You are on page 1of 13

SPE 29136

Shocks in Solution Gas-Drive Reservoirs


Ismael Herrera* and Lucia Chargoy, Institute de Geofisica, Unam
*SPE Member

Copyright 1995, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 13th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation held in San Antonio, TX, U.S.A.. 12-15 February 1995.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the
paper, as presented, have not been revlowed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily
reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented et SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the
Society of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contain conspicuous
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A. Telex, 163245 SPEUT.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
Black-oil models neglect diffusive mechanisms such as The present paper stems from an effort initiated by the
molecular diffusion or mechanical dispersion; this main author [1-3] to understanding some features of
omission produces a propensity to developing shocks. black-oil (or beta) models [4]; special attention has
This paper aims to carry out an exhaustive been given to the limitations imposed by the
identification of the kind of shocks that can occur simplifying assumptions of such models. In particular,
when black-oil models are applied to problems in they do not incorporate molecular diffusion, nor
which the bubble-point varies and to establish the mechanical dispersion. A consequence of this
conditions under which they are generated. In addition simplification is a property referred here as the
to shocks of Buckley-Leverett type, two other classes "bubble-point conservation principle": In the absence
of shocks and a bifurcation mechanism, are identified. of a gas-phase, oil-particles conserve their dissolved
Except for shocks of Buckley-Leverett type, all other gas content (oil: gas ratio, or equivalently: bubble
shocks may occur in the presence of capillary forces. point). Physically, this means that, when a gas-phase is
The paper contributes to clarify several aspects of not present, two oil particles cannot exchange
black-oil models and to understand pathologies that dissolved gas, independently of how close they may
occur in their numerical implementation. be. This property in turn, produces a propensity of
black-oil models to develop shocks which becomes
apparent in problems wth variable bubble-point. In the

429
2 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136
present paper, a gas-front moving into a region Then, a summary of the results presented here, is as
occupied by undersaturated oil -as in a solution gas- follows:
drive- will be considered. -In the saturated region, the shocks that can occur are
The effects we are referring to, are quite different to essentially of the type described by the Buckley-
those analyzed by Buckley-Leverett theory and, to Leverett theory and they exist only if capillary
make our points more clear, we found convenient to pressure is neglected.
place them in the general perspective of shocks that -In the unsaturated region, the bubble point may have
may occur in black-oil models. Thus, the present paper jump discontinuities and such discontinuities
describes a systematic and exhaustive-analysis of the propagate with the velocity of the oil particles.
different kinds of shocks that can occur in black-oil -At a gas-front two possible situations must be
models, and the conditions under which they are distinguished:
generated, without discussing details of the numerical a).- A front that advances into an undersaturated
implementation, which have been treated in previous region. At such a front, in general, both the bubble
publications [1-3] of this sequence (see also [5-7]). point and the saturation are discontinuous and the
In some respects, this paper is the continuation -and to motion of the front is retarded with respect to the
some extent the culmination- of lines of thought that gas particles.
were initiated in [1-3]. However, the presentation here b).- A front that recedes from an undersaturated
intends to be self-contained while avoiding region. At such a front, only the saturation is
unnecessary repetitions. Thus Buckley-Leverett discontinuous and the front moves with the velocity
theory, extensively discussed in many other papers [8- of the gas particles. In addition, when an advancing
12], is not developed in detail, although some of its gas front changes its sense of motion and starts to
results are briefly described and used. Buckley- recede, the shock bifurcates, giving rise to two
Leverett theory [8-10] deals with an important kind of shocks: one moving with the oil velocity and the
shocks which occur in black-oil model applications, other one with the velocity of the gas.
and Cardwell & Sheldon [11,12] explained clearly the It is important to stress that only in one case the
generation mechanisms of such shocks. From a
presence of capillary pressure precludes the
present-day perspective, Buckley-Leverett theory can
occurrence of shocks: in the saturated region where
be thought of as a 'hyperbolic conservation law' [5].
free gas is present, and shocks ocurring in that region
The interested reader is referred to [2,7] for a recent
are described by Buckley-Leverett theory. The other
account of such developments. Additional references
types of shocks may occur even if capillary pressure is
on this subject are given there. The results to be
incorporated in the model. Finally, the jump conditions
presented in what follows indicate that although
shocks of this kind may occur only when capillary that prevail at an advancing gas front are of the same
pressure is absent, this is not the case for other kinds kind as those that apply in Stefan problems [13].
of shocks discussed here, since the presence of It seems that the results presented here may be useful
capillary forces does not preclude their occurrence. on several counts. Firstly, they contribute to clarify
When dealing with variable bubble-point problems, in some aspects of black-oil models. For example, as
general, in which free gas may, or may not, coexist mentioned before, a consequence of omitting diffusion
with liquid oil, the region of definition of the problem and dispersion is the "bubble-point conservation
can be divided into three subregions: principle". This property, leads to the preservation of
a).-A region where free gas is absent, usually, discontinuities (shocks) of the oil:gas ratio. Further
undersaturated; more, due to the bubble-point conservation principle,
b).-A region where gas is present, necessarily, the manners in which the gas-phase can transfer gas to
saturated; and the liquid-oil phase, are rather restricted. In this
c).-A gas-front; i.e., a boundary between an respect, it has interest to point out that shocks
undersaturated and a saturated region. occurring at an advancing gas front, constitute an
additional mechanism for transferring gas from the
gas-phase to oil-particles; thus, relaxing somewhat

430
3 SHUCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DR1VE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136
such restrictions. Finally, numerical difficulties may oil per unit volume per unit time, while a is the mass
occur in numerical models when pathologies such as of dissolved oil that goes into the gas phase per unit
shocks, are developed. A clear understanding of them volume and per unit time.
is important to design adecuate numerical treatments Clearly
and effectively overcome such difficulties -previous
studies did not deal with such pathologies explicitly g7g + gt =0 (3 )
(see for example [14-16]). for mass conservation.
There are situations in which it is necessary to
THE BLACK-OIL MODEL
consider discontinuous solutions. Surfaces on which
discontinuities take place are usually referred to as
For simplicity, we consider a "black-oil" or "beta"
"shocks" and will be represented by E; its unit normal
model, consisting of two phases, liquid oil and gas
(whose particle velocities are denoted by v° and vg , vector will be n . Mass conservation requires the jump
conditions [1,2]:
respectively), based on the following assumptions:
 Gas is soluble in liquid oil; i.e., the gas phase [ 0 P„ (1)°. — E )]• rj= 0 (4a)
consists of only one component, while the liquid r
oil is made up of two components (dissolved gas p„,SoRs(y1 —E,M• pi =4g (4b)
and non-volatile oil). This implies that the total A
rA7: 1, !fog

number of components is three and that the P Pg ZE


latter . two components move with the same to be satisfied at shocks. Here, square brackets stand
velocity; for the jump of the function inside; i.e., value on the
 No physical diffusion is present. This includes positive side minus value on the negative one; in the
both molecular diffusion and that induced by the understanding that the unit normal vector points
randomness of the porous mediurra (rnechanical t"wnds the p"sitir- sirie. The velocity "f the sh"cic is
dispersion).
Black-oil models, in general, include the possibility of vs„ while the quantities g/g and gf. are introduced to
non-vanishing capillary pressure, as is done here. account for the exchange of mass, on X; between the
We use the notations poandpdg, for the effective gas and liquid oil phases. When these quantities are
densities of non-volatile oil and dissolved gas, different from zero (as at a gas front which advances
respectively, together with the relation: into a region of undersaturated oil), a mass exchange
concentrated on the surface X , between the gas and
— liquid phases, takes place. This is in contrast with the
where RsE P sic RS
Pdg = RS po, PoSTC ( 1 ) quantities glg and gt of Eqs. (2b) and (2c), which
The factor Rs is the represent a mass exchange distributed on a volume
"solution gas:oil ratio" [4]. Application of the mass and not concentrated on a surface.
conservation conditions [1,2] yields: Mass conservation requires:
(0s050), +00A S°E°).-o gig +gfo =0 (5 )
(2a) In addition, Darcy's Law implies:
+o• so E° =
[p1].;1.0, g (6)
(0szliji +v-(011s2i/g).gigo No (2b)
Eqs. (2) to (6), when complemented by suitable
extraction terms _ to wells _ (2c) constitutive equations such as Darcy's Law for multi-
phase systems, constitute a complete system of
been included and eg is the governing equations for the black-oil model. Darcy's
mass of gas that is dissolved in the liquid

431
4 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136

Law for multi-phase systems is frequently expressed in are more easily derived applying the equations gi
terms of Darcy velocities defined by: here.
Now let us restrict our attention to situations in wt
ua = ; a=o and g (7 ) a gas front divides the region of study into 1
Then, subregions: one in which free gas is present (the "
region") and the other in which there is c
paua =— AaVpa, a = o,g (8)
undersaturated oil (the "unsaturated oil region").
where the parameters A, „ and A g are defined by be specific, at the gas front, the unit normal vec
(n) will be taken as pointing towards the gas region.
kk By a complete system of governing equations
A= , a= 0,g (9)
mean that when such a system is complemented v
a
appropriate initial and boundary conditions well po
Here pastands for the viscosity of the different phases. problems are defined. In Section 5, initial-vi
Note that in the presence of Eq. (2a) one can write problems in one dimension will be considered. '
region of definition of such problems will be
Osopoi(is)+1,(1•v—R-1.,g7g (10) interval [0,1], for t>0, and the gas region will
located at the right-hand side of the gas front. In 1
OpgSg instead of Eq. (2b). Also, adding Eqs. (2c) and case, several combinations of initial and bound
(10), one gets: conditions lead to well posed problems. For exam
one such set is:
0S. P:1(7? 3 ) +V+ 0S g p g + OpS g = 0 ILInitial conditions.

(11) al ) The values of OpsSg and P., at t=0;


In a similar fashion, in the presence of (4a), Eq. (4b) a2) The bubble-point (i.e., R,), in the region where
can bereplaced by free gas is present.
IA Boundary conditions.
[k.1075 OS 0(v° —Y1).17=g;g (12)
b 1 ) The value of " " at x=0, for t>0;
where
b2) At x=0, the value of R., at times t>0, when u0
poso(y_°—Er).=i[(poso(y° — yi)). +(poso(y° b3) The values of u g and s , at x = 1.
Obviously the same is true
(13)
ug and Sg are replaced by u. and So
by virtue of Eq. (4a). Adding Eqs. (4c) and (12), one TYPES OF SHOCKS AND THEIR VELOCITI
gets
Buckley and Leverett treated one class of shot
[k100,„So(y: v L1 + [0PgSg (Yg --YE$ =

occurring in black-oil models, in their classical thec
In this section an exhaustive analysis of the differ
(14) kinds of shocks that can occur in black-oil model:
Thus, Eqs. (2b) and (2c), can be replaced by (10) and carried out.
(11), and similarly, Eqs. (4b) and (4c), can be replaced To be systematic it is necessary to consider
by Eqs. (12) and (14). Common expressions for the following cases:
governing equations of the black-oil model could be A). The shock occurs at a gas front, so that the g
derived from the above ones, by introducing Darcy phase is present at one side of the shock only;
velocities. However, we will not do that because such
equations will not be used in what follows; our results

432
5 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136
B). The shock occurs at the unsaturated oil region, so
that the gas-phase is absent from both sides of the
[R,]p„,S,,(1):—El)• n+pg+SgAit —vL)•n —
shock; pg_Sg_(vf—vx)•n= 0
C). The shock occurs at the gas region, so that the by virtue of Eq. (13) and the definition of the jump of
gas-phase is present at both sides of the shock. a function. Thus
The shock velocities. Let us present a unified formula
for the velocity of propagation of the shock, applicable
to cases A) and C), in which gas is present on at least [Rs]p„,,S0+(y:—Ej• n+[pgSg](v+—y_j•Li
one side of the shock. To this end, define the +pg_Sg_kgi• /1=0
parameters e,3 and y by mean of the equations
Introducing the definitions of Eq. (15), one gets

(vz — v:)•n = 4 —
vg+ vo+). n,
e[Ripo+So++(e-1)[pgSg]-3pg_Sg_ =0
Solving for e, the first of formulas (16) is obtained.
vg • n= 14vg, — v:.)- n, To obtain the second formula, note that the jump
condition (4a) can be written as
v° • n = —y(vg, v:)• n —

) • ti= po_So_(V_ v 1)- n


The first of these equations expresses the relative
velocity of the shock with respect to the velocity of P 0-s 0-1( _Y: _Yx)
the oil, for the positive side, as a fraction of the or
corresponding relative velocity of the gas.
Observe that E, when e<1, can be interpreted as a [P„Sol(E+ ) • Ll P _ S. - [11° I • n= 0
retardation factor. Also, in case A), strictly speaking, which becomes

vg is not defined, since no gas is present at the e[R,S01+ypo_S„_=0


unsaturated region. However, to give a meaning to the after the definitions (15) are introduced. When this
equation is solved for y, the second of Eqs. (16)
above formulas, we define vs to be zero in case A).
follows.
With this convention, the following result holds.
Case A
UNIFIED FORMULA FOR THE SHOCK Recall that Sg_ = 0, necessarily. Therefore, So_ =1 and
VELOCITIES the Eqs. (16) become
Assuming the porosity to be continuous, the jump
conditions given by Eqs. (4b) and (4c), can be
replaced by

1+3p g in the system of governing equations (2) to (6). Proof.-


fp—Osol Eq. (14) is:
_S y ________ e, (16)
rp.S. 1 po_So_
E _ L . 2

I + Rs 1 { ) ;s5: 2 )

433
1
E=
1+Rp"4-___________S"+
Pg+''g+ The first of these equations
for the factor E, was first derived in [3] (Eq.
49). It implies that e51, in the case we are
considering, and it is necessary to
distinguish two possibilities.

y=(1—S0+-—+1E (17)
P,
6 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS•DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136
A

ga s fr ont ad va n cin g i nto a r e gio n o f


undersaturated oil. e=1+5Pg-_________g- (20)
This situation is characterized by the fact that [pgSgl
v: vf > 0 and [R,]) 0, so that the parameter a is a

A more transparent relation is:
retardation factor, since it satisfies the condition E < 1.
[Sg
A gas front receding from a region of _v • n. [S g vg]. n
(21)
which can
undersaturated oil.
be derived combining Eq.
This situation is characterized by the fact that (20) with Eqs. (15). A special case of this equation is
v°_
the immiscible and incompressible case considered
— 4- < 0 and [Rs] = 0, necessarily, because as the
by the classical Buckley-Leverett theory, for which
_4.
Eq. (21) reduces to the well known relation (see for
gas front recedes it leaves saturated oil behind. Thus
example [21):
the oil is saturated on both sides of the gas front. Eq.
(17) implies that e =1, so that there is no retardation -1[f..)
and the gas front recedes with the velocity of the gas
11
2. 'n=0 filar
particles. (22a)
Case B. where
In this case the shock occurs in the middle of a region uT = uo + ug and yg= fgHT (22b)
where no free gas is present, so that the velocity of the
shock is not determined by Eq. (16). However, the SHOCK GENERATION
rate gam, at which the gas goes into the oil phase is In this section we discuss the mechanisms of shock
generation for the kinds of shocks that were
necessarily zero, and the jump condition (12), reduces
introduced in last Section.
to
Elisip0(v°—Ez).11=0 (18) IN AN UNSATURATED REGION
In a region where the gas phase is present, the oil is
It may be shown that a non-zero jump ([Rsi* 0) , is ;ly saturated and Rs is uniquely determined by
nct:CSUII

compatible both with this equation and with the jump pressure. On the other hand, where the gas phase is
condition (4a), if and only if v°• n is continuous and absent the liquid oil will usually be undersaturated and
R, can take any value below the saturation curve (Fig.
•!1_=11.L1, on E (19) 1). This provides some insight into the initial
Situations in which shocks of these characteristics conditions associated with well-posed problems. When
may occur are discussed in the next section. free gas is present, the oil is saturated and the pressure
Case C.
In this case gas is present on both sides of the shock. determines Rs so that it is not necessary to include this
Thus the liquid oil is saturated at both sides of the parameter in the initial conditions. On the other hand,
shock. Assuming, as is usually the case, that R is a if the oil is undersaturated Rs is not determined by the
pressure and must be prescribed as an initial condition.
continuous function of p,,,[R,]= 0, because p° is One point which is relevant for our discussions is that
continuous across E (Eq. (6) of Section 2). This the prescribed initial or boundary values of R„ may be
implies that discontinuous. In this case a shock in the
unsaturaturated region would be introduced, as it will
be seen in what follows.

434
7 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136

One property of "oil particles" which move in the periods spent by the particle in regions where the gas
interior of a region occupied by undersaturated oil is phase is present, while the latter ones correspond to
that they conserve their bubble-point. This property periods spent by the particle in undersaturated regions
will be used in the sequel. where the gas phase is necessarily absent. Thus, if a
particle starts at state "n" Fig. 1 a, so that it is
BUBBLE POINT CONSERVATION PRINCIPLE undersaturated initially, and if it is then depressurized,
it moves along a horizontal line towards the left until it
In the absence of a gas phase, oil particles conserve reaches the saturation curve. If depressurization of the
their bubble-point. particle continues, it bubbles and liberates gas. If
Proof. When a gas phase is not present the mass depressurization is stopped, the free gas is removed
exchange term gL nerPqqnrily vAnishPs in the and the oil is repressurized, so that the state of the
particle in the Rs po plane moves along a horizontal
-

governing differential equation (10), and therefore line, this time towards the right. It finally reaches a
(Rs) +—v° •VRs =0 (23) state such as "n+1" (Fig. la).
This path is reversible: we could start at state "n+1"
Thus the "material particle derivative" of R, vanishes. and by successive depressurization and
Clearly this implies that Rs (i.e., the bubble point) repressurization, reach state "n". The point at which
remains constant on liquid oil particles. the mixture leaves the saturation curve when it is
If the liquid oil is initially undersaturated, R, is repressurized depends on the amount of free gas
prescribed as part of the initial conditions. If the initial available. In actual reservoirs, this amount of gas is
conditions are discontinuous and the liquid oil supplied by the gas phase, which in turn is determined
by the relative motion of the liquid oil phase with
particles retain their Rs values, then the discontinuity respect to it.
will propagate with velocity v*, as required for the On the other hand, on the RSp° plane the states of an
-

jumps, loy the mass conservation condition (Case B of oil particle cannot follow a path such as the one
Section 3, Eq. (19)). Thus shocks of this kind can be joining states"n" and "n+1" (Fig. lb) since this would
produced by the initial or possibly by the boundary
imply that Rs changes without reaching the bubble
conditions. Later in this section, it will be seen that
they can also be generated when an advancing gas- point. That is, RS would change when the gas phase is
front stops and starts to recede. absent and the bubble-point conservation principle
would be violated.
AT A GAS FRONT At an advancing gas front
At first glance, the previous discussion suggests that in
The bubble-point conservation principle is very a beta model the only way in which an undersaturated
restrictive condition and at a gas front shocks are oil particle may become saturated is by
generated when undersaturated particles reach the depressurization to the bubble point. This would imply
front and become suddenly saturated. This would that the beta model is a very limited model, especially
happen at an advancing gas front, but not at a gas when considering problems in which the bubble-point
front that is receding from a region occupied by varies, since it cannot mimic the processes by which an
undersaturated oil, as is explained next. undersaturated particle of oil receives gas from other
The evolution of R, on an oil particle is restricted by particles. However, such limitation is somewhat
the "bubble-point conservation principle". The paths in relaxed by the fact that in a beta model an oil particle
the Rs po plane described by the values of R, consist
-
may become saturated, in another manner: it may
of fragments of the saturation curve or of horizontal follow a discontinuous path on the Rs plane, as
segments, only (Fig. I a). The first ones take place in illustrated in Fig. 1 c. This corresponds to an oil
particle which is initially undersaturated (point "n") so

435
8 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136

that the gas phase is absent. At some point the oil discontinuous variable is the bubble-point. This
particle is reached by a gas front (point SH) and phenomenon is illustrated in Fig. 2. At an advancing
becomes suddenly saturated; under further gas front, the bubble-point and the saturation are both
pressurization R, moves along the saturation curve. discontinuous, so that when the sense of motion of the
Such a path has a discontinuity at SH and therefore front changes and it starts to recede, the
-1:- _r n -1 - - - -16
uiscontinuities of it s anu a c , coinciue, at Inc point En
[R,}* 0, there, in actual reservoir models. Clearly this
bifurcation; x=x B , in Fig. 2a. However, as the
corresponds to a discontinuous front or shock. In this receding motion of the front progresses, these
case, the shock itself constitutes a mechanism for discontinuities split apart because one moves with the
transferring gas from the gas-phase to the oil-particles. velocity of the oil while the other one moves with the
At an advancing gas front, due to the bubble-point velocity of the gas. This is illustrated in Fig. 2b, where
conservation principle, a shock of this kind generally
the discontinuity of the bubble-point (Rs) is located at
will occur even if the initial conditions are continuous.
This is because the continuity of the initial values does ;Ens , to the left of x8, while the discontinuity of the
not prevent oil particles, carrying values of Rs below saturation is located at x1. , to the right of x8.
the saturation value, from reaching the gas-front,
AT REGIONS \Iv—HERE FREE GAS IS PRESENT
where Rs necessarily equals the saturation value. This
is the mechanism of shock generation at an advancing This kind of shocks are generated by a mechanism that
gas front. was originally described by Buckley-Leverett [8,9]
At a receding gas front and further discussed by many authors. They occur
At a front that is receding, on the contrary, R, is when characteristic curves carrying different values of
necessarily continuous because the gas phase leaves saturation instersect, giving rise to multi-valued
saturated oil behind it, as it goes away. Since Rs is solutions which are not physically admissible. A very
continuous, the only discontinuous variable is the clear discusion of this process was presented by
saturation. Setting [Rs ]=0 in the first of Eqs. (17) Sheldon and Cardwell [12]. A recent account, from a
present-day perspective, is given in [2].
yields e= 1, which implies v1 = vg; i.e., the gas front Note that in a region where free-gas is present, such
moves together with the gas particles that constitute shocks only develop when capillary pressure is
it. Note that if an advancing gas front changes its neglected. If capillary pressure is present, the
sense of motion, thus becoming a receding one, at the continuity condition of Eq. (6) must be satisfied by
point where it stops and starts to recede, a both the pressure of the oil and of the gas. This is
discontinuity of Rs at the oil phase remains. In general, possible only if the capillary pressure is continuous.
at later times such a shock will be located inside the This implies the continuity of saturation, since
unsaturated region, since the gas front withdraws from capillary pressure is a continuous function of So.
it. According to the results of Section 3, such shocks However, other kinds of discontinuities that were
move with the velocity of the oil-particles. This is a discussed above may be generated even if capillary
mechanism of generation of the kind of shocks that pressure is incorporated in the model. This is because
occur in the undersaturated region and that have been in the other cases considered, the gas phase is not
described above in this Section. required to satisfy Eq. (6), since the gas pressure is
A bifurcation mechanism not defined at least at one side of the shock.
On the other hand, this analysis also indicates that
where an advancing front stops and starts to recede SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
the shock "bifurcates", giving rise to two shocks:one
in which the only discontinuous variable is the
saturation and the other one in which the only

436
9 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136
Black-oil models do not incorporate molecular close. This property, leads to the preservation of
diffusion, nor mechanical dispersion. A consequence discontinuities (shocks) of the bubble-point.
of such omission is a propensity of such models, to Another point to be made is that due to the bubble-
developing shocks. This behavior becomes apparent point conservation principle, the manners in which the
when these models are applied to problems with oil:gas ratio of an oil particle can vary, are rather
variable bubble-point, such as a solution gas-drive, and restricted. In this respect, it has interest observe that
then several kinds of shocks may develop. one class of shocks, here presented, constitutes a
This effect is considerably different to that described mechanism by which gas is transferred to oil-particles.
by Buckley-Leverett theory and occurs when a gas- Finally, nnmerinal difficulties occur in numerical
front moves into, or recedes from, a region occupied models when pathologies such as shocks, are
by undersaturated oil. To make our points more clear, developed; a clear understanding of them is important
the results are placed in the general perspective of an to design adequate numerical treatments and
exhaustive classification of shocks that may be found effectively overcome such difficulties.
in black-oil model applications; three kinds of shocks
REFERENCES
are identified. Only one of them is described by
Buckley-Leverett theory. In addition, a mechanism of 1.-Herrera, I., A. Galindo and R. Camacho, "Shock
shock bifurcation is also explained. Modelling in Variable Bubble Point Problems of
In summary, shocks are classified according to Petroleum Engineering", Computational Modelling
whether they occur at: 1) a gas region, where gas is of Free and Moving Boundary Problems, Vol. 1:
present at both sides of the shock, 2) a gas front, and Fluid Flow, Eds. L.C. Wrobel and C.A. Brebbia,
3) a region occupied by undersaturated oil. Simple Computational Mechanics Publication & de
expressions are given for the velocities of each kind . Gruyter, pp. 399-415, 1991.
For shocks of type 1), only the gas saturation (Sg) can 2.-Herrera, I., A. Galindo and R. Camacho., Shock
jump and they are essentially described by Buckley- Modelling in Petroleum Engineering, Chapter 7 of
Leverett theory. In case 3), only the bubble-point (i.e., the book Computational Methods for Free and
the solution oil:gas ratio (R5) ) can jump. In case 2), Moving Boundary Problems in Heat and Fluid
Flow, L.C. Wrobel and C.A. Brebbia Eds.,
at an advancing gas front, both S g and R. are Computational Mechanics Publications, pp 143-
discontinuous, and the conditions at the gas front give 170, 1993.(Invited Chapter).
rise to a Stefan problem [13]. In addition, when an 3.-Herrera, I., R. Camacho and A. Galindo,
advancing gas front changes its sense of motion and "Mechanisms of Shock Generation in Variable
starts to recede, the shock bifurcates, giving rise to Bubble-Point Systems", Computational Modelling
two shocks, one moving with the oil velocity, where of Free and Moving Boundary Problems, Vol. 2,
L.C. Wrobel and C.A. Brebbia Eds., Computational
only Rs is discontinuous, and the other one with the
Mechanics Publicactions, Southampton & Boston,
velocity of the gas, where only Sg jumps. pp 435-453, 1993 (Invited paper).
4.-Aziz, K., and Settari, A., "Petroleum Reservoir
We feel the results presented here are useful on
Simulation", Ed. Applied Science Publishers Ltd,
several counts. Firstly, they contribute to clarify some
London, 1979.
aspects of black-oil models. For example, a
5.-Glimm, J., E. Isaacson, D. Marchesin and O.
consequence of omitting diffusion and dispersion is
McBryan, Front Tracking for Hyperbolic Systems,
the "bubble-point conservation principle": when a gas-
Adv. Appl . Math. 2, 91-119, 1981.
phase is not present oil-particles conserve their gas
6.-Colella, P., P. Concus and J. Sethian, Some
content (bubble-point). Physically, this means that,
Numerical Methods for Discontinuous Flows in
when a gas-phase is not present, two oil particles
Porous Media, in The Mathematics of Reservoir
cannot exchange dissolved gas, even if they are very
Simulation, R.E. Ewing, Ed., Frontiers in Applied

437
10 SHOCKS IN SOLUTION GAS-DRIVE RESERVOIRS SPE 029136
Mathematics Vol. 1, SIAM, Philadelphia, 161-186,
1983.
7.-Bratvedt F., K. Bratvedt, C.F. Buchholz, T. Gimse,
H. Holden and N.H. Riseboro, Front Tracking for
Groundwater Simulations, Computational Methods
in Water Resources X, Vol. I: Numerical Methods
in Water Resources, T.F. Russell et al. Eds., CM
Publications, Elsevier Applied Science, 97-104,
1992.
8.-Leverett, M.C.,"Capillary Behaviour in Porous
Solids", Trans. AIME, (1941), 142, 152.
9.-Buckley, S.E. and Leverett, M.C."Mechanics of
Fluid displacement in sands". Trans., AIME (1942)
146, 107.
10.-Welge, H.J.,"A Simplified Method for Computing
Oil Recovery by Gas or Water Drive", Petroleum
Trans. MME, (1952), 195, pp 91-98.
11.-Cardwell, W.T.,"The Meaning of the Triple Value
in Noncapillary Buckley-Leverett Theory", T.P.
808, Trans. AIME, 1959, 216, pp 271-276.
P.-Shelrinn, J. W. and rardWeii, W. T., "One-
Dimensional, Incompressible, Noncapillary, Two-
Phase Fluid in a Porous Medium", Petroleum
Trans. AIME, 1959, 216, pp 290-296.
13.-Crank, J. (Ed.), "Free and Moving boundary
problems", Clarendon Press, Oxford, 425p, 1984.
14.-Raghavan, R., "Pressure Transient Analysis of a
Vertically Fractured Well Produced by Solution
Gas Drive", Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (1977), 369-376.
15.-Camacho-V., R.G. and Raghavan, R., "Some
Theoretical Results Useful in Analyzing Well
Performance Under Solution Gas Drive", Paper
SPE 16580.
16.-Camacho-V., R.G. and Raghavan, R., "Boundary-
Dominated Flow in Solution Gas-Drive
Reservoirs", SPE Reservoir Engineering, Dec.
1989.

FIGURE CAPTIONS
FIGURE 1.- Paths in the R -p plane.
FIGURE 2.- The bifurcation mechanism.
a) The bifurcation point at xB .
b) The two shocks, after bifurcation.
0

438
Fig. 10

Rs n+i

_.....______

Fig. lb

...-...>p

Fig. IC

Figure 1. Paths in the Rs— p plane.


439
Rs So

1
xs

XB

2a. The bifurcat.on pent atX 8

>X
X1 Rs Xis

2b. The two shocks after bifurcation

Figure 2. The bifurcation mechanism.