Calculus test answer

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Calculus (Test 1 Question)(Answers)

Calculus test answer

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You are on page 1of 7

8.00 pm – 9.15 pm

INSTRUCTIONS:

1. This paper contains 7 pages including the front page, it consists of TEN questions.

2. Please answer ALL questions, showing all your work (steps) in this paper.

3. Should you need more space, you could write on the back of a page.

4. Maximum marks = 30

1. [4 marks]

(a) What is Euler’s formula?

Euler’s formula is given as 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 = cos 𝜃 + 𝑖 sin 𝜃.

𝑒 𝑖𝜃 −𝑒 −𝑖𝜃

(b) Use sin 𝜃 = 2𝑖 to derive the identity: sin3 𝜃 = A sin 3𝜃 + B sin 𝜃 for some value of

A and B. find the values of A and B.

[The identity (𝑎 − 𝑏)3 = 𝑎3 − 3𝑎2 𝑏 + 3𝑎𝑏 2 − 𝑏 3 would be useful. ]

Begin with

3

3

𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖2𝜃 ∙ 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃 ∙ 𝑒 −𝑖2𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃

sin 𝜃 = ( ) =

2𝑖 8(𝑖)3

𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖2𝜃+(−𝑖𝜃) + 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃+(−𝑖2𝜃) − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃

=

8𝑖(𝑖 2 )

𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖2𝜃−𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃−𝑖2𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃

=

8𝑖(−1)

𝑒 − 3𝑒 + 3𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃

𝑖3𝜃 𝑖𝜃

=

−8𝑖

𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 −𝑖𝜃

=

−8𝑖

𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 −3𝑒 𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 −𝑖𝜃

= +

−8𝑖 −8𝑖

𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 −3(𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 )

= +

−8𝑖 −8𝑖

1 𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 −3 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃

= (− ) ( ) + ( )( )

4 2𝑖 −4 2𝑖

1 𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 3 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃

= (− ) ( ) + ( )( )

4 2𝑖 4 2𝑖

1 3

= − sin 3𝜃 + sin 𝜃

4 4

If compare with sin3 𝜃 = A sin 3𝜃 + B sin 𝜃,

1 3

A = − ,B =

4 4

1

2. [2 marks]

Complete the following table with exact values of sin 𝜃, cos 𝜃 and tan 𝜃 corresponding to the

special angles given; approximations obtained from a calculator WOULD NOT be

accepted.

𝜋 √1 √3 1

6 2 2 √3

𝜋 √2 √2 1

4 2 2

𝜋 √3 √1

√3

3 2 2

3. [4 marks] Find the limits. (You must show at least one intermediate step. )

a) lim (𝑥 3 + 𝑥 − 2) = lim 𝑥 3 + lim 𝑥 − lim 2

𝑥→−2 𝑥→−2 𝑥→−2 𝑥→−2

= (−2)3 + (−2) − 2

= −8 − 2 − 2 = −12

𝑥 2 −16 (𝑥+4)(𝑥−4)

b) lim = lim = lim (𝑥 + 4)

𝑥→4 𝑥−4 𝑥→4 𝑥−4 𝑥→4

= 4+4= 8

2012𝑥3+2 2012𝑥3 2

2012𝑥 3 +2 lim lim ( + 3)

𝑥→∞ 𝑥3 𝑥→∞ 𝑥3 𝑥

c) lim = 𝑥+𝑥3

= 𝑥 𝑥3

𝑥→∞ 𝑥+𝑥 3 lim lim ( 3 + 3 )

𝑥→∞ 𝑥3 𝑥→∞ 𝑥 𝑥

2 2

lim (2012 +3 ) lim 2012 + lim 3

𝑥 = 𝑥→∞ 𝑥→∞ 𝑥

= 𝑥→∞

1 1

lim ( + 1) lim + lim 1

𝑥→∞ 𝑥 2 𝑥→∞ 𝑥 2 𝑥→∞

2012 + 0 2012

= = = 2012

0+1 1

sin 𝑥−3𝑥 sin 𝑥 3𝑥 sin 𝑥

d) lim = lim − lim = lim − lim 3

𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0

=1−3=4

2

4. [3 marks]

4

, 𝑥<3

𝑓(𝑥) = { 𝑥 − 1

𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 − 1, 𝑥≥3

a) Evaluate: (You must show at least one intermediate step. )

4 4 lim 𝑓(𝑥) = lim+(𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 − 1)

lim− 𝑓(𝑥) = lim− = 𝑥→3+ 𝑥→3

𝑥→3 𝑥 − 1 3−1

𝑥→3

= 32 − 2(3) − 1

4

= =2 = 9−6−1= 2

2

𝑥→3 𝑥→3

c) 𝑓(3) = 2

lim 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(3)

𝑥→3

________________________________________________________________________

5. [3 marks]

a) State the Intermediate Value Theorem (i.e., the full statement including the hypothesis

and the conclusion).

Supposed 𝑓 is continuous on the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]. 𝑘 is a number such that

𝑓(𝑎) < 𝑘 < 𝑓(𝑏) or 𝑓(𝑏) < 𝑘 < 𝑓(𝑎). There exist a number 𝑐 in between 𝑎 and 𝑏, such

that 𝑓(𝑐) = 𝑘.

Let 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 − 10. It is continuous on the closed interval [1,2]

𝑓(1) = 13 + 8(1)−10 = 1 + 8 − 10 = −1

𝑓(2) = 23 + 8(2) − 10 = 8 + 16 − 10 = 14

By the Intermediate Value Theorem, there is a number 𝑐 ∈ [1,2] with 𝑓(𝑐) = 0.

Therefore, the function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 − 10 has a root 𝑐 in between the closed interval

[1,2].

3

6. [4 marks]

a) Use the formal definition of the derivative to compute 𝑓′(3) when 𝑓(𝑥) = 4𝑥 2 . (Show

proper steps. )

𝑓(3 + ℎ) − 𝑓(3) 4(3 + ℎ)2 − 4(3)2

𝑓 ′ (3) = lim = lim

ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0 ℎ

4(9 + 6ℎ + ℎ2 ) − 4(9)

= lim

ℎ→0 ℎ

36 + 24ℎ + 4ℎ2 − 36

= lim

ℎ→0 ℎ

36 − 36 + 24ℎ + 4ℎ2 24ℎ + 4ℎ2

= lim = lim

ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0 ℎ

2

24ℎ + 4ℎ ℎ(24 + 4ℎ)

= lim = lim = lim (24 + 4ℎ)

ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0

= 24 + 4(0) = 24 + 0 = 24

b) Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of 𝑦 = 4𝑥 2 at the point (3,36).

𝑦 = 4𝑥 2

𝑑𝑦

= 8𝑥

𝑑𝑥

At the point (3,36)

𝑑𝑦

𝑥 = 3, 𝑦 = 36, 𝑚 = = 8𝑥 = 8(3) = 24

𝑑𝑥

𝑦 − 36 = 24(𝑥 − 3)

𝑦 − 36 = 24𝑥 − 72

𝑦 − 24𝑥 = −72 + 36

𝑦 − 24𝑥 = −36

4

7. [2 marks] Carry out the differentiation.

𝑑𝑦

𝑦= =

𝑑𝑥

(𝑥 5 )4 20𝑥 19

cos 4𝑥 −4 sin 4𝑥

sin 7𝑥 7 cos 7𝑥

tan 5𝑥 5 sec 2 5𝑥

(a) 𝑦 = (𝑥 5 )4

= 𝑥 20

𝑑𝑦

= 20𝑥19

𝑑𝑥

(b) 𝑦 = cos 4𝑥

Let 𝑢 = 4𝑥

𝑦 = cos 𝑢

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

= − sin 𝑢 , =4

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

= ∙ = (− sin 𝑢)(4) = −4 sin 𝑢 = −4 sin 4𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

(c) 𝑦 = sin 7𝑥

Let 𝑢 = 7𝑥

𝑦 = sin 𝑢

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

= cos 𝑢 , =7

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

= ∙ = (cos 𝑢)(7) = 7 cos 𝑢 = 7 cos 7𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

(d) 𝑦 = tan 5𝑥

Let 𝑢 = 5𝑥

𝑦 = sec 2 𝑢

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

= sec 2 𝑢 , =5

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

= ∙ = (sec 2 𝑢)(5) = 5 sec 2 𝑢 = 5 sec 2 5𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

5

𝑑𝑦

8. [3 marks] Find 𝑑𝑥 with 𝑦 as given.

[Use the product rule or the quotient rule for differentiation; show proper steps.]

a) 𝑦 = 𝑥 3 sin 4𝑥

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑣

𝑢 = 𝑥3, = 3𝑥 2 , 𝑣 = sin 4𝑥 , = 4 cos 4𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦

= (𝑥 3 )(4 cos 4𝑥) + (sin 4𝑥)(3𝑥 2 )

𝑑𝑥

= 4𝑥 3 cos 4𝑥 + 3𝑥 2 sin 4𝑥

= 𝑥 2 (4𝑥 cos 4𝑥 + 3 sin 4𝑥)

ln 𝑥

b) 𝑦 = 𝑥2

𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑣

𝑢 = ln 𝑥 , = , 𝑣 = 𝑥2, = 2𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

1

𝑑𝑦 (𝑥 2 ) ( ) − (ln 𝑥)(2𝑥)

= 𝑥

𝑑𝑥 (𝑥 2 )2

𝑥 − 2𝑥 ln 𝑥

=

𝑥4

𝑥(1 − 2 ln 𝑥)

=

𝑥4

9. [2 marks]

3 𝑑𝑦

a) Given 𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 , let 𝑢 = 𝑥 3 and use the chain rule to find 𝑑𝑥 .

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

𝑦 = 𝑒𝑢, = 𝑒𝑢, = 3𝑥 2

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 3

= (𝑒 𝑢 )(3𝑥 2 ) = 3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑢 = 3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥

𝑑𝑥

𝑑2 𝑦

b) Then proceed to find 𝑑𝑥 2 . Remember to show proper steps.

𝑑𝑢 3 𝑑𝑣 3

𝑢 = 3𝑥 2 , = 6𝑥, 𝑣 = 𝑒 𝑥 , = 3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑2𝑦 3 3

2

= (3𝑥 2 )(3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 ) + (𝑒 𝑥 )(6𝑥)

𝑑𝑥 3 3

= 9𝑥 4 𝑒 𝑥 + 6𝑥𝑒 𝑥

6

10. [3 marks]

𝑑𝑦

Given 𝑦 3 + 𝑥𝑦 − 10𝑥 3 = 0, carry out implicit differentiation to obtain 𝑑𝑥 in terms of 𝒙 and

𝒚. Then find the gradient of the tangent to the curve 𝑦 3 + 𝑥𝑦 − 10𝑥 3 = 0 at the point (1,2).

𝑑 3 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑

(𝑦 ) + (𝑥𝑦) − (10𝑥 3 ) = (0)

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑 3 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑

(𝑦 ) + 𝑥 (𝑦) + 𝑦 (𝑥) − (10𝑥 3 ) = (0)

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

3𝑦 2 + 𝑥 ( ) + 𝑦 − 30𝑥 2 = 0

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

3𝑦 2 +𝑥 + 𝑦 − 30𝑥 2 = 0

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦

(3𝑦 2 + 𝑥) + 𝑦 − 30𝑥 2 = 0

𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦

(3𝑦 2 + 𝑥) = −𝑦 + 30𝑥 2

𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦

(3𝑦 2 + 𝑥) = 30𝑥 2 − 𝑦

𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 30𝑥 2 − 𝑦

=

𝑑𝑥 3𝑦 2 + 𝑥

At (1,2),

𝑑𝑦 30(1)2 − (2)

𝑚= =

𝑑𝑥 3(2)2 + (1)

30(1) − 2

=

3(4) + 1

30 − 2 28

= =

12 + 1 13

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