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FOUNDATIONS

The Contractor shall be responsible for ascertaining that the sub soil is suitable for
the type of foundation used and shall provide details of site investigations and
relevant tests carried out for the Employer and the Employer’s Representative. The
Contractor shall examine the soil investigation results and submit for the Employer’s
Representative approval a schedule showing the type of foundation proposed at
each support. The Employer’s Representative decision as to which type of
foundation shall be employed at any given location shall be final. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any subsidence or failure due, in the opinion of the
Employer’s Representative, to insufficient care having been taken either in the
preliminary examination of ground conditions or in the choice of installation of the
foundations.
Where, in the opinion of the Employer’s Representative, after examination of the
Contractor's soil investigation data, the nature of the ground warrants special
investigation and tests the Contractor shall carry these out to the instructions of the
Employer’s Representative until satisfactory information is obtained on the ground
bearing properties. The cost of such tests shall be included in the foundation rates.
The decision of the Employer’s Representative as to which type of foundation shall
be employed at any given location shall be final.
Consideration shall be given to offsetting the center pegs of angle towers to ensure
that the conductors are located equi-distance either side of the route center line.
In general, for steeply sloping hillsides the foundation of a level tower platform by
digging the high side and using the soil to fill the low side will not be accepted.
Construction site shall be properly barricaded to control access of neighboring
people and to avoid entering fauna to the site, in order to avoid accidents. Suitablesign
boards shall be erected to make people aware about potential construction
hazards at construction site.
Before excavations are commenced the Contractor shall submit his proposals with
regard thereto for the Employer’s Representative approval. Excavations shall be
close timbered or sheeted, planked and strutted as and when necessary and kept
free of water by pumping or other means during the course of the work and shall
ensure the safety of personnel working within them. The sides of excavations shall
normally be vertical unless otherwise specifically agreed with the Employer’s
Representative.
Although a mechanical excavator may be used in many parts of the lines, the
Employer’s Representative reserves the right to instruct the Contractor to excavate
certain sites by hand (particularly on steep slopes or in marshy ground), and the
normal rates shall be deemed to include for this.
When constructing foundations in the paddy field or on wetland, the excavated soil
from the top layer, which is tended to be loose soil, should be kept separated from
the rest of excavated soil. After the completion of tower foundations, the soil from
the top of the layer should be used for backfilling the top layer of the tower
foundation and should not be used for backfilling the bottom of the foundation.
In the case the surface water paths are to be obstructed by constructing foundations,
alternative paths should be facilitated to ensure the water movements.
When foundation site is in steep slopes, the method such as constructing retain wall,
stone terracing or installing gabions shall be applied in order to avoid soil erosion.
During excavation, the Contractor shall take adequate precautions to prevent earth
disturbances which might affect the safety of personnel, property and the Site Works.
The Contractor shall ensure that excavations are made to the correct depth and
width. If excavations are taken too deep, the excess depth shall be backfilled with
concrete at the Contractor's expense. If excavations are made too wide, such
modifications to the design as the Employer’s Representative may require shall be
made at the Contractor's expense. Blasting for foundation pits of the line can only
be made upon prior approval of the Authorities and the Employer’s Representative.
Written approval shall be obtained from the Employer’s Representative before
explosives are used for excavating foundations in rock. The Contractor shall be
responsible for complying with local regulations concerning the use of explosivesand for the
safe-keeping and handling of explosives. During operations involving the
handling or use of explosives, the Contractor shall be responsible for the safety of
personnel, Site Works and people or properties in the vicinity of the Site. The
Contractor shall make good at his own expense any damage caused by the use or
mishandling of explosives. Blasting shall not be permitted in the location when
concreting started in any leg. If no blasting is allowed, other methods have to be
approved by the contractor without any extra payment.
Dewatering shall be provided by maintaining water pumps and wells etc. in
operation. The equipment for this purpose shall have sufficient capacity to keep
excavations free of all water down to 0.5 to 1 m below deepest excavation level
during concreting refilled or the structure attain their sufficient strength and water
uplift resistance. Discontinuous pumping shall be subject to the approval of the
Employer’s Representative. The dewatering measures as described are to be
included in the foundation rates entered in the schedules of rates and prices.
If anything with archaeological value is found during the implementation of the
project, it should be immediately informed to the Employer and all construction work
shall be curtailed until the approval of the Employer to do so.
Stubs for tower foundations may only be installed with the use of templates
approved by the Employer’s Representative or by using the lower sections of the
support with suitable temporary bracing to ensure correct spacing. The method
selected shall be such that all four stubs are supported and interconnected by a rigid
steel framework. The main members of templates must be in the form of trussed
beams. The stubs shall be held in correct position by the template while the
concrete is placed. The templates are not to be struck until at least 48 hours after
the foundations have been completed and backfilled.
Stub setting templates shall be of approved type with sufficient rigidity to ensure
correct setting of the stubs.
They shall be manufactured from mild steel angle or channel or a combination of
both, of approved and adequate cross section, and shall be equipped with central
alignment notches or holes, corner braces, riser braces, and stub angle bolting
legs to permit the accurate setting of stub angles in respect of the following
requirements;
(I) Route longitudinal center line
(ii) Tower lateral center line