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Basic Electrical

Terminology
Joseph Eyraud
Voltage

An electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.
Amperage

The strength of an electric current in amperes.
Ohms

The SI unit of electrical resistance, expressing the resistance in a circuit
transmitting a current of one ampere when subjected to a potential difference
of one volt.
Ohm’s Law

Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is
directly proportional to the voltage across two points.
Electrical Current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is
often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an
electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas.
Alternating Current

An electric current that reverses its direction many times a second at regular
intervals, typically used in power supplies.
Direct Current

An electric current flowing in one direction only.
Electric Circuit

An electric circuit is a path in which electrons from a voltage or current source
flow. The point where those electrons enter an electrical circuit is called the
"source" of electrons. The point where the electrons leave an electrical circuit is
called the "return" or "earth ground".
Series Circuit

A series circuit is a closed circuit in which the current follows one path, as
opposed to a parallel circuit where the circuit is divided into two or more paths.
In a series circuit, the current through each load is the same and the total
voltage across the circuit is the sum of the voltages across each load.
Parallel Circuit

A Parallel circuit has certain characteristics and basic rules: A parallel circuit
has two or more paths for current to flow through. Voltage is the same across
each component of the parallel circuit. The sum of the currents through each
path is equal to the total current that flows from the source.
Conductor

A material or device that conducts or transmits heat, electricity, or sound,
especially when regarded in terms of its capacity to do this.
Resistor

A device having a designed resistance to the passage of an electric current.
Insulator

A substance or device that does not readily conduct electricity.
Watts

The SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second, corresponding to the
power in an electric circuit in which the potential difference is one volt and the
current one ampere.
Battery

A container consisting of one or more cells, in which chemical energy is
converted into electricity and used as a source of power.