/16 UNF 0.1090 0.1187 14200 63.2 17800 79.2
1/2 UNF 0.1486 0.1599 19200 85.4 24000 107
5/8 UNF O.240 0.256 30700 137 38400 171
3/4 UNF 0.351 0.373 44800 199 56000 249
7/8 UNF 0.480 0.509 61100 272 76400 340
1 UNF 0.625 0.663 79600 354 99400 442
11/8 UNF 0.812 0.856 102700 457 128400 571
11/4 UNF 1.024 1.073 128800 573 161000 716
11/2 UNF 1.521 1.581 189700 844 237200 1055
1/4 UNC 0.0269 0.0318 3800 16.9 4750 19.3
5/16 UNC 0.0454 0.0524 6300 28.0 7850 30.9
3/8 UNC 0.0678 0.0775 9300 41.4 11600 46.7
7/16 UNC 0.0933 0.1063 12800 56.9 15900 63.2
1/2 UNC 0.1257 0.1419 17000 75.6 21300 85.4
5/8 UNC 0.202 0.226 27100 121 33900 137
3/4 UNC 0.302 0.334 40100 178 50100 199
7/8 UNC 0.419 0.462 55400 246 69300 272
1 UNC 0.551 0.606 72700 323 90900 354
11/8 UNC 0.693 0.763 91600 407 114400 457
11/4 UNC 0.890 0.969 116300 517 145400 573
11/2 UNC 1.294 1.405 168600 750 210800 844

* See introductory paragraph to this section for definition of “Stress Area”.

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11
Breaking & Yield Loads F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Metric Hexagon Commerical


Bolts and Screws
(AS 1111 Property Class 4.6)

Table 10
Based on: Tensile Strength = 400 MPa min (58015 lbf/in2)
Yield Stress = 240 MPa min (34810 lbf/in2)
Proof Load Stress = 225 MPa (32635 lbf/in2)

Size Area of Tensile Stress Proof Load Breaking Load


Root of Area of of Bolt of Bolt (Min.)
Thread Thread
mm2 mm2 kN lbf kN lbf
M5 12.7 14.2 3.20 719 5.68 1277
M6 17.9 20.1 4.52 1016 8.04 1807
M8 32.8 36.6 8.24 1852 14.6 3282
M10 52.3 58.0 13.0 2923 23.2 5216
M12 76.2 84.3 19.0 4271 33.7 7576
M16 144 157 35.3 7936 62.8 14118
M20 225 245 55.1 12387 98.0 22031
M24 324 353 79.4 17850 141 31698
M30 519 561 126 28326 224 50357
M36 759 817 184 41365 327 73513
M42 1050 1120 252 56652 448 100714
M48 1380 1470 331 74412 588 132188
M56 1910 2030 458 102963 812 182545
M64 2520 2680 605 136009 1072 240995

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12
F A S T E N E R S Breaking & Yield Loads
Blacks Metric Hexagon Precision
Bolts and Screws
(AS 1110 Property Class 8.8)

Table 11
Based on: Tensile Strength = 800 MPa min (116030 lbf/in2) Sizes M5 - M16 incl.
= 830 MPa min (120380 lbf/in2) Sizes M20 - M36 incl.
Yield Stress = 640 MPa min (92825 lbf/in2) Sizes M5 - M16 incl.
= 660 MPa min (95725 lbf/in2) Sizes M20 - M36 incl.
Proof Load Stress = 580 MPa (84120 lbf/in2) Sizes M5 - M16 incl.
= 600 MPa (87025 lbf/in2) Sizes M20 - M36 incl.

Size Area of Tensile Stress Proof Load Breaking Load


Root of Area of of Bolt of Bolt (Min.)
Thread Thread*
mm2 mm2 kN lbf kN lbf
M5 12.7 14.2 8.23 1850 11.35 2552
M6 17.9 20.1 11.6 2608 16.1 3619
M8 32.8 36.6 21.2 4766 29.2 6564
M10 52.3 58.0 33.7 7576 46.4 10431
M12 76.2 84.3 48.9 10993 67.4 15152
M16 144 157 91.0 20458 125 28101
M20 225 245 147 33047 203 45636
M24 324 353 212 47660 293 65869
M30 519 561 337 75760 466 104761
M36 759 817 490 110156 678 152421

* See introductory paragraph to this section for definition of “Stress Area”.

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13
Bolt Shear Capacity F A S T E N E R S

Table 12
Specification AS 1111 AS 1110 Prop. Cl. 8.8 AS 1110 Prop. Cl 10.9
AS 2451 AS 2465 Grade 5 AS 2465 Grade 8
Minimum Breaking Load in Single Shear – kN 1 2
Size Shank3 Thread Shank3 Thread Shank3 Thread
Coarse Fine Coarse Fine
M6 7 4 14 9 18 12
1/4" 9 5 16 9 11 20 11 14
M8 13 8 25 16 33 21
5/16" 13 8 26 15 17 32 19 22
3/8" 19 12 37 23 27 46 28 34
M10 20 13 39 26 51 34
7/16" 26 16 50 31 36 63 39 45
M12 28 19 57 38 74 50
1/2" 34 21 65 42 50 82 52 62
M16 50 36 101 72 131 94
5/8" 53 35 102 67 80 128 84 100
3/4" 77 53 147 101 117 184 126 146
M20 79 56 163 117 204 146
7/8" 105 73 201 140 160 251 175 200
M24 113 81 235 168 294 211
1" 137 97 262 184 208 327 230 260
11/8" 173 121 332 202 237 414 289 338
M30 177 130 368 270 459 337
M36 254 190 529 395 662 493
11/2" 308 226 589 377 444 736 539 634

NOTES:
1. Tabulated values are for failure. Refer to applicable Code for permissible
Design Stress. Table 13 gives guidance for AS 1250 and AS 4100 values
2. The values shown are for a single shear plane and may be compounded for
multiple shear planes. Multiple bolt joints are subject to an “unbuttoning
effect”.
AS 1250 states that this should be considered when more than 5 bolts are
aligned in the direction of the force.
AS 1511 reduces design shear capacity, 14% for joints 500-1200mm length,
43% for joints over 1200mm.
AS 4100 progressively reduces design shear capacity by 25% for joints 300-
1300mm length and longer.
3. Based on nominal diameter of shank.

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14
F A S T E N E R S Bolt Shear Capacity
Table 13
Shear Stress AS 1250–1981 AS 4100–1990
at failure1 Maximum Maximum
(Mpa) Permissible “Design
Design Shear Capacity
Min Max Ratio2 Stress Shear Stress”5
Bolt Type (MPa)4 (MPa)
AS 1111 Property Class 4.6 248.0 431.5 1.74 79.2 198.4
AS 2451 BSW
Low Tensile 1/4" – 3/4" 267.8 452.6 1.69 (81.5)6 214.3
7/8" – 1" 267.8 452.6 1.69 (76.6)6 214.3
AS 1559 Tower Bolt 320.07 – – 112.28 238.19
AS Property Class 5.8 322.4 431.5 1.34 130.0 257.9
AS 1110 Property Class 8.8
M1.6 – M16 496.0 636.1 1.28 200.0 396.8
M18 – M36 514.6 654.1 1.27 207.5 411.7
AS 2465 Unified Grade 5
1/4" – 1" 512.7 654.1 1.28 206.8 410.2
11/8" – 11/2" 448.9 589.6 1.31 181.0 359.1
AS 2465 Unified Grade 8 641.0 752.1 1.17 258.5 512.9
AS 1110 Property Class 10.9 644.8 752.1 1.17 260.0 515.8

NOTES
1. Basis is ultimate shear stress equals 62% of ultimate tensile strength. Reference
AS 4100-1990. This ratio was established on tension loaded lap joints. Geometric
effects on compression loading similar joint configuration can give apparent bolt
shear capacity 9% higher.
2. For overload protection application, check that both maximum and minimum are
suitable. Maximum equals minimum (Table 12) value times ratio.
3. Maximum shear stress at failure is based on imputed maximum tensile strength,
estimated from specified maximum hardness. Reference SAE J417.
4. Maximum Permissible Shear Stress in design is the lesser of .33Fyf and 0.25Fuf.
5. AS 4100 does not express stress values but extends the data to a “Design Resistance
Capacity” taking account of the length of the joint (see Table 12 Note 2), the available
bolt shear area (threads or shanks) and a “Capacity Factor” which is 0.8 for the
Strength Limit State Criterion. Thus the “Design Capacity Shear Stress” shown here
to facilitate comparison with the previous rule is 80% of the minimum shear stress at
failure shown in column 2, and represents the stress value which the factored actions
(loads) acting on the bolts may not exceed - not the actual shear stress which may
not be applied to the bolts. With Load Factors of 1.25 on dead loads and 1.5 on live
loads it can be seen that bolt loading is still conservative compared to their ultimate
capacity although less so than under AS 1250 rules. Other load factors apply for other
actions eg. earthquake, wind etc.
6. For mild steel bolts the relevant criterion (see Note 4 above) is generally .33Fyf.
AS 2451 does not specify Fyt so the values shown are from Blacks Fasteners Ltd data.
7. On the basis of Note 1, the value here would be 297.6 MPa but 320 MPa is shown as
it is a specified requirement of AS 1559.
8. Some Design Authorities have for over 5 years, used a value 290 MPa (=91% of the
specified minimum value) which would be experienced by the fastener under the
80 year mean return wind, in lattice tower design. They previously used the 30 year
mean return wind and had some towers blow down.
9. Factoring the specification minimum shear stress would give a value of 256 MPa.
10. kN x 224.809 = lbf. MPa x 145.038 = lbf/in2.

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15
Design of Bolted Joints for F A S T E N E R S

General Engineering
Types of Loading on
Joints
Examine the forces being applied
to the joint to decide which of the
following types fits the conditions.
a) Joints carrying direct tensile
loads (See Fig. 9).
Selection of Tensile
Strength of Bolts b) Joints carrying loads in shear
(See Fig. 10-11). Types 1 and 2.
Bolted joints in which strength is
the main design consideration, can, c) Flexible gasket joints for
in most cases, be more sealing liquids or gases under
economically designed when a pressure (See Fig. 12).
high tensile bolt is used rather
than a mild steel bolt. Fewer bolts
can be used to carry the same total Joints Carrying Direct
load, giving rise to savings not Tensile Loads
only from the cost of a smaller
(1) Safety Factor. Apply a safety
number of bolts, but also
factor according to the nature of
machining where less holes are
the loading. Except in the case of
drilled and tapped, and assembly
the flexible gasket joint, the safety
where less time is taken.
factor on a bolt differs from most
other applications in that it does
Selection of Coarse not affect the stress of the bolt, but
refers to the factor by which the
and Fine Threads sum of the preload on all the bolts
In practically all cases the coarse comprising the joint exceeds the
thread is a better choice. The design load applied. Regardless of
coarse threads provide adequate the nature of the load, the bolts
strength and great advantages in should still be preloaded to 65% of
assembly over fine threads. The their yield stress using the
former are less liable to become recommended torque values as set
cross threaded, start more easily, out in Table 18-23.
particularly in awkward positions,
Safety Factor =
and require less time to tighten.
Sum of preload on all the bolts
In cases where fine adjustment is
comprising the joint
needed, the fine thread should be
used. Providing bolts are tightened Design applied load
to the torque specified in Tables
18-23 there should be no tendency For design purposes, the preload
to loosen under conditions of on each bolt should be taken
vibration with either coarse or fine according to the bolt size and bolt
threads. material as shown in Tables 18 to

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16
F A S T E N E R S Design of Bolted Joints for
General Engineering
23 and the safety factor selected (5) Positioning of the Bolts.
from the following table:- The bolts should be placed as near
as possible to the line of direct
tensile load. By doing this,
Table 14
secondary bending stresses in the
Nature of Loading Safety Factors* bolts and bolted members are
Steady Stress 1.5 – 2 reduced to a minimum.
Repeated Stress
gradually applied 2 – 3.5
shock 4.5 – 6
* Applies to joints with direct tensile
loads only and assumes all bolts are Joints Carrying Loads
tightened to 65% of the yield stress. in Shear

(2) Total Required Preload†. The design procedure for


Determine this from safety factor mechanical joints carrying this
(S) and applied load (L). type of loading can be based on
well established practice laid down
Total required preload F = S x L for structural joints carrying static
loads, provided the design loads
(3) Selection of Bolt are increased by adequate factors
Material, Bolt Size, Number to allow for cyclic loads, shock, etc.
of Bolts. By selecting a suitable These factors will vary
bolt size and bolt material, the considerably according to the
required number of bolts can be application, and must be based on
determined from – the designer’s experience. Bolted
joints carrying loads in shear fall
into two types:-
N=F
f
1. Joints in which the load is
Where N is the number of bolts, F transferred through the bolted
is the total required preload and f members by bearing of the
is the recommended preload (see member on the shank of the
Tables 18-23) on the bolt for the bolt and shear in the bolt.
particular size and material
selected.
2. Friction type joints, where the
(4) Specify Tightening load is transferred by the
Torque. Ensure that the bolts are friction developed between the
fully tightened to the torque members by the clamping
recommended in Tables 18-23 for action of the bolts.
the particular bolt size and
material.
†Note: At time of publication there are no “Allowable Stress” code provisions for
general mechanical engineering design of bolted joints. This information is
provided for guidance only.

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17
Design of Bolted Joints for F A S T E N E R S

General Engineering
bolt holes to the extent that they
cannot safely carry the load. To
achieve this it may be necessary to
use more than one row of bolts.
Staggering of bolt holes can
minimise reduction of member
capacity. If more than two
members are bolted together
Load Transfer by slightly higher values are permitted
Bearing and Shear in bearing on the central member,
and the area considered for
Such joints may be designed using calculating strength in shear is
allowable values for shear in the increased by two or four times for
bolts and bearing on the joint bolts in double or quadruple shear.
members such as those given in
AS 1250 or under the limit states
provisions of AS 4100.
Friction Type Joints
Guidance on bolt shear capacity is
given on page 14. The lowest These joints are made up using
strength, whether it be in shear or high strength bolts fitted in
bearing, is used to compute the clearance holes and tightened
required number of bolts to carry under careful control to develop a
the design load. preload equivalent or greater than
the bolt yield load.
The allowable values for shear and
bearing depend not only on bolt The mechanism of carrying load is
size, but also on the tensile by friction developed between the
strength of the bolt, and whether mating faces, and it is well
the bolt is in a close fitting established that this type of joint is
machined hole (not greater than considerably stronger than a
0.25mm clearance) or is fitted in a riveted joint. Refer to Australian
clearance hole (up to 2-3mm Standard 4100.
clearance).

Careful consideration should be


given to the properties of the General Rules to
material in the bolted members to Reduce Possibility of
ensure they are capable of Bolt Failure Due to
withstanding bearing loads. Tensile Fatigue
strength and yield stress of Blacks
bolts can be obtained from Tables The following general rules should
5-11. Care must be taken that the be observed to minimise
pitch of the bolt spacing is possibility of fatigue of bolts under
sufficient to ensure that the bolted high alternating or fluctuating
members are not weakened by the stresses.

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18
F A S T E N E R S Design of Bolted Joints for
General Engineering
(1) Most Important. Tighten This is because the flexible gasket
bolt effectively to ensure an material has a much lower elastic
induced tension or preload in modulus than the bolt, and
excess of the maximum external continues to exert virtually the
load. same force on the bolts when
additional load is applied to the
(2) Bolt extension in tightening
joint. The resulting effect is that the
should be high. This can be
working load is added to the bolt
achieved by:-
preload in this case, so the design
a) At least 1 x bolt diameter of procedure must be modified
“free” thread length under the accordingly.
nut.
(1) Design Pressure Load.
b) Use of small high strength Determine the design load Q on
bolts in preference to larger the joint by multiplying the
low strength bolts. effective area A on which the
pressure is acting by the liquid or
c) In extreme cases a “waisted gas pressure P by S where S is the
shank” bolt can be considered. safety factor selected from Table
(3) Rolled threads are preferable to 14.
machined threads.
Q = APS
(4) Under conditions of extreme
vibration the use of locknuts such
(2) Total Preload Required.
as the Conelock or Nyloc nut
To the design pressure load, Q add
should be considered to avoid
10%, and this is the sum of the
possibility of a loosened nut
preload F that should be applied to
vibrating right off the bolt before
the bolts comprising the joint.
detection.
(5) Bolt head and nut should be on F = Q + 10Q
parallel surfaces to avoid bending. 100

(6) Non axial bolt loading i.e. F = 1.1Q


producing a “prising” action
should be avoided where possible. (3) Total Design Load on
Bolts. In the case of a flexible
gasket type of joint the design
pressure load Q on the joint is
Flexible Gasket Joints added to the preload F on the
for Sealing Liquids or bolts, giving the total design load
W on the bolts.
Gases Under Pressure
W=Q+F
This type of joint differs from the
two preceding types in that the (4) Select Bolt Material. From
stress in the bolt varies with the the following table of yield stresses
working load. select the bolt material.

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19
Design of Bolted Joints for F A S T E N E R S

General Engineering
figure T for the bolt size and
material selected listed in Tables
18-23 must be reduced by
multiplying by a factor of 0.806.
Tightening torque to be applied to
bolts of a flexible gasket type of
joint.
Table 15
t = 0.8 T
Proof Load Stress
Bolt Type lbf/in2 MPa
Blacks AS 2451 Bolts – Metal to Metal
1/4” – 3/4” 35,900 248
Over 3/4” 33,600 232
Pressure Tight Joints
Blacks Metric The stress in the bolts in a flexible
Commerical Bolts 32,630 225 gasket type joint varies with load,
Blacks Metric Precision and under rapidly fluctuating
PC 8.8 Bolts 95,725 660 loads they can be subject to
Blacks SAE Grade 5 fatigue. It is therefore desirable to
High Tensile Bolts –
1/4” – 1”
use wherever possible, metal to
85,000 586
metal pressure tight joints, as these
Blacks SAE Grade 8
are not subject to fatigue.
High Tensile Bolts 120,000 827
The design procedure for a metal
(5) Select Bolt Size and to metal pressure tight joint is
Determine Number of Bolts. exactly the same as for joints
From the desired bolt size and carrying direct tensile loads once
corresponding Stress Area “As”, (see the pressure load is determined.
Tables 5-11) determine the number
of bolts N from the yield stress Y
and the total design load W on the
bolts.
Number of bolts required N = W
YAs
(6) Setting of Tightening
Torque. In this case the bolts can
only be tightened to a preload well
below the yield stress so the torque

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20
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Bolted Joints
How a Bolted Joint
Carries Load
A bolted joint can carry loads in
tension (Fig. 13), in shear (Fig. 14)
or by a combination of these.
The static load capacity of the joint
will be determined largely by the the area of the bolt shank in
size, strength grade and number of tension and so compresses much
bolts installed. The capacity of a less than the bolt extends at any
bolted joint to maintain integrity given bolt tension. Thus cyclic
indefinitely under dynamic external load is experienced more
loading is dependent on installing as a change in pressure at the joint
the bolts with sufficient tension to face than a change of tension in
prevent relative movement of the the bolt and in a well designed
joined members. joint, the stress range in the bolts
will be below their fatigue
endurance limit.
Tension
The external load is resisted Shear
directly by bolt tension. If the
joined members are rigid and the The pre-load in the bolt(s)
bolts are pretensioned, the mating clamping the members together
faces will not separate until the produces friction between them
externally applied load exceeds the which resists the external load. The
total preload. This is because stress external force which this friction is
and strain are fundamentally capable of resisting without
related (the relationship constant is movement is proportional to the
called Young’s modulus in the preload in the bolts and the
range of elastic behaviour), so that coefficient of friction on the mating
the joint can’t separate until the surfaces. When the frictional load
bolt length increases and the bolt transfer capacity is exceeded the
length can’t increase until the ultimate capacity of the joint will
tension in it exceeds the preload be determined by shear on the
(assuming service temperature fasteners and bearing on the joined
below the creep range). This members.
concept is valid when the joint
members are stiffer (suffer less
strain under a given force) than Methods of Control of
the bolt shank. It is true enough to Bolt Tightening
be important even when the joint
members and bolt are of the same Several methods are available for
material (e.g. steel), i.e., have the controlling the establishment of a
same modulus, because the area in desired level of preload in bolts
compression between the bolt with the cost rising with increasing
head and nut is much greater than accuracy more or less as indicated

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21
Tightening of Bolted Joints F A S T E N E R S

Table 16
Preload Measuring Method % Accuracy Relative Cost
Feel (Operators Judgement) ± 35 1
Torque Wrench ± 25 11/2
Turn-Of-The-Nut ± 15 3
Load Indicating Washers ± 10 31/2
Fastener Elongation ±3–5 15
Strain Gauges ±1 20

in Table 16. Each method has its more accurate control of tension if
applications and the choice should setting is performed under job
be made after an assessment of the conditions with the bolts to be
particular requirements. tightened.
(1) Torque
Although torque bears no fixed Torquing of Bolts and
relationship to fastener tension, the Nuts
use of torque wrenches is the most
common method of pre-load The purpose of controlling the
control because of simplicity and torque applied to a fastener
relative economy. Many factors, assembly is to induce a desired
including surface texture (cut or level of tensile force in the bolt
rolled threads), surface coatings- (equals clamping force on the
lubrications, thread interference, joint). Unless limited by some
speed of tightening, etc., affect the characteristic of the joint (e.g., a
torque-tension relationship and soft gasket), the amount of tension
up to +25% variation in pre-load, aimed for in general engineering
has been measured on similar practice is 65-75% of the minimum
fasteners receiving identical torque. elastic capacity (proof load) of the
Closer control of torque/tension bolt. By selecting bolts such that
calibration for a particular lot can this level of tension is not exceeded
reduce variation to +15%. With by service load on the joint,
manual torque wrenches, the loosening of the nut should not be
torque may be reset from or read a problem in most applications.
off a built-in scale. Power tools are Nyloc or Conelock nuts are
more productive when large recommended for joints where
numbers of bolts are to be such pre-tensioning is not
tightened and may be pneumatic, applicable and as an added
electric or hydraulic, but generally insurance against loss of the nut,
require tightening of sample bolts should the initial pre-tension be
in a bolt load measuring device to lost. The 65-75% of Proof Load
set a pressure regulator or stall- level of pre-tension is sufficiently
torque for the desired bolt tension conservative to give reasonably
rather than measuring torque reliable torque controlled
directly. This requirement will give tightening with indefinite

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22
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Bolted Joints
reuseability of the assembly. For
critical applications closer control
or calibration checking is
recommended. Because friction is
the major unknown variable
affecting the relationship between
torque applied and tension
induced, the presence of light oil
Allowing for this effect becomes
lubrication is the minimum
more important as the set torque is
standard recommended for
approached; another purchase
consistency in controlled
should be taken early enough to
tightening of fasteners. Most plain
avoid stall before rotation
finish fasteners are supplied with a
continues. Difficulty maintaining
sufficient oil residue from their
steady movement up to the set
processing but plated finishes will
torque is a drawback of some
generally require oiling or
hydraulic tools used for large
adjustment to the torque
diameter fasteners. The steady
recommended in Blacks Fasteners
impacting of pneumatic tools gives
Ltd Technical Data. For bolts with
better results.
special surface finishes or
assembled with anti-seize (2) Strain Control
compounds or heavily greased, the
torque-induced preload a) Part Turn Tightening: This
relationship is likely to be altered method involves imparting a
and the recommendations to controlled strain or extension
require modification. to the bolt by measuring
relative rotation from the
Table 17 lists factors based on point where the joint members
averages for the torque-induced are solidly compacted. It is
preload relationship by which the most widely used in
tabulated figures should be tensioning bolts in structural
multiplied to correct for the most steel work.
common surface condition
variations. For other surface b) Direct Tension Indicators:
treatments or for specialised bolt These proprietary devices are
assemblies involving higher also based on controlled
preload requirement or special strain, but make use of design
lock nut, etc., it may be desirable to features in a bolt head, nut or
experimentally determine the washer to make the strain
torque-induced preload visible and measurable as a
relationship. Attention is drawn to permanent witness of proper
the fact that because static friction bolt tensioning.
is greater than dynamic friction, c) Measurement of Bolt
the best accuracy and consistency Extension: This is a time
of torque control tightening is consuming but very accurate
obtained when rotation of the method. Bolt Length may be
fastener is steadily maintained until measured before and after
the torque increases to the set level. tightening, with a micrometer

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23
Tightening of Bolted Joints F A S T E N E R S

Table 17

Surface Condition Factor


Galvanised – Degreased 2.1
– Lightly oiled 1.1
Zinc Plated – Degreased 0.7*
– Lightly oiled 0.9
Cadmium Plated – Degreased 1.0
– Lightly oiled 0.7
Phosphated and oiled 0.7
Standard finish plus heavy grease 0.7

* In previously published guidance for tightening by control of applied torque this


factor shown as 1.9.
Investigation of a 1991 complaint that assemblies torqued at this level were
stripping found that the factor 0.7 is now appropriate. The writer conjectures that
this variation is attributable to the change in plating practice from alkali-cyanide
to acid chloride zinc plating electrolyte since this data was generated and
perhaps more specifically to different lubricity of the brighteners used in these
proprietary solutions.
The change emphasises that such published general information can only ever
be regarded as a guide and verification of applicability for a specific application
is advisable both initially and over time, particularly if any parameters are known
to have changed.
It should be remembered also that such guidance is based on first tightening of
single assemblies in isolation and that interactions in multifastener joints may
result in changes to initial tension such that a detailed tightening sequence may
need to be developed and followed for satisfactory service of the joint.
As well as scatter in the torque-tension relationship for different assemblies from
the same lot, retightening of the same bolt may give a different torque tension
relationship. Both the scatter and shift on retightening are minimised by good
lubrication of threads and bearing face.
In recent tests of bright zinc plated parts the tension at a given torque was found
to progressively reduce by 50% over five tightenings of an unlubricated assembly
while a well lubricated assembly showed no reduction over five retightenings and
only a 9% over twelve retightenings. The results of these tests are shown in
Graphs 1-4.
in some joint configurations or d) Pre-assembly Straining: The
by an electronic “sonar” type most common development of
device from one end. Greatest this method is the snug
accuracy is achieved when the tightening of a normal nut on
strain value is obtained from a bolt which has been heated
the load extension curve of the to produce a calculated degree
fastener being used, but of thermal expansion. A
calculation based on Hooke’s hollow bolt with a
Law gives good correlation hydraulically actuated internal
when allowance is made for loading ram is available which
the respective lengths and makes removal as easy as
cross-sectional areas of the installation.
plain and threaded portions of
the bolt shank effectively in e) Strain Gauges: These are
the grip. usually applied to the bolt

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24
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Bolted Joints

shank and calibrated in a load are unlikely to strip on bolts so


measuring machine. tightened.
(3) Combination Methods (4) Direct Tensioning
Electronic sensors and In the most economic
microprocessors have been development of this method,
developed which simultaneously tension applied by a calibrated
measure torque and/or angular hydraulic jack attached to an
rotation and/or instantaneous extension of the bolt or stud
rate of change in these thread is transferred to a normal
characteristics. Hand-held models nut after it is snugged up to the
are available with capacity for joint. The relaxation of tension due
he size range common in to bedding in and deflection of the
automotive application but the mating threads is consistent for
methods are essentially confined given assembly types and can be
to high volume application such allowed for to maintain accuracy
as the simultaneous tightening of the desired residual tension. This
of automotive engine head “bolts” may be the most practicable
(really cap screws). Their method for bolts over M36/11/2"
accuracy allows designs for bolts diameter and is particularly
tensioned to their actual yield suitable for sealing of high
point and the implementation of pressure gasketed joints because
this method has resulted in re- manifolding of jacks enables
design with higher strength of simultaneous, uniform tensioning
standard metric nuts so that they of many bolts.

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25
Tightening of Bolted Joints F A S T E N E R S

Table 18 Recommended Assembly Torques


Bolt Tension Recommended
Corresponding to Assembly
Bolt Diameter 65% of Proof of Load Torque
Type mm kN lbf Nm ft.lbs
AS 1111 5 2.08 468 2.1 1.5
Blacks Property 6 2.94 661 3.5 2.5
Class 4.6 8 5.34 1200 8.5 6.3
Commercial Low 10 8.45 1900 17 12
Tensile Bolts 12 12.4 2788 30 22
16 22.9 5148 7.3 54
20 35.8 8048 14.3 106
24 51.6 11600 248 183
30 81.9 18412 491 362
36 120 26977 864 637
42 164 36869 1378 1016
48 215 48334 2064 1522
56 298 66993 3338 2462
64 393 88350 5030 3710

The torques listed are for plain finish (uncoated) fasteners as supplied. Refer to
page 24 and table 17 for effects of various finishes.

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26
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Bolted Joints
Table 19 Recommended Assembly Torques
Recommended
Induced Bolt Preload Assembly Torque
Bolt Type Diameter or Tension to Give Induced
and Thread Corresponding to Preload Equal to
65% of Yield Load 65% of Yield Load
lbf lbf
AS 2451 1/4 BSW 750 3
Blacks BSW Low 5/16 BSW 1230 6
Tensile Bolts 3/8 BSW 1820 12
(Formerly AS B100) 7/16 BSW 2480 19
1/2 BSW 3250 28
5/8 BSW 5300 55
3/4 BSW 7830 98
7/8 BSW 10200 150
1 BSW 13300 230
11/8 BSW 16700 320
11/4 BSW 21500 450
11/2 BSW 30800 780

The torques listed are for plain finish (uncoated) fasteners as supplied. Refer to
page 24 and Table 17 for effects of various finishes.

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27
Tightening of Bolted Joints F A S T E N E R S

Table 20 Recommended Assembly Torques


Recommended
Induced Bolt Preload Assembly Torque
Bolt Type Diameter or Tension to Give Induced
and Thread Corresponding to Preload Equal to
65% of Yield Load 65% of Yield Load
lbf lbf
AS 2465 1/4 UNF 2020 8
Blacks Grade 5 5/16 UNF 3190 17
Unified High 3/8 UNF 4840 30
Tensile Bolts 7/16 UNF 6570 48
(Same as SAE 1/2 UNF 8840 74
J429 Grade 5) 5/8 UNF 14170 150
3/4 UNF 20610 260
7/8 UNF 28150 410
1 UNF 36660 610
1/4 UNC 1760 7
5/16 UNC 2890 15
3/8 UNC 4290 27
7/16 UNC 5880 43
1/2 UNC 7870 66
5/8 UNC 12480 130
3/4 UNC 18400 230
7/8 UNC 25550 370
1 UNC 33480 560

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28
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Bolted Joints
Table 21 Recommended Assembly Torques
Recommended
Induced Bolt Preload Assembly Torque
Bolt Type Diameter or Tension to Give Induced
and Thread Corresponding to Preload Equal to
65% of Yield Load 65% of Yield Load
lbf lbf
AS 2465 1/4 UNF 2830 12
Blacks Grade 8 5/16 UNF 4520 23
Unified High 3/8 UNF 6830 43
Tensile Bolts 7/16 UNF 9230 67
(Same as SAE 1/2 UNF 12500 104
J429 Grade 8) 5/8 UNF 19960 207
3/4 UNF 29120 363
7/8 UNF 39720 577
1 UNF 51740 859
1/4 UNC 2470 10
5/16 UNC 4100 21
3/8 UNC 6050 38
7/16 UNC 8320 60
1/2 UNC 11050 92
5/8 UNC 17620 183
3/4 UNC 26070 325
7/8 UNC 36010 523
1 UNC 47200 785

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

29
Tightening of Bolted Joints F A S T E N E R S

Table 22 Recommended Assembly Torques


Bolt Tension Recommended
Corresponding to Assembly
Bolt Type Diameter 65% of Proof Load Torque
mm kN lbf Nm ft.lbs
AS 1110 5 5.4 1214 5 4
Blacks Property 6 7.6 1709 9 7
Class 8.8 8 13.8 3102 22 16
Precision High 10 21.9 4923 44 32
Tensile Bolts 12 31.8 7149 77 57
16 59.2 13309 190 140
20 95.6 21492 372 274
24 138 31024 640 472
30 219 49233 1314 969
36 319 71714 2297 1694
(42) 437 98242 3671 2707
(48) 573 128816 5500 4057
(56) 792 178049 8870 6542
(64) 1045 234925 13376 9866

AS 1110 covers sizes to M36 only. Data for sizes above this is given for
information only. The Blacks Fasteners stocked range extends to M24 but sizes
30, 36 Property Class 8.8 Bolts and Nuts are available from structural stocks.
The torques listed are for plain finish (uncoated) fasteners as supplied. Refer to
page 24 and Table 17 for effects of various finishes.

Table 23 Recommended Assembly Torques


Bolt Tension Recommended
Corresponding to Assembly
Bolt Type Diameter 65% of Proof Load Torque
mm kN lbf Nm ft.lbs
AS 1110 5 7.67 1724 8 6
Blacks Property 6 10.86 2441 13 10
Class 10.9 8 19.76 4442 32 23
Precision High 10 31.27 7030 63 46
Tensile Bolts 12 45.50 10229 109 81
16 84.50 18996 270 200
20 131.95 29664 528 390
24 190.45 42815 914 675
30 302.90 68095 1817 1341
36 440.70 99073 3173 2342

The torques listed are for plain finish (uncoated) fasteners as supplied. Refer to
page 24 and Table 17 for effects of various finishes.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

30
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Structural Joints
Bolting Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB
The design, fabrication, the full effort of a man using a
assembly and inspection of standard podger spanner or by a
steel structures using metric few impacts of an impact wrench.
high strength structural Location marks are then
bolts and nuts to AS 1252 established to mark the relative
are covered in AS 4100 - SAA position of the bolt and nut. The
Steel Structures Code which bolts are then finally tightened by
should be referred to for the amount shown in Table 24.
more detailed information. b) Direct Tension Indicators1
The requirements for bolting Tightening of bolts and nuts shall
Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB are in be in accordance with the
essence the same as those manufacturer’s instructions and
previously given in AS 1511 – the following procedure2. On
1984. The ASAA High Strength assembly all bolts and nuts in the
Structural Bolting Code which was joint are first tightened to the snug
withdrawn on 26/10/91. tight condition. Then the bolt and
The following are abstracts from nut are tightened to provide the
AS 4100. minimum tension specified in
Table 25.
(1) Assembly
b.1) This method of tightening can
Each bolt and nut shall be be carried out with CoronetR Load
assembled with at least one washer Indicators. Refer page 51.
and where only one washer is
used it shall be placed under the b.2) AS 4100 requires that the
rotating component. Tightening of suitability of the device shall be
the bolts shall proceed from the demonstrated by testing at least
stiffest part of the joint toward the three specimens for each diameter
free edges. and grade in a calibration device
capable of indicating bolt tension
Under no circumstances shall bolts and proving that the device
which have been fully tightened be indicates a tension at least 105% of
reused in another joint or the specified minimum.
structure. They may be retightened
once in the same hole. (3) Inspection

(2) Methods of Tightening Bolts and nuts that show on visual


inspection any evidence of
Tightening methods permitted can physical defects shall be removed
be either “part turn method” or use and replaced by new ones. The
of “direct tension indicators” following methods shall be used to
(CoronetR Load Indicators). check that all bolts are fully
a) Part Turn Tightening Method tightened. For “part turn”
tightening, by ensuring that the
On assembly all bolts and nuts in correct part turn from the snug
the joint are first tightened to a position can be measured or
snug tight condition. Snug tight is observed. For “direct tension
defined as the tightness attained by indicator” tightening, by ensuring

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

31
Tightening of Structural Joints F A S T E N E R S

Bolting Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB


Table 24 AS 4100 - 1990 Nut Rotation from the Snug-Tight condition.
Disposition of outer face of bolted parts (See notes 1, 2, 3, 4)
Bolt Length Both Faces One Face normal Both Faces
(Underside of head normal to axis to bolt axis and sloped
to end of bolt) other sloped
Up to and including 4 diameters 1/3 turn 1/2 turn 2/3 turn
Over 4 diameters but not
exceeding 8 diameters 1/2 turn 2/3 turn 5/6 turn
Over 8 diameters but not
exceeding 12 diameters
(see note 5) 2/3 turn 5/6 turn 1 turn
NOTES
1. Tolerance on rotation: for 1/2 turn or less, one twelfth of a turn (30°) over and
nil under tolerance; for 2/3 turn or more, one eighth of a turn (45°) over and nil
under tolerance.
2. The bolt tension achieved with the amount of nut rotation specified in Table
24 will be at least equal to the minimum bolt tension specified in Table 25.
3. Nut rotation is the rotation relative to the bolt, regardless of the component
turned.
4. Nut rotations specified are only applicable to connections in which all
material within the grip of bolt is steel.
5. No research has been performed to establish the turn-of-nut procedure for
bolt lengths exceeding 12 diameters. Therefore, the required rotation should
be determined by actual test in a suitable tension measuring device which
simulates conditions of solidly fitted steel.
that the manufacturer’s specified and direct tension indicators were
tightening procedure has been not installed some method for
followed and that the development subsequent checking of bolt
of the minimum bolt tension is tension is sometimes required by
indicated by the tension indicating the inspection engineer.
device.
Note that tightening by torque
a) Direct Tension Indicators control was found to be reliable in
practice, not least because few
Inspect according to the
erectors purchased the equipment
manufacturer’s recommendations.
necessary to perform the
In the event that Blacks Fasteners
procedure for calibration of the
CoronetR Load Indicators have
bolts/wrench combinations which
been used, these recommendations
are to be used in the structure, and
are set out on page 51.
was deleted from the SAA High
(4) Inspection of Bolt Strength Bolting Code. Logically, it
Tension using a Torque is also not reliable for inspection of
Wrench the correct tension in bolts either.

a) In the event that the specified The procedure given in the


procedure for part-turn tightening following is suitable for detecting
ie. method verification and gross under-tension, eg. bolts
application of match marking for which have been “snugged” only,
later inspection, was not followed but cannot be relied upon to
distinguish bolts which although

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32
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Structural Joints
Bolting Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB
tightened well beyond snug may Bolt Tension
not have been fully tensioned. Information for
NOTE: Setting Inspection
The principal factors which limit Wrenches
the reliability of the method are:- (4.1) Calibration
a) the equivalence of thread and Inspection Wrench. The
bearing face surface condition inspection wrench may be either a
and lubrication of the hand-operated or adjustable
calibration samples and job power-operated wrench. It should
bolts. be calibrated at least once per shift
b) the occurrence of galling or more frequently if the need to
during tightening. closely simulate the conditions of
the bolts in the structure so
c) the time lapse between demands.
tensioning and inspection
especially as regards corrosion The torque value determined
which may have occurred. during the calibration may not be
transferred to another wrench.
It is emphasised that correct
tensioning can only be assured The point being that there is no
by– “inspection torque” for each size
of bolt!
1. Using the correct bolts and
nuts (Blacks AS 1252 High Each lot of bolts and each tool
Strength Structural) to be deployed must be
individually calibrated at the
2. Verifying proper snugging of time of tightening/inspection.
all bolts in the joint. (This
should be the time of first Adequately inspection with a
inspection - joint should be torque wrench is virtually
solid) impossible because it is practically
impossible to obtain samples for
3. Applying match marks - the calibration procedure which
desirably permanent, or truly represent the bolts to be
verifying about 1-2mm gap at inspected. This is illustrated by fig.
Coronet load indicator. The 15 which shows the torque-
load indicator inherently tension calibration of three M24
provides a permanent witness galvanised bolt assemblies
of correct tensioning. submitted from a site by a party
4. Witnessing that the tooling required to apply torque-wrench
available can easily achieve the inspection.
required part-turn or crush Samples. At least three bolts,
the load indicator to the desirably of the same size
specified average gap. (minimum length may have to be
selected to suit the calibration
device) and conditions as those

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33
Tightening of Structural Joints F A S T E N E R S

Bolting Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB


under inspection should be placed applying, in the tensioning
individually in a calibration device direction, the inspection wrench
capable of indicating bolt tension. and its job inspection torque to
such proportion of the bolts in the
IMPORTANT: Without this
structure as the supervising
calibrating device torque
engineer prescribes.
wrench inspection to the code is
not possible! NOTE For guidance it is suggested
that a suitable sample size would
A hardened washer should be
be 10 percent of the bolts but not
placed under the part turned.
less than two bolts in each
Each calibration specimen should connection are to be inspected.
be tensioned in the calibrating
(4.3) Action
device by any convenient means
to the minimum tension shown Where no nut or bolt is turned by
for that diameter in Table 25. The the job inspection torque, the
inspection wrench then should be connection should be accepted as
applied to the tensioned bolt and properly tensioned. Where any nut
the torque necessary to turn the or bolt head is turned by the
nut or bolt head 5 degrees application of the job inspection
(approximately 25mm at 300mm torque, this torque should then be
radius) in the tensioning direction applied to all other bolts in the
should be determined. The average connection and all bolts whose
torque measured in the tests of at nut or head is turned by the job
least three bolts should be taken as inspection torque should be
the job inspection torque. tensioned and re-inspected.
Alternatively, the fabricator or
(4.2) Inspection
erector at is option, may retention
Bolts represented by the sample all of the bolts in the connection
prescribed in Paragraph B2 which and then resubmit the connection
have been tensioned in the for inspection.
structure should be inspected by

Table 25
Bolt Tension Information for
Setting Inspection Wrenches

Bolt Tension
Nominal
bolt Minimum
diameter
kN Kips ton f
M16 95 21.3 9.5
M20 145 32.6 14.55
M24 210 48.6 21.7
M30 335 77.1 34.4
M36 490 112.9 50.3

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34
F A S T E N E R S Tightening of Structural Joints
Bolting Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB

Figure 15
This data, established on specimens returned from a site where inspection was
required by the responsible Engineer, illustrates the difficulty of applying torque
inspection to establish the correct tensioning of Bolting Categories 8.8TF/8.8TB
connections.
The plotted points show tension against the more consistent dynamic friction (nut
in motion) torque rather than the torque to overcome static friction of a stationary
nut as in the procedure in the Australian Structural Steel Code. Either way the
calibration torque is determined on freshly tensioned assemblies which may or
may not be what is to be inspected.
The first point for the M24 x 100 removed from the structure is plotted twice as the
wrench ran out of travel before reaching the 270 Nm set point the first time.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

35
Structural Design Using F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Bolts
AS 1111 ISO metric hexagon
commercial bolts and
screws.
AS 1112 ISO metric hexagon
nuts, including thin nuts,
slotted nuts and castle
nuts.
Acknowledgement: The following AS 1252 High strength steel bolts
summary of design procedures to AS with associated nuts and
4100 - 1990 is by Arun Syam and
Arthur Firkins of AISC - Technical washers for structural
Services. engineering.

The two basic types of metric bolt AS 1275 Metric screw threads for
used in structural engineering in fasteners.
Australia are: AS 1559 Fasteners – Bolts, nuts
• commercial bolts to AS and washers for tower
1111 (Strength Grade 4.6) construction.

• high strength structural


bolts to AS 1252 (Strength References
Grade 8.8)
Further design guidance is
The design provisions for available in the following
structural bolts are contained in publications by the Australian
Australian Standard 4100 - 1990: Institute of Steel
Steel Structures. This standard, in Construction (AISC):
limit states design format,
superseded AS 1250 - 1981 which [1] Design Capacity Tables for
was in a working stress format. AS Structural Steel, 1st Edition, 1991.
4100 - 1990 also incorporates the [2] Bolting of Steel Structures, 3rd
design and installation clauses of Edition, 1991.
high strength bolts from AS 1511 -
1984: High Strength Bolting Code - [3] Design of Structural Connections,
which it also superseded. 4th Edition, 1991.
[4] Economical Structural Steelwork,
3rd Edition ,1991.
Australian Material
Standards
Bolting Categories
The relevant material standards
referenced by AS 4100 – 1990 are The strength of bolts is normally
the current editions: specified in terms of the tensile
strength of the threaded fastener.
AS 1110 ISO metric hexagon
As a consequence, grades of bolts
precision bolts and
are identified in the following
screws.
manner:

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

36
F A S T E N E R S Structural Design Using
Blacks Bolts
commercial bolts of Strength
Grade 4.6 conforming to AS 1111,
tightened using a standard wrench
to a 'snug-tight' condition.
AS 4100-1990 describes 'snug-
tight' as "the tightness attained by
a few impacts of an impact wrench
Grade X.Y or by the full effort of a person
(eg Grade 4.6 or Grade 8.8 using a standard podger spanner".
The aim of this installation is to
where achieve a level of tightness so that
all plies in a joint are in full
X – is one hundredth of the
contact. It is a final mode of bolt
nominal strength (MPa)
tightening for 4.6/S and 8.8/S
Y – is one tenth of the ratio bolting categories, and the first step
between nominal yield stress in full tensioning to 8.8/TF and
and nominal tensile strength 8.8/TB bolting categories – see
expressed as a percentage. below.

A standard bolting category Category 8.8/S refers to any bolt


identification system has been of Strength Grade 8.8 tightened to
adopted in AS 4100-1990. These a 'snug-tight' condition as
are: described above. These bolts are
used as a higher grade commercial
• snug tightened (applies to bolt to increase the capacity of
commercial and high strength certain connection types.
structural bolts) designated
4.6/S and 8.8/s respectively; Categories 8.8/TF and 8.8/TB (or
8.8/T when referring to both bolt
• fully tensioned friction type types) refer specifically to high
(high strength structural bolts strength structural bolts of
only) – designated 8.8/TF; Strength Grade 8.8 conforming as
• fully tensioned, bearing type AS 1252 fully tensioned in a controlled
(high strength structural bolts manner to the requirements of AS 4100-
only) – designated 8.8/TB; 1990. The benefit of this bolting
category is the increase in
The system of category designation performance of the bolted joint in
identifies the bolt being used by using its the serviceability limit state (ie
strength grade designation (4.6 or 8.8) limited joint slip), though for a
and identifies the installation procedure penalty of installed cost – see Refs
by a supplementary letter (S–snug; T–full [2] and [4] above-mentioned. It is
tensioning). For 8.8/T categories, the type recommended that 8.8/TF category
of joint is identified by an additional be used only in rigid joints where
letter (F–friction-type joint; B–bearing a no-slip joint is essential.
type joint.
See Table 26 for a summary of the
Category 4.6/S refers to above types and bolting categories.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

37
Structural Design Using F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Bolts
Minimum Design
Actions on Bolted
Connections as
AS 4100-1990
Minimum design actions on
connections must be considered
Modes of Force and these are set out in Clause
Transfer 9.1.4 of AS 4100-1990. Also, bolts
which are required to carry a
In the design of individual bolts in design tensile force must be
bolted structural connections, proportioned to resist any
there are three fundamental modes additional tensile force due to
of force transfer to be considered. prying action.
These are:
a) Shear/bearing mode
where the forces are
perpendicular to the bolt axis Design Procedure to
and are transferred by shear AS 4100-1990
and bearing on the bolt and
AS 4100-1990 uses the limit states
bearing on the connected plies
design method in the design,
(see Fig 16). Relevant bolting
fabrication, erection and
categories are 4.6/S, 8.8/S and
modification of steel work in
8.8/TB;
structures. For a description of
b) Friction mode, which is 'limit states' reference should be
similar to the shear/bearing made to Ref [1] above. In limit
mode in that forces to be states design the following
transferred are perpendicular fundamental inequality must be
to the bolt axis. However, the satisfied.
transfer of forces does not rely
on shear and bearing but is S* ≤ ø Ru
dependant upon the frictional
resistance of the mating where
surfaces (see Fig 17). The
S* = design action effect (ie design
relevant bolting category is
shear load and/or design
8.8/TF;
tension load) on the bolt
c) Axial tension mode, when
the forces to be transferred are Ru = nominal capacity of the bolt
parallel to the bolt axis (see Fig
18). All bolting categories may ø = capacity factor (from Table
apply to this. 28, 29 of AS 4100)

These modes of force transfer may This inequality states the design
occur independently or with one action effect (S*) must be less
another. than or equal to the design

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

38
F A S T E N E R S Structural Design Using
Blacks Bolts
capacity of the bolt (øRu) for Vf = nominal shear capacity of a
the design action considered. The bolt
nominal capacity of the bolt is
Shear strengths obtained from
given in AS 4100-1990. It should
research have shown that, for
be noted that the design action
bolts in shear, the average shear
effect (S*) is calculated from an
strength of the bolt was 62% of
acceptable form of analysis using
the tensile strength (fuf). The shear
the factored limit state load as set
strength of a bolt is directly
out in AS 1170-1989: Minimum
proportional to the shear area
Design Loads on Structures
available, this being the core area
(known as the SAA Loading Code).
(Ac) when considering the
In bolting design there are three threaded part of the bolt or the
limit states that have to be shank area (Ao) when considering
considered. They are: the unthreaded part. Therefore, in
AS 4100-1990 the nominal shear
i) strength limit state; capacity of a bolt (Vf) is given by:
ii) serviceability limit state; Vf = 0.62fufkr(nnAc + nxAo)
iii) fatigue limit state. where
fuf = minimum tensile strength of
STRENGTH LIMIT the bolt (see Table 26)
STATE kr = reduction factor to account
In AS 4100-1990 the strength limit for the length of a bolted lap
state design provisions which connection – Lj (see Table
apply for static load applications 29). For all other, kr=1.0
are found in Clause 9.3.2. This nn = number of shear planes with
applies for all the commonly used threads intercepting the
bolting categories of 4.6/S, 8.8/S, shear plane
8.8/TB and 8.8/TF.
Ac = minor (core) diameter area of
the bolt as defined in
Bolt in Shear – AS 1275
Strength Limit State nx = number of shear planes
without threads intercepting
The following inequality must be
the shear plane
satisfied for a bolt subjected to the
design shear force (V*f ) for strength Ao = nominal plain shank area of
limit state: the bolt
V*f ≤ ø Vf See Table 27 (Grade 4.6) and Table
28 (Grade 8.8) for listings of bolt
where
design shear capacity – strength
ø = 0.8 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100- limit state (øVfn and ø Vfx) – for the
1990) commonly used structural bolts.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

39
Structural Design Using F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Bolts
Note: In Tables 27 and 28 –
øVfn = ø0.62fufAc for threads
included in single shear plane,
and øVfx = ø0.62fufAo for threads
excluded from single shear plane.

Bolt in Tension – Bolt Subject to


Strength Limit State Combined Shear and
Tension – Strength
The following inequality must be Limit State
satisfied for a bolt subjected to a
design tension force (N*tf) for For bolts subject to simultaneous
strength limit state: shear and tension forces, tests have
shown that the following elliptical
N*tf ≤ ø Ntf interaction relationship applies:

where V*f/øVf)2 = (N*tf/øNtf)2 ≤ 1.0


where V*f, Vf, N*tf, Ntf and ø are
ø = 0.8 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100- described above.
1990) See Fig 19 (Grade 4.6) and Fig 20
Ntf = nominal tension capacity of (Grade 8.8) for a plot of the shear
a bolt = Asfuf tension interaction relationship –
strength limit state – for the
commonly used structural bolts.
and
As = tensile stress area of a bolt as
specified in AS 1275 Ply in Bearing –
Strength Limit State
fuf = minimum tensile strength of
the bolt (see Table 26) Design provisions for a ply loaded
by a bolt in bearing are found in
Clause 9.3.2.4 of AS 4100-1990.
See Table 27 (Grade 4.6) and Table
This considers that for a ply
28 (Grade 8.8) for the listings of
subject to a design bearing force
bolt design tensions capacity –
(V*b) due to a bolt in shear, the
strength limit state (øNtf) – for the
following must be satisfied:
commonly used structural bolts.
V*b≤øVb
Bolts that are fully tensioned have,
for design purposes, no reduction where
in nominal tension capacity (see
Ref [2] above. ø = 0.9 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100-
1990)

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40
F A S T E N E R S Structural Design Using
Blacks Bolts
Vb = nominal bearing capacity of
a ply
Vb is calculated from the lesser of:
Vb = design bearing capacity due
to ply local bearing failure
= 3.2dftpfup

Assessment of the
and
Strength of a Bolt
Vb = design bearing capacity due Group
to plate tearout
Depending on whether loading is
= aetpfup in-plane, out-of-plane and also if
a couple, shear or both act on the
where bolt group, Clause 9.4 of AS 4100-
1990 should be consulted for the
df = diameter of the bolt design of actions on individual or
tp = thickness of the ply critically loaded bolts.

fup = tensile strength of the ply


SERVICEABILITY
ae = minimum distance from the
edge of a hole to the edge of LIMIT STATE
a ply, measured in the direct The use of a bolted connection
of the component of a force, which does not slip or has limited
plus half the bolt diameter. slip under serviceability loads
The edge of a ply can include may be advisable under certain
the edge of an adjacent bolt conditions. This type of connection
hole. is known as a friction-type joint
and is identified as 8.8/TF bolting
For Grade 4.6 bolting category, for category. In AS 4100-1990 the
all reasonable combinations of ply serviceability limit state design
thickness, bolt diameter and end provisions are found in Clause
distance, the design capacity for 9.3.3. The strength limit state, as
ply in bearing (øVb) exceeds both mentioned above, should be
cases of threads included in and assessed separately.
excluded from the shear plane
(ie øVf as described above for the
bolt in shear – strength limit state). Bolt in Shear –
For the 8.8/S, and 8.8/TB and
Serviceability Limit
8.8/TF bolting categories see Table State
28 for listings of øVb for plate
The following inequality must be
tearout and ply local bearing
satisfied for a bolt subjected only
failure. For further details see Ref
to a design shear force (V*sf) in the
[1], [2] and [3] above.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

41
Structural Design Using F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Bolts
plane of the interfaces for
serviceability limit state:
V*sf ≤ ø Vsf
where
ø = 0.7 (Clause 3.5.5 of AS 4100-
1990)
Vsf = nominal shear capacity of Often steel members are painted or
bolt, for a friction-type galvanised and it is important to
connection know what influence this may
= µneiNtikh have on the slip factor. Typical
values of the slip factor for various
where surface preparations are given in
Table 31.
µ = slip factor
See Table 32 for the listings of bolt
= 0.35 for clean as-rolled
design shear capacity –
surfaces or determined by
serviceability limit state (øVsf) – for
testing in accordance with
the commonly used structural
Appendix J of AS 4100-1990
bolts.
nei = number of effective
interfaces
Nti = minimum bolt tension at Bolt in Tension –
installation as specified in Serviceability Limit
Clause 15.2.5.1 of AS 4100-
State
1990 (see Table 30)
kh = factor for different hole types Not relevant in this limit state.
as specified in Clause 14.3.5.2 Tension loadings for serviceability
of AS 4100-1990 limit state are only considered
when interacting with shear loads
= 1.0 for standard holes at serviceability limit state – see
= 0.85 for short slotted and below.
oversize holes
= 0.70 for long slotted holes
Bolt Subject to
The condition of the faying (or Combined Shear and
contact) surfaces is of prime
importance, since the slip factor (µ)
Tension –
achieved in practice is directly related to Serviceability Limit
the condition of the faying surfaces. The State
slip factor 0.35 given for design
purposes in AS 4100-1990 For bolts subject simultaneously to
assumes faying surfaces of bare shear and tension forces, the
steel to bare steel – ie in the "as- following linear interaction
rolled condition". relationship applies:

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

42
F A S T E N E R S Structural Design Using
Blacks Bolts
corresponds to the fatigue strength
at 2 x 106 cycles on the appropriate
S-N curves, a different S-N curve
being used for each detail category.

For bolts, AS 4100-1990 provides


two detail categories, namely

Detail category 100 bolts in


shear, 8.8/TB bolting category
where shear stress must be
calculated on the core areas, Ac.

(V*sf /øVsf)2 + (N*tf /øNtf)2 ≤ 1.0 Detail category 36 bolts in


tension, tensile stress being
where V*sf, Vsf and ø are described calculated on the tensile stress area,
above. For the tension loads: As. Additional tension forces due
to prying must be taken into
N*tf = design tension force on the
account.
bolt
Ntf = nominal tension capacity of
the bolt
Bolt in Shear –
= Nti
Fatigue Limit State
= the minimum bolt tension at
For shear stress, the uncorrected
installation as specified in
fatigue strength (ff) for detail
Clause 15.2.5.1 of AS 4100-
category 100 subject to nsc
1990 (see Table 30)
(number of stress cycles) of
See Fig 21 for a plot of the shear loading or stress is given by
tension interaction relationship –
f 5f = (105 x 2 x 106)/nsc
serviceability limit state – for the
when nsc ≤ 108
commonly used structural bolts.
This relationship is shown in
Fig 22.
FATIGUE LIMIT STATE
For bolts subject to shear force, the
It is not possible to review here the fatigue provisions of AS 4100-1990
fatigue provisions of AS 4100-1990 (Section 11) gives no guidance for
Section 11. Reference should be 4.6/S and 8.8/S bolting categories.
made to AS 4100 Supplement 1-1990: Only 8.8/TF and 8.8/TB are
Steel Structures – Commentary. In recommended. As no slip occurs
summary, a detail category is with category 8.8/TF, no separate
assigned to bolted connections design for fatigue of the bolts is
subject to normal stress (tension) required. AS 4100-1990 does
and shear stress. This detail contain design fatigue provisions
category is a number which for 8.8/TB bolting category.

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43
Structural Design Using F A S T E N E R S

Blacks Bolts
Bolt in Tension – The following reference contains a
Fatigue Limit State review of research on fatigue in
bolted connections: Guide to Design
For normal stress (tension), the Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints,
uncorrected fatigue strength (ff) for Kulak, GL Fisher, JW and Struik,
detail category 36 subject to nsc JHA, 2nd Edition, John Wiley 1987.
cycles of loading or stress is given
by
Design Detail for Bolts
f 3f = (363 x 2 106)/nsc
when nsc ≤ 5 x 106 Clause 9.6 of AS 4100-1990 gives
5
the provisions for design details of
f = (365 x 108)/nsc
f bolts. This includes minimum
when 5 x 106 < nsc ≤108
pitch, minimum edge distance,
This relationship is shown in maximum pitch, and maximum
Fig 22. edge distance. Listings of minimum
pitch between centres of fastener
For bolts subject to tension force, holes, and minimum edge distance
bolting categories 4.6/S and 8.8/S from the centre of a fastener to the
are not recommended and 8.8/TF edge of a plate or the flange of
and 8.8/TB are recommended. rolled section is given in Table
33(a) and 33(b) respectively. Note
that minimum edge distance
Bolt Subject to criteria must also be observed
Combined Shear and from Clause 9.3.2.4 of AS 4100-
Tension – Fatigue 1990.
Limit State
AS 4100-1990 does not contain
design provisions for these bolts
subject to combined shear and
tension under fatigue conditions.

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44
F A S T E N E R S Blacks Structural Bolts
Table 26 Bolt Types and Bolting Categories
Details of bolt used
Minimum Minimum
Bolting Tensile Yield
Category Strength Strength Strength Australian Method of
Grade (MPa) (MPa) Name Standard Tensioning Remarks
4.6/S 4.6 400 240 Commercial AS 1111 Use Snug tightened.
Least costly and most
commonly available
4.6 Grade bolt.
8.8/S 8.8 830 660 High AS 1252 Bolts used are Snug
Strength tightened. The high
Structural strength structural has a
large bolt head and nut
because it is designed to
withstand full tensioning
(see 8.8T category
description). However, it
can also be used in a
snug tight condition.
8.8/TF 8.8 830 660 High AS 1252 In both applications bolts
Strength are fully Tensioned to
Structural the requirements of
Bolt – Fully AS4100. Cost of tension-
8.8/T Tensioned ing is an important con-
Friction sideration in the use of
Type Joint these bolting categories.
8.8/TB 8.8 830 660 High
Strength
Structural
Bolt – Fully
Tensioned
Bearing
Type Joint

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45
Blacks Structural Bolts F A S T E N E R S

Table 27 Design Shear and Tension Capacities – Strength Limit State


Commercial Bolts 4.6/S Bolting Category
(fuf = 400 MPa) Grade 4.6

Shear Values (Single Shear)


Bolt Axial Threads included Threads excluded
Size Tension in Shear Plane – N from Shear Plane – X
ø Ntf ø Vfn ø Vfx
kN kN kN
M12 27.0 15.1 22.4
M16 50.2 28.6 39.9
M20 78.4 44.6 62.3
M24 113 64.3 89.7
M30 180 103 140
M36 261 151 202
ø = 0.8
ø = 0.8
4.6N/S 4.6X/S

NOTE 1.
Bearing/Plate Tearout Design Capacity. For all reasonable combinations of ply
thickness, bolt diameter and end distance, the design capacity for a ply in
bearing (ØVb) exceeds both ØVfn and ØVfx.

Table 28 Design Shear and Tension Capacities – Strength Limit State


High Strength Structural Bolts
8.8/S 8.8/TB 8.8/TF Bolting Categories
(fuf = 400 MPa) Grade 8.8
Single Shear Plate Tearout Bearing
Bolt Axial Threads Threads
Size Tension included excluded øVb for tp & ae of: øVb for tpf
in from
Shear Shear
Plane Plane
øNtf øVfn øVfx tp = 6 tp = 8 tp = 10 tp = 12
6 8 10
kN kN kN 35 40 45 35 40 45 35 40 45 35 40 45
M16 104 59.3 82.7 113 151 189
M20 163 92.6 129 79 89 100 103 118 133 129 148 166 155 177 199 142 189 236
M24 234 133 186 170 227 283
M30 373 214 291 213 283 354
ae < aemin = 1.5 df
ø = 0.8 ø = 0.9 ø = 0.9
ø = 0.8
8.8N/S 8.8X/S fup = 410 MPa fup=410MPa

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46
F A S T E N E R S Blacks Structural Bolts
Table 29 Reduction factor for lap connections (kr)

Length Lj < 300 300 ≤ Lj ≤ 1300 Lj > 1300


kr 1.0 1.075 – Lj/4000 0.75

Lj = length of a bolted lap splice connection.

Table 30 Minimum bolt tension at Table 31 Summary of Slip Factors


installation
Surface Average
Nominal Minimum Bolt Treatment Slip Factor
Diameter of Tension
Uncoated
Bolt kN
Clean as-rolled 0.35
M16 95 Flame cleaned 0.48
M20 145 Abrasive blasted 0.53

M24 210 Painted


Red oxide zinc chromate 0.11
M30 335 Inorganic zinc silicate 0.50
M36 490 Hot-dip Galvanised
NOTE: The minimum bolt tensions Clean as-galvanised 0.18
given in this Table are approximately Lightly abrasive blasted 0.30-0.40
equivalent to the minimum proof loads
given in AS 1252.

Table 32 Design Shear Capacity – Serviceability Limit State


High Strength Structural Bolts 8.8/TF Bolting Category
(µ = 0.35 nei = 1 ø = 0.7) Grade 8.8

Bolt Bolt Tension Design Capacity in Shear (øVsf) for


Size at Installation kh = 1 kh = 0.85 kh = 0.7
kN kN kN kN
M16 95 23.3 19.8 16.3
M20 145 35.5 30.2 24.9
M24 210 51.5 43.7 36.0
M30 335 82.1 69.8 57.5

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47
Blacks Structural Bolts F A S T E N E R S

Table 33a Minimum Pitch Table 33b Minimum Edge Distance (Clause
between Centres of Fastener 9.6.2 of AS 4100-1990)
Holes (Clause 9.6.1 of AS 4100- Sheared or Rolled Plate;
1990) Hand Flame Machine Rolled Edge
Bolt Cut Edge Flame Cut of a Rolled
Minimum distance Size Sawn or Section
Bolt between centres of Planed Edge
size fastener holes mm (mm) (mm) (mm)
M12 30 M12 21 18 15
M16 40 M16 28 24 20
M20 50 M20 35 30 25
M24 60 M24 42 36 30
M30 75 M30 53 45 38
M36 90 M36 63 54 45
NOTE: The edge distance may also be
NOTE: The edge distance may affected by Clause 9.3.2.4 of AS 4100-1990
also be affected by Clause 9.3.2.4
of AS 4100-1990

Blacks High Strength


Structural Bolts
Property Class 8.8
Thread ISO Metric Coarse
Pitch Series
Dimensions to AS 1252

Table 34
Bolt Dimensions Nut Dimensions
Pitch Width Width Width Thickness
Size of Body Dia. Across Across Head Across
Thread Flats Corners Thickness Flats
D D1 s e k s m
Max. Min. Max. Min. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
M16 2.0 16.70 15.30 27 26.16 29.56 10.75 9.25 27 26.16 17.1 16.0
M20 2.5 20.84 19.16 32 31.00 35.03 13.90 12.10 32 31.00 21.3 20.0
M24 3.0 24.84 23.16 41 40.00 45.20 15.90 14.10 41 40.00 25.3 24.0
M30 3.5 30.84 29.16 50 49.00 55.37 19.75 17.65 50 49.00 31.3 30.0
M36 4.0 37.00 35.00 60 58.80 66.44 23.55 21.45 60 58.80 37.6 36.0

All dimensions in millimetres.

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48
F A S T E N E R S Blacks High Strength
Structural Bolts
(Flat Round Washers)

Standard Thread Length for Bolts

Nominal Length of Bolt I Nominal Length of Thread b


Up to and including 125mm 2D + 6mm
Over 125 up to and including 200mm 2D + 12mm
Over 200mm 2D + 25mm

Table 35 Dimensions of Flat Round Structural Washers

Nominal Inside Diameter Outside Diameter Thickness


Diameter D1 D2 A
of Bolt Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
M16 18.43 18.0 34.0 32.4 4.60 3.1
M20 22.52 22.0 39.0 37.4 4.60 3.1
M24 26.52 26.0 50.0 48.4 4.60 3.4
M30 33.62 33.0 60.0 58.1 4.60 3.4
M36 39.62 39.0 72.0 70.1 4.60 34

All dimensions in millimetres.

Blacks High Strength


Structural Bolts
(Square Taper Washers)

Table 36 Dimensions of Square Taper Washers

Inside Diameter Width Across Mean Thickness


Nominal Flats
Diameter D1 D2 A
of Bolt Max. Min. Nominal 5° Taper 8° Taper
M16 18.43 18.0 31.75 4.76 6.35
M20 22.52 22.0 38.10 4.76 6.35
M24 26.52 26.0 44.45 4.76 6.35

All dimensions in millimetres.

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49
Coronet Load Indicators F A S T E N E R S

For direct tension indication


tightening of Blacks Fasteners
High Strength Structural Bolts
AS 1252.

Coronet Load indicators are nut using an extra hard round


designed for use with Blacks high washer under the nut and
strength structural bolts and they protrusions bear against this
provide a simple and accurate aid washer (Figure 29). In tightening
to tightening and inspection. They with Load Indicators it is still
can be supplied with galvanised required that this tightening be
coating for good corrosion carried out in two stages. First
resistance. stage involves a preliminary
tightening to a "snug tight"
The Load Indicators are special
condition using a podger spanner
hardened washers carrying 4 to 7
or pneumatic impact wrench. The
protrusions, depending on bolt
object of the preliminary
diameter (Figure 27) and these are
tightening is to draw the mating
assembled with the protrusions
surfaces into effective contact. On
bearing against the under side of
large joints take a second run to
the bolt head, leaving a gap. The
ensure that all the bolts are "snug
nut is then tightened until the
tight". Carry out final tightening by
protrusions are flattened and the
reducing gap between bolt head
gap reduced to that shown in
and load indicator to 0.40mm or
Table 37. The induced bolt tension
less and this can be checked with a
at this average gap will be not less
feeler gauge.
than the minimum specified
tension in Table 38. In applications MOST IMPORTANT: A nut
where it is necessary to rotate the should not be slackened after fully
bolt head rather than the nut in tightening with a Load Indicator. If
tightening, the Coronet Load this is necessary, fit a new Load
Indicator can be fitted under the Indicator for the second tightening.

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50
F A S T E N E R S Coronet Load Indicators
For direct-tension indication
tightening of Blacks Fasteners
High Strength Structural Bolts
AS 1252.

Table 37
Load indicator gaps to give required minimum shank tension

Load Indicator Fitting AS 4100 (1511)


Under bolt head black finish bolts 0.4mm
All plating except galvanised bolts 0.4mm
Galvanised bolts 0.25mm
Under nut with hard flat washer, black and
all flat washer coatings 0.25mm

Table 38
Load indicator gaps to give required minimum shank tension

Nominal Outside Inside Thickness Minimum


Bolt Diameter Diameter A Bolt Tension
Diameter D2 D1 Max. kN
M16 35.45 16.70 4.26 100
M20 41.67 20.84 4.26 150
M24 50.69 24.84 4.26 220
M30 59.59 30.84 4.26 350
M36 80.00 37.50 4.26 515

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51
Unified High Tensile F A S T E N E R S

Hexagon Bolts
Threads, UNC, UNF, Class 2A
Dimensions to ANSI/ASME
B18.2.1
Finished Hexagon Bolts
AS 2465

Table 39

Threads Body Width Head Across Thread


Size per Diameter Across Flats thickness Corners Length
inch A B C T
UNF UNC Max. Min. Nom. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
1/4 28 20 .250 .245 7/16 .438 .428 .163 .150 .505 3/4

5/16 24 18 .3125 .3065 1/2 .500 .489 .211 .195 .577 7/8

3/8 24 16 .3750 .3690 9/16 .562 .551 .243 .226 .650 1


7/16 20 14 .4375 .4305 5/8 .625 .612 .291 .272 .722 11/8
1/2 20 13 .5000 .4930 3/4 .750 .736 .323 .302 .866 11/4
9/16 18 12 .5625 .5545 13/16 .812 .798 .371 .348 .938 13/8
5/8 18 11 .6250 .6170 15/16 .938 .922 .403 .378 1.083 11/2
3/4 16 10 .750 .741 11/8 1.125 1.100 .483 .455 1.299 13/4
7/8 14 9 .875 .866 15/16 1.312 1.285 .563 .531 1.516 2"
1 12 8 1.000 .990 11/2 1.500 1.469 .627 .591 1.732 21/4
11/8 12 7 1.125 1.114 111/16 1.688 1.631 .718 .658 1.949 21/2
11/4 12 7 1.250 1.239 17/8 1.875 1.812 .813 .749 2.165 23/4
11/2 12 6 1.500 1.488 21/4 2.250 2.175 .974 .902 2.598 31/4

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52
F A S T E N E R S Unified Hexagon
Head Set Screws
– High Tensile
Threads, UNC, UNF,
Dimensions to ANSI/ASME
B18.2.1 AS 2465

Table 40

Threads Head Head Head Radius


Size per Across Flats Depth Across Corners Under Head
inch A B C R
UNF UNC Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
1/4 28 20 .438 .428 .163 .150 .505 .488 .025 .015
5/16 24 18 .500 .489 .211 .195 .577 .557 .025 .015
3/8 24 16 .562 .551 .243 .226 .650 .628 .025 .015
7/16 20 14 .625 .612 .291 .272 .722 .698 .025 .015

NOTE: Set Screws shall be threaded to within 21/2 pitches of the underside of the
head.

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53
Metric Hexagon Precision F A S T E N E R S

Bolts & Set Screws

Table 41

Pitch Body Width Across Head Across


Size of Diameter Flats Thickness Corners
Thread Ds s k e
D Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Min.
M5 0.8 5.0 4.82 8.0 7.78 3.65 3.35 8.79
M6 1.0 6.0 5.82 10.0 9.78 4.15 3.85 11.06
M8 1.25 8.0 7.78 13.0 12.73 5.45 5.15 14.38
M10 1.5 10.0 9.78 16.0 15.73 6.58 6.22 17.77
M12 1.75 12.0 11.73 18.0 17.73 7.68 7.32 20.03
M16 2.0 16.0 15.73 24.0 23.67 10.18 9.82 26.75
M20 2.5 20.0 19.67 30.0 29.67 12.72 12.28 33.53
M24 3.0 24.0 23.67 36.0 35.38 15.22 14.78 39.98

All dimensions in millimetres.

Table 42 Standard thread lengths for bolts.


Screws are threaded to head.

Nominal Length of Bolt I Minimum Length of Thread b


Up to and including 125mm 2D + 6mm
Over 125 up to and including 200mm 2D + 12mm
Over 200mm 2D + 25mm

Where D = Nominal diameter in millimetres


Note: Property Classes 5.8 and 10.9 are dimensionally the same as Property
Class 8.8

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54
F A S T E N E R S Metric Hexagon Commercial
Bolts & Set Screws
Thread ISO Metric Coarse Pitch
Series, Thread Class 8g,
Property Class 8.8
Dimensions to AS 1111

Table 43

Pitch Body Diameter Width Across Head Across


Size of (On Bolts) Flats Thickness Corners
Thread Ds s k e
D Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Min.
M6 1.0 6.48 5.52 10.0 9.64 4.38 3.62 10.89
M8 1.25 8.58 7.42 13.0 12.57 5.68 4.92 14.20
M10 1.5 10.58 9.42 16.0 15.57 6.85 5.95 17.59
M12 1.75 12.70 11.30 18.0 17.57 7.95 7.05 19.85
M16 2.0 16.70 15.30 24.0 23.16 10.75 9.25 26.17
M20 2.5 20.84 19.16 30.0 29.16 13.40 11.60 32.95
M24 3.0 24.84 23.16 36.0 35.00 15.90 14.10 39.55
M30 3.5 30.84 29.16 46.0 45.00 19.75 17.65 50.85
M36 4.0 37.00 35.00 55.0 53.80 23.55 21.45 60.79

All dimensions in millimetres.

Table 44 Standard thread lengths for bolts. Screws are threaded to head

Nominal Length of Bolt I Minimum Length of Thread b


Up to and including 125mm 2D + 6
Over 125mm up to and including 200mm 2D + 12
Over 200mm 2D + 25

Where D = Nominal diameter in millimetres


For nut dimensions refer to page 14

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55
Hexagon Head Bolts F A S T E N E R S

Threads BSW Free Class


Dimensions to AS 2451

Table 45

Threads Body Head Head Across Radius


Size per Diameter Across Flats Depth Corners Under Head
inch s k e R
Max. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Max. Min.
1/4 20 .280 .445 .435 .186 .166 .51 .031 .021
5/16 18 .342 .525 .515 .228 .208 .61 .031 .021
3/8 16 .405 .600 .585 .270 .250 .69 .031 .021
7/16 14 .468 .710 .695 .312 .292 .82 .031 .021
1/2 12 .530 .820 .800 .363 .333 .95 .031 .021
5/8 11 .665 1.010 .985 .447 .417 1.17 .046 .036
3/4 10 .790 1.200 1.175 .530 .500 1.39 .046 .036
7/8 9 .915 1.300 1.270 .623 .583 1.50 .062 .052
1 8 1.040 1.480 1.450 .706 .666 1.71 .062 .052

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56
F A S T E N E R S Hexagon Head Set Screws
Threads BSW Free Class
Dimensions to AS 2451

Table 46

Threads Head Head Head Radius


Size per Across Flats Depth Across Under Head
inch Corners
s k e
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Min.
1/4 20 .445 .435 .186 .166 .51 .031 .021
5/16 18 .525 .515 .228 .208 .61 .031 .021
3/8 16 .600 .585 .270 .250 .69 .031 .021
7/16 14 .710 .695 .312 .292 .82 .031 .021
1/2 12 .820 .800 .363 .333 .95 .031 .021
5/8 11 1.010 .985 .447 .417 1.17 .046 .036
3/4 10 1.200 1.175 .530 .500 1.39 .046 .036
7/8 9 1.300 1.270 .623 .583 1.50 .062 .052
1 8 1.480 1.450 .706 .666 1.71 .062 .052

NOTE: Set screws shall be threaded to within 21/2 pitches of the underside of the
head.

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57
Metric Cup Head F A S T E N E R S

Square Neck Bolts


Threads ISO Metric Coarse
Pitch Series
Dimensions to AS 1390

Table 47 Metric Series Cup Square Bolts

Nom. Pitch Diameter of Body Across


Size of Reduced Full Flats of Length Head Head
and Thread Body Body Square of Square Diameter Thickness
Thread D1 D2 Neck Neck
Dia. V f D3 k
Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
M6 1.0 5.2 6.48 5.52 6.48 5.52 3.6 3.0 13.5 12.4 3.6 3.0
M8 1.25 7.0 8.58 7.42 8.58 7.42 4.8 4.0 18.0 16.9 4.8 4.0
M10 1.50 8.8 10.58 9.42 10.58 9.42 5.8 5.0 22.5 21.2 5.8 5.0
M12 1.75 10.6 12.70 11.30 12.70 11.30 6.8 6.0 27.0 25.7 6.8 6.0
M16 2.0 14.5 16.70 15.30 16.70 15.30 8.9 8.0 36.0 34.4 8.9 8.0
M20 2.5 18.1 20.84 19.16 20.84 19.16 10.9 10.0 45.0 43.4 10.9 10.0

For nut dimensions refer to page 14

Standard Thread Length for Bolts

Nominal Length of Bolt / Minimum Length of Thread b


M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Up to and including 125mm 16 18 22 26 30 38 46 54
Over 125 up to and including 200mm 22 24 28 32 36 44 52 60
Over 200mm – – 41 45 49 57 65 73

Maximum thread length shall not exceed 80mm


Mechanical Properties:
Tensile Strength = 400 MPa (N/mm2) minimum
= 58,000 lbf/in2 minimum
= 25.9 tonf/in2 minimum

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58
F A S T E N E R S Cup Head Square Neck Bolts
Threads BSW Free Class
Dimensions to AS B108

Table 48

Threads Head Head Depth Width


Size per Diameter Thicknes of Square of Square
inch A B C W
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
3/16 24 .451 .391 .113 .093 .125 .094 .197 .183
1/4 20 .592 .532 .145 .125 .156 .125 .260 .245
5/16 18 .733 .673 .176 .156 .187 .156 .323 .307
3/8 16 .873 .813 .207 .187 .219 .188 .388 .368
7/16 14 1.014 .954 .238 .218 .250 .219 .451 .431
1/2 12 1.155 1.095 .270 .250 .281 .250 .515 .492

For nut dimensions refer to page 14

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59
Coach Screws – Hexagon F A S T E N E R S

Head Metric Series


Dimensions to AS 1393

Table 49 Metric Series Coach Screws

Pitch Body Width Width Head Root Dia.


Nom. of Diameter Across Across Thickness of
Size Thread Flats Corners Thread
D s e k ds
mm Max. Min. Max. Min. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
6 2.5 6.48 5.52 10.0 9.64 10.89 4.38 3.62 4.4 3.7
8 3.0 8.58 7.42 13.0 12.57 14.20 5.88 5.12 5.6 5.0
10 3.5 10.58 9.42 17.0 16.57 18.72 7.45 6.55 7.0 6.2
12 4.0 12.70 11.30 19.0 18.48 20.88 8.45 7.55 8.3 7.5
16 5.0 16.70 11.30 24.0 23.16 26.17 10.45 9.55 12.7 11.3
20 5.0 20.84 19.16 30.0 29.16 32.95 13.90 12.10 15.6 14.2

Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength = 400MPa (N/mm2) minimum
= 58,000 lbf/in2 minimum
= 25.9 tonf/in2 minimum

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60
F A S T E N E R S Elevator Bolts Four Peg
Threads BSW Free Class

Table 51

Size Threads Head Head Pitch Dia. Length Angle


per Diameter Depth of Pegs of Peg Under Head
Inch A B C D E
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
1/4 20 .697 .667 .120 .100 .510 .490 .156 .136 17° 13°
5/16 18 .859 .829 .160 .140 .635 .615 .194 .174 22° 18°
3/8 16 1.077 1.047 .194 .174 .760 .740 .237 .217 24° 20°

Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength = 28 tonf/in2.
Supplied with nut and washer.

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61
Metric Hexagon Nuts F A S T E N E R S

Threads ISO Metric Coarse


Pitch Series. Class 6H.
These nuts are stocked in
Property Class 8 M5 to M16 incl;
Property Class 5 M20-M64 incl.

Table 52

Pitch Width Across Width Across Thickness


Size of Flats Corners Standard Nut Thin Nut
Thread s e m t
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Max. Min.
M5 0.8 8.0 7.78 8.79 4.70 4.40 3.0 2.75
M6 1.0 10.0 9.78 11.05 5.20 4.90 3.6 3.30
M8 1.25 13.0 12.73 14.38 6.80 6.44 4.8 4.50
M10 1.50 16.0 15.73 17.77 8.40 8.04 6.0 5.70
M12 1.75 18.0 17.73 20.03 10.80 10.37 7.2 6.84
M16 2.0 24.0 23.67 26.75 14.80 14.10 9.6 9.02
M20 2.5 30.0 29.16 32.95 18.00 16.90 12.0 11.30
M24 3.0 36.0 35.00 39.55 21.50 20.20 14.4 13.70
M27 3.0 41.0 40.00 45.20 23.80 22.50 16.2 15.50
M30 3.5 46.0 45.00 50.85 25.60 24.30 18.0 17.30
M33 3.5 50.0 49.00 55.37 28.70 27.40 19.8 18.96
M36 4.0 55.0 53.80 60.79 31.00 29.40 21.6 20.76
M39 4.0 60.0 58.10 65.65 33.40 31.80 23.4 22.56
M42 4.5 65.0 63.10 71.30 34.8 33.20 25.2 24.36
M48 5.0 75.0 73.10 82.60 38.8 37.20 28.8 27.96
M56 5.5 85.0 82.80 93.56 45.8 44.20 – –
M64 6.0 95.0 92.80 104.86 52.0 50.10 – –

All dimensions in millimetres.

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62
F A S T E N E R S Hexagon Nuts &
Hexagon Lock Nuts

Threads BSW
Dimensions to AS 2451* up to 15/8"
*Hexagon nuts only

Table 53

Threads Width Across Width Across Thickness


Size per Flats Corners Nuts Lock Nut
inch s e m t
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Max. Min.
3/16 24 .324 .319 .37 .167 .157
1/4 20 .445 .435 .51 .220 .200 .185 .180
5/16 18 .525 .515 .61 .270 .250 .210 .200
3/8 16 .600 .585 .69 .332 .312 .260 .250
7/16 14 .710 .695 .82 .395 .375 .275 .265
1/2 12 .820 .800 .95 .467 .437 .300 .290
9/16 12 .920 .900 1.06 .530 .500 .330 .323
5/8 11 1.010 .985 1.17 .602 .562 .410 .375
3/4 10 1.200 1.175 1.39 .728 .687 .490 .458
7/8 9 1.300 1.270 1.50 .810 .750 .550 .500
1 8 1.480 1.450 1.71 .935 .875 .630 .583
11/8 7 1.670 1.640 1.93 1.060 1.000 .720 .666
11/4 7 1.860 1.815 2.15 1.205 1.125 .810 .750
13/8 6 2.050 2.005 2.37 1.330 1.250 .890 .833
11/2 6 2.220 2.175 2.56 1.455 1.375 .980 .916
15/8 5 2.410 2.365 2.78 1.580 1.500 1.060 1.000
13/4 5 2.580 2.520 2.98 1.625 1.565 1.160 1.083
2 4.5 2.760 2.700 3.19 1.750 1.690 1.250 1.166
21/4 4 3.150 3.090 3.64 1.875 1.815 1.430 1.250
21/2 4 3.550 3.490 4.10 2.125 2.065 1.600 1.416

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63
Unified Hexagon Nuts & F A S T E N E R S

Hexagon Lock Nuts


Threads UNC, UNF, Class 2B
Dimensions to ANSI/ASME B18.2.2
AS 2465

Table 54

Across Across Thickness


Threads Flats Corners Approx Wt.
Dia. per F G Standard H Jam Nut T lbs per 100
Inch Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Std. Jam

1/4 20 UNC
.438 .428 .505 .488 .226 .212 .163 .150 .753 .515
28 UNF

5/16 18 UNC
.500 .489 .577 .557 .273 .258 .195 .180 1.10 .767
24 UNF

3/8 16 UNC
.562 .551 .650 .628 .337 .320 .227 .210 1.60 1.05
24 UNF

7/16 14 UNC
.688 .675 .794 .768 .385 .365 .260 .240 2.84 1.86
20 UNF

1/2 13 UNC
.750 .736 .866 .840 .448 .427 .323 .302 3.75 2.62
20 UNF

9/16 12 UNC
.875 .861 1.010 .982 .496 .473 .324 .301 5.83 3.68
18 UNF

5/8 11 UNC
.938 .922 1.083 1.051 .559 .535 .387 .363 7.33 4.93
18 UNF

3/4 10 UNC
1.125 1.088 1.299 1.240 .665 .617 .446 .398 11.9 7.70
16 UNF

7/8 9 UNC
1.312 1.269 1.516 1.447 .776 .724 .510 .458 19.0 12.0
14 UNF
8 UNC
1 1.500 1.450 1.732 1.653 .887 .831 .575 .519 28.3 17.6
12 UNF

Table 55 Mechanical Properties (Hexgaon Nuts)

Size Range Strength Specifications Thread "Proof Load"


Stress lbf/in2
Up to and including 5/8" SAE Grade 5 UNC 120,000
ASTM: A563 Grade B UNF 109,000
3/4" to 1" inclusive SAE Grade 2 UNC 90,000
ASTM: A563 Grade A UNF 90,000

Nuts to other specifications (eg SAE Grade 8) or SAE Grade 5 in. 3/4 – 11/2" can
be quoted against enquiries.

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64
F A S T E N E R S Nyloc Nuts Metric
Table 56 Dimensions, except those with asterisk, comply to AS 1258

s e h m h m
Pitch Across Across P TYPE T TYPE
Nom. of Flats Corners Nut Thread Nut Thread
Dia. Thread Height Height Height Height
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
M4 0.7 7.00 6.78 8.10 7.66 5.0 2.90 – –
M5 0.8 8.00 7.78 9.20 8.79 6.3 4.0 – –
M6 1.0 10.00 9.78 11.50 11.05 8.0* 5.0 6 4
M8 1.25 13.00 12.73 15.00 14.38 9.5 6.5 8 5.5
M10 1.5 17.00 16.73 19.60 18.90 11.5 8.0 10 6.5
M12 1.75 19.00 18.67 21.90 21.10 14.0 10.0 12 8
M16 2.0 24.00 23.67 27.70 26.75 18.0 13.0 16 10.5
M20 2.5 30.00 29.16 34.60 32.95 22.0 16.0 19.85 9.42
M24 3.0 36.00 35.00 41.60 39.55 28.0 20.2 22.02 11.30
M30 3.5 46.00 45.00 53.10 50.85 36.0 23.30 20.20 14.30
M36 4.0 55.00 53.80 63.50 60.79 43.2 28.30 24.50 17.30
M42* 4.5 65.00* 63.80* 75.10* 72.09* 50.5* 33.20* 28.90* 20.20*
M48* 5.0 75.00* 73.10* 86.60* 82.60* 57.5* 37.20* 32.90* 23.15*

Mechanical Properties:
P Type M4-M24 Proof Load Stress 800 MPa AS 1285 P.C.8
P Type M30-M36 Proof Load Stress 400 MPa –
T Type M6-M16 Proof Load Stress 600 MPa AS 1285 P.C.6
T Type M2G-M36 Proof Load Stress 400 MPa –

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65
Nyloc Nuts BSW F A S T E N E R S

Table 57

s e h m h m
Threads Across Across P TYPE T TYPE
Nom. per Flats Corners Nut Thread Nut Thread
Dia. inch Height Height Height Height
Max. Min. Max. Max. Min. Max. Min.
3/16 24 .324 .319 .374 .267 .156 – –
1/4 20 .445 .435 .510 .321 .190 .254 .123
5/16 18 .525 .515 .610 .378 .240 .294 .156
3/8 16 .600 .585 .690 .438 .302 .333 .198
7/16 14 .710 .695 .820 .528 .365 .403 .240
1/2 12 .820 .800 .950 .593 .427 .447 .281
5/8 11 1.010 .985 1.170 .722 .552 .535 .365
3/4 10 1.200 1.175 1.390 .960 .677 .731 .448
7/8 9 1.300 1.270 1.500 1.012 .740 .762 .490
1 8 1.480 1.450 1.710 1.113 .865 .821 .573
11/8 7 1.670 1.640 1.930 1.239 .990 .905 .656
11/4 7 1.860 1.815 2.150 1.440 1.105 1.065 .730
11/2 6 2.220 2.175 2.560 1.734 1.355 1.274 .896
13/4 5 2.580 2.520 2.980 1.985 1.605 1.450 1.063
2 4.5 2.760 2.700 3.190 2.125 1.730 1.565 1.146

Mechanical Properties:
P Type Proof Load Stress 28 tonf/in2 (432 MPa) AS 2451
T Type Proof Load Stress 14 tonf/in2 (216 MPa)

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

66
F A S T E N E R S Nyloc Nuts YNC/UNF

Table 58

s e h m h m
Threads Across Across P TYPE T TYPE
Nom. per inch Flats Corners Nut Hex Nut Hex
Dia. UNC Height Height Height Height
UNF
Max. Min. Max. Max. Ref. Max. Ref.
1/4 20
.439 .430 .488 .328 .225 .240 .128
28
5/16 18
.502 .492 .557 .359 .250 .265 .158
24
3/8 16
.564 .553 .628 .468 .335 .348 .220
24
7/16 14
.627 .615 .698 .468 .324 .328 .225
20
1/2 13
.752 .741 .840 .609 .464 .328 .190
20
9/16 12
.877 .865 .982 .656 .469 – –
18
5/8 11
.940 .928 1.051 .765 .593 .406 .265
18
3/4 10
1.064 1.052 1.191 .890 .742 .421 .288
16
7/8 9
1.312 1.269 1.447 1.022 .758 .484 .340
14
8
1 1.500 1.450 1.615 1.098 .858 .578 .405
12
7
11/8 1.688 1.631 1.826 1.224 .949 – –
12
7
11/4 1.875 1.812 2.038 1.365 1.040 .765 .523
12
6
11/2 2.250 2.175 2.416 1.618 1.255 .828 .565
12
5
13/4 2.750 2.662 3.035 2.052 1.689 1.302 .939
12
4.5
2 3.125 3.025 3.449 2.367 1.935 1.492 1.060
12
Mechanical Properties:
UNC P Type 1/4" – 3/4" Proof Load Stress 120,000 tonf/in2 (827 MPa) AS 2465 G5
UNC P Type 7/8" – 2" Proof Load Stress 90,000 tonf/in2 (621 MPa) AS 2465 G2
UNF P Type 1/4" – 3/4" Proof Load Stress 109,000 tonf/in2 (952 MPa) AS 2465 G5
UNF P Type 7/8" – 2" Proof Load Stress 90,000 tonf/in2 (621 MPa) AS 2465 G2
UNC T Type 1/4" – 11/2" Proof Load Stress 72,000 tonf/in2 (496 MPa)
UNC T Type 1/4" – 11/2" Proof Load Stress 165,000 tonf/in2 (448 MPa)

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

67
Correct Use of F A S T E N E R S

Jam or Lock Nuts


Thus the two nuts are bearing in
opposite directions on the threads
and are jammed.
This locking effect will remain even
if the bolt tension is lost.
The final bolt tension is therefore
higher than that originally set up
by the bottom nut, and may in fact
When a Jam or Lock Nut is to be be higher than could be sustained
used, it should always be placed as by the bottom nut alone, since
shown in Fig 49, not as in Fig 48. most of the tension is now being
supplied by the top nut.
The lock nut must always be
assembled on the bolt first and
pulled up snug, but not tightened
Conclusion
severely enough to produce a high
tension in the bolt. The bottom nut should be the Jam
or Lock Nut. It should not have a
The top nut is then assembled, and
tight thread fit. It should be applied
as it is tightened the threads of the
with only moderate initial torque.
lock nut must first bear upward on
The top nut should be wrenched
the bolt threads, then are free, and
on the full torque requirements.
finally bear downward on the bolt
During final wrenching, the
threads, while the threads of the
bottom nut should be held from
top nut bear upwards on the bolt
turning.
threads.

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68
F A S T E N E R S Corrosive Protective Coatings
Acknowledgement is made to the
American Industrial Fasteners
Zinc
Institute for information in this Zinc is favoured as a plating metal
article because in the Galvanic Series it is
less noble than carbon steel,
stainless steel and most other
Corrosion Protective nonferrous metals used in fastener
Coating applications. In an electrochemical
reaction, the plating metal
Approximately 90% of all carbon corrodes, and through its sacrifice,
steel fasteners are plated, coated or the base metal remains protected.
furnished with some other type of Only after the plating metal has
supplementary finish. Although been significantly lost to corrosion
the principal reason is to protect does corrosion of the base metal
against corrosion, such treatments begin. Other plating metals are
also enhance appearance, control more noble than carbon steel.
installation torque-tension When the base coating is breached,
relationships, minimise thread the base metal comes under
seizing, and assist product immediate attack.
identification.
Zinc is the popular fastener coating
also because it is the least
expensive, has good appearance,
Coating can be applied in a broad range of
thickness, by self passivation has
Coatings are adherent layers good-to-excellent corrosion
applied to the surface of a base resistance, and is relatively non-
metal. For commerical fasteners, toxic. Zinc plated fasteners may
practically all deposition is require more tightening torque to
accomplished by electroplating, develop equivalent preloads in
hot-dipping or mechanically. threaded fasteners. Also zinc
Other processes such as spraying coatings without some
molten metal, vacuum metalising, supplementary protection develop
chemical vapour deposition, ion a dull white corrosion product on
plating, enameling and dip and their surface which is nicnamed
bake are special purpose and "white rust". Because of its
economically impractical for stock unsightly appearance, most zinc
commercial fasteners. plated fasteners are given
chromate treatment, which is a
chemical conversion process to
Metallic Coatings cover the zinc surface with a hard
non-porous film. This added
Zinc is by far the most widely used coating effectively seals the surface,
plated metal followed in protects it against early tarnishing,
popularity by cadmium and and reinforces the fastener's
aluminium, which has modest use. resistance to corrosion attack.
Copper, tin, nickel, chromium, lead Chromate coatings are available
and silver are used to a lesser clear, iridescent, or in a variety of
degree – all for special reasons. colours.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

69
Corrosive Protective Coatings F A S T E N E R S

Plating Thickness range of exposure environments


indicated equivalent performances
As a general rule, fastener service for fasteners having the same
life, in a corrosive atmosphere, is coating thickness.
proportional to the thickness of its
plating. The thicker the plating the Useful service life expectancies of
longer it will survive. zinc plated fasteners in various
environments are:
Electroplated fasteners have
plating thicknesses ranging from a Zinc plated with chromate treatment,
"flash" coating of insignificant 0.0005in plating thickness: up to 20
thickness to a "commerical" years indoors, about 4 years in a rural
thickness of 0.0002in. 5µm, atmosphere, 2 years in coastal
through to 0.0005in. 12µm. Thicker locations and less than 1 year in
electroplatings are possible but, heavily polluted industrial
atmosphere.
from an economics viewpoint,
quite impractical. Hot-dipped galvanised with an
average thickness of 0.002in over 40
Hot-dip galvanising produces
years in a rural atmosphere, 25-30
much thicker coatings, which in
years in coastal locations and 5 years
engineering standards are
or longer in heavily polluted industrial
expressed in terms of mass of
atmosphere.
plating metal deposited per unit
area of a coated surface. Standard Survivability is almost a direct
hot-dip galvanised fasteners have function of coating thickness.
an average thickness coating of However, plating is expensive.
.002/in2 (50µm in thickness). Costs – and attendant problems –
Heavier coatings to .003 (80µm) are increase with increasing plating
feasible, but such coatings may thickness. Consequently, the
necessitate adjustments in mating prudent engineer is advised to
thread fits to a degree that the specify only that thickness of
fastener's strength properties may plating required to satisfy the
be adversely affected. application.
Mechanically plated coating
thicknesses are available through Plating Distribution
the full range offered by either
electroplating or hot-dip The build up of plating on fastener
galvanising. surfaces occurs differently with
each of the principal deposition
methods.
Life Expectancy
Electroplating deposits the plating
For several years, the relative metal unevenly with exterior edges
corrosion combating performance and corners receiving thicker
of zinc electroplated and hot-dip coatings. In the fastener's threaded
galvanised fasteners compared section, the thickest plating is
with mechanically plated fasteners located at the thread crests and
has been under investigation. A becomes progressively thinner on

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

70
F A S T E N E R S Corrosive Protective Coatings
the thread flanks, with the thinnest Hydrogen
deposits in the thread roots. With Embrittlement
hot-dip galvanising, it is just the
opposite, with thicker coatings High strength, high hardness
deposited at interior corners and in carbon steel fasteners have a
the thread roots. Because clogging susceptibility to embrittlement,
of thread roots is difficult to which evidences itself in various
control, it is usually impactical to mechanisms. Plated and coated
hot-dip galvanise fasteners of fasteners, especially those that are
nominal sizes smaller than M10 electroplated, are vulnerable to the
(3/8"). Mechanical plating tends to one known as hydrogen
deposit the plating metal similarly embrittlement.
to hot-dip galvanising but more
smoothly and considerably more Hydrogen embrittlement causes
uniform in thickness over the fastener failures, the actual fracture
entire surface. of the fastener into two separate
pieces. The failure occurs in service
(ie after the fastener has been
installed and tightened in its
application), it usually happens
Plating Problems within hours, it's sudden, there's
no advance warning or visible
Two serious problems are directly
indication of imminence.
attributed to plating – thread
assembly and hydrogen To neutralise the threat of
embrittlement. hydrogen embrittlement, fasteners
are thermally baked as early as
possible after plating. Time delays
seriously jeopardise the
Thread Fit effectiveness and benefits of the
baking. The purpose of the baking
The addition of a plating to its – generally at 190°-210° for 3 to 24
surface increases the size of the hours dependent on plating type
fasteners. When the plating and thickness – is to drive out the
thickness exceeds certain limits – hydrogen by bleeding it through
generally one-fourth of the the plating. Baking is always done
specified allowance for the class of prior to chromating or application
thread fit – there is a distinct of any other supplementary
possibility the internally and coating.
externally threaded parts will not
assemble. When interference In broad terms, fasteners with
between mating threads is likely, hardnesses less than Rockwell C32
some accommodation must be have a low risk of embrittlement.
made prior to plating. Those with higher hardnesses
Recommended practices for should always be suspect.
adjusting thread fits of plated Because mechanical plating is non-
fasteners are discussed in electrolytic, the hydrogen
AS 1897-1976. embrittlement thread is virtually

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

71
Corrosive Protective Coatings F A S T E N E R S

eliminated. In fact, parts with Most zinc phosphated fasteners


hardnesses up to Rockwell C55, are additionally oiled to enhance
mechanically plated without post corrosion resistance and to help
baking, have performed control torque-tension
satisfactorily without evidence of relationships. Dry zinc phosphate
embrittlement. is often used as a base for non-
metallic locking elements on
Hot-dip galvanised fasteners are
externally threaded fasteners.
rarely subject to hydrogen
embrittlement. The primary reason The corrosion resistance of zinc
is that engineering standards phosphated and oiled fasteners is
strongly discourage the hot-dip reasonably good in non-
galvanising of fasteners with aggressive atmospheres. Significant
hardnesses higher than Rockwell improvements are possible
C35 – ie fasteners stronger than through secondary treatments,
AS 1110 – 8.8, AS 1252 – 8.8 and such as painting.
AS 2465 – Grade 5. The reason is
Although phosphate-coated high
that galvanised fasteners of higher
strength fasteners are not immune
strengths have a susceptibility to
to hydrogen embrittlement,
another embrittlement mechanism
susceptibility and frequency of
known as stress corrosion or stress
occurrence are less than similar
corrosion cracking.
fasteners which have been
electroplated. Unlike deposited
Chemical Conversion plating, phosphate coatings do not
significantly increase fastener size.
Coatings Tolerance 6g/6H (Class 2A/2B)
Chemical conversion coatings are screw thread fits are usually
adherent films chemically formed adequate to permit assembly.
on a metal's surface when Rarely is it necessary to make
immersed in a bath of appropriate adjustments in thread size limits
solution. Chemical conversion prior to coating.
coatings popularly specified for One of the more important
fasteners are chromate treatments considerations when evaluating
on electroplated parts (mentioned the possible use of phosphate
earlier) and zinc and manganese coated fastener is cost. Phosphate
phosphate coatings. and oiled coatings are less
Zinc phosphate coatings, or expensive than zinc electroplating
manganese phosphate often used with chromate treatment.
as a permitted alternative, are However, the packaging and
extensively specified for fasteners, handling of phosphate and oiled
particularly those intended for use fasteners has a degree of sensitivity
in automotive application. The because the oil may be removed
phosphate base provides an by absorption into the packing
excellent substrate for painting and materials.
for retention of oils, waxes or
other organic lubricating materials.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

72
F A S T E N E R S Corrosive Protective Coatings
Fastener Coating aluminium). It gives
Selection Chart recommendations as to the
finishes on steel bolts which are
Table No 61 is condensed from considered satisfactory – from the
Blacks Bulletin No. 6-69, where corrosion viewpoint – for the
materials other than steel are joining of metals which could
included (eg stainless steel, brass, cause "galvanic" effects.

Australian Standards associated with corrosion protective coatings are:

Metric Inch

AS 1110-1984 ISO Metric Hexagon AS B108-1952 Black Cup and


Precision Bolts and Screws. Countersunk Bolts, Nuts and Washers.

AS 1111-1980 ISO Metric Hexagon AS 2465-1981 Unified Hexagon Bolts,


Commercial Bolts and Screws. Screws and Nuts (UNC and UNF
threads).
AS 1112-1980 ISO Metric Hexagon
Nuts. AS B193-1970 Hot-dip Galvanised
Coatings on Fasteners (BSW and
AS 1214-1983 Hot-dip Galvanised UNC threads).
Coatings on Threaded Fasteners (ISO
Metric). AS K132.2-1973 Electroplated
Coatings on Threaded Components
AS 1252-1983 High Strength Steel (Zinc on Steel).
Bolts with associated Nuts and
Washers for Structural Engineering AS 1627.6-1977 Phosphate Treatment
(ISO metric). of Iron and Steel Surfaces.

AS 1390-1974 Metric Cup Head Bolts.

AS 1559-1986 Fasteners – Bolts, Nuts


and Washers for Tower Construction.

AS 1791-1986 Chromate Conversion


Coatings Zinc and Cadmium.

AS 1897-1976 Electroplated Coatings


on Threaded Components (ISO
Metric).

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73
Corrosive Protective Coatings F A S T E N E R S

Table 61
Metal Joined Bolt Coating
Gal- Zinc Cad- Chrom- Lead Black or Austen-
vanised Plated mium ium /Tin Bright itic
Plated Plated2 Plated S/Steel
Steel, Cast Iron S S S S S R S
Zinc Coated Steel R S1 S1 S S U S
Tin Coated Steel U U U S U U R
Chromium Plated Steel U U U R U U R
Stainless Steel U U U S U U R
Aluminium S3 S3 R S S U R
Copper, Brass U U U U U U S
Nickel, Monel U U U S U U S
Lead U U U S R R

Key to performance: R = Recommended


S = Satisfactory
U = Unsuitable
NOTES
1. Protection of the small area of the fastener depends on amount of zinc
available on the surrounding galvanised surface.
2. “Chromium plated” - including the trade term “chrome plated” - means plated
with a thin layer of chromium over a more substantial layer of nickel (and
perhaps copper).
3. Aluminium is the protected member of aluminium-zinc combinations, causing
accelerated corrosion of the zinc. Since wastage of the zinc coating will
eventually lead to exposure of the basis steel of the fastener, and then this
bare steel could accelerate corrosion of the aluminium and also cause
staining - the greater the available amount of zinc the better. Thus, in the
absence of painting, the more heavily coated hot dipped galvanised
fastening is a better choice than its zinc plated counterpart.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

74
F A S T E N E R S Tapping Drill Tables
The tapping drills given in the From those drills the larger sizes
following pages include millimetre are recommended to facilitate ease
sizes for the convenience of those of tapping.
who are working in or intend to
As a guide to relative clearances,
work predominantly in metric
index figures adjacent to the drill
units.
size show the difference between
Drills have been selected from the nominal drill and minimum
standard sizes which, when used minor diameters.
with reasonable care, will produce
holes within the minor diameter
limits shown.

Table 62 ISO Metric Coarse Pitch Series


Thread Size Minor Diameter Tapping Drill Sizes
and Pitch of nut thread (A) for Commercial Tapping
Maximum Minimum Recommended Alternatives
mm mm mm mm Inch mm
M1.6 x 0.35 1.321 1.221 1.303 3/640 1.251
M2 x 0.4 1.679 1.567 1.654 1/161 1.601
M2.5 x 0.45 2.138 2.013 2.103 No. 469 2.051
M3 x 0.5 2.599 2.459 2.553 No. 410 2.501
M4 x 0.7 3.422 3.242 3.406 No. 301 3.302
M5 x 0.8 4.334 4.134 4.306 No. 193 4.202
M6 x 1.00 5.133 4.917 5.107 No. 92 5.003
M8 x 1.25 6.912 6.647 6.9010 17/644 6.806
M10 x 1.5 8.676 8.376 8.609 Q2 8.505
M12 x 1.75 10.441 10.105 10.4011 13/328 10.204
M16 x 2.00 14.210 13.835 14.006 35/642 –
M20 x 2.5 17.744 17.294 17.508 11/167 –
M24 x 3.0 21.252 20.752 21.0010 53/ 11
64 –
M30 x 3.5 26.771 26.211 26.5011 13/6415 –
M36 x 4.0 32.270 31.670 32.0013 117/6419 –
(A) From AS 1275 for Class 6H

The small index figures show the theoretical clearance in thousandths of an


inch above the minimum minor diameter of the nut thread.
Letter and wire gauge drills are obsolescent and are being replaced by metric
sizes.

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75
Tapping Drill Tables F A S T E N E R S

Table 63 British Standard Whitworth – BSW


Thread Size Minor Diameter Tapping Drill Sizes
and Threads of nut thread (A) for Commercial Tapping
per inch
Maximum Minimum Recommended Alternatives
Inch Inch Inch mm Inch
1/8 – 40 0.1020 0.0930 397 2.557 405
3/16 – 24 0.1474 0.1341 2710 3.7012 286
1/4 – 20 0.2030 0.1860 910 5.0011 107 123
5/16 – 18 0.2594 0.2413 1/49 6.4011 D5 C1
3/8 – 16 0.3145 0.2950 N7 7.708 19/642 S2
7/16 – 14 0.3674 0.3461 T12 9.1012 Y11 X4
1/2 – 12 0.4169 0.3932 13/3213 10.4013
9/16 – 12 0.4794 0.4557 15/3213 12.007
5/8 – 11 0.5338 0.5086 17/3223 13.5023 33/647

3/4 – 10 0.6490 0.6220 41/6419 16.2517 5/83

7/8 – 9 0.7620 0.7328 3/417 19.0015 47/642

1 – 8 0.8720 0.8400 55/6419 22.0026 27/321

11/8 – 7 0.9776 0.9420 31/3217 24.5022 61/6411

11/4 – 7 1.1026 1.0670 13/3227 27.5016 15/6411


11/2 – 6 1.3269 1.2866 15/1626 33.0012 119/6411
13/4 – 5 1.5408 1.4938 117/3237 38.5022 133/6420
2 – 4.5 1.7668 1.7154 13/435 44.5037 147/6420
(A) From AS B47 – normal and medium classes.

The small index figures show the theoretical clearance in thousandths of an inch
above the minimum minor diameter of the nut thread.
Letter and wire gauge drills are obsolescent and are being replaced by metric
sizes.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

76
F A S T E N E R S Thread Screw Pitches
Table 64
Inch Series ISO Metric Preferred
Dia. in Threads per inch Coarse Pitch Series
inches
BSW BSF UNC UNF Dia in mm Pitch in mm
No. 8 – – 32 36 1.6 0.35
No. 10 – – 24 32 2 0.4
3/16 24 32 – – 2.5 0.45
1/4 20 26 20 28 3 0.5
5/16 18 22 18 24 4 0.7
3/8 16 20 16 24 5 0.8
7/16 14 18 14 20 6 1
1/2 12 16 13 20 8 1.25
9/16 12 16 12 18 10 1.5
5/8 11 14 11 18 12 1.75
3/4 10 12 10 16 16 2
7/8 9 11 9 14 20 2.5
1 8 10 8 12 24 3
11/8 7 9 7 12 30 3.5
11/4 7 9 7 12 36 4
13/8 6 8 6 12 42 4.5
11/2 6 8 6 12 48 5
15/8 5 8 – – 56 5.5
13/4 5 7 5 – 64 6
2 4.5 7 4.5 –
21/4 4 6 4.5 –
21/2 4 6 4 –
23/4 3.5 6 4 –
3 3.5 5 4 –

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

77
Hardness Conversion Table F A S T E N E R S

Table 65
Rockwell Superficial
Brinell Hardness No.
Rockwell Rockwell Hardness Rockwell Rockwell Superficial Brale
C-Scale B-Scale No. A-Scale D-Scale Penetrator
Vickers 150kg 100kg 3000kg Tensile Strength Shore 60kg 100kg
Hardness Load Load Load (Approximate) Sclero Load Load 15-N 30-N 45-N
1
Brale 1 /16" dia 10mm scope Brale Brale Scale Scale Scale
Pene- Ball Ball Hardness Pene- Pene- 15kg 30kg 45kg
-trator No. -trator -trator Load Load Load

HV HRC HRB HB lbf/in2 tonf/in2 N/mm2 HRA HRD HR HR HR


x 1000 15-N 30-N 45-N

940 68 – – – – – 97 85.6 76.9 93.2 84.4 75.4

900 67 – – – – – 95 85.0 76.1 92.9 83.6 74.2

865 66 – – – – – 92 84.5 75.4 92.5 82.8 73.3

832 65 – 739 – – – 91 83.9 74.5 92.2 81.9 72.0

800 64 – 722 – – – 88 83.4 73.8 91.8 81 .1 71 .0

772 63 – 705 – – – 87 82.8 73.0 91.4 60.1 69.9

746 62 – 688 – – – 85 82.3 72.2 91.1 79.3 68.8

720 61 – 670 – – – 83 81.8 71.5 90.7 78.4 67.7

697 60 – 654 – – – 81 81.2 70.0 90.2 77.5 66.6

674 59 – 634 – – – 80 80.7 69.9 89.8 86.8 65.5

653 58 – 615 – – – 78 80.1 69.2 89.3 75.7 64.3

633 57 – 595 – – – 76 79.6 68.5 88.7 74.8 63.2

613 56 – 577 – – – 75 79.0 67.7 88.3 73.9 62.0

595 55 – 560 301 134 2080 74 78.5 66.9 87.9 73.0 60.9

577 54 – 543 292 130 2010 72 78.0 66.1 87.4 72.0 59.8

560 53 – 525 283 126 1950 71 77.4 65.4 86.9 71.2 58.6

544 52 – 512 273 122 1880 69 76.8 64.6 86.4 70.2 57.4

528 51 – 496 264 118 1820 68 76.3 63.8 85.9 69.4 56.1

513 50 – 481 255 114 1760 67 75.9 63.1 84.4 68.5 55.0

498 49 – 469 246 110 1700 66 75.2 62.1 85.0 67.0 53.8

484 48 – 451 237 106 1630 64 74.7 61 .4 84.5 66.7 52.5

471 47 – 442 229 102 1580 63 74.1 60.8 83.9 65.8 51.4

458 46 – 432 222 99 1530 62 73.6 60.0 83.5 64.8 50.3

446 45 – 421 215 96 1480 60 63.1 57.2 83.0 64.0 49.0

434 44 – 409 208 93 1430 58 72.5 58.5 82.5 63.1 47.8

423 43 – 400 201 90 1390 57 72.0 57.6 82.0 62.2 46.7

412 42 – 390 194 86.5 1340 56 71.5 56.9 81.5 61.3 45.5

402 41 – 381 188 84 1300 55 70.9 46.2 80.9 60.4 44.3

392 40 – 371 181 81 1250 54 70.4 45.4 80.4 59.4 43.1

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

78
F A S T E N E R S Hardness Conversion Table
Table 65 continued
Rockwell Superficial
Brinell Hardness No.
Rockwell Rockwell Hardness Rockwell Rockwell Superficial Brale
C-Scale B-Scale No. A-Scale D-Scale Penetrator
Vickers 150kg 100kg 3000kg Tensile Strength Shore 60kg 100kg
Hardness Load Load Load (Approximate) Sclero Load Load 15-N 30-N 45-N
1
Brale 1 /16" dia 10mm scope Brale Brale Scale Scale Scale
Pene- Ball Ball Hardness Pene- Pene- 15kg 30kg 45kg
-trator No. -trator -trator Load Load Load

HV HRC HRB HB lbf/in2 tonf/in2 N/mm2 HRA HRD HR HR HR


x 1000 15-N 30-N 45-N

382 39 – 362 176 78.5 1210 52 69.7 54.6 79.0 58.6 41.9

372 38 – 353 171 76.5 1180 51 69.4 53.8 77.4 57.7 40.8

363 37 – 344 168 75 1160 50 68.9 53.1 68.8 56.8 39.6

354 36 (109.0) 336 162 72.5 1120 49 68.4 52.3 78.3 55.9 38.4

345 35 (108.5) 327 157 70 1080 48 67.7 51.5 77.7 55.0 37.2

336 34 (108.0) 319 153 68.5 1050 47 67.4 50.8 77.2 54.2 36.1

327 33 (1 07.5) 311 149 66.5 1030 46 66.8 50.0 66.6 53.3 34.9

318 32 (1 07.0) 301 145 64.5 1000 44 66.3 49.2 76.1 52.1 33.7

310 31 (1 06.0) 294 142 63.5 979 43 65.8 48.4 75.6 51.3 32.5

302 30 (105.5) 286 138 61 .5 951 42 65.3 47.7 75.0 40.4 31 .3

294 29 (1 04.5) 279 135 60.5 931 41 64.7 47.0 74.6 47.5 30.1

286 28 (104.0) 271 132 59 910 41 64.3 46.1 73.7 48.6 28.9

279 27 (103.0) 264 128 57 883 40 63.8 45.2 63.3 47.7 27.8

272 26 (102.5) 258 125 56 862 38 63.3 44.6 72.8 46.8 28.7

266 25 (101.5) 253 122 54.5 841 38 62.8 43.8 72.2 45.9 25.5

260 24 (101.0) 247 120 53.5 827 37 62.4 43.1 71.6 45.0 24.3

254 23 100.0 243 117 52 807 36 62.0 62.1 71.0 44.0 23.1

248 22 99.0 237 114 51 786 35 61.5 41.6 70.5 43.2 22.0

243 21 98.5 231 112 50 772 35 61.0 40.9 69.9 42.3 20.7

238 20 97.8 226 110 49 758 34 60.5 40.1 69.4 41.5 19.6

230 (18) 96.7 219 106 47.5 731 33 – – – – –

222 (16) 95.5 212 102 45.5 703 32 – – – – –

213 (14) 93.9 203 98 44 676 31 – – – – –

204 (12) 92.3 194 94 42 648 29 – – – – –

196 (10) 90.7 187 90 40 621 28

188 (8) 89.5 179 87 39 600 27

180 (6) 87.1 171 84 37.5 579 26

173 (4) 85.5 165 80 35.5 552 25

166 (2) 83.5 158 77 34.5 531 24

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

79
Hardness Conversion Table F A S T E N E R S

Table 65 continued
Rockwell Superficial
Brinell Hardness No.
Rockwell Rockwell Hardness Rockwell Rockwell Superficial Brale
C-Scale B-Scale No. A-Scale D-Scale Penetrator
Vickers 150kg 100kg 3000kg Tensile Strength Shore 60kg 100kg
Hardness Load Load Load (Approximate) Sclero Load Load 15-N 30-N 45-N
Brale 11/6" dia 10mm scope Brale Brale Scale Scale Scale
Pene- Ball Ball Hardness Pene- Pene- 15kg 30kg 45kg
-trator No. -trator -trator Load Load Load

HV HRC HRB HB lbf/in2 tonf/in2 N/mm2 HRA HRD HR HR HR


x 1000 15-N 30-N 45-N

160 (0) 81.7 152 75 33.5 517 24 The values shown in black type are
agreed SAE-ASM-ASTM values as
150 – 78.7 143 71 31.5 490 22 published in ASTM. E-140 Table 2.
140 – 75.0 133 66 29.5 455 21 Values in blue type are given in SAE
tables but are not agreed values.
130 – 71.2 124 62 27.5 427 20 Values in ( ) are beyond the normal
range and are for information only.
120 – 66.7 114 57 25.5 393 –
IMPORTANT
110 – 62.3 105 – – – – All conversions must be regarded as
100 – 56.2 105 – – – – approximate and applying only to
steels. Australian Standard B-161
95 – 52.0 90 – – – – indicates the limitations of accuracy of
conversion. Tensile strength
90 – 48.0 86 – – – –
conversions do not specifically apply
85 – 41.0 81 – – – – to cold worked steels.

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

80
F A S T E N E R S The Torquing of Stainless Steel

Stainless steel threads are required will also vary.


notorious for galling or seizing Consequently the torque values
during tightening. For a successful quoted can only be regarded as a
assembly, tightening should be guide and bench trials should be
carried out with a slow smooth conducted first.
action. Impact wrenches or air
Standard engineering practice
powered screw drivers are not
requires fasteners to be tightened
recommended. In addition an anti-
to a point where the included
seize compound must be applied
screw tension is 65-70% of the
to the threads. A high quality
proof load. Once the proof load is
nickel anti-seize has been found to
exceeded the bolt will start to
be very effective.
stretch permanently. Therefore,
Recommended torque values are during the bench trials the torque
calculated figures based upon required to start permanent
several factors including friction, stretching of the bolt should be
bolt diameter and proof stress. As noted. Applying 70% of this torque
the use of anti-seize is going to figure will be a safe installation
vary the friction characteristics of torque.
the assembly, the actual torque

Tightening Torques for Stainless Steel (304 and


316) Metric Bolts
Grade Grade
A2-70 and A4-70 A2-80 and A4-80
Recommended Assembly Torque Recommended Assembly Torque
to include 70% Proof Load to include 70% Proof Load

Nominal Diameter (NM) (ft lbf) (NM) (ft lbf)


M5 4.5 3.3 6.5 4.8
M6 7.6 5.6 11.1 8.2
M8 18.4 13.6 26.7 19.6
M10 37.0 27.0 52.6 38.7
M12 64.0 47.0 91.5 67.3
M16 158.0 116.7 223.0 163.9
M20 309.0 227.7 435.0 319.8

How To Stop Thread Galling on Stainless


Fasteners
A few times each year we receive complaint is that during
calls from fasteners suppliers who installation the bolts are twisting
are in conflict with their customer off and/or the bolt’s threads are
over the quality of stainless steel seizing to the nut’s thread. The
bolts and nuts. The customer’s frustration of the supplier is that

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81
Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel F A S T E N E R S

all required inspections of the installation RPM increases the


fasteners indicate they are heat generated during tightening
acceptable, but the fact remains increases. As the heat increases,
that they are not working. so does the tendency for the
occurrence of thread galling.
This problem is called “thread
galling”. According to the Industrial • Lubricating the internal and/or
Fastener Institute’s 6th Edition external threads frequently
Standards Book (page B-28), eliminates thread galling. The
suggested lubricants should
“Thread galling seems to be the
contain substantial amounts of
most prevalent with fasteners made
molybdenum disulfide (,oly),
of stainless steel, aluminium,
graphite, mica, or talc. Some
titanium and other alloys which
proprietary, extreme pressure,
self-generate an oxide surface film
waxes may also be effective. You
for corrosion protection. During
must be aware of the end use
fastener tightening, as pressure
for the fasteners before settling
builds between the contacting and
sliding, thread surfaces, protective on a lubricant. Stainless steel is
oxides are broken, possibly wiped frequently used in food related
off, and interface metal high points applications which may make
shear or lock together. This some lubricants unacceptable.
cumulative clogging-shearing- Lubricants can be applied at the
locking action causes increasing point of assembly or pre-
adhesion. In the extreme, galling applied as a batch process
leads to seizing – the actual freezing similar to plating. Several
together of threads. If tightening is chemical companies offer anti-
continued, the fastener can be galling lubricants.
twisted off or its threads ripped out.”
One such source, EM
Carpenter Technologies, the Corporation, suggests their
fastener industry’s largest supplier Permaslik® RAC product for use
of stainless steel raw material, at the point of assembly. They
refers to this type of galling in their suggest Everlube® 620C for
technical guide as “cold welding”. batch, pre-applying to stainless
Anyone who has seen a bolt and steel fasteners.
nut with this problem understands
• Using different stainless alloy
the graphic nature of this
grades for the bolts and nut
description.
reduces galling. The key here is
The IFI and Carpenter the mating of materials having
Technologies give three suggestions different hardnesses. If one of
for dealing with the problem of the components is 316 and the
thread galling in the use of other is 304 they are less likely
stainless steel fasteners: to gall than if they are both of
the same alloy grade. This is
• Slowing down the installation because the different alloys
RPM speed will frequently work harden at different rates.
reduce, or sometimes solve
completely, the problem. As the Another factor affecting thread

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82
F A S T E N E R S Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel

galling in stainless steel fastener If they say they are driving them
applications is thread roughness. faster than in the past or if they
The rougher the thread flanks, the say this is a new application,
greater the likelihood galling will suggested they immediately try
occur. In an application where the slowing the driver RPM and see if
bolt is galling with the internal the problem goes away. In general,
thread, the bolt is usually a stainless bolt of a given size
presumed to be at fault, because it should be driven slower than a
is the breaking component. steel bolt of the same size.
Generally, it is the internal thread
2. Are the bolts and/or internal threads
that is causing the problem instead
lubricated?
of the bolt. This is because most
bolt threads are smoother than If they say “no”, suggest they try
most nut threads. Bolt threads are lubricating the bolts and/or
generally rolled, therefore, their internal threads with one of the
thread flanks are relatively smooth. lubricants listed earlier in the
Internal threads are always cut, article. If this eliminates the galling,
producing rougher thread flanks you might want to batch lubricate
than those of the bolts they are the remainder of the order to
mating with. The reason galling eliminate the extra work of
problems are inconsistent is applying lubricant at the point of
probably due largely to the assembly.
inconsistencies in the tapping
operation. Rougher than normal In applications where galling is a
internal threads may be the result repetitive problem, it is advisable
of the use of dull taps or the to supply the fasteners with pre-
tapping may have been done at applied lubrication to eliminate
inappropriately high RPM. future problems.

Fortunately, stainless steel bolt and 3. Are you using the same grade of
nut galling problems do not occur stainless steel for the bolts and nuts?
everyday, but when they do it If the answer is “yes”, you can
usually creates a customer crisis. suggest changing one or the other
Knowledge of why this occurs and to a different grade.
how to remedy it can save the
supplier much grief and many Be sure the suggested grade meets
headaches. their corrosion needs and
changing the material does not
Here are some questions that cause a procurement problem.
should be asked and the
suggestions that should be made When thread galling occurs in
immediately when you are stainless steel bolt and nut
confronted with a customer’s applications, do not panic. Try the
complaint about thread galling: suggestions listed; one or a
combination of these will
1. Are you using the same driver RPM probably resolve the problem
you have used in the past to install these immediately.
stainless fasteners?

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners

83
84
Material Compatibility

M A T E R I A L
Rivet Aluminium AL/ZN Zinc Stainless Copper Brass
Coated Steel Coated Steel Steel

Aluminium YES YES ? NO NO NO

Steel Z/P NO YES YES NO NO NO


Material Compatibility

Nickel Copper NO NO NO YES YES YES

Stainless Steel ? ? ? YES YES YES

Copper NO NO NO YES YES YES


F
A
S
T
E

COMPATIBLE INCOMPATIBLE Compatible in rural and mild environments.


N

YES NO Must not be in contact ? Some corrosion may occur in marine/


E

industrial environments. Painting both


R

Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners


metals would reduce reaction.
S
Fastener Handbook

BLACKS FASTENERS LTD


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T: (03) 547 5102 F: (03) 547 0189

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CHRISTCHURCH
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T: (03) 214 4499 F: (03) 214 4489

Freephone: 0800 652 463 Freefax: 0800 652 464

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