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CONSULTANT TRAINING

MANUAL
A Guide for APEO Consultants in Asia Pacific

Benjamin M. Kaufman

Asia Pacific Education Office


TABLEOF CONSULTING
PART I - PROCESS OF CONTENTS

PART I - PROCESS OF CONSULTING


GENERAL CONSULTING TOPICS AND PRINCIPLES

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 3

The Purposes of a Consultant ................................................................................... 5

The Consultant’s Professional Attributes and Skills ...................................................... 7

Models of Consulting............................................................................................... 11

Problem Solving Models ............................................................................................ 12

Which Model should be Used ................................................................................... 16

Managing the Consultant-Client Relationship ............................................................. 17

Problem-Solving Methodologies ............................................................................... 17

CONSULTING FOR APEO

The APEO Consultant Job Description and Mission .................................................... 21

Special Considerations for APEO Consultants ........................................................... 23

APEO Forms, Reports, and Procedures ................................................................... 27

PART II - ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS

Module One - Change Dynamics

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 33

Models of Change Dynamics.................................................................................... 33

Common Errors of Those Leading Major Change in Organizations .............................. 35

Consideration of Hostede’s Country Uncertainty Avoidance Taxonomy ................................. 36

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Module Two - Conflict Management

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 37

Major Concepts of Conflict Manaagement ................................................................ 37

Two Models of Conflict Management ....................................................................... 38

Cross-Cultural Implications of Conflict Management in Asia Pacific ............................. 41

Module Three - Cross-Cultural Dimension

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 43

Major Concepts of the Cross-Cultural Dimension ...................................................... 43

Conceptual Model of the Cultural Value Orientations.................................................. 44

Module Four - Leadership

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 47

Leadership Model # 1 ............................................................................................. 47

Leadership Model #2 .............................................................................................. 48

Management and Leadership.................................................................................... 49

Module Five - Negotiating

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 51

Major Concepts of Negotiating ................................................................................ 51

Module Six - Organizational Culture

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 53

Major Concepts of Organizational culture.................................................................. 53

Module Seven - Perspectives of an Organization

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 55

Major Concepts of Perspectives of an Organization ................................................... 55

Assumptions, Components, and Criticisms of Each Frame .......................................... 57

Module Eight - Power in Organizations

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 61

Major Concepts of Power in Organizations ............................................................... 61

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Module Nine - Teams and Teamwork

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 63

Major Concepts of Teams and Teamwork................................................................. 63

Module Ten - Training

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 65

Major Concepts of Training ..................................................................................... 65

Recommended Reading List ........................................................................................... 67

Endnotes ................................................................................................................ 71

APPENDIXES
Appendix A - SWOT Analysis ................................................................................. 79

Appendix B - APEO Division Consultant Job Description ........................................... 83

Appendix C - Managers and Consultants as Helpers ................................................... 87

Appendix D - APEO Onsite Forms and Reports

Coordinator Travel Form............................................................................. 105

On-Site Visits Advance Letter – Sample ....................................................... 107

Pre On-Site Response Form ....................................................................... 109

Checklist for On-Site Visit Preparation ......................................................... 111

On-Site Visits – Suggestions for On-Site Activities ........................................ 113

Consultant Roles to Maintain and Avoid ....................................................... 115

On-Site Visits – Checklist of On-Site Follow-Up Action Needed ................... 117

On-Site Visits Follow-Up Letter – Sample.................................................... 119

APEO Consultation Report Form ................................................................ 121

Appendix E - APEO Project Forms

Projects Goals Form ................................................................................... 125

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Project Goals Form – Sample ICI Project Goals ........................................... 127

Multi-Year Action Plan – Sample ICI Action Plans ........................................ 129

Identifying Project Priority and Satisfaction Levels (Quadrants) ...................... 133

ICI Project Priority and Satisfaction Level – Sample ...................................... 134

Appendix F - APEO Profile Form

Bible School Profile .................................................................................... 139

Church Ministries Profile ............................................................................. 147

ICI University Profile .................................................................................. 155

Appendix G - The Culture Audit Notebook taken from Hans Finzel’s work

A Descriptive Model for Discerning Organizational Culture ............................ 167

Appendix H – Case Study No. 1............................................................................. 181

Appendix I – Case Study No. 2 .............................................................................. 185

Appendix J – Uncertainty Avoidance Index .............................................................. 191

Appendix K – 5 Styles of Conflict Management ....................................................... 195

Appendix L – The Bible and Conflict ....................................................................... 205

Appendix M - Case Studies for Consultants ............................................................. 219

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P ART
AR T I

PROCESS OF CONSULTING

GENERAL CONSULTING TOPICS AND PRINCIPLES


APEO Consultant Training Manual 1
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GENERAL CONSULTING TOPICS AND PRINCIPLES

INTRODUCTION
The Asia Pacific Education Office (APEO) is a consultation, networking and resource center for Asia
Pacific Bible Schools, Church Ministries and ICI University. This italicized phrase is written on each of
our letterheads and highlights the fact that consulting is an indispensable component of our work at APEO.
As APEO consultants you will spend a substantial amount of time consulting for your division. This manual
is designed to assist you as you seek to improve your skills as consultants.

Why You Need This Book

Does one of these descriptions fit your situation?

>You’ve been asked or appointed to be an APEO consultant but, frankly, you don’t really know
what the word “consulting” means, let alone how to be a consultant.

>You just finished a consultation somewhere in Asia Pacific but you were a bit uninformed as to
why you were there and what you should have done.

>You’ve been consulting for APEO for several years now and you would like to really sink your
teeth into more information on consulting so that you can do a better job.

>All you’ve been reading lately is fascinating novels and you feel guilty about wasting your time, so
you’ve concluded that the best way to do penance and make things right is to read a manual.

If one of these situations describes you, then read on.

How to Use This Book

This manual will help you understand consulting in the context of our schools and churches in Asia Pacific.
Most likely it will be a reference that you will use during training sessions or when you are preparing for an
onsite visit.

How theBook is Organized

This book is divided into two major sections. The first section deals with the process of consulting
for APEO while the second covers general topics dealing with organizations. It is necessary to read all the
sections in order. You may need the information from some chapters more than others. Feel free to pick
and choose the sections you’re most interested in. Here are a few quick directions:

“I need to know what a consultant is and does.” You’ll want to read the early sections on the
purposes and skills of a consultant. Also, in appendix B you will find the APEO consultant job description.

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“I’m preparing for an onsite visit. What should I do?” You’ll want to review the section titled,
“Topics and Principles for APEO Consultants.” Also, read “Appendix D-APEO Onsite Forms and Re-
ports.”

“A pastor asked me to meet with him during my next trip. He is planning to implement
major changes in his church and wants me to give him some direction and advice.” You might find
the module on change dynamics helpful.

“Next month I will do my first consultation. I have read the basic information I need on
consultation. But do you have any examples of difficult situations I might face?” I have included
case studies that will guide our consultants in thinking through some of the difficult situations before actually
experiencing them. You’ll find them in Appendix M.

“I just finished a consultation and need to prepare a consultation report.” You’ll find a copy
of the generic consultation report at the end of Appendix D.

What is Consulting?

In a sentence, a consultant is one who attempts to influence or change a person, group, or


organization but has no direct power to implement the recommended changes.

The lack of control is what can make the consultant’s task so difficult and at times, frustrating. If you have
direct control or power to implement the recommended changes you are not consulting, but managing.

The one sentence definition above is helpful but is not exact enough to adequately define the work of a
consultant. Let’s consider a more thorough definition of a certain kind of consulting, management consulting:

Management consulting is an independent and objective advisory service provided by quali-


fied persons to clients in order to help them identify and analyze management problems or
opportunities. Management consultants also recommend solutions or suggested actions with
respect to these issues and help, when requested, in their implementation. In essence, man-
agement consultants help to effect constructive change in private or public sector organiza-
tions through the sound application of substantive and process skills.1

Now let’s take this definition apart.

First, notice that management consulting is …


an independent and objective advisory service.
Have you ever said, “I wish that I had an objective opinion of this situation?” One of the greatest services
that we can offer is to provide objective advice, when requested, to a client. Many leaders are desperate
for someone to give them an outside opinion of a difficult situation.

Second, notice that consultants help clients …


identify and analyze management problems or opportunities.
Do you remember when Jethro offered his consulting services to Moses? You may not have thought of
Exodus 18 in this light before. Jethro helped Moses identify and analyze Moses’ problem. In fact, Moses

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may not have known that he had a problem. Jethro was both father-in-law and consultant.

Third, notice that consultants …


recommend solutions … and help, when requested, in their implementation.
Jethro recommended that Moses delegate some of his responsibilities.

Fourth, notice that consultants help …


through the sound application of substantive and process skills.
It takes skill to be a good consultant. Secular companies will pay their consultants US$150/hour or more
because of the skills the consultants bring to a situation. Our work in the kingdom is immeasurably more
important and can result in eternal dividends!

Important Terms

Client - In this book I will refer to the “client.” The client is the person or persons that the consult-
ant wishes to influence, or the leader of the organization that is hosting the consultant. Clients will
also be referred to as leaders. Typical clients for APEO consultants are ICI Directors, Bible
School presidents and administrators, leaders of church ministries, and pastors.

Intervention - At points in the book we will refer to an on-site visit as an “intervention.” An


intervention is any action you take with a system of which you are not a part. It is important to
remember that any on-site visit is an intervention.

THE PURPOSES OF A CONSULTANT


Facilitating Client Learning

One of the primary purposes of a consultant is training. Often the training is one-to-one or with the client’s
staff. Traditionally, training is a process of identifying needs and then designing and developing training
interventions to address those needs. This presupposes a period of time between the development and
delivery of training. However, much of the time our training occurs with little preparation time.

A consultant should
• have an understanding of the learning process
• know the appropriate use of instructional methods
• understand the use and application of learning activities, and
• have adequate presentation, listening, and facilitating skills.2

Encouragement

Leaders may not be receptive to training or information until we have addressed their discouragement. We

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must remember that the battle we are waging is a spiritual one and we must use spiritual means to achieve
spiritual ends.

The consultant should allow the Holy Spirit to work through him to provide an encouraging word to the
leader. Taking time to pray with the leader is always acceptable. Prayerfully listening to the leader is
essential.

Providing Information

As a provider of information to Bible Schools, ICI offices, or churches, the consultant takes on the tradi-
tional role of consultants. Consultants have knowledge, skills, and ministerial experience that are vital to our
schools and churches. A key consultant role is to provide information needed by individuals, groups, and
organizations to help define problems and make decisions. Through their knowledge of useful information
and of effective school and church programs, APEO consultants demonstrate their value to Asia Pacific
leaders.

Identifying and Creating Resources

Through observation and research, consultants understand the various needs of Asia Pacific educational
institutions, churches and their leaders. Once the consultant is aware of the need, she then has a mandate
to produce or coordinate the production of resources to address the need.

The Asia Pacific Assemblies of God educational institutions look to APEO, among other organizations, to
provide resources for them. APEO consultants developed a number of APEO resources, such as the
Faculty Manual.

Conducting an Effective Diagnosis

The definition of consulting presented earlier included the component of identifying and analyzing manage-
ment problems or opportunities. Consultants must first of all discern whether the client wants such a diagno-
sis. Unwanted advice is normally unheeded!

Effective diagnoses can range from short superficial diagnoses—such as a series of questions, to complete
organizational diagnoses—such as the organizational culture tool presented in Appendix G. It is important
to diagnose the organizational problem correctly so that time, money, and the consultant’s credibility are not
sacrificed.

Recommending Solutions and Solving Problems

The definition of management consulting cited previously states that the consultant helps the client . . .
• identify and analyze management problems or opportunities . . .
• recommends solutions or suggested actions . . .
• and helps, when requested, in their implementation . . .

For example, if the ICI national office is not meeting its budget, the solution that the consultant may recom-
mend is that the ICI national director follows a cost-cutting strategy.

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In this role the consultant uses a synergistic approach, collaborating with the leader to solve the problem.
The consultant must decide how directive to be, taking into account the client’s acceptance of the consult-
ant, the dispostions of both the client and consultant, the consultant’s knowledge of the problem and solu-
tions, and the cross-cultural factors in the situation.

Networking with Other Ministries/Divisions

An important aspect of our work is introducing one ministry to another. APEO‘s work involves Bible
schools, churches, and ICI offices. Within this large network is a host of fine leaders and a wealth of
ministry materials. Let’s not keep the knowledge to ourselves but instead share it during our consultations.
Questions and needs are often similar from one location to the next. Your greatest service to a client may be
linking her with someone who had a similar situation or problem (of course, this should not be done if it
betrays confidentiality).

Being a Catalyst for Organizational Change

The management consultation definition cited earlier stated, In essence, management consultants help to
effect constructive change in… organizations through the sound application of substantive and
process skills.

Consultants often take multiple roles in organizational change including:


1. Recommending change
2. Training a leader how to manage change. (The section on change dynamics later in this manual could be
used as a resource.)
3. Training staff how to deal with change. Change is not easy and any assistance that consultants can offer
to the client’s staff enhances the effort.
4. Building consensus and commitment to change in the organization. Often an objective outsider can do
much to influence others in the organization in regard to the need to make the changes recommended by
the client.
5. Providing ongoing consulting and coaching to the leader in a change effort.

THE CONSULTANT’S PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES


AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS
Personal Attributes

Christian Maturity

An APEO consultant’s maturity in Christ is foundational. A consultant’s years of experience in


obeying Christ can provide encouragement to the client and carry the consultant through difficult
consultation visits.

Empathy

In a study to determine what clients want from consultants, Jack Snader reports that the top three

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behaviors that make a consultation successful are 1) demonstrating that you understand the client’s
situation, 2) clarifying issues, and 3) trust. Snader recommends using the 80/20 rule in consulting.
Listen 80% of the time and talk 20% of the time. Then, of the 20% talking, the consultant should
ask questions 80% of the time.3

Integrity

John Maxwell states that “the foundation of character is integrity.”4 A cluster of attributes make up
integrity, including moral and ethical soundness, fairness, equity, ability to distinguish between right
and wrong, honesty, dependability, freedom from corrupting influence or practice, and strictness in
the fulfillment of both the letter and the spirit of agreements made, regardless of personal consider-
ations.5

Too often, people compromise their standards because they don’t recognize a situation as unethical.

Courage

Courage is defined here as the strength of mind that enables people to encounter disagreement,
difficulties, and obstructions with firmness of spirit and determination and to consider them as
challenges rather than something to be avoided and feared.6

Courage causes the consultant to support convictions that have been arrived at through prayer,
study of the Word, and wise reasoning about the rightness of a situation or problem. Lack of
courage is evidenced by feelings of inadequacy and dependency on others.

Objectivity

It is essential to grasp and to represent facts, unfettered by prejudice. The consultant’s objectivity is
threatened when personal considerations, biases, and anxieties about the consultation are present.
Without objectivity, the consultant’s recommendations will be worth very little and the consultant’s
credibility damaged.

Ambition

A consultant with the right amount of ambition is one who needs to accomplish to be happy, who
feels a strong urge to produce concrete results, and who regards work as an important aspect of
obedience to Christ. A consultant with too much ambition becomes self-centered, strives only for
selfish ends, and regards the educational institution or church ministry as a pawn to be used to
achieve those selfish ends.

Psychological Maturity

People are considered mature when they are able to live life-with its frustrations, adversities, and
inequities—and to act with poise and control in all situations. Maturity is judged more by reactions
to people than to things. People are considered mature when they are capable of forgetting them-
selves for someone else. Psychologically mature people deal easily with others who would be
considered equals, supervisors, or subordinates.

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They accept that authority is necessary and accept it in all the limits of its power, realizing that the
instrument that God uses is a human one.

Professional Skills

THE TOP FOUR SKILLS – There are four skills that deserve the greatest attention: communica-
tion ability, project management, teaching and presentation skills, and cross-cultural communication
skills.

Communication Ability

Consultants need an ability to use both written and spoken words to convey ideas. An accurate
interchange of feelings, thoughts, opinions, and information between individuals is a critical consulting
skill. Open and active listening and responding, respect for the client, and the proper mix of candid-
ness and self-effacement, are essential. Verbal communication skill is particularly important given
the emphasis APEO places upon the onsite consultation.

Project Management

APEO Division Coordinators rely on their division consultants to do a substantial portion of the
division’s projects. Often the consultant is charged with leading one or more major projects.

Simply stated, a project is an organized effort with planned activities and schedules. Projects vary
in size from a simple, one-day training seminar to a comprehensive organizational design (such as the
development of the ICI Graduate Studies Program). Projects have the following characteristics:

1. Solid conceptual plan

2. Measurable goals

3. Broken down into manageable and clear steps

4. Discrete observable results

5. Sufficient resources

6. Project team is focused on outcomes desired

7. Well-managed7

Teaching and Presentation Skills

A consultant will spend a considerable amount of time in teaching and training. APEO consultants
are accustomed to teaching in the classroom and the church sanctuary. What APEO consultants
often find rewarding is the opportunity for teaching and presenting in such a wide variety of situa-
tions. From one-on-one coaching, to specialized board training, to presentations to an entire
general council, to impromptu training and counseling in such venues as the hotel lobby and airport

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terminals, the variety is extensive.

Cross-cultural Communication Skills

Operating as a consultant in a cross-cultural setting requires more skill than operating as a consultant
in one’s original culture. Trusting relationships are vital in Asia Pacific and there are numerous threats
to solid, trusting relationships, particularly in a cross-cultural setting. Threats such as insensitivity to
administrative protocol, ignorance of acceptable and unacceptable behavior in situations, and
disregard in the handling of sensitive relationships endanger the consultant’s crediblity.

Other Important Professional Skills

Problem Solving Ability

It takes a significant degree of mental organization and development to absorb and relate facts in a
logical and orderly fashion and to reason inductively and deductively. Problem solving ability
involves thorough analysis, original thinking, the synthesis of new ideas from elements experienced
separately, and the development of practical solutions to complex problem situations.8

The ability to solve problems is a rare and priceless skill. Assisting leaders in problem solving
benefits the educational institution or church and advances the kingdom of God.

Judgment

Judgment is the God given ability and reasoning power to arrive at a wise decision, a course of
action, or a conclusion, especially when only meager or confused facts are available.
Problem-solving ability brings the consultant to a decision point. Alternative solutions have been
identified, and a recommendation with supporting justification must now be made as to the most
desirable solution.9

The most successful consultants have the ability to forecast the outcomes of each alternative and to
select the most desirable one. Ease in selecting the most desirable alternative and the quality of the
selection improves significantly with practice.

Hebrews 5:6 – “But solid food is for the mature, who by constant use have trained themselves to
distinguish good from evil.”

Understanding How to Gain Permission and Protect Territory

The concepts of permission and territory are crucial to understanding the consulting process in Asia
Pacific. As we work with Bible school leaders, church leaders, and ICI directors and attempt to
help them solve problems, they are not always prepared to tell you in the first instance many of the
things you need to know. For example, they may give you a little information just to see how you
respond. If you appear to be negative or critical or disinterested, then nothing further may be
disclosed to you. They will find a convenient way of changing the subject and cutting off discussion
on the important matters. Barcus and Wilkinson cite four levels of permission:

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Level 1 – Information not available
Level 2 – Information freely available
Level 3 – Information provided if you ask the right questions.
Level 4 – Information provided if you are trusted and follow up key cues and clues.

Key questions we need to ask ourselves include


• How do you operate when the leader reveals information, motives, and thoughts that he never
discloses to outsiders?
• Once the leader opens that territory, how do you protect it?
• How do you get permission to give advice?

Group Facilitation Skills

Much of a consultant’s time involves working with small groups (boards, consultation committees,
etc.). Skills needed for small groups include knowledge of group dynamics, dealing with resistance,
and understanding methods of group decision-making.

Team Leadership Skills

A consultant may be leading a project team. Team leadership skills include leading a team, under-
standing team goals, roles and communication, dealing with dysfunctional members, and managing
team conflict.

MODELS OF CONSULTING
In this section we will consider four models of consulting. Each model has its place, and each model has its
strengths and weaknesses. The models are grouped into two kinds: the service provider model, and
problem-solving models. One service providing model and 3 problem-solving models are presented.

THE SERVICE PROVIDER MODEL

This is the model that is practiced during most APEO onsite consultations. The consultant is onsite to
provide service to the ICI office, Bible school, or church ministry. The consultant meets with the client to
provide training and encouragement, and to help in whatever way possible. In this model the primary and
initial focus of the meeting is not to address problems. Rather, it is to provide service to the client. The
purpose of APEO consultations differs from most secular consultations at this point. When a secular
consultant is invited into a business, for example, the customary reason for the invitation is to solve a prob-
lem of some kind.

In the service provider model the consultant may have been invited by the client, or the consultant may have
invited himself (For example, the ICI International Office expects the Asia Pacific ICI Coordinator or ICI
consultants to make annual onsite visits to ICI national offices.) For more information on the subject of
invitations to visit a country, see “About Helping, Finances, Invitations, and Promotions” in the section
“Special Considerations for APEO Consultants.”

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Though the consultant in the service provider model may not have been invited to the school or church to
solve a problem, problems are often addressed. If the client asks for help in solving a problem, the consult-
ant may reverse his strategy and move from the service provider model to one of the problem-solving
models explained later. Consulting often involves fluid and continual movement between the models.

Message of the Client to the Consultant

By message I am referring to expectations. The expectations of the school or church leader toward the
consultant will vary widely. Leaders who know APEO generally understand why we are there and they
welcome our services. In situations where APEO is not known or there has been misunderstanding in the
past, the consultant may need to spend more time explaining the services that we offer prior to the onsite
visit, or in the early stages of the consultation. (see “Procedures for APEO Onsite Visits” in the section,
“APEO Forms, Reports, and procedures” for more information on onsite planning).

A helpful form to use in planning the onsite visit is the Pre-onsite Response Form found in Appendix D.
This form is sent to the client well before the onsite visit. Once completed and returned, it provides an
agenda for the visit and reduces uncertainty and misunderstanding.

PROBLEM SOLVING MODELS


There are three problem-solving models below. Each deals with consulting situations where the client asks
or allows the consultant to help in solving a problem.

Problem solving model #1: Information-Expert model11

Description

The core of this model is that the client has made up his mind on what the problem is, what kind of
help is needed, and to whom to go to for this help.

Message Of the Client to the Consultant

“Here is my problem, bring me back an answer.”

The psychological message is: “Please take the problem off my shoulders and bring me back a
solution.” This permits the client to relax and concentrate on other matters, secure in the knowl-
edge that the expert is now handling the situation. The expert is “owning the problem.”

Conditions that must be met if This Model Is To Work

1. The client has correctly diagnosed the problem

2. The client has correctly identified the consultant’s capabilities to provide the information or expertise.

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3. The client has correctly communicated the problem and the nature of the information or expertise that
is needed.

4. The client has thought through and accepted the potential consequences of obtaining the information
or the expertise.

Places Pressure on Client

The irony of this model is that the expertise is attributed to the consultant, but in fact a tremendous
load falls on the client to do things correctly if the problem is to be solved.

Example in a Church

Let’s say that a church has asked an APEO consultant to address its lack of numerical growth. The
pastor has determined that the problem is that the church growth methods utilized by the church are
outdated. The pastor heard an APEO consultant speak at the local Bible College and has asked
the consultant to visit the church the next day.

The following day during the meeting the pastor asked the consultant to return at a later date and
train the church pastoral and office staff in the seeker sensitive model of church growth. In other
words, the pastor has determined that the numerical problem in his church is due to outdated
methods and that the solution is moving to a seeker sensitive model of church growth, and that an
APEO consultant is the expert who can provide the training solution that is needed. The assumption
is that once the expert provides the training that the church will become more seeker sensitive and
the church will grow.

Example in a Bible school

Or let’s say that the situation is a Bible school that has a major shortage of funds. The problem,
according to the Bible school president, is that the general council is not behind the school and
therefore does not support it sufficiently. The president has determined that he and the school
administrators need some advice on how to increase the general council’s support of the school.
The school president has asked you to come and tell them how to do this.

In each of these two examples, the information-expert model is represented. In both these ex-
amples the client has made up his mind on what the problem is, what kind of help is needed, and to
whom to go to for this help. The APEO consultant has been asked to use his expertise to solve the
problem.

Problem solving model #2: The Doctor-patient Model12

Description

This model is a variant and elaboration of the previously described expert model in that it gives the
consultant the additional power to make a diagnosis and recommend what kind of information and
expertise will solve the problem. The client experiences some pain or observes some symptoms of
pathology but does not really know what is wrong or how to fix it.

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Message to the Consultant

The consultant is called in and given the mandate to “find out what is wrong and recommend how to
fix it.” The essence of the model is that the client delegates to the consultant not only locating a
remedy but also, first, diagnosing the problem.

Condition To Be Met If This Model Is To Be Helpful

1. The diagnostic process itself will be seen as helpful

2. The client has correctly interpreted the organization’s symptoms and has located the sick area.

3. The person or group defined as “sick” will reveal the pertinent information necessary to make a
valid diagnosis; that is, they will neither hide data nor exaggerate symptoms; they will be coop
erative.

4. The client will understand and correctly interpret the diagnosis provided by the consultant, and
will implement whatever prescription is offered.

5. The client will remain healthy after the consultant leaves.

Problem solving model #3: The Process Consultation Model13

Description

Process consultation (PC) is a set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps the client to
perceive, understand, and act upon the process events that occur in the client’s environment.
Notice that the client is doing most of the “work” in this situation.

Premises

Premise 1. The client owns the problem and continues to own it, throughout the consultation
process. This may happen in the other models, but in PC it is a central concern.

Even if the consultant feels he knows exactly what is the problem and how to solve it, such diagnos-
tic and prescriptive ideas should probably be withheld early in the process for three basic reasons:

• The consultant is most likely wrong to some unknown degree because of the likelihood
that there are hidden cross-cultural, political, and personal factors operating.

• Even if the consultant is right, the client is likely to be defensive, to not listen or deny
what is being said, to argue, or to misunderstand and thereby undermine the possibilities
of solving the problem.

• Even if the client accepts the consultant’s diagnosis he probably fails to learn how to do
such diagnosis in the future himself.

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Premise 2. The client must share in the process of diagnosing what may be wrong (or learn to see the
problem for himself).

The client must be actively involved in the process of generating a remedy because only the client ultimately
knows what is possible and what will work in his culture and situation.

Premise 3. The consultant may or may not be an expert in solving the client’s particular problems.

Such expertise is less relevant than are the skills of involving the client in self-diagnosis and teaching inter-
vention skills to the client.

Premise 4. Diagnosis and intervention cannot be separated in practice.


The major criteria that govern what the consultant does, therefore, derive from intervention
theory, not diagnostic theory.

Assumptions

This model is most appropriate when the following assumptions must be met.

1. The client is hurting somehow but does not know the source of the pain or what to do about it.

2. The client does not know what kind of help may be available and which consultant can provide
the kind of help that may be needed.

3. The nature of the problem is such that the client not only needs help in figuring out what is wrong
but also would benefit from participation in the process of making a diagnosis.

4. The client has “constructive intent,” is motivated by goals and values that the consultant can
accept, and has some capacity to enter into a helping relationship.

5. The client is ultimately the only one who knows what form of intervention will work in the situa-
tion.

6. The client is capable of learning how to diagnose and solve his own organizational problems.

Example

The PC consultant would use a less directive method than that utilized in the other problem-solving
models. Though the consultant may think that he knows the problem and solution early in the
consultation process he would not tell the client. Rather, the PC consultant would ask questions and
use other methods that would nudge the client toward identifying the problem and solution himself.
The intent is to train the client to use problem-solving methods that he (the client) can use in the
future without the aid of a consultant. In other words, though the consultant may have been called in
to solve a specific problem, the PC consultant will take the process one further step and train the
client to solve similar problems himself in the future.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 15


WHICH MODEL SHOULD BE USED?
It is useful to be aware of several models. Such knowledge will help the consultant understand the particular
model with which he is most comfortable. Also, understanding more than one model is advantageous
because it provides alternative methods. If a model is not working well the consultant has other models on
which to rely.

The question that follows a review of the various models is, “Which model should a consultant use?” The
answer is, “Each consultant must use his or her own judgment in deciding which model to use.” Variables
such as the context, client attributes, consultant attributes, and at-the-moment judgments will determine
which model to use in a specific setting.

MANAGING THE C O N S U L TA
T A N T-
T- C L I E N T RELATIONSHIP

Let’s say that you wish to do an onsite visit to a school in Asia. What are
the keys to initiating and developing a good relationship with the school
president? Consider the following thoughts.

• Define your intent


Before your visit to the school the school president needs to know up front
your purpose in seeking an onsite visit. Make it clear to him why you
want to make the visit. It could be any one of a number of reasons: to
learn from their school, to train staff or the board, to provide a training
session for their entire leadership team, etc. Uncertainty as to your intent
may lead to suspicion.

• Establish Rapport
Once onsite you should strive to establish a level of commonality with the
president and others with whom you meet. Establishing commonality does
not mean that you must be like your clients. It means that you establish an
understanding of what they need and value. It means that you understand
where they are coming from and what they are hoping to achieve at their
school. It means that you have a commonality of purpose.

• Further define your intent


Once onsite, it is wise to review with your client(s) the reason for your
consultation at his school. Whether set by you or the client, the agenda
for the meeting may not be clear, it may have changed, or it may need to be
altered. Understand their expectations. Though they may have communi
cated with you prior to your visit, perhaps by phone, mail or e-mail, face-
to-face communication allows for subtle nuances of meaning that are not
always possible with other means of communication.

16 APEO Consultant Training Manual


• Build credibility
Credibility is a consultant’s lifeblood. If you are not perceived as credible
you will never gain their trust. Being credible does not mean that you
know everything and have all the answers. But it does mean that you have
something to offer to the president and school and that you follow through
on your promises.
• Be responsive to your client’s needs
Address your client’s needs in a timely manner. Follow up on the visit
with communications to the president to confirm that his needs were
addressed and the purpose of your visit was fulfilled.14

PROBLEM SOLVING METHODOLOGIES


As an objective observer your viewpoint can be an answer to prayer for the leader with whom you work.
Someone has called consultants, “minds for hire.” That is not literally true for us because we are not paid by
our clients. In any case, using the tools that we acquire we can render invaluable assistance to our clients.
One of the tools is a framework or structure for problem analysis and solution selection.

During onsite visits clients will present school or church problems to the consultant. At times the consultant
will identify problems that the client has not perceived up to that point. At other times the problems will be
clearly communicated to the consultant by the client. Problems may surface at any time. More than once
problems have been revealed in route from the airport to the hotel. It is not uncommon for problems to be
disclosed over lunch. If the consultant can provide relevant information or solutions to the problems he will
increase his credibility.

Two problem-solving tools are the PEPSIE methodology and the SWOT analysis. Both tools are helpful in
framing and guiding consultants in solving problems.

PEPSIE is explained first. After you read it you will probably conclude that it is common sense. I would
agree. However, as the saying goes, common sense is not all that common.

“PEPSIE” Problem-solving Methodology15

Step #1: PErformance identification

The problem-solving process begins with identifying expectations and comparing them to actual
performance.

For example, the expectation is that an ICI office will have enough income to support the office, but
there is a shortage each month of $500. The performance does not match the expectation.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 17


Step #2: Problem identification

Analyze the situation to identify the problem. Remember to deal with the problem and not
the symptoms.

For example, the problem may simply appear to be the lack of $500/month in
income. But perhaps that is just the symptom. Perhaps the real problem is
lack of communication with donors, or mismanagement of the available
income.

Step #3: Solution identification & selection

Brainstorm with others to generate as many ideas as possible to identify a solution. This
activity should be conducted without evaluation or examining the ideas. The goal is to come
up with as many potential solutions as possible.

For example, in addressing the shortfall each month, an ICI office may brain
storm the following solutions: Increase income by. . . , decrease ex
penses by. . . , improve management of present funds by. . . .etc.

1. Test the solutions


2. Name possible obstacles to the application of the solution.
3. The goal of this stage is to identify the best alternative.

Step #4: Implementation of the solution

Sometimes it may be wise to pilot-test the solution. The evaluation allows the leader to
refine the solution. For large organizations it is often a good idea to implement a solution in
parts of an organization before introducing it to the entire organization.

Step #5: Evaluation of the solution

If the problem is not solved, alternative solutions need to be considered.

SWOT Analysis (For the diagram of the SWOT Analysis see Appendix A)16

SWOT analysis is an easy-to-use technique to help an organization capitalize on its strengths,


overcome its weaknesses, take advantage of its opportunities, and avoid threats. SWOT refers to
internal Strengths and Weaknesses and external Opportunities and Threats. It is a systematic
identification of those factors and the strategy best suited for them.

The logic of the SWOT analysis is that an effective strategy makes the most of strengths and oppor-
tunities while minimizing weaknesses and threats. This simple assumption, if accurately applied, has
powerful implications for successfully choosing, designing, and selecting a winning strategy for a
Bible school, church, or ICI national office.

18 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Procedure for Using the SWOT analysis

1. Define strengths and weaknesses.

A strength is any resource or capacity an organization can use effectively to achieve


goals and objectives.

For example, in the context of a church the strength may be good facilities, a great choir,
and a strong children’s program.

A weakness is any limitation that will keep an organization from achieving its goals and
objectives.

Examples could include poorly trained teachers, few financial resources, lack of clear,
visionary direction.

2. Define opportunities and threats.

An opportunity is any favorable situation in the external environment that permits an


organization to enhance its position.

Examples could include community needs for preschool programs, community interest in
the church’s Christmas musical celebrations, church located in new growth area.

A threat is any unfavorable situation that is potentially dangerous to the organization.

Examples of threats could include the fact that the church is in a highly mobile commu-
nity(people move every 2-3 years), government regulations, and the community’s
emphasis upon wealth and materialism.

3. Match distinctive competence with available niches.

The key is to match the strengths with the opportunities that exist. In our examples, perhaps a
local church that has a strong children’s program is located in a community that has a need for
preschool programs. Or perhaps the choir could host a community Christmas celebration.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 19


20 APEO Consultant Training Manual
CONSULTING FOR APEO

THE APEO CONSULTANT JOB DESCRIPTION AND MISSION


Overview of the APEO Division Consultant Job Description

The complete job description for an APEO Division Consultant is located in Appendix B.
It is wise to review the job description periodically.

Notice that in the job description there are 18 specific duties of an APEO consultant. In this section we will
review four of the most important duties. APEO Division Coordinators rely on their division consultants to
assist them with four major tasks: 1) projects, 2) onsite consultations, 3) division direction, and 4) confer-
ences.

Projects. As mentioned earlier, one of APEO’s primary purposes is to be a resource center.


When a resource is in development it is often referred to as a project. Project leaders are often consultants.
Consultants have contributed to or led the production of such invaluable APEO resources as The Director’s
Manual and The Faculty Manual.

Onsite consultations. Another primary responsibility of consultants is conducting onsite consulta-


tions. Consultations are an extremely important aspect of the work of APEO. During these visits the
consultant interacts with Bible school, church, and ICI leaders. Also, during onsites consultants learn of the
needs of those leaders and the trends that are occurring in Asia Pacific. So many dynamics occur during
onsite consultations that it is difficult to sum them up in a few sentences.

Division direction. One of the duties of a consultant is serving on the consultation committee of
the division. Commonly called “conscom,” this is the leadership team that directs the work of the division
and determines its priorities. The three division consultation committees meet at least annually at the APEO
Strategy Planning Conference. During these meetings the direction is set for the following 12 months.

Conferences. Much of the networking that occurs in Asia Pacific takes place at APEO confer-
ences. Also, a conference is an excellent venue for presenting a large amount of information in a short
period of time. But organizing and conducting a successful conference is not easy and division coordinators
rely on their consultants to assist in the planning and implementation of the conferences.

Please understand that the other duties of a consultant are important. However, these four stand out among
the eighteen listed in the job description.

Developing an APEO Consultant Competency Core

A Consultant Competency Core (CCC) is what you, personally, have to offer the leaders of the educational
networks we serve. The Core consists of your experience and the tools with which you are equipped.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 21


Experience

Each consultant has probably served in one or more of the three areas of APEO: Bible Schools,
Church Ministries, or ICI. Due to your experience you have technical knowledge and practical
wisdom that you can share with those in similar ministries.

Tools

I recommend that each consultant develop three specific training tools that can be presented as
workshops during onsite visits.

A list of possible competencies is included below:

1. Basic training (choose one)


a. Basic training for Bible School presidents
b. Basic training for ICI national directors
c. Basic training for pastors or church leaders

2. General leadership development (choose one)

a. Change Dynamics
b. Conflict Management
c. Cross-cultural dimensions
d. Leadership
e. Negotiating
f. Organizational Culture
g. Perspectives of Organizations
h. Power in Organizations
i. Strategic Planning
j. Teams and Teamwork
k. Training
l. A topic of your choice relating to leadership

Note: In the second section of this manual there is an introduction to most of these topics and later
in the manual is a list of additional reading materials.

3. Specialized competencies

a. Training of staff in an educational institution


b. Bible School faculty training
c. Administrative board training
d. Church development strategy
e. Strategic planning for leaders
f. Curriculum design
g. Human resource development
h. Organizational restructuring
i. A topic of your choice

22 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Onsite Preparation and the Consultant Competency Core (CCC)

Once you have recognized your CCC, and you are preparing for an onsite visit, you should make the clients
in those countries aware of your CCC. They will not know what you have to offer unless you tell them.
Once they know, they can decide how best to make use of your skills.

It may be wise to prepare a simple brochure describing the workshops you can provide and the experience
you have had (such a brochure should be made in collaboration with your division coordinator). A pre-
pared brochure makes it possible for the leader in the onsite country to stimulate interest in your visit. For
example, if a Bible School president knows that you are prepared to offer training to his board, he may ask
you to conduct a board training session during your visit.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR APEO CON-


SULTANTS
APEO Overview

1. Philosophy and Mission

In short, APEO is a consultation, networking, and resource center for Asia Pacific Bible
Schools, Church Ministries, and ICI University. You may want to memorize this sentence. It is
a compact statement that is an excellent response to the question, “What is APEO?”

Our mission statement reads as follows:


The Asia Pacific Education Office is a service agency that exists to assist the national
churches of the Asia Pacific field in their efforts to fulfill the mandate of the
great commission by providing resources and facilitating development that result in
accomplishing the goals of evangelizing, discipling and ministry training.

Notice first that APEO is a service agency that exists to assist...


We provide a service to Asia Pacific. A service agency is not in administrative authority
over the churches or schools of Asia Pacific. Our purpose is to serve them.

Then notice that we are assisting the national churches of the Asia Pacific field...in their efforts...
We exist to serve the national churches. The Asia Pacific Assemblies of God national
churches are at various stages of development. Some look to us for resources and onsite
consultations more than others. But all that we do is designed to assist the national churches
reach their goals. A well-organized and effective ICI office will help a national church in
their evangelism and discipleship efforts. A Bible school whose board is
well trained will be a blessing to the school’s general council. Church leaders who under
stand how to lead will increase the effectiveness of the general council.

2. Distinguishing the Three Divisions

APEO has three divisions: Bible Schools, Church Ministries, and ICI University. The primary

APEO Consultant Training Manual 23


difference between the three is quite evident. Bible schools work primarily with Bible schools,
Church Ministries with churches, and ICI University with ICI national offices. But there are other
differences. Note the following.

Networks. The Bible School and ICI University Divisions have well established and well defined
networks. There are 95 resident Bible Schools and 25 ICI National Offices, not counting the
extension schools or offices. The personnel changes from time to time but the networks have been
established for years. However, the network of the Church Ministries Division is less formal.

Authority. Earlier I stated that APEO is not in authority over the churches and schools in Asia
Pacific. This is certainly true of the Bible School and Church Ministries Divisions. But the APEO
ICI University (ICI) Coordinator is in a unique position. The ICI International Office considers the
ICI Coordinator to be their regional director for Asia Pacific. According to the ICI Operations
Manual, the ICI Coordinator’s signature is required for ICI national director appointments. As
such, the ICI Coordinator walks a fine line. On one hand he is an integral part of APEO, an office
that has no line of authority over the schools and churches. On the other hand, the ICI International
Office has given a certain amount of authority to the ICI Coordinator when it comes to the ICI
National Offices.

Building Relationships

1. Contacts to make during onsites

Normally a consultant’s first priority when making an onsite visit will be the key person who
relates to his or her division. For an ICI consultant it will be the ICI national director, for the
Bible School Division it will most likely be a Bible School president, for the Church Ministries
Division it may the Church Ministries specialist or a pastor. Consultants often ask if they should
make other contacts while in the country. Following are recommended contacts that should be
made while onsite.

• General Superintendent and/or other members of the executive committee


• DFM country coordinator
• DFM Area Director if he lives in the country

Also, when time permits, it may be wise to meet with leaders of the other educational and
church ministries while in the country. For example, an ICI consultant might meet with a Bible
school president or administrator to make him aware of new ICI materials. A church ministries
consultant might meet with the ICI Director to explain how churches in other countries are using
ICI materials. The primary purpose of these visits is to build relationships, network, and make
people aware of our resources and ministries.

2. Maintaining confidences

A consultant who does not maintain confidences can do much damage, both to APEO and to
the people involved. Our positions require that when people disclose information that is secret,
we honor their wishes. Foundational to our work is the trust that we build with our Asia Pacific
leaders.

24 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Consultants should be careful when describing the church or school program of another country
so as not to convey information that could be confidential. A general rule is not to talk to
people in country “B” about the situations and people in country “A.” There are exceptions. I
once described a Saipan Bible Institute to the Philippines ICI Director because he had heard
about Saipan’s Institute and wanted to start a similar institute in the Philippines. That is quite
different from sharing guarded information.

Spiritual Considerations

1. Maintaining a vital devotional life

One of the difficult aspects of traveling can be maintaining a strong devotional life. Schedules
and jet lag are two obstacles that hinder us from having a daily time of Bible reading and prayer.
However, Jesus said that apart from Him we could do nothing, not even consult!

Remember too that consultation trips of 2 or 3 weeks often create a cumulative stress effect.
You encounter problems and irritations along the way. As you move along in your trip the stress
and tension tends to build up. A daily devotional is a time to give the stresses and problems to
Christ, search the Scriptures for answers, and allow the Holy Spirit to strengthen you. As
someone said, “Too much output with too little input will make your fair vehicle go ka-put.”

2. Spiritual warfare

Satan will oppose you in your work as consultant. Pre-onsite prayer times with your family and
church are recommended. Traveling with another consultant may prove helpful. Times of
fasting during the trip can provide spiritual focus.

About Helping, Finances, Invitations, and Promotions

1. Managers as consultants (See Appendix C for an excellent article on this subject)17

The article in Appendix C claims that the most effective managers act as helpers instead of
bosses. The article is included to remind us of the best role to take when consulting or manag
ing is the helping role.

Following is one paragraph from the article:

How then can it be true that common skills and concepts apply to both managers and
consultants? To make that argument one must look a bit beneath the surface. People
who are perceived by their colleagues, bosses, and subordinates to be effective manag-
ers and effective consultants have in common that, when they relate to others whom
they are tying to influence, they both take the stance of trying to help. Even though
they have different sources of power and influence, the effective practitioners seem to
gravitate toward a more common role definition vis-à-vis others with whom they are
working — the helping role.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 25


2. Fees and finances

One of the primary differences between APEO consultants and most other consultants is that
we do not charge for our work.

3. Invitations to consult

Must an APEO consultant be invited to a country before doing a consultation?


APEO consultants are very sensitive to protocol. Consultants do not want to impose their
services on others. Though it has been stated earlier, it should be emphasized that APEO is a
service agency that helps the national offices reach their goals.

But on the other hand, many leaders do not make a practice of inviting consultants or others to
their country because when they do so, protocol in their countries requires that they pay for their
guests’ airfare, hotel, and other expenses. In these cases, the fact that consultants are not
invited has nothing to do with the consultants themselves.

Another consideration in this matter is that the ICI University Operations Manual states that one
of the duties of an ICI regional director is to visit each national ICI office annually (though the
ICI Coordinator is not called the regional director, he fulfills that responsibility).

With these considerations in mind, I conclude that APEO consultants do not need invitations to
do onsite consultations. However, as the consultant considers where to make onsite visits it is
essential to communicate with DFM area directors and national church leaders before making
firm plans. There are times when the area director or leader will ask that the consultant not visit
the country. Of course, their wishes are to be honored.

One more thing should be noted. All consultants must receive permission from the APEO
director, their division coordinator, and the respective area director(s) before making onsite
visits. Often these people will be aware of situations in countries that the consultant would do
well to avoid.

In summary, invitations can be initiated from the field, by a consultant if he has been made aware
of a field need, by the field, area, or department director, or by an APEO division coordinator.

4. Promotion of consulting services

Secular consultants live and die by the quality of their promotion. For them, if they don’t get the
contract they receive no payment. Obviously APEO consultants do not face that situation. But does
that mean that APEO consultants should not promote their services? Not at all. In fact, APEO
consultants should promote their services to Asia Pacific Bible school, ICI, and church leaders.
These organizations may need the services we provide but simply be unaware of what we do.
A brochure describing the division’s ministry is helpful. The division coordinator may recom
mend that consultants prepare a brochure describing their Consultant Competency Core.

26 APEO Consultant Training Manual


APEO FORMS, REPORTS, AND PROCEDURES
APEO Onsite Forms and Reports (See Appendix D)

1. Coordinator Travel Form

This form should be filled out and signed before each onsite visit. Consultants who wish to be
reimbursed for travel from their account must have a completed Coordinator Travel Form on file
with DFM. To complete the form, write in the information and send it to your division coordi
nator. He will ask the APEO director to sign it and then send it to each of the area directors
whose area you are planning to visit. The area directors will send a signed copy to DFM and to
the consultant or division coordinator.

2. Advance letter

3. Pre-onsite Response Form

This form will clarify the consultation agenda for both the consultant and client. Send it to the
client several months in advance so that you can prepare for your onsite adequately.

4. Checklist for Onsite Visit Preparation

5. Suggestions for Onsite Activities

6. Consulting Roles to Maintain and Avoid

7. Checklist of Onsite Follow-up Action Needed

8. Consultation Report

The completed consultation reports should be sent to your division coordinator, with copies to
the field director, area director, and branch director. At times it is beneficial to send a copy to
your client. (Review it competely before doing so.)

9. Follow-up Letter

Procedures for APEO Onsite Visits

Following are steps to follow when planning onsite visits.

1. Decision to consider an onsite consultation

The decision to consider making an onsite visit may originate from one of following sources:

• Request from APEO director, APEO division coordinator, DFM, or ICI I. O.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 27


• Request from the field

• Onsite visit in conjunction with conference or presentation

• Awareness of need

• Follow-up visit

2. Prepare draft travel plans in conjunction with consultant’s division coordinator.

3. Discuss draft travel plans with area director(s) in area(s) consultant plans to visit.

4. Complete Coordinator Travel Form (see Appendix D) and send to division coordinator.
Coordinator will ask APEO Director to sign off and then the coordinator will send it to the area
directors for their signatures.

5. Contact educational leader(s) in countries consultant will visit regarding purpose of visit and
tentative dates of visit.

6. Confirm travel plans with educational leaders in countries consultant will visit. Send Pre-onsite
Response Form (see Appendix D).

7. Make hotel and other logistical arrangements

8. Purchase ticket

9. Obtain visas if necessary

10. Contact other two APEO division coordinators to inform them of visit and ask if the consultant
can assist them in any of the countries (assuming adequate time).

11. Prepare workshops, documents for completion onsite, and other preparatory documents.

12. Conduct onsite visit.

13. Prepare consultation report and send to division coordinator(s).

14. Send follow-up letter, follow-up checklist, thank you letters, and any resources promised to
those visited during onsites.

APEO Annual Strategy Conference Report

Each consultant should prepare an annual report for presentation at the APEO Annual Strategy
Conference. The report should have two parts: 1) What was done the previous 12 months, and 2)
Goals and plans for the next 12 months. If the consultant cannot attend the Strategy Conference the
report should be mailed or e-mailed to APEO so that it arrives in time for inclusion in the conference
notebook.

28 APEO Consultant Training Manual


APEO Project Forms (See Appendix E)

1. Projects Report

The Projects Report is a list of division projects that is kept in the division coordinator’s office.
It lists the project’s title, leader, associates, status, and review dates. It provides an overview of
the division’s projects.

2. Project Goals Form

There is a Project Goals Form for each project. The form will include the project’s purpose,
target audience, goals, components, special considerations, and procedures.

3. Multi-year action plan form

This form shows the projected completion dates for each project step.

APEO Profile Form (See Appendix F)

The division consultation committee utilizes the information from completed division profiles to
identify Asia Pacific trends. Consultants should generally complete one or more in each country
they visit.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 29


30 APEO Consultant Training Manual
PART II

ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS

APEO Consultant Training Manual 31


ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS
INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this section is to provide an outline overview of topics that relate to organizations, whether
Bible schools, churches, or ICI offices. This material is not intended to be read as you would read a book.
Rather, it is to be used as the general outline reference for consultant training sessions.

The final section of the manual includes a reading list that consultants can reference for further exploration of
the topics.

32 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE ONE - CHANGE DYNAMICS
INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE DYNAMICS
Purpose

The purpose of this module is to provide an overview of the subject of change dynamics and its application
to Asia Pacific churches and educational institutions.

Objectives

* To define change dynamics.


* To identify the main concepts of change dynamics.
* To present models of change dynamics.
* To understand how a knowledge of change dynamics will increase the effectiveness
of the work of APEO consultants.

Definition of Change Dynamics

The components and process of change in an individual or organization.

Why Does a Consultant Need to Understand Change Dynamics?

1. A consultant is a change agent by his/her very presence.


2. Consultants can create positive or negative perceptions toward planned change.
3. Consultants can provide training that leads to successful change.
4. Consultants may be requested to diagnose reasons for successful and unsuccessful
change efforts.

Examples of Change Dynamics at Work in Organizations

• Nationalizing an ICI University National Office


• A church building program
• A Bible school initiates a graduate program
• Restructuring the flow chart or chain of command of an office

MODELS OF CHANGE DYNAMICS


Model #1: Change Dynamics in Individuals

Schein provides a general model of the process of change in individuals.18 His model differs consid-
erably from the model for organizations. Schein’s model includes three stages.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 33


Stage 1: Unfreezing - Creating motivation and readiness to change through

a. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation


b. Creation of guilt or anxiety
c. Provision of psychological safety

Stage 2: Changing through cognitive restructuring by

helping the client to see things, judge things, feel things, and react to things differently based on a
new point of view obtained by

a. Identifying with a new role model, mentor, etc.


b. Scanning the environment for new relevant information.

Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into

a. The total personality and self-concept


b. Significant relationships

Model #2: Change Dynamics in Organizations

Kotter developed a model for making major changes in organizations.19 Kotter’s focus on organi-
zations is entirely different from Schein’s model for individual change. Kotter studied large organiza-
tions to determine the steps they followed in making successful changes. Kotter provides an 8-step
model.

Step 1: Establishing A Sense of Urgency

a. Examining the situation


b. Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities

Step 2: Creating the Guiding Coalition

a. Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change


b. Getting the group to work together like a team

Step 3: Developing A Vision And Strategy

a. Creating a vision to help direct the change effort


b. Developing strategies for achieving that vision

Step 4: Communicating the Change Vision

a. Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies
b. Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees

34 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Step 5: Empowering Broad-Based Action

a. Getting rid of obstacles


b. Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision
c. Encouraging risk taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions

Step 6: Generating Short Term Wins

a. Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins”


b. Creating those wins
c. Visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made the wins possible

Step 7: Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change

a. Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures, and policies that don’t fit together
and don’t fit the transformation vision

b. Hiring, promoting, and developing people who can implement the change vision

c. Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes, and change agents

Step 8: Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture

a. Creating better performance through customer- and productivity-oriented behavior,


more and better leadership, and more effective management

b. Articulating the connections between new behaviors and organizational success

c. Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession

COMMON ERRORS OF THOSE LEADING MAJOR


CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS
• Allowing too much complacency
• Failing to create a sufficiently powerful guiding coalition
• Underestimating the power of vision
• Under communicating the vision by a factor of 10 (or 100 or even 1,000)
• Permitting obstacles to block the new vision
• Failing to create short-term wins
• Declaring victory too soon
• Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture
• Not understanding the politics of change20

APEO Consultant Training Manual 35


CONSIDERATION OF HOFSTEDE’S COUNTRY
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE TAXONOMY IN ASIA
PACIFIC COUNTRIES
Geert Hofstede has conducted studies on uncertainty in different cultures of the world.21 He has produced
an uncertainty avoidance taxonomy for 50 countries of the world. Uncertainty avoidance is defined as “the
extent to which the members of the culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.” His tax-
onomy is found in appendix J.

There are a couple of reasons that Hofstede’s taxonomy has been included in this manual.
First, it confirms that people perceive change differently. Whether considering change in individuals or
organizations, not everyone views change the same.

Second, assuming that Hofstede’s taxonomy is accurate, we can use the information to judge how the
people in various Asia Pacific countries might respond to proposals for change. Of course, though Japan
has a higher uncertainty avoidance index than Singapore this does not mean that all Japanese tend to avoid
change or that all the people of Singapore are favorable to change. There are many exceptions. However,
the index does give us some information regarding the general cultural perspective toward change. That
handle can give us a starting point as we consult with our network and as they consider making changes in
their school or church.

36 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE TWO - CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

The purpose of this lesson is to provide an overview of the subject of conflict management and its applica-
tion to Asia Pacific churches and educational institutions.

Objectives of the Module

• To define conflict management


• To identify the main concepts of conflict management
• To present models of conflict management
• To understand how knowledge of conflict management will increase APEO consultants’ effectiveness.

Definition of Conflict Management

To handle with a degree of skill opposing incompatibles.

Why Does a Consultant Need to Understand Conflict Management?

1. The consultant may be asked to intervene in conflict situations.


2. The consultant should be able to instruct others on handling their conflicts.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


Common Grievance Issues Among Leadership Teams in Organizations

The following information shows common grievance issues from a study done among executives in Ameri-
can businesses.22 This study deals with the executive conflict among the leadership team. For example,
assuming that there is one president and ten vice-presidents in the businesses researched, this study would
have focused on conflict among themselves, not with the other employees. This information may be helpful
in understanding the kind of conflict that might occur among the administrative personnel of a Bible College
or church staff.

1. Promotion and compensations - Fairness, timing of decision processes.


2. Management style - Treatment of people in interpersonal and intergroup relations.
3. Personal life - Focuses on how leaders conduct their relationships with their families, friends, and
significant others.
4. Personalities - Individual enmity between the leaders without reference to other issues.
5. Individual performance - Conflict related to a superior’s perceived subpar performance of subordinates.
APEO Consultant Training Manual 37
6. Administrative jurisdiction - Conflict where one leader perceives that a colleague has overstepped his
functional authority.
7. Resource allocation - Conflict related to budgets, spatial allocations or personnel.
8. Organizational strategy - Conflict related to restructuring and redirecting the goals of the organization.
9. Work unit performance - Grievances of superiors against subordinates.
10. Personal appearance at work - Focuses on how leaders dress at work and in informal gatherings
related to work.
11. Unethical behavior
12. Gender discrimination

Grievance Schemas in Organizations23

A grievance schema is a way of framing a grievance.

1. Penal - The person who has the grievance believes that the offender has “broken the rules of sound
management” and deserves some sort of punishment.
2. Indifferent - The person who has the grievance views the offender as a “nuisance” in a conflict that he
hopes will just “end” of its own accord.
3. Compensatory - The person who has the grievance views the issue as a “broken obligation” that
demands some sort of payback.
4. Conciliatory - The person who has the grievance focuses on the “friction” caused by the offender and
how the friction needs to be removed.
5. Therapeutic - The person who has the grievance calls attention to the “abnormality” of the offender’s
behavior and explicitly suggests some sort of education to return the offender to standards of acceptable
behavior.

Myths about Organizational Conflict

1. The presence of conflict is a sign of poor management.


2. Conflict is a sign of low concern for the organization.
3. Anger is negative and destructive.
4. Conflict, if left alone, will take care of itself.
5. Some conflict is best managed by endurance, while other events require multiple solutions.

TWO MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


Model #1: The Model for Asia Pacific Missionary Settings24

Introduction

a. The inevitability of conflict


b. The underlying causes of conflict
c. Dangers in avoiding conflict

Styles of Conflict Management

a. The five styles of conflict management


See Appendix K for a treatment of the five styles
38 APEO Consultant Training Manual
The Bible and Conflict

It is clear that the Bible has much to teach us about conflict. Refer to Appendix L.

Development of Conflict Management Skills

a. The qualities and role of an effective referee

• He has confidence in his own worth and abilities

• He has the ability to inspire confidence in others

• He is flexible and persistent.

• He does not take substantive conflict personally.

• He does not take sides on the conflict issues.

• He manifests self-control and internal peace.

STAGES IN THE CONFLICT CYCLE

TENSION DEVELOPMENT STAGE

Tension signals that someone is feeling threatened or hurt, or is experi-


encing a sense of loss in some way.

ROLE CONFUSION STAGE

Participants are confused about what is going on and are asking: “Who
and what is causing this conflict?” “Am I a part of the problem?” and “What
should I and others do to resolve this?”

INJUSTICE COLLECTING STAGE

Opposing parties begin to pull apart and prepare for battle. Every
injustice or bad report is collected to become a part of each one’s artillery.

CONFRONTATION STAGE

Opposing parties confront one another.

ADJUSTMENTS STAGE

Parties look for ways to make adjustments and end the confrontation by
(1) severing relationships with other party, (2) dominating the other party,
(3) returning to way things were before conflict, (4) negotiating a new set
of mutual agreements.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 39


b. Development of a practical conflict management strategy

c. Learn the stages in the conflict cycle - Understanding the cycle will enable us to determine how far a
conflict has developed and how intense people’s feelings are. It helps us to answer the question, “What
is happening here?”

d. Manage conflict in its first stages - We ought to place our major emphasis on dealing with it before it
comes to a crisis point.

Model #2: A General Model of Conflict Management25

Stage One Conflict: Daily Events

a. Ongoing
b. Requires little action
c. Coping skills are excellent at this level
d. Day-to-day irritations

Stage One Conflict: Daily Events-Coping Strategies

a. Avoidance
b. Obliging
c. Follow three steps

Stage Two Conflict: Challenges-Described

a. Takes on an element of competition


b. Typified by a “win-lose” attitude
c. Losses seem greater at this stage because people are tied to the problems
d. Self-interest and “how one looks” become very important
e. A “cover-your-hind-end” attitude can also be observed
f. People keep track of the score
g. Witnesses take sides
h. Difficult for voluntary organizations to manage

Stage Two Conflict: Challenges-Solutions

a. Create a safe environment


b. Be hard on the facts, soft on the people
c. Do the initial work as a team
d. Look for middle ground, but do not suggest compromise
e. Allow time to pull competing parties toward acceptable ground without forcing issues or concessions
f. Remember, it is much harder to compete sitting next to someone than across a table.

Stage Three Conflict: Battles-Described

a. The objective shifts from wanting to win toward wanting to hurt

40 APEO Consultant Training Manual


b. The motivation is to “get rid” of the other party.
c. Conflict has escalated, something has to give
d. Changing the situation and problem-solving are no longer satisfactory
e. Self-interest and the “good of the organization” are equated
f. Leaders emerge from the group and act as spokespersons.
g. Small factions evolve. A loss of perspective is likely on the part of all participants
h. The argument’s merits and the strength of the positions are greatly exaggerated
i. Mediation may be necessary.
j. Even after a decision, some will continue the fight, pursuing their “holy mission”
k. Do not expect to produce harmony

Stage Three: Battles-How to Handle

a. Details are important


b. Interview every possible participant
c. Logic and reason are not effective in dissuading others at this stage
d. Clear organizational goals and a sense of direction are necessary

CROSS-CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONFLICT


M A N A G E M E N T IN A S IA P A C IF IC

Conflict and Directness

“Do not remove a fly from your neighbor’s face with a hatchet.” Chinese proverb

Conflict and Directness

Westerners tend to say Asians tend to say

I broke the plate. The plate fell and broke.

I missed the bus. The bus left without me.

We have a problem; let’s talk about it. A problem exists; we must hope it goes away.

I forgot to check the oil in the lawnmower The lawnmower does not work.

And burned out the engine. It needs to get fixed.

My walkman was stolen. My walkman has become lost.

I forgot. It forgot itself to me.

I was in an accident. An accident happened to me; or, My car


was damaged.26

APEO Consultant Training Manual 41


Most people in the world do not place a high value on direct, face-to-face confrontation to solve a conflict. Such
directness is considered rude and uncultured. Asian cultures tend to approach conflict indirectly and obliquely.

The idea of “saving face” is very important in Asia. In Japan it may be called “honor,” in the Philippines
“shame,” and in Thailand “saving face.” Yet each term describes a belief that this is the best way to pre-
serve smooth interpersonal relationships, maintain harmony, minimize potential conflict, restore community
solidarity, and facilitate communication between the various levels of society.

Case study of a conflict in an organization (Case study - Philippines) See Appendix I

42 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE THREE - CROSS-CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

To understand the dimensions of culture in the context of Asia Pacific.

Objectives of the Module

• To understand how different cultures view the world.


• To identify the main dimensions of cultural perspectives.
• To provide APEO consultants with a framework for understanding the perspectives of the people with
whom we work.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF THE CROSS-CULTURAL


DIMENSION
“Finding our feet”

“We...say of some people that they are transparent to us. It is, however, important as regards this
observation that one human being can be a complete enigma to another. We learn this when we
come into a strange country with entirely strange traditions; and what is more, even given a mastery
of the country’s language. We do not understand the people. (And not because of not knowing
what they are saying to themselves.) We cannot find our feet with them.”27

Question: What will help us find our feet in other cultures so that we can minister effectively?

Answer: Cultural awareness and sensitivity

Value Orientation Definition

Preferences for certain outcomes over others.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 43


CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE CULTURAL
VALUE ORIENTATIONS
Introduction

There is a difference between generalizations and stereotypes.

Value Orientation Categories28

Environment: Locus of Control in the World

a. Conflict - the environment, including other people, can be molded to fit human needs
b. Harmony - people are in integral part of nature, and their actions and thoughts should facilitate
harmonious relations with the world and with others
c. Constraint - it is presumptuous to claim direct control over a ministry-or any other-environment

Time: Approach to Measuring Actions, Processes, and Conditions

a. Single-focus - a high commitment to doing one task at a time and meeting set deadlines; the
MODULE ONE - CHANGE DYNAMICS
focus is on the task rather than relationships
b. Multi-focus - emphasis on doing simultaneous tasks with a high commitment to relationship
building rather than just task completion or meeting arbitrary deadlines; tasks will be completed
through the strength of the relationship rather than complicated plans.
c. Fixed - define punctuality precisely; meetings are expected to begin on time, and deadlines and
schedules are taken seriously; time is sliced into fixed categories, such as seconds, minutes, and
hours, and is scheduled and managed in great detail
d. Fluid - define punctuality in looser terms; rather than being divided into fixed categories, time
perceived to be an organic, flowing process more related to the prolonged agricultural seasons
than to industrial seconds, minutes, and hours; some delays are expected and deadlines and
other commitments are not written in stone
e. Past - place a high value on the maintenance of historical sensibilities
f. Present - aim for quick results and stress the “here and now.”
g. Future - demonstrate a willingness to trade short-term gains for long-term results.

Action: A Person’s Relationships to Activities

a. Doing - emphasis is placed on achieving external, measurable accomplishments, achieving goals,


and improving standards of living.
b. Being - stress their affiliations, character, and personal qualities; emphasis on quality of life, on
nurturing, caring, and relationships

The difference is in whether the primary mode of activity is task driven or


relationship driven

44 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Communication: How People Relate To One Another

a. High-context - relationship-centered; a great deal of contextual information is needed about an


individual or organization before business can take place.
b. Low-context - task-centered; business is impersonal; relatively little information is needed about
an individual or organization before business can be transacted
c. Direct - meet conflict head on
CHANGE
d. Indirect - useIN ORGANIZATIONS
a mix of conflict avoidance and third parties to handle conflict
e. Expressive - not shy about displaying emotions; more concerned with the establishment and
maintenance of personal and social connections than with the precision of communication; how
it is said is more important than what is said.
f. Instrumental - communication is problem-centered, pragmatic, impersonal, and goal oriented;
what is said is placed above how it is said.

g. Formal - places a high value on following protocol and social customs


h. Informal - places a high value on change and gives minimal significance to historical continuity.

Space: Distinctions Between Public and Private Space, and Distances Between Individuals

a. Private - work within individual offices or rooms divided by partitions or cubicles; permission
needed to enter a private space
b. Public - primary orientation is toward open public space, large rooms with few partitions

Power: People’s Approach to the Possession of Control or Influence Over Others

a. Hierarchy - power and authority are centralized, and organizational structure-in terms of highly
demarcated levels-is tightly controlled
b. Equality - organizations tend to be flatter, and power is decentralized; structure aims to encour
age individual autonomy and responsibility.

Individualism: How People View the Individual’s Relationship to the Group

a. Individualistic - places high value on independence; the obligations between people are few
(except for very close family); and the social bonds between people are relatively loose and
flexible
b. Collectivist - subordinates individual interests to group interests; cohesive groups protect their
members in exchange for loyalty and obedience
c. Universalistic - stresses the consistent application of generalizations, rules, and procedures and
the production of universal products and services
d. Particularistic - emphasizes difference, uniqueness, and exceptions; rules are secondary to
relationships; the notion of universal principles, products, or services applicable in all situations,
regardless of circumstances, is inappropriate

APEO Consultant Training Manual 45


Competitiveness: the Approach Toward Situations Where One Person Can Be in Contest with
Another

a. Competitive - predominantly materialistic with an emphasis on assertiveness and acquisition of


money, property, goods, and so on; high value is placed on ambition, decisiveness, initiative,
performance, speed, and size.
b. Cooperative - stress is on the quality of life, sympathy, nurturing, and relationships

Structure: the Extent to Which the Members of a Culture Experience Threat or Discomfort by
Ambiguity and Uncertainty

a. Order - seeks to reduce ambiguity and uncertainty and make events predictable and interpret
able; conflict and change are perceived as threatening, and there is a perceived need for rules,
regulations, and procedures-both written and unwritten.
b. Flexibility - more tolerant of unknown situations, people, and ideas; tolerance of deviation from
norms is higher, and conflict is natural rather than threatening

Thinking: The Approach to and Processes of Ideas, Theories, and Opinions

a. Inductive - derives principles and theories from the analysis of data; models and hypotheses are
based on empirical observation and experimentation, and the goal is verification through empiri
cal proof
b. Deductive - emphasizes abstract thinking and the reality of ideas, moral values, theories, and the
principles that can be derived from them.
c. Linear - linear cultures will dissect it into small chunks that can be linked in chains of cause and
effect; the emphasis tends to be on detail, precision, and pragmatic results
d. Systemic - when faced with a problem, systemic-oriented cultures stress an integrated ap
proach, sometimes called “holistic” or synthetic; focuses on relationships between parts and
their connections; often a reliance on analogy, metaphor and simile for explanation.

46 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE FOUR - LEADERSHIP

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module
To provide an overview of the practice of leadership.

Objectives of the module

• To define leadership
• To identify two models of leadership
• To consider the differences between management and leadership

Purpose for Consultants

APEO consultants will have numerous opportunities to do leadership training for leaders of our Asia Pacific
educational institutions. It is therefore necessary for the consultants to understand more than one model of
leadership and the differences between leadership and management.

Definition of Leadership

A leader is one who mobilizes others toward a goal that is shared by the leader and follower.

Leadership Models

Question: Why discuss more than one leadership model?


• To give a leader more flexibility.
• To allow a leader to use the one that fits his/her personality.
• To demonstrate that there is more than one perspective on leadership.

LEADERSHIP MODEL #1 - FIVE FUNDAMENTAL


PRACTICES OF EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP
Practice #1: Challenging the Process29

a. Challenging the process by confronting and changing the status quo


b. Challenging the process by experimenting and taking risks

Practice #2: Inspiring A Shared Vision

a. Inspiring a shared vision by envisioning the future


b. Inspiring a shared vision by enlisting others

APEO Consultant Training Manual 47


Practice #3: Enabling Others to Act

a. Enabling others to act by fostering collaboration


b. Enabling others to act by strengthening others

Practice #4: Modeling the Way

a. Modeling the way by setting the example


b. Modeling the way by achieving small wins

Practice #5: Encouraging the Heart

a. Encouraging the heart by recognizing contributions


b. Encourage the heart by celebrating accomplishments

LEADERSHIP MODEL #2 - SITUATIONAL LEAD-


ERSHIP
Brief Description of the Situational Leadership Model30

Situational leadership is based on an interplay among (1) the amount of guidance and direction (task
behavior) a leaders gives; (2) the amount of socioemotional support (relationship behavior) a leader
provides; and (3) the readiness level that followers exhibit in performing a specific task, function, or
objective.

How to use Situational Leadership Model

1. Identify the task


2. Assess readiness of followers
3. Select matching behavior to meet performance needs of followers

Basic Concepts

Task behavior is defined as the extent to which the leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsi-
bilities of an individual or group. These behaviors include telling people what to do, how to do it, when to
do it, where to do it, and who is to do it.

Relationship behavior is defined as the extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multiway commu-
nication. The behaviors include listening, facilitating, and supportive behaviors.

The Four Leadership Styles

Style 1 (S1). This leadership style is characterized by above-average amounts of task behavior and
below-average amounts of relationship behavior.

Style 2 (S2). This leadership style is characterized by above-average amounts of both task and relation-
ship behavior.

48 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Style 3 (S3). This style is characterized by above-average amounts of relationship behavior and below-
average amounts of task behavior.

Style 4 (S4). This style is characterized by below-average amounts of both relationship behavior and task
behavior.

The Four Readiness Levels

The following descriptions apply to the four levels of follower readiness:


Readiness level 1 (R1):
Unable and unwilling. The follower is unable and lacks commitment and motivation
or
Unable and insecure. The follower is unable and lacks confidence.

Readiness level 2 (R2):


Unable but willing. The follower lacks ability, but is motivated and making an effort.
or
Unable but confident. The follower lacks ability, but is confident as long as the leader is there to provide
guidance.

Readiness level 3 (R3):


Able but unwilling. The follower has the ability to perform the task, but is not willing to use that ability.
or
Able but insecure. The follower has the ability to perform the task, but is insecure or apprehensive about
doing it alone.

Readiness level 4 (R4): Able and willing. The follower has the ability to perform and is committed.
or
Able and confident. The follower has the ability to perform and is confident about doing it.

MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP31


a. Differences in Addressing Tasks

1) Task = creating an agenda


Management: Planning and budgeting
Leadership: Establishing direction

2) Task = Developing a human network for achieving the agenda


Management: Organizing and staffing
Leadership: Aligning people

APEO Consultant Training Manual 49


3) Task = Execution
Management: Controlling and problem solving
Leadership: Motivating and inspiring

4) Task = Outcomes
Management: Produces a degree of predictability and order
Leadership: Produces change

b. Is management “bad” and leadership “good?”

c. Consequences of Strong Management with Weak Leadership

d. Consequences of Strong Leadership and Weak Management

50 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE FIVE - NEGOTIATING

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

To introduce the practice of negotiating from a cross-cultural perspective.

Objectives of the Module

• To define negotiating.
• To identify keys for successful cross-cultural negotiating.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF NEGOTIATION


Introduction and Definition of Terms

Why Does a Consultant or Leader Need to Understand Negotiating?

The consultant will find himself in situations where negotiating skills are necessary.

What is the Definition of Negotiating?

Negotiating is conferring with another in order to arrive at an agreement.

Keys To Effective International Negotiations

1. Be Christlike, even as a negotiator

2. Negotiation as communication

3. Grow your relationship

4. Focus on interests and needs, not positions

5. Communicate cooperation

6. Remain culturally sensitive

7. Stay flexible, calm, creative, and professional

8. Use brainstorming

APEO Consultant Training Manual 51


9. Deal with destructive behavior

10. B e prepared— do yourhom ew ork.32

52 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE SIX - ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Module

To understand the concept and components of organizational culture.

Objectives of the Module

• To define organizational culture.


• To identify the main concepts of organizational culture.
• To understand how to diagnose organizational culture.
• To underline the value of understanding organizational culture.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CUL-


TURE
Introduction and Definition of Terms

Why does a consultant need to understand organizational culture?

An organization’s culture affects all other aspects of the organization. A consultant who understands the
differences between the cultures of our schools and churches will be more likely to succeed during onsite
visits.

What is the definition of organizational culture?

“Organizational culture is the way insiders behave based on the values and groups traditions they hold.”33

Considerations

• What we think of as culture is primarily what is passed on to new generations.


• Organizational culture is “the way we do things around here.”
• Never underestimate the mighty power of your organization’s culture.
• Cultivating and changing culture should be one of leadership’s top priorities.
• Learn to respect values different from your own.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 53


The Value of Understanding Organizational Culture

• Enables us to evaluate our Christian distinctives. i.e. that which makes our organization different from a
non-Christian organization.

• Organizational effectiveness - The culture of an organization can work for or against the goals of the
group.

• Understanding division and strife - At times two subcultures within an organization can become so
incompatible that there will be a split between them.

• Leadership compatibility - A leader, or potential leader, may be incompatible with the culture of the
group.

• Leadership behavior - Since the leader is the keeper of the culture, it falls on his or her shoulders to
cultivate a culture that is distinctly Christian.

Finzel’s Culture Audit Notebook (see appendix G)34

Finzel’s notebook provides a number of questions that guide a consultant as she seeks to understand an
organization’s culture.

How Does A Leader Embed and Transmit Culture?35

Primary Embedding Mechanisms:

a. What leaders pay attention to, measure, and control on a regular basis.
b. How leaders react to critical incidents and organizational crises.
c. Observed criteria by which leaders allocate scarce resources.
d. Deliberate role modeling, teaching, and coaching.
e. Observed criteria by which leaders allocate rewards and status.
f. Observed criteria by which leaders recruit, select, promote, retire, and excommunicate organi
zational members.

Secondary Articulation and Reinforcement Mechanisms:

a. Organizational design and structure.


b. Organizational systems and procedures.
c. Organizational rites and rituals.
d. Design of physical space, facades, and buildings.
e. Stories, legends, and myths about people and events.
f. Formal statements of organizational philosophy, values and creed.

54 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE SEVEN - PERSPECTIVES OF AN ORGANIZA TION

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

To explain and describe four frames used in understanding organizations and identify how to use this under-
standing when working as an Asia Pacific educational consultant.

Objectives of the Module

• To define a frame
• To describe the four frames and their use in understanding organizations
• To understand how knowledge of the four frames will increase the effectiveness of the work of the
consultants

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF PERSPECTIVES OF AN


ORGANIZATION
Definition of a Frame

A frame is a perspective, a vantagepoint. It is short for frame of reference.

Value to a Consultant

Why does a consultant need to understand the four frames?

“Frames are windows on the world. Frames filter out some things while allowing others to pass through
easily. Frames help us to order the world and decide what action to take. Every manager uses a personal
frame, or image, of organizations to gather information, make judgments, and get things done.” Bolman and
Deal, page 4

Major Concepts

The Structure, Human Resource, Political, and Symbolic Theories of Organizations

APEO Consultant Training Manual 55


1. Structural (rational systems) theorists emphasize organizational goals, roles, and tech-
nology. They look for ways to develop organizational structures that best fit organizational
purpose and the demands of the environment.

2. Human resource theorists emphasize the interdependence between people and organiza-
tions. They focus on ways to develop a better fit between people’s needs, skills, and values
and the formal roles and relationships required to accomplish collective goals and purposes.

3. Political theorists see power, conflict, and the distribution of scarce resources as the
central issues in organizations. They suggest that organizations are very like jungles and that
managers need to understand and manage power, coalitions, bargaining, and conflict.

4. Symbolic theorists focus on problems of meaning in organizations. They are more likely to
find serendipitous virtue in organizational misbehavior and to focus on the limits of managers’
abilities to create organizational cohesion through power or rational design. In this view,
managers must rely on images, luck, and sometimes the supernatural to bring some semblance
or order to organizations.37

Consultants’ Responses to A Problem

Sample problem:

The president of a large Bible college recently called several consultants for help in dealing with turnover
among the college’s deans.

1. Consultant #1 response: “When did you last reorganize? As your college has grown, deans’ responsi
bilities have probably become blurred and overlapping. When reporting relationships are confused, you
get stress and conflict. You need to restructure.” Structural theorist frame of reference
2. Consultant #2 response: “It’s obvious, you are probably neglecting your deans’ needs for autonomy
and opportunities to participate in important decisions. You need an attitude survey to pinpoint the
problems.” - Human resource frame of reference
3. Consultant #3 response: “I think there is a problem with your deans’ relationship to the official board
and the constituencies (stakeholders). What do you expect? You’ve given up basic dean prerogatives
due to pressure from the board and your stakeholders. If you want the deans to stay, you’ll have to get
back to the bargaining table and fight to restore the deans’ power. Why did you give away the store to
the board and stakeholders? Political theorist frame of reference
4. Consultant #4 response: “Your company has never developed a strong value system, and growth has
made the situation worse. Your deans don’t find any meaning in their work. You need to revitalize your
school’s culture.” Symbolic theorist frame of reference.

56 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Characteristics of Organizations

• They are complex


• They are surprising
• They are deceptive
• They are ambiguous

The Role of Theory

1. Accurate or not, what is most critical about a theory is that it helps us understand situations and take
action.
2. Theories tell the individual what is important and what can be safely ignored.
3. Theories group a lot of different pieces of information into patterns or concepts.
4. Theories can box us in so that we see situations from only one viewpoint.
5. Key thought: The use of diverse outlooks allows a more comprehensive understanding of organizations
and opens a broader range of options for managerial action. 38

ASSUMPTIONS, COMPONENTS, AND CRITICISMS


OF EACH FRAME39
The Assumptions, Elements, and Criticisms of the Structural Frame

Structural Frame Assumptions

1. Purpose - Organizations exist primarily to accomplish established goals.


2. Appropriateness - For any organization there is a structure appropriate to the goals, the envi
ronment, the technology, and the participants.
3. Effectiveness - Organizations work most effectively when environmental turbulence and the
personal preferences of participants are constrained by norms of rationality.
4. Specialization - Specialization permits higher levels of individual expertise and performance.
5. Coordination and control - Coordination and control are accomplished best through the exer
cise of authority and impersonal roles.
6. Systematization - Structures can be systematically designed and implemented.
7. Organizational problems - Organizational problems usually reflect an inappropriate structure
and can be resolved through redesign and reorganization.

Structural Frame Elements

• Organizational levels
• Goals
• Roles
• Linkages - Linkages keep organizational organized, preventing fragmentation and ineffective
ness.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 57


Structural Frame Critique

1. Insufficient emphasis upon nonrational behavior


2. Incorrect view of power and conflict
3. Overemphasis on rationality

Conclusions

1. Basic thought of the structure frame


2. Undervalued
3. Overvalued
4. Integration

The Assumptions, Elements, And Criticisms of the Human Resources Frame

HR Frame Assumptions

1. Purpose
2. Interdependence
3. Poor Fit
4. Good Fit

Components of the Human Resource Frame

1. Job enrichment
2. Participative Management
3. Organizational Democracy
4. Training

Criticisms of the Human Resources Frame

• Imposition of an academic, middle-class value system on everyone else.


• Ignorance of individual differences and the necessity of organizational structure.
• Overly optimistic about the possibility of integrating individual and organizational needs.

The Assumptions, Components, and Criticisms of the Political Frame

Assumptions of the Political Frame

1. Scarcity of Resources - Most of the important decisions in organizations involve the allocation
of scarce resources
2. Coalitions - Organizations are coalitions composed of a number of individuals and interest
groups (for example, hierarchical levels, departments, professional groups, ethnic groups)
3. Differences - Individuals and interest groups differ in their values, preferences, beliefs, informa
tion, and perceptions of reality. Such differences are usually enduring and change slowly if at all.

58 APEO Consultant Training Manual


4. Bargaining - Organizational goals and decisions emerge from ongoing processes of bargaining,
negotiation, and jockeying for position among individuals and groups.
5. Power and Conflict - Because of scarce resources and enduring differences, power and conflict
are central features of organizational life.

Components of the Political Frame

Rather than seeing organizations as authority systems in which the authority at the top has the right to
set goals, the political frame views organizations as coalitions of individuals and interest groups, each
attempting to bargain with other members or coalitions in order to influence the goals and decision
making of the system.

The most significant forms of power are authority, expertise, control of rewards, coercive
power, and personal power.

The focus in the political frame is not on the resolution of conflict because conflict is not necessarily
a problem or a sign that something is wrong in the organization. Conflict is seen as normal. The
focus is on the strategy and tactics of conflict, including the following:

1. Game Theory
2. Bargaining
3. Coalition Formation

Critique of the Political Frame

• Too focused on politics


• Cynical and pessimistic

The Assumptions, Components, and Criticisms of the Symbolic Frame

Assumptions of the Symbolic Frame

1. Meaning - What is most important about any event is not what happened but the meaning of
what happened.
2. Interpretation - The meaning of an event is determined not simply by what happened but by the
ways that humans interpret what happened.
3. Uncertainty - Many of the most significant events and processes in organizations are substan
tially ambiguous or uncertain-it is often difficult or impossible to know what happened, why it
happened, or what will happen next.
4. Approach to Analysis - Ambiguity and uncertainty undermine rational approaches to analysis,
problem solving, and decision making.
5. Use of Symbols - When faced with uncertainty an ambiguity, humans create symbols to reduce
the ambiguity, resolve confusion, increase predictability, and provide direction. Events them
selves may remain illogical, random, fluid, and meaningless, but human symbols make them
seem otherwise.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 59


Components of the Symbolic Frame

The symbolic frame is most applicable in schools or churches with unclear goals and uncertain
technologies. In such organizations, ambiguity is everywhere. Who has power? What is success?
Was a decision made? What are the goals? The answers to such questions are often veiled in a fog
of uncertainty.
To those who see organizations as basically rational, the viewpoint of the symbolic frame may seem
farfetched or bizarre.
Symbolic concepts include myths, stories, ritual, metaphor, and organizational processes.

Integrating the Frames

1. Pluralism impedes research.


2. Each frame has a unique, comparative advantage.
3. Each frame enacts a different image of organization.
4. Each frame contains ingredients that are essential to the integration.
5. Understand how the frames fit the processes

Implementing the Frames

Reframing

With any problem or question, follow two steps:

1. Determine what frame is being used and which ones are being ignored?
2. Expand the horizon by applying each of the other frames

Note: Each recasting of the problem immediately suggests new questions to ask
and new options for action.

Questions that Help the Consultant Determine Which Frame Fits Best

1. Are the goals or the results to be achieved mainly objective or subjective?

2. Is the problem mainly technical or distributive?

3. How much ambiguity exists?

4. Are resources scarce or abundant?

5. How much conflict exists around this issue?

6. Is the manager operating top-down or bottom-up?

60 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE EIGHT - POWER IN ORGANIZATION

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

To understand the practice of power in organizations.

Objectives of the Module

• To define power in organizations.


• To identify the main concepts of the practice of power in organizations.
• To understand how knowledge of power in organizations will increase the effectiveness of the work of
the consultant.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF POWER IN ORGANIZA-


TIONS
Definitions of Power

Definition: Power is influence.

Definition: Power is the capacity to bring about certain intended consequences in the behavior of others.

Value to the Consultant

The consultant must understand power in order to properly diagnose problems and discuss solutions.

Three Significant Questions Regarding Power

1. What means do people use to gain power?


2. How do they exercise it?
3. To what ends do they exercise item?

Concepts and Issues Related to Power

• Implementation usually requires power


• Our Ambivalence about Power
• Learning about Power Has Some Major Benefits
• Avoiding and Ignoring the Use of Power
• Kinds of Power

APEO Consultant Training Manual 61


Lessons About Power40

• Teamwork is normally more important than individual work


• The higher one goes in management the more power is relied upon.
• Moderate interdependence leads to the use of power more than high or low levels of interdependence.
• Differences in point of view increase the possibility of the use of power.

How to Use Power

Evaluating Three ways of getting things done


1) Through hierarchical authority
2) Through developing a strongly shared vision or organizational culture.
3) Through the use of power and influence (without the position).

62 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE NINE - TEAMS AND TEAMWORK

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

To understand the use of teams and the practice of teamwork in organizations.

Objectives of the Module

• To define teams and teamwork.


• To identify the main concepts of teams and teamwork.
• To understand team dynamics.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF TEAMS AND TEAMWORK


Definition

A team is a group of people working together toward a common goal.

Value to the Consultant

Why does a consultant need to understand teams and teamwork?

1. The consultant is part of the Asia Pacific team.


2. The consultant may be asked by Asia Pacific educational leaders how to develop effective teams in their
schools or churches.

Key Concepts

Findings in the Study of Teams41

• A demanding performance challenge tends to create a team


• The disciplined application of “team basics” is often overlooked
• Team performance opportunities exist in all parts of an organization
• Teams at the top (leadership) are the most difficult
• Most organizations prefer individual over team accountability
• High performance teams are extremely rare
• Hierarchy and teams go together almost as well as teams and performance

APEO Consultant Training Manual 63


The Need for Teams

• Performance - Teams often produce more than individuals working separately.


• Flexibility - Teams are more flexible than larger organizational groupings because they can be more
quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.

Understanding Team Stages

Forming, Norming, Storming, Performing

Why Teams Work

• The gestalt - They bring together complementary skills and experiences.


• Communications - In developing clear goals and approaches, teams establish communications that
support real-time problem solving and initiative.
• Social dimension - People on teams build trust and confidence in each other’s capabilities.
• Fun - The fun sustains and is sustained by team performance.

Resistance to Teams

Kinds of Teams

Common Approaches to Building Teams43

1. Establish urgency and directions


2. Select team members based on skills and skill potential, not personalities
3. Pay particular attention to first meetings and actions
4. Set some clear rules of behavior
5. Set and seize upon a few immediate performance-oriented tasks and goals
6. Challenge the group regularly with fresh facts and information
7. Spend lots of time together
8. Exploit the power of positive feedback, recognition, and reward

What Teams Leaders Do

1. Keep the purpose, goals, and approach relevant and meaningful


2. Build commitment and confidence
3. Strengthen the mix and level of skills
4. Manage relationships with outsiders, including removing obstacles
5. Create opportunities for others
6. Do real work

Dealing with Obstacles

1. Understanding common obstacles


2. Approaches to getting unstuck

64 APEO Consultant Training Manual


MODULE TEN - TRAINING

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Module

To teach the principles of individual and group training and consider their implications for use among Asia
Pacific educational institutions.

Objectives of the Module

• To review training principles


• To understand how teaching children and youth differs from teaching adults

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF TRAINING


Introduction

Why does a consultant or leader need to understand training?

An understanding and practice of training principles will improve the effectiveness of a consultant’s training.

What is the purpose of training?

Training is intended to furnish people with knowledge and skills needed to perform their jobs.

Two Kinds of Training

Employee Training

1. Definition: “Training is defined as learning related to the present job” 44

2. A model for designing and delivering

Employee Education

1. Definition: Learning that prepares the individual for a different but identified job.
2. Steps in establishing a formal, organizational career planning program
3. Career planning

APEO Consultant Training Manual 65


What do we know about adults as learners?45

• Adults have a need to know why they should learn something-therefore, the first task of the adult
educator is to develop a “need to know”

• Adults have a deep need to be self-directing

• Adults have a greater volume and different quality of experience than youth

• Adults become ready to learn when they experience in their life situation a need to know or be able to
do in order to perform more effectively and satisfyingly.

• Adults enter into a learning experience with a task-centered (or problem-centered or life-centered)
orientation to learning.

• Adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.

Contrasting Pedagogy with Andragogy46

Pedagogy: “The art and science of teaching children”

Andragogy: “The art and science of helping adults learn”

1. The pedagogue, when planning an educational activity, thinks in terms of drafting a content plan, and he
has to answer only four questions to come up with a plan:

a. What content needs to be covered?


b. How can this content be organized most effectively?
c. How can these content units be transmitted in a logical sequence?
d. What would be the most effective methods for transmitting this content?

2. The andragog, on the other hand sees his task as twofold:

a. Facilitation
b. Serve as a content resource

3. The andragog implements the following elements of an andragogical process design

a. Climate setting
b. Creating a mechanism for mutual planning
c. Diagnosing the participant’s learning needs
d. Translating learning needs into objectives
e. Designing and managing a pattern of learning experiences
f. Evaluating the extent to which the objectives have been achieved

66 APEO Consultant Training Manual


RECOMMENDED READING LIST

Change Dynamics
Clinton, J. R. (1992). Bridging strategies: Leadership perspectives for introducing change. Altadena,
CA: Barnabas Publishers.

Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Conflict Management
Career Press. (1993). How to manage conflict (2nd ed.). Hawthorne, NJ: Career Press.

Elmer, D. (1993). Cross-cultural conflict. Building relationships for effective ministry. Downer’s
Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.

Halverstadt, Hugh F. (1991). Managing church conflict. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox
Press.

Palmer, D. C. (1990). Managing conflict creatively. A guide for missionaries & Christian workers.
Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.

Consulting
Barcus, S. W. & Wilkinson, J. W. (1995). Handbook of management consulting services (2nd ed.).
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc..

Rothwell, W. J., Sullivan, R., & McLean, G. N. (1995). Practicing organization development: A
guide for consultants. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Company.

Schein, E. H. (1987). Process Consultation. Lessons for managers and consultants. Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley.

Cross-Cultural Dimensions
Adler, N. J. (1997) International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (3rd ed.). Cincinnati, OH:
South-Western College Publishing.

Brake, T., Walker, D. M., & Walker, T. (1995) Doing business internationally: The guide to cross-
cultural success. New York, NY: Irwin Professional Publishing.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 67


Dunung, S. P. (1995). Doing business in Asia: The complete guide. New York, NY: Lexington
Books.

Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw-
Hill.

Human Resource Development


Rothwell, W. R. & Kazanas, H. C. (1994). Human resource development: A strategic approach
(Revised ed.). Amherst, MA: Human Resource Development Press.

Jones, L. (1993). Training leaders concerning spiritual issues for growth of the church in
Togo, West Africa. Laguna Hills, CA: Asia Pacific Education Office.

Knowles, M. S. (1996). Adult Learning. In R. L. Craig in The ASTD Training and Development
Handbook. A Guide to Human Resource Development (4th Ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Nadler, L. (1984). Human resource development. In L. Nadler (Ed.). The Handbook of Human
Resource Development. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Sun, Benjamin (1997). A Strategy to develop a lay leadership training program with Pentecostal
distinctives for Ecclesia Bible College in Hong Kong. Laguna Hills, CA: Asia Pacific Education Office.

Leadership
Clinton, J. R. (1992). The making of a leader. Colorado Springs, CO: Navpress.

Conger, J. A. (1992). Learning to lead: The art of transforming managers into leaders. New York,
NY: Jossey-Bass.

Drucker, P. (1992). Managing for the future: The 1990s and beyond. New York, NY: Dutton.

Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K., (1988). Management of organizational behavior. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Simon & Schuster.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z., (1995). The leadership challenge: How to keep getting extraordi-
nary things done in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Negotiating
Fisher, R., Ury, W. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in. New York, NY:
Penguin Books.

Foster, D. A. (1992). Bargaining across borders: How to negotiate business successfully anywhere
in the world. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

68 APEO Consultant Training Manual


Organizational Culture
MODULE EIGHT - POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS
Bergquist, W. H. (1992). The four cultures of the academy: Insights and strategies for improving
leadership in collegiate organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Deal, T. E., Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Finzel, H. W. (1989). A descriptive model for discerning organizational culture. Ann Arbor, MI:
University Microfilms International.

Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
Bass.

Perspectives of Organizations
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1984). Modern approaches to understanding and managing organizations.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.

Power in Organizations
Hollander, E. P. & Offermann, L. R. (1993). Power and leadership in organizations. In W. E.
Rosenbach & R. L. Taylor (Eds.), Contemporary issues in leadership. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Pfeffer, J. (1992). Managing with power: Politics and influence in organizations. Boston, MA:
Harvard Business School Press.

Strategic Planning

Anglin, D. (1996). Guide for Strategic Planning: For Assemblies of God educational institutions and
ministries in Asia Pacific. Laguna Hills, CA: Asia Pacific Education Office.

Teams and Teamwork


Fisher, B. & Thomas, B. (1996). Real dream teams: Seven practices used by world-class team
leaders to achieve extraordinary results. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press.

Torres, C., & Fairbanks, D. M. (1996). Teambuilding: The ASTD trainer’s sourcebook. New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance
organization. New York, NY: Harper Business.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 69


70 APEO Consultant Training Manual
ENDNOTES

1
Barcus, S. W. & Wilkinson, J. W. (1995). Handbook of management consulting services (2nd ed.). New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., p. 1-4.

2
Gilley, J. W. & Doffern, A. J. (1994). Consulting for HRD professionals. Tools, techniques, and strategies for improving
organizational performance. Chicago, IL: Irwin Professional Publishing, p. 15.

3
From Presentation by Jack R. Snader, at the IMC Western Confab ’98, Reno, Nevada.

4
Maxwell, John. Notes from Injoy Club Lecture, “The Character of a Great Leader”

5
Barcus, S. W. & Wilkinson, J. W. (1995). Handbook of management consulting services (2nd ed.). New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., p. 4-8.

6
Ibid., p. 4-8.

7
Gilley, J. W. & Doffern, A. J. (1994). Consulting for HRD professionals. Tools, techniques, and strategies for improving
organizational performance. Chicago, IL: Irwin Professional Publishing, p. 130.

8
Barcus, S. W. & Wilkinson, J. W. (1995). Handbook of management consulting services, p. 4-9.

9
Ibid., p. 4-8.

10
Ibid., p. 7-4.

11
Schein, E. H. (1987). Process Consultation. Lessons for managers and consultants. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.
22.

12
Ibid., p. 24.
13
Ibid., p. 29.

14
Gilley, J. W. & Doffern, A. J. (1994). Consulting for HRD professionals, p. 157.

15
Ibid., pp. 173-175.

16
Lewis, Phillip (1996). Transformational Leadership. A New Model For Total Church Involvement Nashville, TN:
Broadman & Holman Publishers, pp. 110-123.

17
Schein, E. H. (1987). Process Consultation, pp. 5-17.

18
Ibid., pp. 92-114.

19
Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

20
Ibid.

21
Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 71


22
Morrill, Calvin (1995). The Executive Way. Conflict Management in Corporations. Chicago, IL: The University of
Chicago Press, pp. 20-22.

23
Ibid., pp. 70-72.

24
Elmer, D. (1993). Cross-cultural conflict. Building relationships for effective ministry. Downer’s Grove, IL: Intervarsity
Press.

25
Career Press. (1993). How to manage conflict (2nd ed.). Hawthorne, NJ: Career Press.

26
Elmer, D. (1993). Cross-cultural conflict. Building relationships for effective ministry. Downer’s Grove, IL: Intervarsity
Press, p. 51.

27
Brake, T., Walker, D. M., & Walker, T. (1995) Doing business internationally: The guide to cross-cultural Success. New
York, NY: Irwin Professional Publishing, p. 35.

28
Ibid.

29
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z., (1995). The leadership challenge: How to keep getting extraordinary things done in
organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

30
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K., (1988). Management of organizational behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Simon & Schuster.

31
A Force for Change. By John P. Kotter, The Free Press, New York, 1990.

32
Brake, T., Walker, D. M., & Walker, T. (1995) Doing business internationally.

33
Finzel, Hans. “Creating the Right Leadership Culture.” In Barna, George (1997). Leaders on Leadership. Wisdom, Advice
and Encouragement on the Art of Leading God’s People. Ventura, CA: Regal.

34
Finzel, H. W. (1989). A descriptive model for discerning organizational culture. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms
International.

35
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, p. 231.

36
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1984). Modern approaches to understanding and managing organizations. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, p. 4.

37
Ibid., pp. 2-3.

38
Ibid., p. 4.

39
Ibid.

40
Pfeffer, J. (1992). Managing with power: Politics and influence in organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School
Press.

41
Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. New York,
NY: Harper Business.

42
Torres, C., & Fairbanks, D. M. (1996). Teambuilding: The ASTD trainer’s sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

72 APEO Consultant Training Manual


43
Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams, pp. 119-127.

44
Nadler, L. (1984). “Human Resource Development,” in The Handbook of Human Resource Development. New York:
Wiley-Interscience, p. 1.18.

45
Knowles, M. S. (1996). Adult Learning. In R. L. Craig in The ASTD Training and Development Handbook. A Guide to
Human Resource Development (4th Ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, pp. 255-258.

46
Ibid.

APEO Consultant Training Manual 73


74 APEO Consultant Training Manual
APPENDIXES

APEO Consultant Training Manual 75


76 APEO Consultant Training Manual
Appendix A

SWOT Analysis

STRENGTHS: What makes your church WEAKNESS: What weakens your


strong? church’s mission?

OPPORTUNITIES: What opportunities THREATS: What are potential threats to


exist for strengthening your Church? your Church’s mission?
Appendix B

JOB DESCRIPTION

TITLE: DIVISION CONSULTANT

SELECTION AND AUTHORIZATION:


The APEO Division Consultant is appointed by the Field Director in consultation with
the APEO Director, Division Coordinator, and the appropriate Branch and Area
Director.

RELATIONSHIP:

REPORTS TO: The APEO Division Coordinator, and also has a functional
responsibility to the Branch Director for area coordination
and integration.

RELATES TO: The APEO Director, Branch Director, and Resource Consultants in the
Division.

GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES:
Serves as a consultant to an assigned division and is responsible to the Division Coordinator for
providing on-site consultations, assisting with the development and facilitation of the work of the
division, and the training of the workers in the division network. Communicates regularly with
the Division Coordinator, and strives to keep current and informed with all areas of APEO which
relate to the division. When field based, works with the Branch Director in establishing branch
office goals and strategies for the division, and helps to facilitate the development of the division
in the area.

SPECIFIC DUTIES:
1. Works in cooperation with the Division Coordinator and Branch Director to interface and
promote dialogue and a continuing exchange of information among all members of each
division network, and to seek opportunities to integrate the services of APEG into the
ministries of the national church.

2. Communicates and coordinates regularly with the Division Coordinator, and with the
Branch Director when they are on assignment in the area.

3. Engages in consultation on-site, at conferences, and through correspondence.

4. Serves as a member of the Consultation Committee of the division.


5. Helps facilitate APEO public relations in the area and seeks to build positive
relationships in accordance with APEO philosophy and service goals.

6. Helps develop and adapt APEO resource materials according to area needs.

7. Upon request by the Division Coordinator, assists in division related job orientation
and training for new missionary and national workers.

8. Helps gather field data to identify stages of division development, trends and needs,
and helps maintain updated division profiles.

9. Helps gather sample materials and innovative models related to the division to build
division records and files.

10. Assists the Division Coordinator, upon request, in planning and providing APEG
field conferences and workshops.

11. Assists the Branch Director, upon request, in planning and providing APEG area
conferences and workshops.

12. Consults with the Division Coordinator and the Branch Director to provide
information regarding field needs for personnel, equipment, books, etc.

13. Submits on-site consultation reports and other requested reports to the Division
Coordinator and Branch Director and identifies any follow-up action needed by the
APEO home or branch office

14. Assists in updating the APEG Office Manual by reviewing policies and operational
procedures and suggesting revisions to the APEO Director and Division
Coordinators.

15 Submits APEO related travel projections to the Division Coordinator for review,
coordination and processing with the Branch, Area, APEO and Field Directors.

16. Communicates with the Division Coordinator when teaching short term classes and
workshops during on-site visits.

17. Submits occasional articles and supplies information for division publications.

18. Assumes any other APEG related responsibilities that may be requested by the
Division Coordinator.
8-17-94
Appendix C

MANAGERS AND CONSULTANTS AS HELPERS

Excerpt taken from the following book: Process Consultation, Volume II, Lessons for Managers and
Consultants, by Edgar H. Schein, 1987, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, M4.

On the surface it would seem that management and consultation are totally different

processes. Managers are usually thought of as having formal responsibility for defined

organizational outcomes, they have line bosses; they have specific resources at their disposal

with which to exercise the authority they have been give; they are expected to be committed to

the organizational mission; they have subordinates; and they are “inside” and part of the

organization, in the sense that they cannot evade certain kinds of difficult decisions and

situations. They are accountable, and this accountability cannot be delegated.

Consultants, on the other hand, are typically thought of as outsiders. Even so-called

inside consultants who work fulltime for a given company are typically thought of as outsiders to

the particular department they are working in at any given time. They are typically thought of as

being free to negotiate their areas of responsibility with others who are defined as clients; they

work on a contract basis; they have the power that derives from being an “independent outsider”

and being perceived as an expert in certain areas; and they have the freedom to leave a difficult

situation except where professional responsibility dictates “hanging in.” They are not expected to

display the loyalty and commitment usually associated with being a manager.

How then can it be true that common skills and concepts apply to both managers and

consultants? To make that argument one must look a bit beneath the surface. People who are

perceived by their colleagues, bosses, and subordinates to be effective managers and effective
consultants have in common that, when they relate to others whom they are tying to influence,

they both take the stance of trying to help. Even though they have different sources of power and

influence, the effective practitioners seem to gravitate toward a more common role definition, of

others with whom they are working- vis-a-vis--- the helping role.

The Helping Orientation as Common Ground

For most consultants the concept of being helpful is central to their understanding

of the role. What is less obvious is that effective managers view themselves in the same way.

They are trying to accomplish their goals by being helpful to subordinates, peers, superiors,

customers, suppliers, and any others with whom they have regular dealings.

Remember, I am speaking of managers who are judged to be effective, who are perceived

to be the kind of people who get the job done and who are able to build their human organization

at the same time so that jobs continue to get done. We all know of managers who do not behave

like helpers at all, who misuse their authority, issue unilateral commands and decisions in areas

where others know more, control the allocation of resources in a coercive manner, make and

announce decisions without consultation, and generally keep their subordinates confused about

who is responsible for what. They tend to view subordinates as replaceable resources to be

exploited rather than developed, and they tend to use any means to accomplish goals, even if

some of these means are costly to the human organization.

Effective managers, on the other hand, seem to conceptualize their role and structure

their relationships with others very differently. They behave in such a way that subordinates,

peers, and supervisors, get the help they need in order to get things done, to succeed, to achieve

the goals that have been set.


Let me give a few examples. Most managers accept the concept of “delegation.” Once

targets have been set, whether jointly negotiated or imposed from on high, the manager’s

problems is how to help the subordinate to achieve those targets. The manager cannot do the job

himself, he must create a situation in which the subordinate will do what he can, and he must

help the subordinate in whatever way he can to do it.

Most managers accept the responsibility for developing the subordinates, if only to

ensure that they have trained their own successors so that they can move on themselves. Any

teacher or coach knows that you cannot really train or develop people without giving them

opportunities to try things, to practice, and then helping them improve their performance by

various means. Terms such as coaching and mentoring reflect this kind of definition of the

developmental task.

Most managers who deal with customers have learned that it is best to think of a

sales relationship as a situation in which the salesman/manager is trying to help the customer to

solve his problem. The salesman who feels that to appear helpful is all that is needed soon

discovers that the customer sooner or later will see through this and then become more resistant.

The best salesman is the one who really can and does solve the customers’ problems and who

has trained himself to think in those terms. Genuine commitment to customers, something that

we hear being advocated more and more today as a key to organizational success, is not at all

unlike the commitment of a consultant to a client.

Most managers have to create groups and run meetings. They soon learn that if they want

the group to be effective, the role they must play as leader or chairperson of the group is to help

the group work through its emotional issues before it can work on tasks effectively, and
then to help the group to accomplish that task. Helping the group on both the emotional and the

task level continue to be managerial responsibilities throughout the life of the group if the group

is to remain effective.

As for general managers, whose responsibilities cut across the various cut across the

various business functions and who manage complete organizational units, in many functions the

subordinates are often each more expert than their boss. It is in such situations; where the boss’s

job is to integrate, coordinate, and blend the expertise of others for coherent decisions, that the

skills of helping become most relevant. Such decision processes often occur in groups or involve

the interaction of a number of people whose contributions must be orchestrated. What

consultants often do in their role as helpers to management can be effectively done by managers

themselves once they learn to pay attention to and manage process events.

Finally, if the boss calls the manager in to help him with a problem, the manager must

know how to adopt a helping stance vis-a-vis higher —up in the organization. In other words,

managers spend a great deal of their interpersonal time in the process of helping others.

Therefore, if they are to be effective managers, they must learn how to help effectively,

something that most consultants also have to learn.

Process Consulting as the Key to Effective Helping

In this book I will present several models of helping- the expert model, the doctor-patient

model, and the process consultation (PC) model. I will try to show that at various times all

human beings find themselves having to help others and thus must make an instant choice as to

which model to adopt, which helping role to be in. My argument is that the keys to effective
helping, both for the manager and the consultant, is the ability to be a process consultant and not

to succumb to the temptations of being the expert or the doctor except where that is appropriate.

Process consultation puts the emphasis on helping others to help themselves, not on

solving their problems for them or giving them expert advice. The reasons for advocating the

relevance of PC are both theoretical and practical. On the practical level we have all had our

share of disastrous experiences where our “expert” advise was refused, misunderstood, or

actually sabotaged. On the theoretical level, PC is more developmental. If the Person being

helped just accepts expert advice, he many solve his immediate problem but he may not learn

anything about how to solve problems of this nature, skills that would enable him to solve a

similar problem in the future.

Knowing how to be an effective process consultant is probably more relevant in today’s

complex world than it might have been in times past. In a technologically complex society

neither managers nor consultants can really give commands or tell others what to do. Even in

medicine, specialists and surgeons are finding themselves in complex relationships with their

patients where they are helping those patients to make a beneficial decision rather than just

“ordering” a given procedure. This point appears paradoxical, because, one might reason, the

more complex the world, the more dependent we become upon experts to tell us what to do since

we do not understand ourselves how things work. The problem is that because we do not

understand, when the expert tells us what to do, we often misunderstand or mistrust what we are

told, and then either do it wrong or are afraid to do it at all. So the expert learns the hard way that

just having expertise does not guarantee that one can influence others.

A more realistic model of management as well as consulting is to see the process as one

of intervening facilitatively to accomplish agreed upon goals. The concepts, strategies, and
tactics to be discussed in this book are, therefore directed to both line managers and consultants,

and the examples are drawn from both what consultants do and what managers do. Managers

reading this book may find at first that the ideas seem less applicable to them, but the more they

think about the managerial role, the more they will come to recognize how much of their own

behavior resembles that of consultants, and, therefore, how much they might increase their own

effectiveness if they learned some of the philosophies, concepts, and skills that consultants,

especially process consultants, use.

These points can best be illustrated from some of my own work with organizations. To

remain objective in analyzing the case materials while protecting the identities of the clients with

whom I have worked, I have constructed the case materials to be composites and have disguised

identities wherever necessary. However, I have tried to characterize individual behavior

accurately within these composite portraits in order to bring out what really happened in these

situations. Several of these composite cases will be referred to throughout the chapters of the

book; so a certain amount of background information will be provided as needed.

The Allen Financial Service Company

This composite case illustrates the elements common to my work with my client and my

client’s relationship with his organization and, therefore, reinforces my argument that consultants

and managers often have similar problems and that managers often can accomplish their goals

best by doing some process consulting with their won subordinates. What I mean by a “client is

itself complex, as we will see in Chapter 7, but for present purposes I will refer to the “primary

client” as the person who sought my help and is paying for my services..
Fred Ralston, my primary client, was the head of an international financial service

organization. I first got to know him during an executive development program, when I observed

that he took a great interest in how to improve the organization. About one year after he had

taken over the division he called to explore a consulting relationship with me and some other

faculty members at MIT’s Sloan School of Management. He expressed interest in bringing into

the organization some ideas that attracted him; outside consultants would help with his various

programs. My initial response was limited by the fact that I only had one day per month

available, but Ralston felt that would be enough to get started, so I agreed to an exploratory

meeting.

I learned form Ralston and from a long explanatory letter written by his personnel

manager, Bob Ryan, that Ralston had taken over an organization that had been through several

very tough years during which new technology had been introduced, costs had been cut very

sharply, and many people had been replaced. Ralston’s immediate predecessor had swung the

pendulum back toward more concern for people, but costs were beginning to rise again, so

Ralston saw his mandate as being to introduce a more effective overall management process that

would put the emphasis equally on 1) keeping costs under control, 20 continuing to introduce the

most advanced technology possible in order to make the organization efficient, 3) creating a

climate of participation and teamwork in the organization to ensure that motivation,

commitment, productivity, and high quality would be achieved, 4) starting a strategic planning

process to prepare for an uncertain future and 5) introducing a marketing orientation to the

operations people so that they could expand the business and contribute to profits for the total

company.
He was very taken with many of the concepts of process consultation and he believed

strongly in the importance of developing the organization under him. He asked me whether I

would help him to implement some of his ideas on how to run the division and to build an

effective management team. I indicated that since I already knew him, I was ready to sit down

with him at his office in a nearby city. I told him that I would bill him either at an hourly or daily

rate and that we should let the goals and amount of time to be devoted to the consultation evolve

naturally. We agreed by phone to an initial on-day meeting at his office.

What is important is what I learned during this first day about Ralston’s managerial style

and what implications this had both for my working with him and for his relationship to his

organization. Our first meeting consisted of a face-to —face discussion that lasted most of the

day. Ralston reviewed for me how he planned to institute various programs and ideas he had for

improving productivity, reducing costs drastically, and getting the division to provide effective

low-cost service and to do so in a way that it would truly help the sales and marketing effort of

the company. He want to redesign the work of the service clerks so that they could have more

direct customer contact, provide broader rather than highly specialized services, and adopt a

marketing orientation so that when they were dealing with customers on service issues they

would also find ways of selling additional services.

Ralston had already instituted a strategic planning process and had hired a consultant to

run seminars for the department heads and their subordinates. He had launched a

communications program involving regular meetings of groups of lower-level employees with

senior management. He had hired a consulting firm to do a major survey of the whole division

with the goal of redesigning jobs, and had instituted a productivity program that required each

manager to report at least ten new productivity ideas for his group every month.
These new programs were imposed on top of a very tightly structured set of cost-reduction

targets that involved as well a systematic effort to reduce the number of managers and employees

in the organization by the certain percentage in each of the next several years. Ralston knew

from conversations with his boss and from having worked in the Allen Company for a long time

that his long-range success depended upon keeping costs flat while increasing productivity,

quality, and the amount of business the division was doing; and he had obtained the approval of

his boss to impose even tighter targets on his own division than had been requested of the entire

company. Ralston reported that his boss was delighted with the results that had already been

obtained in the first year. The boss was a hands-off delegator who kept encouraging Ralston to

do even better but did not want to know too much about how these goals were being achieved.

To make sure that cost targets were met, Ralston used a series of quantitative indexes to

monitor various operations on a daily and weekly basis. If there were too many errors, cost over-

runs, or other indicators that the program was off target; Ralston immediately and decisively

reprimanded the responsible manager under him. I learned later from conversations with others

in the division that his immediate subordinates resented the tone of these reprimands more than

the fact of having the data brought to their attention. They had accepted the cost-reduction targets

as a valid divisional program and felt that they were meeting them.

I also learned later that Ralston’s immediate subordinates, the department heads, and

various lower levels of employees of the division were proud of what thy were accomplishing

and felt completely behind Ralston. He was a charismatic leader who produced real results and

everyone knew that higher management was proud of the division’s accomplishments.
What Then Was the Problem? From what Ralston told me it appeared that he wanted

reassurance and confirmation that his programs were on the right track, and he wanted a

sounding board on how best to accomplish his results. But it sounded to me from what he said

that there might be too many programs, that they were not in any priority, and that maybe his

group had trouble juggling so many programs all at once. It also occurred to me that they might

feel overworked, tense, and resentful at having so many things thrust at them.

As Ralston reviewed for me the various goals he was trying to accomplish, it became

obvious to me that he was trying to do too many things all at once and was not seeing the

connections among the various activities that he himself was launching. Each time he launched a

new program he hired an outside consultant or assigned an inside person to administer it,

attended the first session or two if it involved special meetings, but then went on to other matters.

He seemed not to realize that for his subordinates each of these programs were “extras” on top of

what they were already doing, while for him they were only activities to be monitored. I guessed

form how he described matters that his subordinates must be in a state of panic and chaos trying

simultaneously to keep all of the cost indicators in line while launching major new productivity;

job redesign, strategic planning, and communications programs.

My Process Interventions. In the first several hours of our meeting I mostly listened and

recorded on a chartpad each of the activities that Ralston was telling me about so that we could

begin to build a road map of where this was all going. I decided that it would be helpful to reflect

back to Ralston all the activities he was launching and help him to begin to see that they could be
ordered and that priorities could be assigned to each program. Illustrating the activities by

recording them on a chartpad for both of us to view also provided me an opportunity to begin to

confront Ralston with the sheer volume of what he was doing.

At lunch Ralston introduced me to the personnel manager, Bob Ryan, who had briefed

me by mail on the general nature of the organization, its charter, its organization chart, and the

broad purpose of the consultation project “ to help Ralston implement the various programs he

had launched.” I also met Ralston’s personal assistant, who managed various of his appointments

and program activities. After lunch I had a half hour with each of them while Ralston attended a

meeting and made some phone calls. I observed that he himself was frantically busy and seemed

to be overloaded.

Other Perspectives. During the private meetings with the personnel manager, Bob Ryan,

and the assistant, Joan Smith, I was told that the division was indeed floundering from being

overwhelmed by too many programs, that the department heads under Ralston were stretched to

the breaking point and so were neglecting some of the important priorities such as the

productivity program and the job redesign survey. Worst of all, they were confused about

Ralston’s goals. They felt that they had been enormously successful in bringing the various daily

indexes under control and that the division was performing beautifully on the basic cost

containment program but that Ralston was not giving them enough credit or enough breathing

space to keep going. They saw him as piling up more and more programs to the point where they

had no choice but to subvert or ignore some of them, realizing full well that if Ralston discovered

this he might lose his temper and be very punishing.


There seemed to be an ambivalence developing between Ralston and some members of

his group. They were thrilled to have a strong leader who had made the division effective, but he

was overloading them without sharing his own vision and priorities in a way that could be

implemented. No one quarreled with any of the activities singly, but together they constituted an

overload. Both Ryan and Smith said that they had attempted to give Ralston feedback on what

was happening, but he either did not hear it or chose to ignore it. They were glad that Ralston

had sought my counsel because they though an outsider might provide some help in a situation

that was getting very tense. At this point I had no information from others so had to take these

various points of view as differing perspectives without knowing for sure what was actually

going on.

Further interventions. Later during the day I again met Ralston for a final two-hour

session in which I asked him what relationships he saw among the various activities that he had

launched, and what he though the impact of all these programs might be on his subordinates. My

goal was simultaneously to help him to develop a road map and to determine how much insight

he had into the impact of his managerial style. What came through in his answers was his

tremendous enthusiasm for all of his programs, how much support he had obtained from his

boss, and how much he believed he could now teach his subordinates. He clearly saw himself as

a visionary with a record of success, who would pass on his vision to his division and make it a

model of how to run such a service division.

Next Steps. At the end of the day we agreed that at least one concrete next step

(suggested by me) was to build an overarching framework for all of the programs that had been
launched so that Ralston himself could articulate his vision in a more coherent way. I defined my

goal as being to help him with his own sense of overload and fractionation, while learning

gradually what else might be going on in the departments. After all it was possible that Ralston’s

assessment that the group could do more and that he could show them how was correct. I could

not automatically assume that what Bob and Joan had told me was an accurate assessment.

We agreed to meet in a month and, at that time, to review the various programs and put

them into a coherent structure that would make it possible to put priorities on them in case too

much was being done all at once. This schedule was determined both by the fact that Ralston was

very busy and that at this point one day per month was all I could spare. How this case evolved

will be discussed in later chapters.

Some Lessons. A number of lessons, insights, and issues emerged from this first day. As

a consultant I had learned a good deal about how Ralston expected to structure his relationship to

me. He wanted reassurance that he was on the right track, he want to fine-tune his ideas and get

help in getting them organized into a coherent program, and he wanted personal counsel on how

he could be a more effective manager because he sensed that his subordinates were ignoring or

sabotaging some of his programs. He clearly viewed me as an expert on management and asked

me point-blank to give him advice. Whenever I did offer thoughts he wrote them down very

seriously in a notebook that he had brought to the meeting.

But I had an uneasy feeling that there was a mixed message in his request. I was not

really sure what was going on except that a conflict had apparently developed between Ralston

and some of his subordinates; and that so far Ralston saw no connection between that conflict

and his own behavior as manager. I saw the need to 1) learn more about what was really going

on in this division; 2) help Ralston to see for himself how this chosen role as a- leader; visionary;
and expert might be undermining his own goals; and 3)help him to design the implementation of

some of his programs such as the job redesign survey to ensure that his goals could be achieved.

Ralston’s targets were sound, but his methods of implementation clearly were not

producing the desired results, and it was not clear whether he had the process insights to manage

simultaneously a stringent cost-reduction program, a new strategic planning process, a

participative communications program, a productivity improvement program, and a major

employee survey leading to job redesign and reorganization of the division.

This case illustrated for me the points I am trying to make about how managers and

consultants have similar problems and how a process orientation toward such problems is not

only desirable but also essential. Ralston was seemingly doing everything right. He had the right

goals, the support of higher management, the support of his own department heads, a record of

phenomenal success in reducing costs while building business, yet too many things were not

working and Ralston feared that if he let up on the pressure even slightly, all the indicators would

immediately go out of control again. In fact, he pointed out to me how this had happened just a

few months before when he had been on an extended trip. When he returned he had to be Mr.

Tough Guy for a while to get things back under control.

Ralston sometimes sounded like a parent who had an unruly bunch of children whom he

loved but had to teach how to behave properly. At other times he sounded very insecure and in

need of reassurance that his ideas were on the right track. Bob Ryan, the personnel manager, and

Joan Smith, Ralston’s personal assistant implied that the subordinates were more tan able to do

what Ralston wanted but things slipped because they were overloaded. So the minute he was

away, they used the time to catch their breath, hence the slippage in the indicators. When I asked
Ralston at one point whether it was possible that the subordinates were overloaded, he shrugged

off as being just an excuse. He had seen groups like this who could do it all, but he would have

to show them how.

Conclusion

The situation in the case just described is a prototype of what I run into often. The client

needs some help from me on a managerial issue, but as the scenario unfold, I realize that one of

the problems the client has is that he is not acting sufficiently like a process consultant with his

own subordinates, peers, and supervisors. If he could learn to take more of a process orientation,

learn to manage human processes better, he would not be generating some of the problems that

led him to call for help. In other words, many of Ralston’s goals were valid and accepted, but the

manner in which he chose to implement them, the process of monitoring, and his style of

supervision caused unanticipated problems that, in the end, made the accomplishment of the

goals difficult. Both consultants who have to help managers and managers themselves can learn

from Ralston’s mistakes and can add to their managerial repertoire of the concepts and behaviors

of effective consultants.
ASIA PACIFIC
COORDINATOR TRAVEL FORM

NAME: ......................................................... DATE: ............................

DIVISION: ................................................. DEPARTMENT: .................

TRAVEL INFORMATION

COUNTRY(S): .......................................... AREA(S) ............................

DATES OF MINISTRY TRIP: .................... ...........................................

PURPOSE OF MINISTRY:....................................................................
...........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

CONFIRMATION

SENDING DEPT. DIRECTOR............................. DATE: ....................

RECEIVNG AREA DIRECTOR(S): ..................... DATE: .....................


................................. DATE: ....................
................................. DATE: ....................

FIELD DIRECTOR: ............................................. DATE: .....................


ON-SITE VISITS

ADVANCE LETTER SAMPLE

[DATE]

[NAME]
[ADDRESS]
[CITY], [STATE/ISLANDS] [ZIP] [COUNTRY]

Dear Bro. [Principal]:

Warm greetings from the Asia Pacific Education Office!

[NAME OF PERSON) is making arrangements to be in the [NAME OF AREA] in [DATE]. Our


tentative flight schedule looks like we could be available to visit your school on this trip if this
time would be convenient for you. Our tentative schedule would permit us to be with for [XI
days, [DATE] until [date].

During out visit, we would be available to provide any board, administrative or faculty
development workshops, or discuss any areas of interest or concern to you friends at [NAME OF
SCHOOL]. In case you would like to request any workshops or seminars, we are enclosing a
response form for you to fill in and mail to us. If you could respond as soon as possible regarding
any special request, it would help us to have adequate preparation time.

We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. It would be a privilege to visit your school
[AGAIN], and become [BETTER] [ACQUAINTED] [CURRENT] with theneeds and
development of your school. We are happy our consultants are able to provide the on-site visits
and APBSRO resource materials at no expense to your school.

May God richly bless you! You are making a vital contribution to ministry training in [THE]
[COUNTRY] and we thank God for your ministry.

Sincerely in Christ,

ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION OFFICE

[NAME OF CONSULTANT]

[TITLE]
Enclosures 10-92
PERSON COMPLETING THIS FORM................................................................... TITLE .........................................

NAME OF SCHOOL .............................................................................................. DATE .........................................

PRE-ONSITE RESPONSE FORM

Please share this form with your administrators and faculty. Mark the topics you would like discussed during our on-
site sessions with you at your school, (1 = very interested and 2= somewhat Interested). (NOTE: The numbers in
parenthesis after a topic refers to reference In your Directors’ Manual.) Please return this completed form AS SOON
AS POSSIBLE TO: APEO, 23232 Peralta Drive, Ste. #212, Laguna Hills, CA 92653, U.S.A. The fax number is (714)
472-2022.

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT (ch. 6)


___ Developing School Goals Academic Program Integrity
___ Constitution--Writing/Revising (2.1.1) ___ Curriculum Planning & Sequencing (3.4.6;
___ Office Procedures, Files & Records 6.11.1)
___ Alumni AssociatIon Development ___ Academic Records & Files
___ Public Relations and P.R. Materials ___ Computing Credit Hours (6.7.1)
___ Accreditation Guidance ___ Academic Calendar (3.4.12; 3.5.7; 3.8.2)
___ Self Study Guidance ___ Entrance Requirements
___ APBSRO Computer ApplIcations ___ Textbook Selection & Usage (7.2.1)
___ Standard Level Two Programs (6.8.3) Bi-level
Study (6.8.5)
ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT (Ch. 3) ___ Extension Programs (6.9.2)
___ Writing Job Descriptions (for which Jobs?) ___ English as a Second Language (6.4.6; 7.47.1)
___ Onsite Job Training (for which jobs?)
___ School Board Member Training (3.6.1)
___ School Board--Planning Effective Meetings STUDENT LIFE ON CAMPUS
(3.19.3) ___ Orientation
___ Administrative Committee--Planning Effective ___ Student Handbook (5.1.1)
Meetings (3.5.1) ___ Spiritual Llfe Development (3.5.8; 3.21.1; 5.1.2)
___ Staff--Planning Effective Meetings ___ Practical Ministries Training (3.18.1.6; 5.1.3,
___ School Policies Manual 5.2.1; 3.18.6)
___ Student Teaching
___ Student Government (5.1.20)
Pre-Onsite Response Form Page 2

FACULTY DEVELOPMENT FINANCES AND FACILITIES


___ Faculty Selection & Retention (3.4.4; 4.1.7) ___ Budget Planning & Financial Reporting (3.5.5;
___ Effective Faculty Meetings (3.4.9; 3.19.7; 4.1.12; 3.7.8; 3.8.2; 3.19.5, 3.23.1)
4.2.1) ___ Preparing for an Audit (3.19.6)
___ Faculty Handbook (4.1.1) ___ Tuition & Fees (3.13.6; 3.20.5)
___ Faculty Continuing Education Development (3.4.5) ___ Building Programs
___ Faculty Enrichment (3.4.4; 4.1.13; 4.2.1) ___ Use & Arrangement of Facilities Campus Master
___ Learning Resources Plans
___ Resource Materials Development ___ Campus Bookstore/Food Services (3.7.4;
___ Syllabus Preparation and Use (4.1.10; 6.10.3) 5.1.21;5.1.18)
___ Bibliography Development (Ch. 7)
___ Lesson Planning
___ Teaching Methods PLEASE LIST ANY ADDITIONAL TOPICS YOU
___ Testing & Grading (4.1.11; 5.1.6; 5.1.8) WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS.

1.

LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT (ch. 8) 2.


___ Staff Job Descriptions
___ Training Library Workers
___ Organizing a Basic Library 3.
___ Book Selection & Acquisition (8.2.8)
___ Cataloging & Classifying (8.2.13)
4.
___ Protecting Books from Heat, Humidity, Dust, & Bugs
___ Circulation and Book Security (8.2.30)
___ Electronic Librarian
5.
___ Computers in the library/school (including
software/hardware)
RESPONSIBILITY KEY:
[RA] = Resource Assistant
[C] =Consultant
ON-SITE VISITS

CHECKLIST FOR ONSITE VISIT PREPARATION


NAME OF SCHOOL: ___________________ VISIT DATE: _____________

CONSULTANTS: ________________________________________________

CREATE WORKING FOLDER FOR EACH SCHOOL & INCLUDE:


(Label by Country & School) [RA]
___UPDATE SCHOOL PROFILE & HIGHLIGHT WEAK AREAS [RAI [C]
___PREPARE SUPPORT MATERIALS FOR WEAK PROFILE ITEMS [RA] [C]
___PREPARE RESOURCE MATERIALS FOR PRESENTATIONS [RA] [C]
___IDENTIFY SCHOOL PHOTOS NEEDED [RA]
___READ CULTUREGRAM (IA) [RA]
___REVIEW PRE ONSITE VISIT QTJESTIONAIRE
___ATIACH THIS CHECKLIST TO FRONT COVER OF FOLDER [RA] [C]
___ATTACH Suggested Topics During On-Site Visit” [RA]
___ATTACH Checklist Of On-site Activities [RA]
___ATTACH Resource Projects Completed Report [RA]
___ATTACH Resource Faculty Course Preference Checklist [RA]
___ATTACH Resource Consultant Syllabus Preference Checklist [RA]
___ATTACH Protocol & PR Contact List FOR COUNTRY [RA] [C]
___UPDATE & ATTACH LIST OF MISSIONARIES IN COUNTRY [RA] [C]

___ REVIEW CORRESPONDENCE WITH SCHOOL SINCE LAST ON SITE [RA] [C]
___ REVIEW & CHECK REQUESTS FOR ASSISTANCE FROM SCHOOL [RA]
ON-SITE VISITS
SUGGESTIONS FOR ONSITE ACTIVITIES
(APEO Use Only)

PUBLC RELATIONS

• Seek To Encourage and Provide Positive Support At All Times

• Respect Sensitive Areas and Cultural Protocol

• Guard Questions, Relationship, Attitudes, Perspective

• Work Within and Regard to the Local Administrative Structure

• Maintain Confidentiality

UPDATE SCHOOL PROFILE

• Update Profile With Various Administrators/Faculty

• Discuss Missing Items (relevancy, need, possible assistance, etc.)

• Supply Support Materials for Missing Profile Items

• Identify Areas of School Need

DISCUSS APEO SERVICES

• Provide Job Training, Workshops, Information

• Discuss Recent Material Requested/Sent From APEO

• Take/Obtain Photos For Picture Files/Book/Prayer Book

• Discuss Contacting / Visiting APEO During Furlough

• Review Resource Materials Available/In Process

• Discuss Questions Received Through Correspondence

• Review and Note Requests from School

• Discuss APBSRO Training For New Bible School Personnel

• Discuss APBSRO Workshops for New I Returning Missionaries

• Discuss APBSRO On-Line

• Discuss APBSRO Computer Services


PROMOTE AND ENCOURAGE APTA PARTICIPATION

• Check and Encourage Membership and Participation

• Provide Assistance Toward Meeting Standards

• Help Promote Understanding and Positive Support

SCHOOL DOCUMENTS & INFORMATION

• Gather Miscellaneous School Document, Catalogs, Curriculum,

• Student, Faculty, Alumni, Administration, etc.

• Review School Documents and Discuss with Principal, Department Leaders, Faculty, etc.

• Be Prepared to Discuss Any Area of the School & Note Follow-Up Action (Ref: Director’s
Manual, Faculty Manual, etc.)

• Request that APEO be Placed On the School Mailing List

CONSULTATION REPORT

• Note/Dictate Consultation Report Information

• Keep Consultation Reports Confidential

• Identify Felt Needs of The School

• Identify Project Assistance and Funding Needs

NOTE: Please no promises or announcements regarding DFM funding’. Recommendation to


the Field Director for special funds (LFTL, BGMC, etc.) are confidential between
APEC, the Field Director and Area Director. Funding) NOT to be identified with
APEO.
10-92
ROLES TO MAINTAIN

• Be totally and completely professional

• Maintain a quiet confidence about what you are doing

• Be courteous and friendly

• Maintain a subdued manner

• Be dedicated to doing a good job

• Bewilhingtolistenandhear

• Learn names and use them

• Acknowledge others pleasantly

• Include input in your work and respond to feedback

ROLES TO AVOID

• Trying to be Mr. or Mrs. personality

• Dropping names

• Militant attitude or demeanor

• Confident know it all

• The hero or savior of the institution

• Night club comedian

• Great orator with a captive audience

• Eager beaver and over marketer

• Feeding problems and starving opportunities


CHECKLIST OF ON-SITE FOLLOW-UP ACTION NEEDED
(APEO Use Only)

NAME/PLACE OF SCHOOL: _________________________________________________________________________________

VISIT DATE:

KEY: (RA) By Resource Assistant


(C) By Consultant (AC) By Area Consultant
___ Update School Profile and Address Databases (RA) (C)

___ Update On-Line School Directory (RA) (C)

___.Prepare Consultation Report (C)

___Transcribe Tapes, Type Follow-up Memos/Correspondence (RA) (C)

___Route School Working Folder for Review and Include:


1. Consultation Report. ___. (RA) (C)
2. Updated School Profile____ (RA) (C)
3. School Catalogs, Brochures, etc ____ (R.A) (C)

___Send to School:
1. Follow-up Letter___ (R.A) (C)
2. Copy of Updated Profile___ (RA)
3. Materials Requested........... (RA) (C)
4. School Related Correspondence to Others (RA) (C)

___Send to Field Director, Area Director, Area Consultant:


1. Consultation Report (Response needed from Area Con).. (RA) (C) (AC)
2. Updated School Profile___ (RA) (C)
3. Copies of Correspondence (RA) (C)
___Submit New Resource Project Requests to Cons Com (RA) (C)

___ Identify Special Projects which Qualify for DFM Funds (RA) (C)
and Submit to Cons Com
___File all documents in designated APBSRO files: (RA)
1. File updated school profile in school profile
notebook and remove old one___
2. File consultation reports and updated school profile..........
3. Move old profiles to school history folder..........
4. File copies of correspondence to schools/others__

Update school visit chart in conference room (C)

NOTE:
Upon completion, this checklist is to be signed by the Director, consultant, or
officer-in charge and kept in the school’s confidential file.

_________________________ __________________
Director (or Officer-in-Charge) Consultant

_________________________ __________________
Date Date
FOLLOW-UP LETTER SAMPLE -

[DATE]

[NAME]
[ADDRESS]
[CITY], [STATEIISLANDS] [ZIP] [COUNTRY]

Dear Bro. [Principal]:

Warm greetings from the Asia Pacific Education Office!

Thank you for your [WARM] [WELCOME] [INVITATION] [KINDNESS] [HOSPITALITY]


[VITAL ASSISTANCE] [WITH] [DURING] our visit to [YOUR] [THE) Bible school. It was a
privilege to be with you [AND TO MEET WITH THE] [BOARD] [FACULTY]
[ADMINISTRATORS] [STUDENTS] of [NAME OF SCHOOL].

A copy of the updated profile for your school has been enclosed for your information. If you
would like to make corrections or provide further information, please make a photocopy of the
profile and send us the corrected copy.

The APBSRO team will be praying with you for the continuing development of effective
ministly training in [NAME OF AREA] [AND] [EXPECIALLY] [FOR____] Please feel free to
contact us any time we can be of service to you, or provide resource materials for you.

May God richly bless you! We thank God for the vital ministry of [NAME OF SCHOOL].
Sincerely in Christ,
ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION OFFICE

[NAME OF CONSULTANT [TITLE]

Enclosures [FOLLOW-UP ACTION]


APEO CONSULTATION REPORT

NAME OF DIVISION

NAME (School/Office/Church):

LOCATION:

GENERAL COUNCIL RELATIONSHIP:

PROGRAMS OFFERED: PRESENT ENROLLMENT:

CONSULTATION BY: DATE:


PRIMARY CONTACTS AND POSITIONS HELD:

PRIMARY TOPICS AND OBSERVATIONS:

DOCUMENTS SUPPLIED AND RECEIVED:

FELT NEEDS AND FOLLOW-UP ACTION:

CONSULTATION REPORT PREPARED BY:

REVIEWED BY CONSULTANTS / DATES REVIEWED:

COPIES TO: Field Director


Area Director
Branch Director

ATTACHMENTS: Updated school profile


THE CULTURE AUDIT NOTEBOOK
By Hans Finzel, 1989

Introduction

The following pages form a guideline for a culture audit notebook. It is divided into four
sections:

1. The Culture Audit Inventory


a. Listing of external and internal indicators of culture.
b. Listing of external driving forces and internal integration factors.
c. Listing of the ten basic assumptions.
2. Random observation section.
3. Culture audit sheets.
4. The formal audit conclusions.
a. Preliminary assumption statements.
b. The basic assumption conclusions.
c. Other helpful insights.

Organizational Culture Audit Inventory

This section of the audit notebook summarizes the main ingredients of organizational culture
analysis. It is the reference section of the notebook, used by the researchers for their analysis.

External Indicators

1. The physical setting: Look for clues about what value is placed on appearance, quality,
neatness and newness. Separation of workers and the status ascribed by the allocation of
space is crucial. Does the physical plant make a statement about the organization?
2. The written documents promoting the organization: What does the PR about the
organization say about beliefs, values, goals, and pursuits of the organization? Contrast these
espoused values with theories in use.
3. Products: What can be learned about the organization by looking at what they produce?
What can be seen about quality, innovation and integrity?
4. Services: Just like a product, the services that a group renders are a good way to read the
deeper values and beliefs. What can be seen about quality, innovation and integrity?
5. Stores, myths and legends: Organizations have reputations about themselves that circulate in
the external world. Stories of famous founders or leaders are often known far and wide, and
tell a great deal about the group. Myths and legends about great deeds done by the
organization usually emphasize values that need to be noted.
6. Figureheads and heroes: Who are the big names and heroes (and perhaps villains)
associated with the organization in the outside world? What about those people and the
surrounding stories communicate organizational culture?
7. Publications: Other than PR materials, organizations also publish reports, books and other
materials that reveal culture to the careful observer. What do the materials published by the
group tell the auditor about the values and beliefs of the group? What comes through by way
of values and beliefs in the formal statements of creeds, philosophy and charters?
8. How the organization treats strangers: How is the newcomer greeted and what does that
person feel on initial contact with the organization? Is it a formal or informal environment?
Is the atmosphere warm or cold, businesslike or friendly, rigid or flexible? Are people
treated as important or are other resources seemingly more of a priority?
9. How the organization treats new “customers” or recipients of the services: Much like the
previous factor, how does the organization relate to its “customers”? Whether it is in
products or services, whether profit or non-profit, there are people who are at the receiving
end of the cause for which the organization exists. What position do those people hold in the
organization? Are they used or respected as all-important? Are they targets or are they
listened to as helpful assets?

Internal Indicators

The actions and emphases of the leadership: Without a doubt, the leader of an organization is the
primary embedder and maintainer of the organizational culture. What that leader does and
does not do speaks volumes to the cultural analysts regarding the values and beliefs of the
organization. If the leader is out of sync with the organization on many of the basic
assumptions, then his or her tenure will be short lived. If the tenure continues regardless, due
to power or positioning, then the organization will have cultural dissonance and be both
ineffective and an unpleasant place to work. Some of the primary actions that need to be
observed in the leader are the following:
a. What the leaders pay attention to: Whatever is noticed, commented upon and cared
about is important to the leader and indicates value and worth.
b. What the leaders ignore: Conversely to point “a”, what the leadership ignores is of little
value to them. Workers quickly learn what does not get reacted to, and deduct that these
things are of no value to the leadership.
c. What the leaders react to: What are the brush fires and emergencies that get strong
reactions from the leaders? How do leaders act in crisis? It is in crises that values,
norms, procedures and policies are often created, thus it is in those times that basic
assumptions come to the surface.
d What the leaders reward: What actions seem to generate in the leadership reward
behavior? What values and beliefs seen in the workers are confirmed by these rewards?
e. What the leaders punish: Conversely to point “d”, what action seems to get the
leadership upset and generate a negative reaction and punishment? Leaders quickly
embed their assumptions with reward and punishment.
f What the leaders do to coach their staff: What do the leaders tell the followers as they
wander through the organization coaching the staff? How do they train the followers
and what do they tell them about the organization?
g. How the leaders solve problems: What is the problem-solving style of the leadership? Is
it independent or shared? Is it quick or do decisions linger indefinitely? Do decisions
stick or are they often reversed?
2. Organization History- “War stories”, myths and legends: Every organization is rich in oral
tradition about the early years of the organization and major milestones that made it what it
is today. How major crises were solved reveals much about values and beliefs, including the
role that the founding leaders played in those battles for survival. Look for these stories,
reflect on them, and pay careful attention to what they communicate about values and
beliefs. Whether they are true or not-they get stretched with time-they tell a great deal about
basic assumptions. The more the stories are told, the more weight they carry in culture
assessment.
3. Symbols: The symbols of an organization are physical objects, furnishings, art, titles, and the
name, slogans and logos of the organization that reflect corporate culture. There are also
symbols of power and status that indicate position within organizations. This would include
offices, automobiles, equipment, facilities and other physical privilege that is possessed by
some but not by all.
4. Physical arrangements: What does the arrangement of the physical space tell one about
status, communication, intimacy, social barriers and intrusion distances? What does the
physical plant tell about how the organization views itself? The physical arrangements
depict status, pride of ownership, the place of tradition and the value of human relationships.
5. Rituals and ceremonies: Organizations have public celebrations of beliefs and values at
times when they sense it necessary to reinforce those assumptions publicly. What is
celebrated and honored at these ceremonies? When rewards are given out publicly, what are
the underlying values that are being affirmed by the organization? Rituals are the customary
and repeated actions of an organization that take on meaning and promote values and
beliefs. They can include meetings, meal time procedures, reports by the leaders, farewell
parties, retreats, work habits, newcomer orientation and any other regularities repeated
within the organization.
6. Hero worship: Who are the heroes of the organization and why? Are they part of the
organization or outside of it? Are all the heroes on the leadership group, or can anyone gain
hero status? What are the values and beliefs being affirmed by the actions of the heroes?
Hero myths and hero worship serve to set standards of performance, show attainability of
success and provide role models for the organization.
7. Taboos: Certain actions are taboo in any organization, and the commitment of a taboo
usually leads to dismissal, social isolation and or humiliation. What are some of these taboos
and what do they reveal about basic assumptions that are deeply held and not open to
discussion?
8. Rites of passage: In most organizations, entrance into the company at the outset is not
entrance into the culture of the insiders. What rites of passage bring newcomers into the real
heart of the organization? What values and beliefs are being expressed and affirmed by these
rites? Other rites of passage would include the pathway to
management, leadership, dismissal and retirement. Informal initiation rites are much more
valuable in expressing culture than those verbally espoused.
9. Retirement rites: At retirement ceremonies, the occasion is ripe for anecdotes, speeches and
war stories that reinforce the organization’s values and beliefs. What do the actions and
words surrounding retirement reveal about basic assumptions in the group?
10. Special events/dates/anniversaries: Much like rites and rituals, there are special times in the
organization’s life when there is celebration or commemoration or marker events in the life
of the group. What are those important events and what do they reveal about the basic
assumptions? What is marked as important to celebrate and what is ignored? Who is singled
out for recognition and why?
11. Organizational structures: Leaders assert their assumptions on the group not only by their
behavior but by the systems they create. What does the structure say about basic
assumptions? How is the work and work force organized?. What does the design indicate
about the leadership?
12. Report systems: Like the structures they create, what does leadership want to hear about in
the report systems? What is considered success and what is measured in these reports? What
is ignored?
13. Policies and procedures manuals: These are the rule books of the organization. Do they
exist? Are they thick or thin? Is there a good deal of freedom or is there layer after layer of
regulation heaped on the workers? What does that communicate about basic assumptions?
What do they pay attention to and what is ignored?
14. Personnel policies: How are people treated by personnel policies and practices in the
organization? What does that indicate about the view of human nature and other values and
beliefs in the organization?
15. Recruitment dogma and selection: New employees are very sensitive to organizational
culture, for they are quickly trying to adapt to a new working world. What does the
organization say are crucial qualities in new recruits they are seeking? How are they
indoctrinated and what does that say about assumptions? What can newcomers, who are the
most sensitive, tell the culture auditor about “how things are done around here?’
16. How people spend their time: What are people doing in the organization? If one could
measure how everyone spent their time for a solid week in a given organization, one would
have a rich list from which to draw solid conclusions on values and beliefs.
17. Career paths: Who gets ahead in the organization and why? What type of activity and
behavior is rewarded with advancement, and conversely, what type of behavior is
unacceptable? Are skills, education, knowledge, family connections, loyalty or performance
the criteria for advancement?
18. Tenure in key positions and turnover: Is there long tenure or constant movement in key
positions? Does this indicate a stable or fast paced career tract for the workers? Do people
frequently join as well as leave the organization? If so, what does that tell the observer about
the organization?
19. The general content of memos and meetings: This is related to the same question as what
people do with their time. What is the content of all the paper work flowing
throughout the organization? What are the leaders reading in their in boxes, and what they
sending out through their out boxes?
20. When subcultures conflict: Organizations of any size have numerous subcultures. Generally
there will be dominant ones and minor ones, along with at times rebellious ones. When
subcultures clash, what are the issues and how are they resolved? Who wins the clashes and
what are the signals about assumptions? How do the conflicting groups describe each other?

External Driving Forces

1. Mission and Strategy. Obtaining a shared understanding of core mission, primary task,
manifest and latent functions.
2. Goals. Developing consensus on goals, as derived from the core mission.
3. Means. Developing consensus on the means to be used to attain the goals, such as the
organization structure, division of labor, reward system, and authority system.
4. Measurement. Developing consensus on the criteria to be used in measuring how well the
group is doing in fulfilling its goals, such as the information and control system.
5. Correction. Developing consensus on the appropriate remedial or repair strategies to be used
if goals are not being met (Schein 1985:52).

Internal Integration Factors

1. Common Language and Conceptual Categories. If members cannot commumcate with and
understand each other, a group is impossible by definition.
2. Group Boundaries and Criteria for Inclusion and Exclusion. One of the most important areas
of culture is the shared consensus on who is in and who is out and by what criteria one
determines membership.
3. Power and Status. Every organization must work out its pecking order, its criteria and rules
for how one gets, maintains, and loses power; consensus in this area is crucial to help
members manage feelings of aggression.
4. Intimacy, Friendship, and Love. Every organization must work out its rules of the game for
peer relationships, for relationships between the sexes, and for the manner in which
openness and intimacy are to be handled in the context of managing the organization’s tasks.
5. Rewards and Punishments. Every group must know what its heroic and sinful behaviors are;
what gets rewarded with property, status, and power; and what gets punished in the form of
withdrawal of the rewards and, ultimately, excommunication.
6. Ideology and “Religion.” Every organization, like every society, faces unexplainable and
inexplicable events, which must be given meaning so that members can respond to them and
avoid the anxiety of dealing with the unexplainable and uncontrollable (Schein 1985:66).
Basic Assumptions

1. Relating to the search for truth and purpose: How is truth and the purpose of the
organization arrived at? What is the source of truth and how is it revealed? How does the
group discover its ongoing quest for refining its mission, purpose and ultimate goals?
2. Relating to the world outside: How does the organization and its members relate to the
external environment, specifically the “market” or recipients of the services of the
organization? Is it a posture of service, submission, dominance, superiority, equality or
inferiority? Does the group react to the external environment or primarily act to change that
environment?
3. Relating to time: What is the value of time in this organization? Is the group in a hurry to
complete its cause, or is the pace moderate, or slow? Is time seen as a high priority resource
to spend carefully, or less important than the other resources? Is the orientation of the
organization toward the past, present or future? What is considered “on time” and how
flexible is the group with time deadlines? In what units of time is planning done in?
4. Relating to space: How is space allocated in the organization? Does it signify worth by its
allocation? What does the arrangement of the physical space tell one about status,
communication, intimacy, social barriers and intrusion distances?
5. Relating to resources: What are the primary resources in the organization and how might
they be prioritized? What does the priority of the resources tell about the values of the
group? How are the resources controlled by the leaders and followers and what does that say
about beliefs and values?
6. Relating to human nature: This point is applicable to the Christian organization. For
Christians, human nature is usually viewed from the Biblical perspective of the fall and
redemption of sinful man. How is human nature viewed in this organization? Good? Bad?
Worthiness? Creative? Are people in need of being dominated and controlled or can they be
given freedom to excel? Are they of high value, moderate value or expendable? How are
people motivated? Are followers or leaders the best problem solvers? Are all equal or are
some more equal than others? Where do the best ideas for the organization come from?
7. Relating to human nature: Is the orientation of the group on doing, being or becoming
(Schein 1985:102)?
a. Doing. A doing orientation is the “can-do” spirit that America is known for, oriented
toward efficiency, tasks, pragmatism, control and manipulation of the environment.
b. Being. This orientation accepts the external environment as ultimately in control, and
that which must be subjected to. It is a passive orientation and focuses on individual
enjoyment, personal pursuits and the acceptance of the inevitable.
c. Becoming. Lying between the two above mentioned orientations, is the stage of
becoming. It is seen as growing into harmony with nature, neither dominating it nor
letting it control oneself. This emphasizes self-development, self-fulfillment and self-
actualization.
8. Relating to human relationships: How are relationships viewed in this organization? Are
they very important in networking, or do people work individually behind closed doors? Is
there freedom for communication throughout the organization, or are lines of relationship
strictly controlled? What is the informal social atmosphere like? Is there love, intimacy and
peer relationships?
9. Relating to personal priorities: How are personal lives and families viewed? Are they seen
as more important than the “work”? What is most important to the people in the
organization as a whole, the work itself, the relationships in the organization, one’s personal
interests in life, or one’s family?
10. Relating to the nature of reward and punishment: What are the values and beliefs in the
organization relating to power, influence and hierarchy? What and who determines reward,
what is the nature of the reward system? In what is punishment handed down and how are
people desocialized from the group?

Random Observations of Culture

The first section of the notebook should contain random observations about the organization
as one is exposed to the external and indicators of culture. As the observer gains deeper and
deeper insights, it is helpful to simply list them at random for later analysis. These insights also
help as the culture auditor feeds the early insights back to any informants that have been
instilled.

Random observations (More space will be needed, but economized here):


Formal Audit Information

In this section, attempt to fill in the blanks after each section as clues of beliefs and values
surface through investigation

Culture Expressed in External Driving Forces

1. Mission and Strategy

2. Goals

3. Means

4. Measurement

5. Correction

Culture Expressed in Internal Integration Factors

1. Common Language and Conceptual Categories

2. Group Boundaries and Criteria for Inclusion and Exclusion

3. Power and Status

4. Intimacy, Friendship, and Love

5. Rewards and Punishments


6. Ideology and “Religion”

Preliminary Assumption Statements

Under each of the ten basic assumption areas, attempt to write statements of observable
assumptions, based on the audit work done so far (More space will needed, but is economized
here).

1. Relating to the search for truth and purpose

2. Relating to the world outside

3. Relating to time

4. Relating to space

5. Relating to resources

6. Relating to human nature

7. Relating to human activity: Is the orientation of the group on doing, being or becoming?

a. Doing

b. Being

c. Becoming

8. Relating to human relationships


9. Relating to personal priorities

10. Relating to the nature of reward and punishment

Once the list is complete, test the assumption statements with the information in the organization
for the purpose of adjustment and recalibration. Once one is satisfied that the testing is as
complete as possible, then fill in the final conclusions on assumptions.
Final Conclusions on Assumptions

In this final exercise, one is attempting to get DW the core of the organizational culture. At
this time one should write down the most basic assumption observations in full sentences that
can communicate to others the observations made. This will be the final product of the culture
audit.

1. Relating to the search for truth and purpose

2. Relating to the world outside

3. Relating to time

4. Relating to space

5. Relating to resources

6. Relating to human nature


7. Relating to human activity: Is the orientation of the group on doing, being or becoming?

a. Doing

b. Being

c. Becoming
J
8. Relating to human relationships

9. Relating to personal priorities

10. Relating to the nature of reward and punishment

Other Helpful Insights

Stages in the Lifecycle


It would also be helpful to get a reading of the organization’s life cycle positioning based on
typologies like Schein, Flanholz, Greiner or Adizes.

The Problems in Focus


In addition, of course depending on the problems which the organization wishes to address,
there should be analysis and further exploration in the exact area of greatest interest.

Positive and Negative Summaries


Finally, it will be helpful to draw some positive as well as negative summaries and
conclusions about the organizational culture. There would be broad statements of overall
impressions about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization.
Appendix H

Case Study No. 1


In Peru, South America, communication had broken down between Bob, one of our missionaries,
and Carlos, a gifted Peruvian leader. Bob was involved in basic evangelism and church planting
while Carlos was director of radio ministries. Both of the men are well-educated and have strong
leadership abilities. The original conflict issue involved the use of mission funds for major
capital improvements of the radio station as well as the purchase of new equipment for the
recording studio. Bob felt that the radio ministry was not a top priority for the use of mission
funds and that other programs should rate higher, such as urban church planting and the training
of national leaders. Carlos, the director of radio ministries, was aware of Bob’s viewpoint on this
and did not appreciate It. A conflict developed over this issue and resulted in a strained
relationship and the breakdown of communication between them. They were now avoiding each
other.

Dave, our field director in Peru, asked Bob and Carlos to meet with him one evening
after a Bible study for professional people. He felt that the best way to handle this was to bring
the two men together, get the issue out in the open, and discuss it in a frank and open manner.
Dave was fairly comfortable and optimistic in serving as a neutral party because he appreciated
and felt confidence with both men. His main concern was whether Carlos and Bob would
recognize the growing conflict between them and would be wiling to be open with each other.
Dave hoped that the three of them could come to a mutually acceptable understanding on
priorities for the use of mission funds. If they did not succeed in this, he hoped that while Carlo~
and Bob might continue to disagree on what they considered to be ministry priorities, they would
at least reestablish an open relationship and communication.

Dave first asked that they discuss the conflict issue itself, with each man having freedom
to express his point of view. He brought out that each of the men’s training, motivation, and
present ministry led them to different priorities, but that they should look at how their different
ministries could work together to accomplish mutual goals. He also emphasized that even though
Bob and Carlos had different points of view, this should not lead to a loss of fellowship or
communication between them. They could “agree to disagree.”

Dave was hoping that the three of them could work together in resolving the conflict in
the best way for all parties, regarding both the issue involved and the relationship. He wanted to
see a win-win solution. Both of the men were encouraged to express themselves and suggest
possible solutions. Dave had a strong feeling during and after the session that both men came to
more fully understand the other’s point of view. There was a
determination to see how the radio ministry could make a greater contribution in evangelism, the
development of churches, and the training of national leaders. At: the same time they discussed
how the radio ministry had already helped the churches and the cause of Christ by breaking
down barriers and presenting a positive witness for the evangelical cause in the cities where our
programs were aired.
Dave felt good about the session and so did our missionary, Bob. Both he and Carlos
had come to a much better acceptance of the other’s point of view. Felldwship and
communication were restored. For a time, however, Carlos seemed somewhat put out with Dave
for having initiated such a frank, face-to-face discussion about such a sensitive issue. This direct
approach to managing conflict made him feel very uncomfortable. But after Dave had visited
with Cans several times during the coming weeks, everything seemed fine between them again.

Questions:

L. What was the real and underlying issue in this conflict?

2. At what stage was this conflict in the conflict cycle?

3. What might have been some of the likely outcomes if this conflict hadn’t been dealt with?
4. What was lacking between Bob and Carlos that heightened the conflict?

5. What style of conflict management did the moderator (referee) use? Did it seem to work?

6. What changes in the behavior of the two parties was necessary if the intervention and follow-
up of this conflict was to have good results?

7. What cultural factors entered into this conflict and the way it was managed?

8. Any suggestions for improving the way this conflict was dealt with?

Taken from “Managing Conflict Creatively” by Donald C. Palmer.


Appendix I

Case Study No. 2

Last year one of my colleagues and I were in the Philippines to speak in a field conference and
also to intervene in a growing problem there. The national church has been going through the
“independence” stage. Many of the national leaders are younger and well-trained men who want
to call the shots in the work. Missionaries are to say “yes” when told where and how to serve
within the country.

Our missionaries expressed to us that they felt they had little or nothing to say about the
direction of the work or about their placement and ministries. Some were facing role dilemma - a
feeling of having little influence and of not having fulfilling ministries to carry on. Recently out
of frustration one young couple had left the field and now another experienced couple - Ray and
Susan — were thinking of doing the same if their situation could not be changed. Their specific
frustration was that they had been appointed by the national church leadership to work in our
local church in Santiago, under a national pastor. But they had little meaningful ministry in the
church. They felt that all they were contributing was their presence and tithes. They wanted to be
released to start a new church in a new sector of the city. The national pastor wanted them to
continue in his church as they had been doing. We feared losing this couple.

Our strategy was to first meet separately with the missionary couple just mentioned (Ray
and Susan), then with the pastor of the church in Santiago where Ray and Susan were serving,
and finally with the main national leaders. We discussed Ray and Susan’s situation, asked for
possible solutions to their immediate problem, and used this as a springboard to address the
larger issue of a healthier and more equitable partnership relationship between the national
church and the missionaries.

When the parties mentioned above all met together with us later, we asked for possible
options for Ray and Susan. One was for them to continue in the church but with a broader
ministry. The other was for them to be appointed to start a new church in a completely different
area of Santiago. The nationals began to realize that if Ray and Susan continued in the same
situation they might end up leaving the Philippines. No decision was made at that time, though it
was later agreed that they be freed to start a new church, while continuing to be available to help
the present established church when needed for advice and for preaching and teaching.

We then addressed the larger issue of a more equitable and healthy relationship between
church leaders and missionaries. Here we asked the nationals to put themselves in the
missionaries’ shoes and we asked them whether they would be willing to assume the kind of role
that Ray and Susan had been given — a largely passive, presence role. Several of the pastors
agreed that they would need to have a much fuller ministry to be satisfied and challenged. We
asked if it would not be better for all parties if we moved to an interdependent, partnership model
where together we would decide on the placement and ministries of missionaries.
The negotiation and discussion did not lead to a formal agreement while we were still in
the Philippines. But feedback from the field indicates that the national church leaders have a
better understanding of our missionaries’ aspirations, goals, and feelings. They are more open to
shifting from a “church-over-the-missionaries” relationship to a partnership relationship. We
have lost no missionaries since then and the church and ministries are moving forward. There is,
however, more negotiation needed to arrive at a mutual understanding and acceptance of an
interdependent relationship. Progress has been made but now follow-up work needs to be done.

In our discussions with the national leaders we were courteous and calm throughout our
discussions, but firm and specific. We felt that we had to get through to the national leaders
regarding what was happening to our missionaries and reasons for It. We felt that they did get a
new understanding and empathy for our missionaries’ situation and that they began to see the
need for a change in the relationship.

Questions:

1. What was the immediate issue causing the conflict?

What was the deeper and broader issue causing the conflict?

2. What would have been the likely consequences if the conflict issues were not dealt with and
resolved?

3. What conflict management styles were used in dealing with the conflict? List two and
explain your choices.

4. What were some of the positive approaches used in the process of dealing with this
conflict?

5. What cultural factors may have played a part in this conflict?

6. What would you suggest for effective follow-up with the national church leaders in order to
establish and confirm a new partnership relationship?

Taken from “Managing Conflict Creatively” by Donald C. Palmer.


Questions for Discussion
Case Study No.2- Adapted

1. What would someone representing each of the four frames (perspectives) saycaused the
problem in this situation?

Structural (rational systems) frame:

Human resource frame:

Political frame:

Symbolic frame:

2. How would someone representing each of the frames solve the problem?

Structural frame:

Human resource frame;

Political frame:

Symbolic frame:

3. What have your learned about the four frames that would help you solve this problem?
Appendix J

Table 5.1 Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI) values for 50 countries and 3 regions

Score Country or UAI Score Country or UAI


rank region score rank region score
1 Greece 112 28 Equador 67
2 Portugal 104 29 Germany FR 65
3 Guatemala 101 30 Thailand 64
4 Uruguay 100 31132 Iran 59
5/6 Belgium 94 31/32 Finland 59
5/6 Salvador 94 33 Switzerland 58
7 Japan 92 34 West Africa 54
8 Yugoslavia 88 35 Netherlands 53
9 Peru 87 36 East Africa 52
10/15 France 86 37 Australia 51
10/15 Chile 86 38 Norway 50
10/15 Spain 86 39/40 South Africa 49
10/15 Costa Rica 86 39/40 New Zealand 49
10/15 Panama 86 41/42 Indonesia 48
10/15 Argentina 86 41/42 Canada 48
16/17 Turkey 85 43 USA 46
16/17 South Korea 85 44 Philippines 44
18 Mexico 82 45 India 40
19 Israel 81 46 Malaysia 36
20 Colombia 80 47/48 Great Britain 35
21/22 Venezuela 76 47/48 Ireland (Republic of) 35
21/22 Brazil 76 49/50 Hong Kong 29
23 Italy 75 49/50 Sweden 29
24/25 Pakistan 70 51 Denmark 23
24/25 Austria 70 52 Jamaica 13
26 Taiwan 69 53 Singapore 8
27 Arab countries 68

From “Cultures and Organizations” by Geert Hofstede


Appendix K

SECTION II.

STYLES OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

There are marked differences in the way we react in the midst of conflict. Without being
consciously aware of it each of us develops a pattern of behavior in conflict that reflects
our background, our theology of conflict, and our past experiences with conflict. This
pattern of behavior is our way of dealing with the tension that we feel in conflict. Our
reactions to conflict can become so predictable that others come to expect certain patterns
of behavior from us. We call these learned patterns of behavior “styles” of conflict
management In this chapter we will be considering the five major styles of managing
conflict that Norman Shawchuck presents in his book “How to Manage Conflict in the
Church.”

Each person’s style of managing conflict will vary according to the situation or
the intensity of the conflict. If you are mediating a conflict as a referee, you will likely
use a different style than when you .are directly and emotionally involved as one of the
parties in conflict. Normally you will enter a conflict using your preferred style, but as
tension builds up and the situation becomes more threatening, you will move to alternate
styles. We call these your “back-up” styles.

Understanding the conflict management styles will help you to consciously


choose those which are most appropriate for each conflict situation. It will also help you
to lead others in the use of more constructive styles of managing conflict. Consequently,
in this section you will learn:

• The five conflict management styles and the characteristics of each style.
• Your own preferred and back-up styles of managing or reacting to conflict.
• The two basic concerns that affect each person’s choice of styles for managing
conflict.
• The style that is generally most constructive and effective in managing
conflict. You will be encouraged to make this your preferred style.
• The dangers in consistently using the less desirable styles, as well as the
circumstances under which it is appropriate to use them.
• The importance of learning to be flexible and intentional in your choice of
styles.

I. THE FIVE STYLES OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

A. Avoiding (The Passive Turtle)


Motto: “I will stay out of it.”
Intent To stay out of the conflict, avoid identification with either side, be
neutral. The avoider makes others take responsibility for solving the conflict.
He says by his actions: “I will not stick my neck out;” “It is not my problem;”
“I do not care enough about the issue to suffer tension and discomfort over it.”
The avoider either feels that a conflict is not worth the effort, that all conflict is
wrong, or that a solution is not possible anyway. 56 why, get involved?

Action: The avoider is unassertive and passive. He does not promote his own
ideas and interests, nor helps others to promote theirs. He does not cooperate in
defining the conflict, in seeking a solution, or in carrying out the decisions
made. Avoiding is really a decision not to decide. The avoider’s slogan might
well read, ‘The buck passes here.”

An avoider’s first reaction to a conflict might be to deny that any problem exists at all.
If this fails and the conflict worsens his tactic may be to withdraw and head for the
nearest exit. Or it may ,simply be to stay ,on the sidelines as a silent nonparticipant in
the conflict and its resolution.

Results: “You lose; I lose.” Avoidance is usually a negative and non-productive


strategy. The avoider abdicates all responsibility to others. Issues that are not dealt
with grow and fester, leading to more serious conflict. People’s energy is used up in
escaping from the offending parties or the conflict issues. Paralysis may set in
because of a cumulative sense of weakness and frustration. There is no risk, no
trust, no growth since issues have not been grappled with and resolved. The
long-term use of this style may well lead to a feeling of powerlessness,
growing frustration, and deepening hostility on the part of the avoider.

When Appropriate:

• When the problem being dealt with is relatively insignificant or temporary,


and when the decision will not affect long-range goals nor policy.

• When the problem really is not your responsibility. One does not have to
fight every battle and it is important to learn which ones to engage in and which
ones to retreat from.

• When participants are very fragile and Insecure and their level of maturity
will not allow for effective management of the conflict.

• When differences are so Irreconcilable that confrontation will not accomplish


anything. Sometimes it may be wise to avoid certain aspects of the conflict
while dealing with others.
B. Accommodating (The Lovable Teddy Bear)

Motto: “I will give in.”

Intent: To preserve, at any cost, the relationships within the group and between
opposing parties. The message communicated is:

“Our getting along is more important than the conflict issues.” The accommodator
will do everything possible to reduce the risk of damaging relationships with the
others involved. Issues, goals, and progress in the work are less important than
relationships.

Action: The accommodator tries to embrace everyone involved in the conflict. When
confrontation cannot be avoided he will go with the proposal or solution that results
in the least strain on relationships. He is assertive in seeking solutions acceptable to
others, but unassertive regarding his own ideas and solutions. He often placates
others by conceding his own interests and goals and by giving in to those of others.
The accommodator will sacrifice himself and his aspirations and may even be
willing to accept blame for the conflict if it will help to bring peace and harmony.

Results: “You win - I lose.” Continued use of this style is harmful for all parties. The
person who always gives in to others may begin to think less of himself and his own
ideas. Eventually he will feel like a doormat. The accommodator may also come to
feel that he carries on his shoulders the responsibility for maintaining good relations
between members of the group. This is too heavy a load for any one person in a
group to carry it is the responsibility of all those involved.

At the same time, those who always are allowed to get their way may mistakenly
begin to think that they and their ideas are superior. They will tend to become even
more assertive and will expect the accommodator to give in to their goals and
interests all the time. Thus they are not forced to grow because they are accustomed
to getting their own way.

When Appropriate:
• As with the avoiding style, when the Issue Is relatively insignificant or
temporary.

• When one feels unsure of his own ideas and realizes that his position Is weak.

• When the long-term relationship Is more important than the short-range


conflict issues.

• When several equally good solutions are being considered.


C. Collaborating (The Wise Owl)

Motto: “Let’s work together for everyone’s good.”

Intent To achieve a “win” solution for all parties. The collaborator is both issues-
orientated and relationship-orientated. He believes that people are capable of solving
their problems. Conflict is not to be avoided but is to be turned into a positive,
problem-solving process. This style appreciates the value of each person and places
equal emphasis on each party’s ideas, interests, and goals, while also seeking to
maintain a good relationship between those involved.

Action: The collaborator is assertive but also flexible. He is convinced that conflict
can be managed in such a way that it will lead to positive growth for both the
individuals involved and the organization. He is committed to win-win decisions and
promotes mutual respect, open communication, and full participation by all parties in
the process of managing a conflict. By his actions the collaborator says, “I care and
want to preserve relationships,” but he also says, “I confront and am going to present
and defend my ideas and goals as well as those of others.”

The leader using this style must be firm yet sensitive to people’s feelings. He will
insist that all parties give clear messages as to their ideas, interests, and goals. He
will guide the process of communication and decision-making in a way that ensures
fairness and that avoids attacks and intimidation.

Results: “You win — I win.” The collaborative style works for everybody’s good.
Because it encourages full participation and communication by all parties, it leads to
honest clarification of issues and interests, shared decision-making, and enthusiastic
implementation of agreed-upon solutions. Everyone understands what is going on
and joins in problem solving. The process builds trust and stronger relationships
since all parties feel important and respected. Because decisions are fully “owned”
by all parties, there is a higher commitment to follow through on them. Those
involved learn how to successfully manage conflict and this gives them greater
confidence and know-how for managing subsequent conflicts.

When Appropriate: In the majority of conflicts this is the preferred style, especially
in those involving long-term goals and relationships. Because this style aims for
group consensus, it does require more lime than some of the other styles. And
though in the long run it is worth the extra time and effort, it may not be possible to
use the collaborative style if time is very short. It also requires that participants have
sufficient maturity and patience to be able to handle a process that can sometimes be
risky and very demanding.

D. Compromising (The Wily Fox)


Motto: “I will meet you halfway.”

Intent To give each party some of the winnings as well as some of the losses. It
follows the philosophy of give and take, of negotiating and bartering the interests
and goals of each party. Since the compromiser does not feel that it is possible to
satisfy everyone fully, his aim is that all parties will be at least partially satisfied,
while at the same time relationships are preserved. It is a style that is very popular
with politicians, collective bargainers, and international negotiators.

Action: Those using this style seek to take part of each proposal but not the whole of
any of them. They use negotiation, bargaining, and trading: ‘We will agree to x if
you agree to y.” “We will give you part of what you want if you give us part of what
we want.” The message communicated is: ‘We must all submit our personal desires
to serve the common good of all parties as well as the organization.”

The leader using this style must be assertive but flexible in an effort to ensure that
each party gets a fair share of its goals and aspirations as well as making its fair
share of concessions. This style uses persuasion, and if necessary manipulation, to
achieve a solution in which each party wins something. In the best of solutions it
looks for a creative and effective compromise rather than a solution that simply
represents the lowest common denominator.

Results: “We both win some and lose some.” On the negative side, use of this style
may result in watered-down solutions that are not very effective, half-hearted
commitment to carry out the decisions made, and recurrence of the same conflicts
but with “new faces.” What appears resolved may not really be resolved.
Competition between the parties may continue in more subtle ways, leading to
strained relationships. Each side may expend time and energy in seeing that the other
party keeps its side of the bargain.

On the positive side, though it requires partial sacrifice of all parties’ interests and
goals, compromise often salvages stalemates over issues and relationships. Each
party gets something it wants even though it also loses something it wants. While
giving up the “best,” it often achieves the “good.”

When Appropriate: Compromise is normally the strategy to use when collaboration


fails. it is appropriate when:

• Opposing parties of equal strength are stubbornly committed to different goals


and solutions.
• The goals or solutions of all parties are valid and worthwhile and the
differences are not worth fighting over.

• The urgency of a rapid solution does not allow time for a thorough - consideration
of better solutions or a consensus decision.

• Compromise can only occur when there Is something that can be divided or
exchanged. This style rarely will work for resolving differences on deeply
held theological convictions, values, and traditions.

E. Competing (The Aggressive Shark)

Motto: “I will get my way.”

Intent: To win. This style follows the philosophy that there are only two possibilities in
conflict — to win or to lose — and winning is definitely better. It isn’t necessarily that
the one competing wishes to hurt the other parties or damage the relationship. It is rather
that he feels his own ideas, values, and goals are of supreme importance and he is willing
to sacrifice relationships if necessary to achieve his goals. His attitude is, “I cannot let
people stand in the way of my goals.”

Action: To be assertive and, if necessary, domineering. The competitor may use smooth
diplomacy or raw power, but his goal is the same: to win. He believes in give and take:
“You give and I will take.” In most cases he will not cooperate in finding any solution
other than his own. Often he will seek to manipulate others for his cause. If necessary he
will attempt to defeat those who oppose him by blocking or intimidating them. Or he may
simply wear down the opposition by stubbornly insisting on his own way. The message
he communicates is: “I know what is best for everyone and for the organization. My way
is the only way.”

Results: “I win – you lose.” The long-term use of this style will result either in
submission or in outright confrontation by those defeated. It often creates a polarization
between the parties in conflict — a “we versus them” atmosphere. And it may leave
lasting wounds that make further resolution of conflict almost impossible. The competing
style also results in a lack of enthusiasm by the “losers” for carrying out solutions or
goals that were forced through against their wishes. Defeated parties experience a
growing sense of frustration with the way conflict has been handled and growing hostility
towards the “winners.”

When Appropriate:

• When a decision must be made and action taken very quickly.


• When an unpopular, but necessary decision must be made by a person in
leadership.

• When a particular issue is so important to a person that his future with the
organization depends on winning a decision for his cause.

• When a leader is absolutely convinced that his solution is the best and is
extremely important for the organization or group. But care needs to be taken to be
sure one’s solution really is the best. In most cases the input of others improves
goals and solutions.

From “Managing Conflict Creatively” by Donald C. Palmer


A. Genesis 13:5-12, Abraham and Lot
Tension and conflict were growing between Abraham’s herdsmen and the herdsmen of Lot
because the land could no longer support the cattle of both. Abraham’s and Lot’s livestock
operations had become so large that they and their men were now getting in each other’s way
and needed more land.

1. This conflict came as a result of changing circumstances and new needs. Contrary to
what we may think, growth and prosperity themselves can often lead to conflict, In
Abraham’s and Lot’s case, yesterday’s allotment of land was not meeting their present
needs. Conflict developed because both men’s operations were prospering so greatly.
New solutions were needed.

2. The conflict was in its first stages and was manifesting itself in quarreling between the
herdsmen. It is important to note how Abraham reacted at this point to the conflict He
did not avoid it or pretend it did not exist Instead he recognized the problem and sought
a solution before the situation got worse. In Abraham’s action we find one of the most
important principles in successful conflict management. the sooner we sense a conflict is
brewing and the sooner we deal with it, the quicker and more successfully we will be
able to manage it. Avoiding or ignoring a conflict in its first stages is generally the surest
way to have a more serious conflict on our hands.

3. Abraham seems to have adopted an accommodating style in dealing with this conflict.
In this case he is willing to leave the outcome in the hands of God. He apparently places
very high value on maintaining a good relationship with Lot and is willing to sublimate
his own personal goals in order to preserve that relationship. Lot, though younger, is
given the prerogative of choosing first which land he would like to have, and Abraham is
willing to take what is left. Ordinarily Abraham, as the elder and the leader, would have
had every right to choose first.

4. An important cultural factor played a big part in the way this conflict was handled as
well. This cultural factor was the very strong obligation to family. Abraham, as the elder
uncle, felt a great obligation to protect and watch out for his nephew, Lot. What else can
explain Abraham’s seemingly foolhardy action of conducting a surprise raid to rescue
Lot from several powerful kings and their soldiers (Gen. 14)? In that time and culture
Abraham felt he had no choice but to risk his life for his nephew. As uncle and protector
he had an obligation to Lot and he must fulfil it Likewise as missionaries, many of you
work in cultures where special obligations to family and friends will have a great
influence on how conflict is handled.

B. Matthew 20:20-28, Jesus and the Disciples


The mother of James and John came to Jesus with her two sons to make a special request.
She asked that Jesus promise to give the places of honor in His kingdom to her two sons.
Simply put, she wanted the best for James and John and they wanted the best for themselves.
In their approach they were adopting a competitive style of we win — you lose,” or at least
of “we win more and you win less.” We cannot be sure whether they put their mother up to
making the request for them, but they certainly had someone with clout representing them.
How could Jesus refuse the request of a good Jewish mother for her sons? But this is what
most of us do in conflict situations. If we are not sure of the strength or popularity of our
position we often look for strong allies or an effective leader that will champion our cause.

When the other ten disciples heard about it they were indignant, but not at the mother. Rather,
they were angry at James and John because they were convinced that there was complicity on
their part and that they were trying to take advantage of them by getting the privileged
positions for themselves: After all, the other disciples would like the positions of honor for
themselves, or at least they would like to keep privileges on an equal basis for all of them.
They did not want James and John to get ahead of them! What we see here is a common
reaction. Use of the competitive style in conflict increases the likelihood of a strong and
heated reaction, if not outright confrontation.

The important lesson for us in this account is to see that conflict can be turned into a positive
experience and the opportunity for learning and growth. We can see this in the way Jesus
handled this conflict. The first thing He did was to take control of the situation with firmness,
yet also with patience. He does not harshly reprimand James and John, nor the other ten
disciples. Rather, he begins by challenging James’ and John’s attitudes and motivations by
asking them a probing question concerning sacrifice. They were looking for special honor;
Jesus talks to them about their willingness to suffer for His sake. He then turns to the whole
group and uses the conflict as an opportunity to teach them two very important lessons:

1. A lesson on the administrative structure of the Kingdom. Jesus Himself is a servant who
is under the authority of His Father. It
is the Father that will decide who will sit in the places of honor.

2. A lesson on true greatness. We are not called to be competitors seeking greatness and
privileges for ourselves. Rather, we are called to be servants of God and of others in
attitude and actions.

C. Acts 6:1-7, The Jerusalem Church and the Widows


In this conflict we again find a situation of changing circumstances. Yesterday’s decisions
and provisions were not meeting today’s needs. The church was experiencing rapid growth
and along with this the number of widows was increasing as well. The provisions of food that
previously had supplied their needs, no longer were sufficient to go around. Some were being
left out. What had been a very simple operation now required more administrative oversight
and planning. hi the midst of these 4eflciencies the Hellenistic Jews complained that their
widows were being overlooked. A serious conflict was developing.

It is hard for us to appreciate from this brief account just how critical it was that this conflict
be handled properly and with care. By its very nature it involved a very sensitive issue. If the
problem was ignored and was allowed to grow into an explosion of feelings, it could drive a
wedge between the Hebrew and Hellenistic Christians and even result in a permanent
division between them. The situation demanded fair and decisive action. It was not a problem
that would allow a very lengthy process of considering alternatives. Yet the way in which it
was handled did allow everyone concerned to have a say in the decisions made.

The apostles took the initiative as soon as they became aware of the conflict. They first set
clear guidelines outlining the process to be used in managing the conflict and arriving at a
just solution. The apostles would oversee the .process itself, while the Jerusalem believers
would choose those who would oversee the food distribution program to the widows. It is a
beautiful example of good conflict management. Note some of the positive aspects in this
process:

1. The apostles started by establishing priorities for their own ministry. The church needed
their leadership in the Word and in prayer. They realized that it would be a mistake for
them to get sidetracked by trying to administrate this program themselves. This is a
good lesson for pastors and missionaries: we should not try to carry responsibilities
that will take us from our primary ministries.

2. The apostles established the guidelines for the resolution of the conflict: “Brothers, you
choose seven men from among you who are known to be full of the Spirit and wisdom.”
The congregation was to choose seven qualified men to administrate this program and
the apostles indicated what those qualifications were.

3. The believers themselves chose the seven men. They had “ownership” in the decisions
made. Because they all participated in the process they would be more likely to accept
and support the leaders chosen. We may sometimes feel that we cannot trust a
congregation to make a wise decision if a choice is left to them. But here is an example
of a congregation making a very wise choice that showed a great deal of Christian
grace. The names of the seven men listed are all Hellenistic names. Since it was the
Hellenistic Jewish widows who were being neglected, Hellenistic Jewish leaders were
chosen to direct the program. This would effectively stop criticism, and the leaders
appointed would feel a strong need to be very fair and impartial to both parties since
they were chosen by both.

4. There was a task orientation with a people emphasis. A problem needed to be solved
and changes needed to be made. But these were not an end in themselves; they were the
means to help people who were in need while also developing people in the process
itself.

5. There were a number of short and long-range benefits from the decisive and creative
management of this conflict:

• The widows were provided for In an impartial way (implicit because the problem Is not
mentioned again).

• The Word of God spread in its influence (v.7).


• The church in Jerusalem experienced rapid growth (v. 7). No doubt observers admired
the fairness and maturity of the church in its handling of this situation. And the world is
watching us as believers to see how we handle problems and conflicts!
• New church leaders were identified and received practical training through their hands-
on experience in leadership. Several of them went on to become prominent evangelists
and church leaders.
• A new class of church leaders originated with the designation of these men as
“deacons” (v. I refers to “the daily deaconing”). This new class of leaders is still blessing
our churches today, almost two thousand years later!
• The believers in Jerusalem grew In their confidence and ability to solve their own
problems and manage their own internal conflicts.

D. Acts 15:1-35, the Council In Jerusalem


A very serious conflict was brewing between the Judaizers and non-Judaizers. It can be seen
developing in passages such as Acts 11:1-3. Here it came to a head when those of the
Judaizing party came to the Antioch church and taught the recent Gentile male converts that
they had to undergo the rite of circumcision in order to be saved. This resulted in “sharp
dispute” (v.2. NW) between Paul and Barnabas and the Judaizers.

Again in this case, the steps taken in the process of managing this conflict show exceptional
wisdom and maturity.

1. No parties among the Christians were left out (vv.2-5). Paul and Barnabas could have
decided to deal with the issue at Antioch and left the Jerusalem church leaders out of it.
This could have had several negative results:

•The older and more traditional group in Jerusalem would have felt slighted and
ignored. But by taking the matter to the leaders of the mother church In Jerusalem
they strengthened feelings of mutual respect and appreciation.

•A division between Jewish and Gentile churches could have developed. Paul and
Barnabas preserved unity by involving all parties in the Council, including the party
of the circumcision.

•Paul was still somewhat suspect by some of the leaders of the Jerusalem church. If
he would have tried to resolve this conflict without them they might have concluded
that Paul was an independent maverick that could not be trusted. This would have
resulted in long-term damage to Paul’s leadership and credibility.

2. Proponents of opposing views were allowed to fully express their arguments and
convictions (vv. 5-7a). The major leaders did not dominate the discussion during this
time of “ventilation” and airing of views.
3. There appears to have been a fairly high level of mutual trust and respect. The meeting
did not degenerate into recriminations and each party listened to the other party’s
arguments.

4. Peter, who was accepted by all parties, was the first major leader to express his
convictions on the issue (vv. 7-11). This was appropriate and very wise. What Peter said
prepared the ground for Paul’s and Barnabas’ presentation later on (v. 12).

5. James, the moderator of the Council and leader of the Jerusalem church, gave the
wrap-up (vv. 13-21). Interestingly, he refers at this point to what Peter has said, but not
Paul. No doubt this was done to bring all the parties along in the solution, since Paul
was still a very controversial person.

6. The resolution of the conflict shows a combination of collaboration and compromise.

• In critical matters of the doctrine of salvation and grace, no compromise.

• In secondary matters of practice, reasonable compromise. In several sensitive matters


that would offend Jewish Christians, Gentiles are Instructed to respect their Jewish
brothers and abstain from these practices (vv. 19-20, 28-29).

7. There was rapid and clear communication of the Council’s decision to those affected
by it. For best results the decisions were communicated to the churches both in writing
and personally.

Resume. The council at Jerusalem was one of the most important events in the Book of Acts.
Unresolved conflict and wrong decisions in that Council could have split the early Church
into two opposing camps. This would have had very damaging long-term effects on all the
churches, especially those made up of Gentile believers. Fortunately the wise, courageous,
and collaborative management of this conflict led to a strong affirmation of the foundational
Christian doctrine of salvation by grace, and to a widening door of opportunity for the
Gentiles.

E. Acts 15:36-41, the Controversy Between Paul and Barnabas.


Up to this point Paul and Barnabas had worked very well together as church leaders and
missionaries. Barnabas had stood with Paul as a new convert and later encouraged and promoted
him for ministry in Antioch and Jerusalem (Acts 9:26-29; 12-25). They had made the first major
missionary journey together. And most recently they had participated so effectively in that great
church council in Jerusalem where together they defended the salvation and the inclusion of the
Gentiles into the Church on the basis of grace alone. So these two men must have had a great
deal of mutual respect, care, and appreciation for each other.
But now Paul and Barnabas have a very serious confrontation. Paul approaches Barnabas
about making a second missionary journey. Barnabas wants to take John Mark along again. Paul
does not think this is wise. The conflict over this issue is so sharp that not even their strong
relationship is able to lead them to a mutual agreement. Verse 39 says tersely, “They had such a
sharp disagreement that they parted company.” What a sad picture! Two men who have been
such close friends and effective co-workers, now split and go their separate ways.

1. Paul and Barnabas both displayed a very competitive style in this conflict. For Paul the
success of the missionary enterprise was the most important consideration. His main
concern was for the work. Paul felt strongly that John Mark had let them down when he
left them to return home in the early part of the first missionary journey (13:13). He
wanted someone along who could take the rigors of missionary life and who could be
trained for further missionary service. Barnabas, on the other hand, wanted to give John
Mark a second chance. His main concern was for a person. He probably felt that Mark’s
well-being and future ministry were at stake and that now, more than ever, he needed to
prove himself. No doubt he felt that Mark had learned his lesson, that he was now more
mature, and that he would do much better on the second missionary journey.

Both Paul and Barnabas had very strong feelings over this issue and each was determined
to win his case. The conflict ended in a stand-off between these two strong-minded church
leaders. Neither would give in and apparently each man felt he was right in his decision
and action. In essence they were planning on two different wavelengths.

2. There were two very important behind-the-scenes factors in this conflict. One of them
involves culture and family. Family was all important in the Jewish culture. Just as with
Abraham and Lot (Gen. 13-14), Barnabas felt a duty and obligation to his nephew, Mark.
Paul could be completely objective about John Mark since he had no family obligation to
him, but Barnabas did not have that luxury. He probably felt he had no choice but to stand
by his nephew.

The second behind-the-scenes factor at work here involves a new figure that emerges as a
result of the Jerusalem Council. That man is Silas. Silas is called a leader among the
Jerusalem Christians (v.22), a man who has risked his life for Christ (v.25), and a prophet
and teacher (v.32). Silas had already been tried and tested and had the necessary qualities
and abilities for being good missionary partner to Paul. I personally believe that,
throughout the events of Acts 15, Paul had been watching Silas and could have been
thinking of him as a possible partner. Perhaps, in his mind, Paul had already made a
decision about Silas before his confrontation with Barnabas about John Mark.

In any conflict, it is important to realize that the people involved come into the conflict
with personal interests, obligations, and agendas. Often these are not articulated. They are
behind-the-scenes factors and hidden agendas that strongly affect how people think and
what they do in conflict. In managing conflict we need to seek to bring to the surface and
clarify these hidden interests and cultural factors that bear upon a conflict. This requires
sensitivity to people and their feelings and an understanding of the cultures represented. It
also requires providing a forum for open and clear communication by all parties involved.

3. Both men were right and both were wrong in this controversy. Both Paul and Barnabas had
valid reasons for their thinking and their decisions. But they certainly could have managed
this conflict in a more positive way. For example, a compromise strategy in this situation
would have called for more open discussion, less stubbornness, and greater mutual
consideration of ideas and positions on the matter. Such a strategy could have sought a
solution that satisfied both Barnabas’ concern for Mark and 1’aul’s concern for carrying out
the missionary task as effectively as possible. Paul could have agreed to have a serious talk
with Mark and, if satisfied with Mark’s commitment, to take him with them on their second
missionary journey. Barnabas could have agreed that if there should be a repeat of his
performance on the first journey, Mark would not be invited to travel with Paul again. On the
other hand, if Mark did well on the second journey, he would have proven his worth.

4. While this conflict seems to have ended in failure, the results are very informative for us.
Even though these two very good friends and fellow workers split and went their separate
ways, they lived through it and continued to be effective in their ministries. Sometimes a
conflict is not resolved in what we consider to be a positive and successful way, even when a
thorough and determined effort has been made. But the world does not end. Life goes on.
Paul and Barnabas continued their separate ministries. Now there were two teams taking the
gospel to the Gentiles and both teams had success. A new missionary leader — Silas —
emerged as a result of this conflict. And John Mark did become a disciplined and fruitful
servant of God. (Col. 4:10,2 Tim. 4:11).

The painful truth is that in some cases of conflict we are just too far apart from the other
party in our ideas, convictions, or personalities. Continuing to work together just is not
feasible. Sometimes the best we can do is to recognize a failed effort at conflict management
and move ahead with confidence, with new associates, and with new efforts in ministry. As
Paul himself said, “But one thing I do: forgetting what is behind and straining toward what is
ahead, I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me” (Phil. 3:13-
14, NW).

F. Galatians 2:11-21, the Confrontation Between Paul and Peter


This was a conflict involving very basic and important doctrinal truths - salvation by grace
alone, and the equality of the Gentile believers in the Church of God. But the specific cause
of the conflict was Peter’s actions — actions that were not consistent with the truth of the
gospel. The same Peter who had overcome his prejudice when God sent him to preach to
Cornelius and his household (Acts 10), and who had dearly stood for the full inclusion of
Gentile believers in the Church (Acts 15), did an about face by his actions in Antioch. There
Peter was accustomed to eating and fellowshipping with Gentile believers. But when Jewish
Christian leaders of the party of the circumcision came from Jerusalem, Peter, fearing their
criticism, drew back from the Gentile believers. Other Jewish Christians, including Barnabas,
followed Peter’s example. Paul felt that their actions undermined the very truth of the gospel
they were preaching.

Paul decided to waste no time in challenging Peter to his face for these actions that he calls
Peter’s “hypocrisy”(v.13). It was a situation where compromise or accommodation on Paul’s
part would have been very inappropriate. And the urgency and character of this conflict
excluded collaboration as the appropriate style. In this situation Paul had to be very assertive
and firm. It was not that Paul had to win; it was that the truth of the gospel had to win this
one. Thus Paul’s competitive and confrontational style was the right one for him to use in this
conflict. There are several important lessons for us from this passage:

1. There are conflicts in which the issues are so clear and the stakes so high that we should
be determined to win our case. This is especially true in regards to important doctrinal or
ethical issues. Paul’s cause was right and he knew it. But we should reserve use of the
competing style for those cases where we are convinced
that it is the only appropriate course to follow.

2. Most conflicts do not fall into this category. They usually involve issues that allow for
open discussion, negotiation, and shared decisions by all parties. In these cases
collaborating or compromising are the preferred styles.

3. Paul had already established a relationship of authority and respect with his fellow church
leaders. He had earned the right to speak with authority. This “personal power base” made
it possible for him to be so assertive before the other church leaders. Without his
reputation as a godly leader of integrity and fairness, Paul could not have confronted Peter
as he did.

4. Paul was well prepared and his defense of the truth was thorough and powerful. Even
when we are convinced that our idea, cause, or plan is the right one, there is no substitute
for being well prepared with the information, background, and facts that bear upon the
issue being considered.

G. Philippians 4:2-3, the Division In the Church at Philippi.


In most of the biblical cases that we have studied so far, conflicts were recognized and dealt
with in the early stages. But it appears that this was not the case with the conflict in the
Philippian church. It may be that the conflict had started over an issue, but over a period of
time it became focused on two major personalities. And what originally was a controversy
between two capable and strong-willed women had become a conflict that affected the entire
church and its witness. We can learn a great deal from the way in which Paul dealt with this
serious conflict

1. Throughout the epistle Paul prepared the way for resolving this conflict. The whole
church must have been involved in or affected by the conflict since Paul addresses the
entire congregation about its need to be like-minded and of one spirit and purpose. The
apostle exhorts them to set aside selfish ambition, conceit, and self-centeredness and to
learn to put first the interests and concerns of others. Apparently many of them were not
doing this.
2. Paul sought to lay a foundation of truth on which Euodia and Syntyche and their
followers would have to agree. Paul appeals to several major reasons why this
conflict needed to be dealt with and resolved. It was contrary to all that it means to
be Christians (2:14); it was completely contrary to Christ’s own attitudes and actions
(2:5-8); and it was a very poor testimony before the world (2:12-15).

3. Paul does not hesitate to bring his own emotions and feelings into the controversy.
As founder of the church in Philippi he knows that he is like a father to these
believers. He lets them know how much this conflict is hurting and grieving him
(2.2a,16,19; 4:2).

4. In the closing section of his letter Paul appeals directly to Euodia and Syntyche. He
openly confronts the two main parties in the conflict and exhorts them to resolve
their long-standing differences. And he tells them where they can find the strength to
do this difficult thing. This strength is found “in the Lord’ (v.2b).

5. Paul appoints an appropriate referee to step in as an objective third party, if


necessary (v.3). Because this conflict seems to be long-standing and deeply rooted,
the two women may not be able to resolve their differences without outside help.
Paul sees in this man the necessary qualifications and the proper spirit to function as
a referee in this conflict. He calls him a “true yokefellow” — a peacemaker who
seeks to yoke people together in unity.

CONCLUSION

It is dear that the Bible has a great deal to teach us about conflict. In the passages
we have just considered we see conflict being caused by a number of factors:

• Changing circumstances that required new decisions.

• Apparent or felt injustice and favoritism.

• New and pressing needs requiring up-to-date solutions and provisions.

• Contrasting convictions regarding doctrine, traditions, and practices.

• Differences of opinion regarding people, ministries, and goals.

• Clashes of personalities and leadership.


It is also important for us to see that in all of the situations we have looked at, conflict
properly managed led to new and creative solutions, some of which are still affecting and
blessing us today. Well-managed conflict also resulted in:

• Deeper doctrinal convictions.

• The affirmation of important values and principles.

• A stronger testimony to the world by the Church.

• The development of new and stronger leadership.

• Clearer direction for the Church and its leaders.

From “Managing Conflict Creatively” by Donald C. Palmer


Consultant Training
APEO Annual Strategy Conference

December 17, 1998

Introduction

The definition of consulting offered by Barcus and Wilkinson (Consultant Training Manual,
page 4) states that consultants help clients “identify and analyze management problems or
opportunities.” Following are a number of tools that will assist the consultant in this task.

Quick Tools For The Consultant

Consultant Tool #1 Force Field Analysis

Begin by asking the question, “What are you trying to accomplish?”

List the enhancing forces.


List the inhibiting forces.

Enhancing Forces Inhibiting Forces


List.... List....

Purpose: This process does not tell you what is good or bad about the task. It does indicate how
difficult it will be to implement it.

Facilitate change by...


1) Reducing inhibiting forces
2) Increasing enhancing forces

Consultant Tool #2— “PEPSIE” Problem-solving Methodology15


(Consultant Training Manual, pages 17, 18)

Step #1:PErformance identification

The problem-solving process begins with identifying expectations and comparing them to actual
performance.
For example, the expectation is that an ICI office will have enough income to support the
office, but there is a shortage each month of $SOO. The perfonnance does not match the
expectation.

Step #2:Problem identification

Analyze the situation to identify the problem. Remember to deal with the problem and not the
symptoms.

For example, the problem may simply appear to be the lack of $SOO/month in income.
But perhaps that is just the symptom. Perhaps the real problem is lack of communication
with donors, or mismanagement of the available income.

Step #3: Solution identification & selection

Brainstorm with others to generate as many ideas as possible to identify a solution. This activity
should be conducted without evaluation or examining the ideas. The goal is to come up with as
many potential solutions as possible.

For example, in addressing the shortfall each month, an ICI office may brainstorm the
following solutions: Increase income by.. . , decrease expenses by. ...improve
management of present funds by... . etc.

1. Test the solutions


2. Name possible obstacles to the application of the solution.
3. The goal of this stage is to identify the best alternative.

Step #4: Implementation of the solution

Sometimes it may be wise to pilot-test the solution. The evaluation allows the leader to refine the
solution. For large organizations it is often a good idea to implement a solution in parts of an
organization before introducing it to the entire organization.

Step #5: Evaluation of the solution

If the problem is not solved, alternative solutions need to be considered.

Consultant Tool #3 -APA (Achieve. Preserve. Avoid)


Achieve Preserve Avoid
What do you want to achieve? What do you want to What do you want to
preserve? Avoid?
List... List... List...

When finished,
a) look for common threads.
b) look for tensions.
Example: We want 500 people in our church but we want to preserve the small
congregation feel.

Consultant Tool #4- SWOTAnalvsis16


(Consultant Training Manual, pages 18,19 and Appendix A)

SWOT analysis is an easy-to-use technique to help an organization capitalize on its strengths,


overcome its weaknesses, take advantage of its opportunities, and avoid threats. SWOT refers to
internal Strengths and weaknesses and external Opportunities and Threats. It is a systematic
identification of those factors and the strategy best suited for them.

The logic of the SWOT analysis is that an effective strategy makes the most of strengths and
opportunities while minimizing weaknesses and threats. This simple assumption, if accurately
applied, has powerful implications for successfully choosing, designing, and selecting a winning
strategy for a Bible school, church, or ICI national office.

Procedure for Using the SWOT analysis

1. Define strengths and weaknesses.

A strength is any resource or capacity an organization can use effectively to achieve


goals and objectives.

Start with the strengths. A good doctor applies the anesthetic before doing surgery.

For example, in the context of a church the strength may be good facilities, a great choir,
and a strong children’s program.
A weakness is any limitation that will keep an organization from achieving its goals and
objectives.

Examples could include poorly trained teachers, few financial resources, lack of clear,
visionary direction.

2. Define opportunities and threats.

An opportunity is any favorable situation in the external environment that permits an


organization to enhance its position.

Examples could include community needs for preschool programs, community interest in
the church’s Christmas musical celebrations, church located in new growth area.

A threat is any unfavorable situation that is potentially dangerous to the organization.


Examples of threats could include the fact that the church is in a highly mobile
community (people move every 2-3 years), government regulations, and the community’s
emphasis upon wealth and materialism.

3. Match distinctive competence with available niches.

The key is to match the strengths with the opportunities that exist. In our examples,
perhaps a local church that has a strong children’s program is located in a community
that has a need for preschool programs. Or perhaps the choir could host a community
Christmas celebration.

Consultant Tool #5—CE (Options & Evaluation)


Options Evaluation
Ideas What is positive and negative about
this option?

Steps:
a) Brainstorm first, listing the ideas but leaving some room for evaluation too.
b) Then ask the leader to select the most promising options and evaluate and discuss them.

Consultant Tool #6—Action Plan (Simplified)


What When %\Whom

Consultant Tool#7— The 4 Frames

Definition of a Frame

A frame is a perspective, a vantagepoint. It is short for frame of reference.

Why does a consultant need to understand the four frames?

“Frames are windows on the world. Frames filter out some things while allowing others to pass
through easily. Frames help us to order the world and decide what action to take. Every manager
uses a personal frame, or image, of organizations to gather information, make judgments, and get
things done.”36
Major Concepts

The Structural, Human Resource, Political, and Symbolic Theories of Organizations


1. Structural (rational systems) theorists emphasize organizational goals, roles, and technology.
They look for ways to develop organizational structures that best fit organizational purpose
and the demands of the environment.
2. Human resource theorists emphasize the interdependence between people and organizations.
They focus on ways to develop a better fit between people’s needs, skills, and values and the
formal roles and relationships required to accomplish collective goals and purposes.

3. Political theorists see power, conflict, and the distribution of scarce resources as the central
issues in organizations. They suggest that organizations are very like jungles and that
managers need to understand and manage power, coalitions, bargaining, and conflict.

4. Symbolic theorists focus on problems of meaning in organizations. They are more likely to
find serendipitous virtue in organizational misbehavior and to focus on the limits of
managers’ abilities to create organizational cohesion through power or rational design. In this
view, managers must rely on images, luck, and sometimes the supernatural to bring some
semblance or order to organizations.37

4 Consultants’ Responses to A Problem

Sample problem:

The president of a large Bible college recently interviewed several consultants for help in dealing
with turnover among the college’s deans.

1. Consultant #1 response: “When did you last reorganize? As your college has grown, deans’
responsibilities have probably become blurred and overlapping. When reporting
relationships are confused, you get stress and conflict. You need to restructure.” Structural
theorist frame of reference

2. Consultant #2 response: “It’s obvious, you are probably neglecting your deans’ needs for
autonomy and opportunities to participate in important decisions. You need an attitude
survey to pinpoint the problems.” — Human resource frame of reference

3. Consultant #3 response: “I think there is a problem with your deans’ relationship to the
official board and the constituencies (stakeholders). What do you expect? You’ve given up
basic dean prerogatives due to pressure from the board and your stakeholders. If you want
the deans to stay, you’ll have to get back to the bargaining table and fight to restore the
deans’ power. Why did you give away the store to the board and stakeholders? Political
theorist frame of reference

4. Consultant #4 response: “Your company has never developed a strong value system, and
growth has made the situation worse. Your deans don’t find any meaning in their work. You
need to revitalize your school’s culture.” Symbolic theorist frame of reference (Adapted
from Bolman and Deal, page 3)

15
Ibid. Pp. 173-175.
16
Lewis, Phillip (1996). Transformational Leadership. A new Model for Total Church
involvement. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, pp. 110-123.
36
Bolman, L. And Deal, T. (1984). Modern approaches to understanding and managing
organizaitons. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc, p. 4.
37
Ibid., pp. 2-3
Force Field Analysis

What are you trying to accomplish?

Enhancing Forces Inhibiting Forces

To facilitate change...
a. Reducing inhibiting forces How could the inhibiting forces be
reduced?

b. Increasing enhancing forces How could the enhancing forces be


increased?
“PEPSIE” Methodology

Step #1 – Performance Identification

Expectations Performance

Step #2 – Problem Identification


________________________________
________________________________

Step #3 – Solution identification & Selection


Options Evaluation

Step #4 – Implementation of the solution

Step # 5 – Evaluation of the solution


APA

State the Problem:

Achieve Preserve Avoid

Look for common threads that tie things together

Look for tensions


SWOT Analysis

Strengths Weaknesses

Opportunities Threats

Questions for Consideration:


What can be done to build on the strengths and opportunities?

How can weaknesses and threats be minimized?


Options & Evaluation (OE)

Options Evaluation

- Brainstorm first, listing the ideas but leaving some room for
evaluation, too,
- Ask the leader(s) to select the most promising options and evaluate
and discuss them.
Action Plan

What When By Whom