Requirements on piling plan submission

Under BC (Amendment) Act 2007 & Regulations 2008

Er Dr Yet Nai Song Building and Construction Authority

Types of piling submissions


Bored cast-in place piles Grouted micropiles

Types of piling submissions

Driven piles

Jacked-in piles

• To help Qualified Persons who prepare the piling plans to comply with requirements of BC (Amendment) Act 2007 & Regulations 2008


Submission checklist 2. D 6. C. Piling Annexes B. BCA / IES / ACES Advisory Note on Site investigation & Load test 5. SS CP4 : 2003 4. Good practices in design & construction 5 .Overview 1. BC Regulations 10(2) 3.

(1) Submission checklist 6 .

for foundations located within influence zone of sensitive structures. Piling plans endorsed by QP and AC Design reports by QP and AC Declaration forms by QP and AC Site investigation report.Submission checklist I. boundary line and neighbouring buildings Impact assessment report. IV. Clearance letters. III. where applicable. VI. II. from the relevant authority 7 . V. like MRT or CST tunnels) VII. endorsed & certified by a PE A plan showing the layout and location of the site. where applicable (eg.

Certifications by QP and AC on plans PE AC 8 .

Certifications by QP(geo) and AC(geo) on plans A eo) C (g eo) E(g P 9 .

10 .

Certification by PE for SI report 11 .

Plan to show Site Location Se ra ng oo n Sy Proposed Construction Site ed site Al wi Rd er R De sk Ro ad Jal an d Be s ar 12 .

An example of project close to sensitive structures Pile Raft for a 66-storey building MRT lines CS Tt un PU ne B dra l in MR Ts t at ion 13 CS l nne T tu .

(2) Building Control Regulation 10(2) 14 .

Regulations 2003 Regulation 10(2) 15 .

Regulations 2008 Regulation 10(2) the location of piles and site investigation boreholes . the estimated pile penetration depth for each design zone . 16 .

Regulations 2008 – Reg 10A(5) (Plans of foundation ≥ 30storeys) 17 .

18 .Building Control Regulations 2008 Regulation 10(2) the location of piles and site investigation boreholes . the estimated pile penetration depth for each design zone .

pile joints. Items to be shown on piling plan 19 . III.(a) Pile type & material specification. before and after accounting for negative skin friction. (ii) allowable tension load. Do the plans show the pile types and material specification ? Do the plans show pile size and pile details? Do the plans show the pile capacity ? (i) allowable foundation capacity. sectional details I. where applicable. lateral load. II.

Pile capacity & Pile reinforcement Pile diameter Pile reinforcement Working load 20 .

Details of Pile reinforcement Anchorage length Lap length Sectional details Full depth cage /12m cage 21 .

Details of RC pile Pilecap connection details Joint details Sectional details 22 .

Is depth of any borehole beyond proposed pile penetration depth ? (see BCA/IES/ACES advisory note 2003) Items to be shown on piling plan 23 . II. Do the plans show location of site investigation boreholes? Is there any borehole within the footprint of each block ? For buildings of 10-storeys or more III. Do number of boreholes exceed minimum ? IV.(b) Site investigation borehole I.

Site investigation boreholes (1) Footprint of tower block Total = 5 boreholes 24 .

Site investigation boreholes (2) Total = 10 boreholes 25 .

Site investigation boreholes (3) Total = 26 boreholes 26 .

(c) Pile depth & (d) Pile founding criteria I. Do the plans show pile design zones (based on site investigation information) ? Do the plans show the following information ? (i) pile founding criteria (eg. II. pile founding depth / minimum embedment into competent stratum / pile set criteria / magnitude of jack in load) (ii) a description of soil / rock for founding layer. Items to be shown on piling plan 27 .

Pile design zones based on boreholes 28 .

Example 1 Pile founding criteria (in hard soil) 29 .

Example 2 Pile founding criteria (in hard soil & rock) 30 .

Example 3 Pile founding criteria (pile set) 31 .

Do the plans contain unit shaft friction and unit pile base resistance used for pile design ? Are soil strata / rock type given for the above ? Items to be shown on piling plan 32 .(e) Geotechnical parameters I. II.

Unit shaft friction & base resistance used in pile design 33 .

whether the soil is still undergoing consolidation at its final stress state ?) II.e.(f) Negative skin friction I. Is there a design evaluation of the possibility of negative skin friction ? (i. Has negative skin friction been considered in the design ? Items to be shown on piling plan 34 .

II.(g) Allowable settlements I. Are allowable total and differential foundation settlements shown on plan ? Are these allowable foundation settlements consistent with the design calculation ? 35 .

5mm 40th – 6.Sample variation of building settlement with time during superstructure erection 10th – 1.5mm 20th – 3.5mm 43rd – 8. 36 .0mm 30th – 4.0mm Settlement increases with building height.

(h) Vibration limits I. Are allowable vibration limits specified on the plan ? 37 .

DIN 4150 : Part 3 “Structural vibration in buildings” Guideline on Limit of vibration Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 38 .

III. (ii) types of pile tests. and correlated with borelog ? Will the preliminary piles for the ultimate pile load test be instrumented. Are types and number of tests provided complied with BCA/IES/ACES advisory note 2003 ? Is location of ultimate pile load test shown on plan. hollow spun pile) 39 . eg. to verify the geotechnical parameters ? (Applicable to piles where strain gauges could be installed along the pile. II. IV. bored piles.(i) Verification tests I. Do the plans contain the following information ? (i) number of tests.

2UL T E xc eed + 5W ed m inim LT + um ! 9P D A 40 .

Preliminary pile to be instrumented 41 .

pile joints.A ap re c Items to be shown on piling plan e) Skin friction & End bearing for pile design f) Pile capacity before & after negative skin friction g) h) i) Allowable settlements Allowable vibration limits Pile load test & location a) Pile type & material specification. sectional details b) Site investigation boreholes c) Estimated pile length for each design zone d) Minimum embedded depth into competent stratum 42 .

(3) SS CP4 : 2003 (Code of Practice for Foundations) 43 .

Code of Practice CP4 : 2003 44 .

3. Safety of nearby buildings should not be put at risk 45 . Adequate safety factor against failure 2.1] • Every pile design has to satisfy 3 conditions: 1.Design for pile foundations [CP4 Clause 7. Settlement of foundation under working load should not affect the serviceability of structure 3.

3.Pile Group Effect (CP4 Clause 7. Group settlement is greater than settlement of individual pile Differential settlement between two pile groups < 1:500 46 II. .4) I.

8m piles within 60mx60m footprint 47 .An example where pile group effect is dominant with overlapping of stress bulbs of individual piles 300 nos 1.

5.2) If bored piles are subject to lateral forces. • • to full pile length or to where bending moment is negligible.4.3. 48 .Effect of lateral forces during basement excavation (CP4 Clause 7. reinforcement should be adequately provided for bending moments.

An example of effect of basement excavation on foundation piles • • • • • 15m excav Marine clay Dwall GMP 4 struts 49 .

Table 1 Pile Ecc and Maximum Forces at Final Stage of Excavation Pile Position from Max ecc Dwall [m] [mm] L1 4 20 L2 12 18 L3 20 7 R1 4 36 R2 12 30 R3 20 24 Max N [kN] 2029 1782 1753 2340 3592 3255 Max BM Max SF [kNm] [kN] Remarks 615 -595 in GMP 488 -346 in GMP 229 -372 in GMP 820 1030 in GMP -740 357 in GMP -645 236 in GMP Foundation piles move by 36mm.• Foundation piles should be designed for the effect of basement excavation. and experience bending moment of 820 kNm ! 50 .

(4) BCA / IES / ACES Advisory note (for buildings of 10-storeys or more) 51 .

Requirements for Site Investigation
• to establish the soil strata and ground variation Minimum requirement (a) Number of boreholes 1 borehole per 300 m2 1 borehole at 10 to 30m spacing Minimum 3 boreholes

(b) Depth of boreholes

- 5 metre into hard stratum with N>100 - 3 times pile diameters beyond pile founding level.


(1) Rockhead varies from RL 102m to RL88m (2) The quality of bedrock varies greatly.

Min. 5m into hard stratum

Example of soil profile for Bukit Timah Formatio

Example of soil profile for Jurong Formation

Min. 3 pile diameters below intended pile founding level


Requirements for pile load tests
Type of Load Test (a) Ultimate load test on preliminary pile (preferably instrumented) (b) Working load test Pile Test Schedule 1 number or 0.5% of the total piles whichever is greater. 2 numbers or 1% of working piles installed or 1 for every 50 metres length of proposed building, whichever is greater. 2 numbers or 2% of working piles installed, whichever is greater.

(c) Non-destructive integrity test. (Note: This is for the purpose of quality control, and high-strain type should be used for bored piles)


Load measurement for pile load tests (CP4 Clause 7.1) • Load should be measured by a calibrated load gauge & a calibrated pressure gauge 56 .5.2.5.

(5) Piling Annexes (for buildings of 10-storeys or more) 57 .

Piling Annex B Certificate of supervision of pile load test QP B S QP er ild u e o) (g ervisor i t e su p 58 .

Piling Annex C Interim certificate of supervision of piling works QP eo) P(g Q lder Bui r perviso S i t e su 59 .

Piling Annex D Certificate for monitoring building settlement db ne Si g QP y db ne Si g eo) P(g yQ 60 .

(6) Some good practices in pile design & construction 61 .

a) Reduce over-reliance on pile base resistance 1) Applying a minimum safety factor to skin friction. for bored piles. where soft toe may occur 62 .

eg limestone area limestone 35m 3-m thick cavity limestone 63 .a) Reduce over-reliance on pile base resistance 2) In erractic soil condition.

(b) Preliminary pile at borehole location Borehole Ultimate test pile 64 .

measurement of skin friction at various soil /rock layers 65 .(c) Judicious location of strain gauges • Taking into account : .variability • To aid interpretation eg.change of soil layers .thickness .

4.5.(d) Innovative Investigative preliminary pile CP4 Clause 7.1 • Preliminary piles may be formed with voids at base or soft toes to determine ultimate shaft resistance 66 .

(e) Investigative preliminary piles installed using similar construction method as working production piles CP4 Clause 7.5.1 Wet hole method Dry hole method 67 .4.

(f) Proper transfer of load to Kentledge frame Use stiffener for effective transfer 68 .

3 m (CP4 Clause 7.1) 69 .g) Minimum distance between test pile & Kentledge leg • Distance between Kentledge leg to surface of test pile ≥

(h) No preloading on piles before test 70 .

(i) Conduct working load test at location where it matters Pile Size (mm) ASM 1000 1200 1500 1800 2000 2200 2500 2800 3000 Working Load (kN) 5800 8400 13200 19000 23500 28500 36800 41600 53000 Total : 135 147 99 115 159 96 88 62 22 16 939 Nos No. of Load Test 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 Method of Test Kentledge Kentledge Bi-Directional Bi-Directional Bi-Directional Bi-Directional Bi-Directional - Examples : 10 (1) Piles within the tower footprint (2) Piles carrying larger load 71 .

(j) No preselection of pile for working load test 72 .

(k) Keep rock/soil sample at site for verification 73 .

(l) Impose quality control measure at site 1) Pile bore stability 2) Pile base cleanliness 3) Tests on stabilizing fluids 74 .

(l) Impose quality control measures at site 4) Sufficient cooling time for weld to gain strength 75 .

(m) Check & verify obvious change in pile depth Eg: (1) Site investigation (2) Load tests 76 .

Recap of Some Good Practices a) Reduce over-reliance on pile base resistance i) b) c) d) e) Preliminary pile at borehole location Judicious location of strain gauges j) Innovative preliminary pile Preliminary pile installed using same method as working piles f) Proper load transfer to Kentledge frame g) Minimum distance between test pile & Kentledge leg m) l) Keep soil/rock samples at site for verification Impose quality control at site k) No preselection of pile for working load test Check & verify obvious change in pile depth Conduct working load test at location where it matters h) No preloading on piles before test 77 .

Good practices in design. Requirements of piling plan submission under recent BC amendment Act and Regulations 2.Summary 1. load tests & construction 78 . Requirements for foundations of buildings more than 10-storeys 3.

.Concluding remark Standard Certification by QP on plans and calculations “I .. certify that they have been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Building Control Regulations..” • QP who prepare plans and calculations for piling plans have to comply with the requirements of BC Act and regulations 79 . the Building Control Act and any other written law pertaining to buildings and construction for the time being in force.

THE END Thank you ! 80 .

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