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LABORATORY

MANUAL
EXPERIMENTS IN
APPLIED ELECTRICITY & ELECTRONICS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL PUNJAB


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LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENTS IN

Applied Electricity & Electronics (AEE)


For CIVIL Engineering Department – University of Central Punjab
Revised February, 2018

Muhammad Salman
Associate Professor – Faculty of Electrical Engineering.

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
University of Central Punjab, Lahore
Copyrights © Reserved with the Faculty of Engineering (FOE)
This manual or parts, thereof, may not be reproduced in any from without Permission of the FOE.

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LIST OF AUTHORS

Sr. # Name Date Modified Contributions


1 Updated/arranged the
Prof. Azhar Hussain Shah 1st Aug 2015 experiment list
Added of new experiments
2 Prof. Col. Zulqarnain 1th Jan 2017 along with updating in terms
of Tables, figures and Tasks.
Comprehensively revised the
manual again for all the
3 25th February
Prof. Muhammad Salman deficiencies and material
2018 needed to perform
experiments.
4
5
6

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PREFACE

Muhammad Salman is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Central Punjab (UCP),
Lahore, Pakistan. He was born in Hyderabad (Sindh) and got his Bachelor’s degree B.Eng. in Electronics
Engineering with specialization in VLSI Design and Systems and MS in Electrical/Electronic
Engineering both from The University of Hull, Yorkshire, United Kingdom in early & mid 90’s. He has
also completed special A.M.I.E (U.K) Diploma Course in Electronics/Electrical Engineering as well.

Before joining the teaching profession, Muhammad Salman had extensive experience in Industrial/Company
in terms of Electrical/Electronics/Computer hardware engineer based projects both in U.K and Pakistan. He
had started his teaching carrier from National College of Business administration (NCBA&E) and served as
Head of the IT Department for three years in The University of Lahore as well before joining University of
Central Punjab and actively designed and started the Engineering Faculty/Courses and Degrees in early 2003-
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Currently he is working in Faculty of Engineering – University of Central Punjab as Associate Professor since
2003 till now and also had completed course work of PhD in Electrical engineering and heading towards his
research in his field of Power/Renewable resources/Electrical.

Apart from Education he is Worldwide Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Entrepreneur and Trainer. His
trainings and motivational tasks are taken as reference and many peoples are taking the advantages to change
their life for good in terms of financial and time freedom successfully.

Muhammad Salman’s areas of Specialization are in the following fields of Engineering:

 Digital Logic & Design / Logic Design & Switching Theory


 Basic Electrical Engineering & Electronics Circuit Theory
 Digital Systems and Design
 VLSI Design and Testability
 Power Electronics/Advance Power Electronics/Power Converters
 Electronic Devices and Circuits/Basic Electrical Engineering
 Analogue and Integrated Circuit Design
 Renewable Energy Resources / Photovoltaic based Energy Systems

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INTRODUCTION

Applied Electricity and Electronics (AEE) Lab Manual presents a series of experiments dealing
with all topics covered in second semester course Applied Electricity and Electronics for Civil
Engineering students. This manual is divided into two portions. The first portion deals with basic
electrical engineering. It provides an introduction to measuring devices such as analog and digital
multimeter. It discusses basic electrical devices such as resistor, capacitors and inductors and their
characteristics. It also describes Kirchhoff’s laws, OHMs law, and equations for calculating power,
AC and DC analysis of electrical circuits.
The second portion of the manual deals with basic electronic devices such as diodes. It provides
and introduction to PN-junction diodes, half and full wave rectification circuits using different
configuration of diodes.
Each experiment is accompanied by a set of objectives, a list of components and equipment
required followed by a discussion of theoretical concepts that are investigated or verified. The
students are also required to comment on the results of the experiment by submitting a report
analyzing the results of the experiment.
The sequence and scope of the experiments in this manual is parallel to the material covered
in the text book. All the experiments have been student tested and revised where necessary to
improve clarity. Any comments or suggestions to improve the style, scope or clarity of any
experiment are welcome.
I would like to thank specially to Prof. Zulqarnain all concerned peoples who helped me with
the formatting, error omissions and editing to finalize the manuscript.

Muhammad Salman

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APPLIED ELECTRICITY & ELECTRONICS (LAB Experiments) – TABLE OF CONTENTS

Experiment Page
Experiment/Practical Titles
No. No.
Introduction, operation and interpretation of Analog Multimeter VOAM
1 7
(Volts, Ohms, Amps & Milliamps).
2 Introduction and Operation of Digital MultiMeter (DMM) 21

3 Introduction and operation of Oscilloscope – Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 27

Interpreting Values of Passive Circuit Elements (Resistor, capacitor &


4 38
inductor).
Verification of Ohm’s Law (Relationship between current, voltage &
5 51
resistance).
Verification of Kirchhoff Voltage Law (KVL) & Kirchhoff Current
6 60
Law (KCL).

7 Verification of three Power Equations - P=IV, P=V2/R, and P=I2R 65

Week No. 8 Lab Mid-Performance / Design & Evaluation/Viva

8 Inductance in AC (Alternating Current) circuits. 70

9 Capacitors in AC (Alternating Current) & DC (Direct Current) circuits. 82

Impedance of AC (Alternating Current) circuit consisting of resistance 95


10
and capacitance in series.
Impedance of AC (Alternating Current) circuit consisting of resistance 103
11
and Inductance in series.
To study and investigate I-V (Current-Voltage) characteristics of a 114
12
semiconductor diode.
To demonstrate and verify the use of semiconductor diode as Half- 121
13
Wave and Full-Wave rectifier.
To demonstrate and verify the use of Four (4) semiconductor diodes in a 133
14
bridge as Full-Wave rectifier.
15 To demonstrate the operation of simple Capacitor Filter and RC Filter 138
for Half and Full Wave rectifiers.

Week No. 16 Lab Final-Performance / Design & Evaluation/Viva

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Experiment-1 INTRODUCTION AND OPERATION OF ANALOG MULTIMETER (VOAM)

PURPOSE:
1. To discover working and operation of analog multimeter (VOAM) in electrical measurements.
2. To translate analog multimeter (VOAM) scale readouts into specific measurement.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Analog Multimeter (VOAM)
2. Test leads
INTRODUCTION:
Every “Physical Quantity” i.e. physical property of a body, phenomenon, or substance,
quantifiable through measurement, is expressible in the format “nu” where “n” stands for its magnitude
expressed by a number and “u” is the base unit adopted to measure it. For example, amount of electrical
charge on single electron equals 1.60217662 × 10-19 C, here n = 1.60217662 × 10-19 is number
expressing magnitude while u = C is abbreviation for Coulomb; the base unit adopted for measuring
charge under SI system of measurements. Electrical quantities such as voltage, current and resistance
are also physical quantities and can be measured or quantified accordingly.

Electrical quantities of various forms have dissimilar characteristics and properties. This makes
it impossible to build a device that can measure all electrical quantities simultaneously. To measure
diverse electrical quantities a whole range of measuring instruments are required. For example a
voltmeter will only measure voltage, an ammeter can only quantify current and ohmmeter is
specifically meant for measuring resistance. However modern day measuring instruments do employ
internal circuits and switching mechanism that allows their reconfiguring for measuring closely related
electrical parameters. Such measuring instruments are known as multimeters.

Traditionally, multimeters were used to measure current, voltage and resistance, but modern
multimeters are also able to measure many additional quantities such as temperature etc. Multimeter
can trace its origins back to the invention of the galvanometer around 1820. Initially all multimeters
were analog as digital technology emerged much later on the scene. Present day multimeters can be
classified into two main categories.
 Analog multimeter (VOAM); as the name implies, uses analog techniques to measure and
display the measurements. Analog multimeter sometimes go by the name VOAM since they
are mostly used to measure Volts, Ohms, Amps & Milliamps only. Analog multimeters have
been in use for many years and still provide effective maintenance support in
electrical/electronic devices/circuits.
 Digital multimeter (DMM); is currently the most widely used form of multimeter. DMM
essentially differs from VOAM in terms of digital output displayed on internal LCD. Using
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digital technology, it can not only provide unambiguous output readouts but can also support
host of additional measurements beyond the basic domain of amps volts and ohms metering.
VOAM DESCRIPTION
VOAM come in different styles with varying features. However almost all come with a display
that has multiple scales, which work hand in hand with chosen function/range that can be configured
through “Function/Range Selector” switch. Figure-1 below shows the major parts of common VOAM.
VOAM supplied by different vendors may have slightly dissimilar layout and parts taxonomies.

Figure – 1

VOAM face layout can easily be divided into two main areas, the output area and the input
area. Input area contains three jacks for feeding the input that is to be measured using test probes (or
test leads) and rotary “Function/Selector” switch that help configure the VOAM for its role as
voltmeter, ammeter or ohmmeter. Output area is characterized by multiple printed scales over which
floats the needle pointer. “Needle adjust” screw in output area and “Zero Ohm adjust” knob in input
area are two other important components of VOAM that we will discuss later. There is internal battery
that is essentially required for taking resistance measurements. Two test probes, one red and another
black, are also supplied with VOAM to connect the multimeter to the electrical component under test.
Functions performed by different VOAM parts will be clarified as its operation is explained.

VOAM OPERATION:
Operation of every analog multimeter is very simple and straight forward. But to ensure a
precise result, it is essential not only to master the multimeter operation but also develop thorough
understanding of methodology exercised for voltage, current and resistance measurements. Analog
multi-meters use a needle (pointer) on a pivot that rotates over analog scale calibrated for measurement
of different electrical quantities. Interpreting this scale in combination with selected range is vital for
taking accurate measurements with VOAM. In this experiment students will be introduced to features,

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functionality, operation and interpretation of displayed measurements on VOAM.
As with any instrument, an analog multimeter (VOAM) should perform optimally once it is operated
precisely as its manufacturer intends it to be used. To meet that end one must fully understand functions
and limitation of all the controls and display support mechanism of the VOAM in use. Proficiency in
usage of VOAM will help not only produce accurate measurements but also prevent inadvertent
damage to the VOAM or the device/circuit under test.

Analog VOAM is provided with “Needle Adjust Screw” (refer to Figure-1) that is used to
calibrate the stationary position of pointer needle with the start line i.e. “0” mark, on the voltage or
current scales. Ordinarily this calibration, known as “Mechanical Zeroing”, is not required frequently;
however a VOAM that has been subjected to excessive/inappropriate use may need it before it can be
employed in any measurement operation. To ensure accuracy of all measurements mechanical zeroing
is carried out as follows:

Mechanically Zeroing of VOAM

1. Ensure that the power switch is in the OFF position.


2. Put the VOAM on flat plain surface.
3. Observe the stationary meter needle position over the printed scales.
4. Meter needle should rest directly over the zero line on the voltage and current scales.
5. If the meter needle does not rest on zero, carefully adjust the meter needle by rotating the
“needle adjust screw” on the plastic sheet covering the meter scale, as shown in Figure-1, until
the meter needle indicates exact zero reading.
Averting Parallax

Parallax is the way meter’s pointer needle position over the scale of interest seems to change
depending on observer’s viewing angle. Observing the needle at an angle, during measurements,
wrongly assess the position of pointer needle over the scale. Offset view of pointer needle in Figure-
2 below reflects parallax error. While watching the meter scale during the mechanical zeroing (also
for subsequent reading measurements) the observer’s eye must be placed directly above the needle
pointer i.e. at right angle to the plane of the meter scale markings to avoid any viewing error caused
by parallax. Modern VOAM come with a mirror in the scale to overcome parallax error. To read the
scale accurately, needle reflection in mirror scale must not be visible to the viewer.

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Figure – 2

Part-I Resistance Measurements

To measure the resistance internal battery of the VOAM must be in good condition. Tolerances
associated with VOAM internal components, especially the battery can prevent the meter pointer to
reach needed deflection associated with imprinted -scale markings. Hence before employing VOAM
for resistance measurements, it is strongly recommended to re-align the pointer needle in full deflection
position over the zero marked on -scale. This procedure is known as preliminary adjustment and is
carried out as follows.

Preliminary Adjustment:

1. Insert the test probes, one with red color wire in positive jack marked V-Ω-A and probe with
black wire in negative jack marked as common.
2. Rotate the FUNCTION selector switch to OHMS position, which also shares a spot on the dial
with other test/measurement modes. This will turn on the VOAM, let FUNCTION/RANGE
selector switch rest on any range of your choice.

Note: Available resistance ranges are printed in multiples of ten e.g. x 1, x 10 and x 100 etc.

3. -scale is non-linear and at full deflection meter pointer rests on “0” marked on extreme right
end of scale. (In some meters deflection may be in opposite direction.)
4. Clip (short together) the two test leads; the meter needle should swing right and rest exactly on
the “0” marked on the -scale.
5. In case of any mismatch, rotate the “Zero adjust knob”, location indicated in Figure-1, until the

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meter needle aligns exactly on “0” on the -scale.
6. Unclip the test leads, the meter needle should swing back to left end of the -scale, where it
stood after the mechanical zeroing procedure.
7. In case of any inconsistency; switch off the power by moving the function switch in OFF
position and carry out the mechanical zeroing.
8. Repeat step 4 through 7, as many times as necessary, until the meter pointer swings precisely
between the two marked ends of the -scale when meter leads are clipped and unclipped in
succession.
9. VOAM is now ready to measure resistance of any object.

Note: Never measure the resistance of element attached to a voltage/current source.

Once the preliminary adjustments are done, next select an appropriate range with Function
switch. It is always a good practice to start with the highest range and as pointer begins to float over
scales, keep reducing the range until pointer rests in and around the middle of the Ohm scale. Keep in
mind the maximum amount of resistance that a multimeter under experiment can measure. Insert the
test probes in the meter, red in positive and black in negative jack. Place the element under test whose
resistance is to be measured between the two metallic ends of the VOAM probes as shown below in
Figure-3.

Figure – 3

Polarity match is irrelevant in resistance measurements as the element under test must be detached
from its power source. Keep adjusting the resistance range with Function selector until the needle
pointer is stabilized around the center of -scale. Now the pointer position on the -scale can be noted
down.

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Reading the OHM () Scale:

During the measurement of the resistance, the VOAM meter needle should ideally be pointing
close to the center of the -scale, where linearity of scale makes it easier to take the reading more
accurately. This can easily be ensured by trying different -ranges, until a more readable value can be
taken. A good pointer position is reflected in illustration of Figure-4.

Figure – 4

There is only one -scale but 5 -ranges supported by most analog multimeters. To interpret the
resistance measurement reflected by needle movement over the -scale, multiply the acquired -scale
readout with -range applied i.e. Resistance Value = -Range Applied x -Scale Readout. Table
below illustrates it.

-RANGE APPLIED -SCALE READOUT RESISTANCE VALUE


x1 26 26 x 1 = 26 
x 10 22 22 x 10 = 220 
x 100 15 15 x 100 = 1.5 k
x 1k 20 20 x 1000 = 20 k
x 10k 18 26 x 10,000 = 180 k
x 10k 22 22 x 10,000 = 220 k
x 100 30 30 x 100 = 3 k
x 10 32 32 x 10 = 320 

Part – II: DC Voltage Measurements:

Choosing the Proper Range:

VOAM can be configured to measure DC voltage using any one of six DCV ranges as shown
below in Figure-5 (different meters may have different ranges). Start testing voltage by setting the
Function selector switch on high DCV range and gradually adjust down close to expected voltage
value i.e. till the meter pointer rests around the center of the scale.
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Figure – 5

DC Voltage Measurement

If the value of the voltage to be measured is unknown, always start by selecting the highest
range available on the meter (i.e. mostly 1000 V DC). It will help prevent the needle from full scale
deflection, which may cause it to immobilize there. If the needle deflection fails to reach around middle
of scale, remove the voltage source under test and select the next lower available range. Repeat the
process until meter achieves needle deflection somewhere around the scale center. This procedure is
necessary to protect the meter movement.

Caution: Never change range selector position once a voltage/current source is attached to
multimeter.

Figure – 6

Voltage is always measured across (parallel) the element of interest, as shown in Figure-6. Make sure
to connect the common test lead (black) to the negative side of the voltage to be measured and the red
test lead to the positive side of the voltage to be measured. Failure to observe the polarity of the DC
voltage with respect to the polarity of the test leads (hence meter) may result in damage to the meter
movement. Needle pointer’s position over calibrated DCV scale can be read over any one of the three
provided scales. Which DCV scale was read is important for correct interpretation of measured value.
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Reading the DC scale:

Multimeters often use common scale calibrations or scale divisions not only to measure DC
voltage but also DC current, and is rightly marked as DCV A scale. DCV A scale lies immediately
below the -scale (or mirror scale, if present) and is uniformly divided into fifty equal divisions, which
are calibrated into set of three scales i.e. 0~10, 0~50 and 0~250. This set of three scales also apply to
the ACV scale, printed underneath in red. Fifty divisions on DCV A (also ACV) scale are grouped in
10 groups of five divisions each. Accuracy of measurement taken will depend on the scale selected to
read the needle position. Higher the scale lesser the error propagation and vice versa. Set of three
scales, associated with DCV A (also ACV) calibrations are shown in Figure-7 below.

Figure – 7

Most expedient way to measure DC voltage is to select similar scale and range selector settings
and obtain the results directly from DCV A scale readouts. For mismatched scale and range settings,
the measured DC voltage is given by DC Voltage = (Range Applied/Scale Selected) x Selected Scale
Readout. Different ways, in which we can interpret the above shown DCV reading of Figure-7,
assuming imaginary settings for the range selector positions, is reflected in table below.

RANGE APPLIED SCALE SELECTED READOUT DC VOLTAGE (V)


0.1 0~10 4.4 (0.1/10) x 4.4 = 0.044 V
2.5 0~50 22 (2.5/50) x 22 = 1.1 V
10 0~10 4.4 (10/10) x 4.4 = 4.4 V
50 0~50 22 (50/50) x 22 = 22 V
250 0~250 110 (250/250) x 110 = 110 V
1000 0~50 22 (1000/50) x 22 = 440 V
2.5 0~250 110 (2.5/250) x 110 = 1.1 V
10 0~50 22 (10/50) x 22 = 4.4 V
50 0~10 4.4 (50/10) x 4.4 = 22 V

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Part – III: AC Voltage Measurements

Connecting the AC Voltmeter:

Other than Function selector position (i.e. ACV position), there is no difference in analog
multimeter’s configuration set up to measure DC or AC voltage. ACV scale works with four Function
switch selectable ranges for measuring AC voltage. Like the DC voltage measurements, multimeter is
connected across (in parallel) the AC source for AC voltage measurements. Analog multimeter’s
lead/probe polarity matching is not essential for AC voltage measurements, but red positive lead
connected to phase side does help in measurement safety. Do not forget to insert the common black
test lead into the negative (-COM) and the red test lead to the positive jack of the multimeter. Figure-
8 illustrate an acceptable connectivity considerations for making accurate AC voltage measurement.

Figure – 8

Caution: While measuring AC voltages, connect the Common test lead/probe of the VOAM to
the side of the voltage source under test that is nearest to ground or the equipment chassis. This will
avoid stray pickup which might otherwise occur. Such pickup may produce an indication on the VOAM
when only one lead is connected. This stray pickup will not affect the accuracy of the indication
obtained with both leads connected.

Reading the ACV scale:

A 50 division linear ACV scale is printed directly below the DCV A scale and can be read from the
same set of three calibration scales that were used to read DCV A scale i.e. 0 ~10, 0~ 50 and 0~ 250.

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Again higher the scale resolution, more the measurement accuracy. Formula deployed for interpreting
DCV readings works equally well for interpreting ACV scale readouts. However most convenient way
is to use similar scale and range selector settings and obtain the results directly from the scale readouts.

Figure – 9

Measured value of AC voltage, by the needle readout from Figure-9 and assumed values of Range plus
Scale, employing formula AC Voltage = (Range Applied/Scale Selected) x Selected Scale Readout
can be interpreted as shown in table below.

RANGE APPLIED SCALE SELECTED READOUT AC VOLTAGE (V)


10 0~10 3 3V
10 0~50 15 (10/50) x 15 = 3 V
10 0~250 75 (10/250) x 75 = 3 V
50 0~10 3 (50/10) x 3 = 15 V
50 0~50 15 15 V
50 0~250 75 (50/250) x 75 = 15 V
250 0~10 3 (250/10) x 30 = 750 V
250 0~50 15 (250/50) x 15 = 75 V
250 0~250 75 75 V
1000 0~10 3 (1000/10) x 3 = 300 V
1000 0~50 15 (1000/50) x 15 = 300 V
1000 0~250 75 (1000/250) x 75 = 300 V

Part – IV: DC Current Measurements

Connecting the Ammeter:

Configuration of multimeter to work as ammeter depends on the amount of current under test.
Multimeter can measure the DC current directly in ampere, milli-ampere and even micro-ampere. To
measure DC current in amperes, black probe of multimeter is inserted in 10 A jack and selectable range
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available for this configuration is also 10 A (refer to Figure-5). To measure DC current in micro-
amperes, black probe of multimeter is inserted in negative (-COM) jack (refer to Figure-1) and range

selected has again only one choice marked as “50 A”. Red lead/probe in either case will remain

inserted in positive (V--A) jack. Range selector positions (“10 A” and “50 A”) also reflect on

maximum limit on amount of DC current that can be read in ampere and micro-ampere.

To measure DC current in milli-ampere, which is the main focus of this experiment, Function
switch supports three ranges in DCmA position. Connections of test probes/leads to multimeter are

same as for voltage or resistance measurement i.e. red lead/probe in positive (V--A) jack and black

lead/probe in negative (-COM) jack. DC current is always measured by putting multimeter in series
with the circuit where current flow is to be determined. A circuit under test has to be reconfigured for
current measurements (modern clamp meters eliminate the need to place ammeter in series with circuit
under test for current measurements). Correct connections for measuring DC current with multimeter
is reflected in Figure-10 below. As in the case of DC voltage measurement, polarity matching between
multimeter and current source being tested remains extremely important.

Figure – 10

Reading the AC scale:

DCV A scale, used for measuring DC voltage, is employed for measuring DC current as well.
It is printed immediately below the -scale as clearly visible in Figure-7. As mentioned earlier it has
a set of three associated scales i.e. 0~10, 0~50 and 0~250, which must be read in conjunction with
three available ranges for measuring current in milli-amperes as shown in Figure-5. Where the
employed scales and ranges do not match, the readout scale position of pointer must be interpreted to
discover the real value. Formula; (Range Applied/Scale Selected) x Selected Scale Readout = DC
current, will have to used here as well (same formula can also be used in microampere and ampere
meter setting if select scale readout does not match the respective dedicated range selector position).

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Figure – 11

Example of interpreting scale readouts when a multimeter is configured as milli-ammeter to


measure DC current, based on meter pointer position indicated in Figure-11 and assumed Ranges, are
solved below.

RANGE APPLIED SCALE SELECTED READOUT DC CURRENT (mA)


2.5 mA 0~10 4.8 (2.5/10) x 4.8 = 1.2 mA
25 mA 0~50 28 (25/50) x 28 = 14 mA
250 mA 0~250 120 120 mA
2.5 mA 0~50 28 (2.5/50) x 28 = 1.4 mA
25 mA 0~250 120 (25/250) x 120 = 12 mA
250 mA 0~10 4.8 (250/10) x 4.8 = 120 mA
2.5 mA 0~250 120 (2.5/250) x 120 = 1.2 mA
25 mA 0~10 4.8 (25/10) x 4.8 = 12 mA
250 mA 0~50 28 (250/50) x 28 = 140 mA

Practice
1. Determine and mark the needle position with blue ball point on the analog multimeter -scale shown
in Figure-12 when the resistance being measured is 300 k and the FUNCTION selector switch is set
at x10k RANGE. (Hint; reading x range = value)

Figure –12

2. Mark the meter pointer position anywhere on the analog multimeter DCV A scale reproduced in
Figure-13 below and interpret the measured DC voltage assuming that the FUNCTION selector switch
was set at RANGE and SCALE read was .
(Hint; range/scale x reading = value)
Answer;
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Figure – 13

1. Determine the position of function switch over ACV RANGE, if the readout of 112.5 taken on
0~250 scale of Figure-14 is interpreted to reflect 450 V AC source connected across its test leads?
Answer;

Figure – 14

2. Interpret the DC current flowing through the multimeter configured as milli-ammeter with pointer
position as shown on 0~10/0~50/0~250 (select one) DCV A scale in Figure-15 below and assuming
the RANGE selector switch set at RANGE?
Answer;

Figure – 15

CONCLUSION:
Learning how to use an analog multimeter (VOAM) is essential for anyone working in the
Electronics/Electrical field. There may be some minor differences in analog VOAM meters that you
may come across in your profession and the one you have experimented with today. However the
concepts and processes to take measurements more or less remain the same. It is inconvenient to
interpret measurements on analog compared with digital multimeter, but measuring sensitivity is
definitely more pronounced in the very nature of analog measurements. This is especially true when

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the signal is changing rapidly. Analog multimeters have an edge over digital meters when measuring
continuously fluctuating electrical quantities.
Task:
Describe in your own words what you learned in today’s experiment. Use plain A4 size paper
and blue or black ball point only. Confine the number of per page lines between 16 to 20 lines. Papers
must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

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Experiment - 2 INTRODUCTION AND OPERATION OF DIGITAL MULTIMETER (DMM)

PURPOSE:
1. To discover the strengths and weaknesses of digital and analog multimeters.
2. Learn the operation and use of modern digital multimeters for measuring electrical quantities,
like voltage, current and resistance.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Digital Multimeter (DMM)
2. Test leads
INTRODUCTION:
Multimeter, the most widely used tool in electricity/electronics, comes in two varieties, analog
and digital. Analog multimeter (VOAM) comprises of a moving coil galvanometer, a function/range
selector switch and printed scales with a fine pointer that floats over it. The needle mechanism is
damped but any low frequency electrical signal can easily be displayed. An analog multimeter
primarily measures current. Measurements of voltage and resistance are first converted to a
corresponding current, which is then indicated by the needle. VOAM can be passive, using resistive
networks to switch ranges or active, requiring a battery and electronics to perform certain functions.
Digital multimeter, also known as DMM, has a digital display of varying resolutions and many come
loaded with numerous convenience functionality features e.g. auto ranging and polarity protection etc.
Every DMM is capable of measuring voltage, current, resistance but it is essentially a voltmeter. In
order to measure current and resistance, some internal circuitry is used to “convert” current and
resistance values to corresponding voltage values. Employing analog to digital conversion, the voltage
is converted to a digital value and displayed on LCD display. DMM often has more features than an
analog meter, such as capacitance, inductance and temperature measurements etc.
Digital and analog multimeters, both function equally well as handy instruments for measuring
everyday electrical quantities, but which of these is genuinely better than the other boils down to
individual choice. Many would prefer DMM over VOAM especially if cost is not a consideration.
However don't overlook the analog meter. Many currents and voltages change slowly but not so fast
that an oscilloscope is required. These are ideal signals for the analog meter.
OPERATION

Digital multimeters of diverse brands have proprietary layout and positioning of different
knobs and switches on the meter. However the usage and functionality associated with such
switches, jacks, display etc remains same. Operation manual supplied with the digital multimeter
must be consulted to familiarize with layout of DMM in use. DMM shown in Figure-1 below,

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reflects the layout of most commonly used switches and sockets.

Figure – 1

MEASURING AC/DC VOLTAGE


Voltages, AC or DC are always measured by putting DMM across the voltage source i.e. in
parallel, as shown in Figure-2 below. Be aware of the limit on amount of AC/DC voltage that given
DMM is capable of measuring. For the meter issued for this experiment the limit is 1000 V DC and
750 V AC. Exceeding this limit can damage the internal circuit of the DMM.

Measuring DC Voltage

1. Connect the black test lead to “COM” jack and red lead to “V” jack.
2. Set function switch to “V ….” position & select suitable range for the voltage under test.

Figure – 2
3. If the magnitude of the voltage under test is not known, then always start with the highest range
available on the meter for testing DC voltage.
4. Connect test leads across the voltage source to be measured with matching lead polarity.

22
5. Value of measured voltage would be displayed on LCD display.
6. When polarity of lead mismatch the test voltage then a “-”sign will appear on left of results.
7. If only “|” is displayed, it implies that voltage under test is higher than the selected range on
the DMM, hence adjust the range among the available higher to lower values.

Alert: DMM has built in “auto range” and “polarity protection”, still it is good habit to turn off the
DMM while changing the range and always ensure polarity matching.

8. Never exceed the maximum DC input limit i.e. 1000 V or the meter circuit will be damaged.
9. Displayed value can be adjusted to include maximum possible “Least Significant Digits” by
rotating the function switch through given ranges in “V ….” position.

Measuring AC Voltage

1. Connect the black test lead to “COM” jack and red lead to “V” jack.
2. Set function switch to “V ~” position and select fitting range for the voltage under test.

3. If the magnitude of the voltage under test is not known, then always start with the highest
range available on the meter for testing AC voltage.
4. AC voltage sources do not have polarity. There's an instantaneous value which will be
either plus or minus depending on when you measure it.
5. Connect the test leads across the test source with black lead attached to common terminal and
red lead to hot or phase terminal of AC voltage source, as shown in Figure-3 below.

Figure – 3
6. Value of measured AC voltage would be displayed on LCD display.
7. If only “|” is displayed, it implies that voltage under test is higher than the selected range on
the meter, hence adjust the range among the available higher values.
8. Never exceed the maximum AC input limit i.e. 750 V or the meter circuit will be damaged.
9. Displayed value can be adjusted to include maximum possible “Least Significant Digits” by
rotating the function switch through given ranges in “V ~” position.

23
MEASURING DC/AC CURRENT
For measuring the current, may that be DC or AC, DMM must be inserted in the flow of circuit
current i.e. series connectivity, as shown in Figure-4. For measuring currents, within manufacturer
specified upper limits either in mille ampere or ampere range. two separate jacks, one fused and other
unfused, are provided on the DMM. These are marked as “A” and “mA” jacks. See Figure-1.

DC Current Measurement

1. Insert the black test lead to "COM" jack and the red test lead to “mA” jack when the test current
is not expected to exceed manufacturer’s limit of max input current i.e. 200mA for provided
DMM.
2. Alternatively, if the test current is greater than 200 mA but less than 20 mA (this may vary
from DMM to DMM), then put the red test lead into “A” jack and retain black lead position.

Figure – 4

3. Red lead insertion in “mA” or “A” jack configures DMM either as milli-ammeter or ammeter.
4. Set the rotary function switch to appropriate “A ….” range proper for the current under test.

5. Matching the polarity, (i.e. red lead to positive while black lead to negative terminal of source
supplying current) connect the test leads in series to the DC circuit under test.
6. LCD should be able to displays the current value under test, which in case of polarity mismatch
will also display “-” sign on left side of LCD.
7. Check relevant fuse if the meter does not yields results during the measurement test.
8. With no idea about the range of DC current under test and function switch already in higher
range, it’s time to reselect the proper range based on display value. This will enhance test result
resolution.
9. If LCD displays “|", it means the meter is configured to measure current less than the test
current. Immediately reset the knob to a higher current range.
24
10. Do not exceed the max input current limit i.e. either 200mA or 20A, depending on the insert
position of the red test lead in “mA” or “A” jacks (may vary from DMM to DMM).
11. Excessive current input will melt the fuse and may damage the internal meter circuit of DMM.

AC Current Measurement
Procedure to measure AC current, on the provided DMM, is more or less same as measuring
DC current with minor adjustments here and there. Procedure specific to AC current measurements is
as follows. Refer to Figure-4 above.

CONTINUITY TEST
Continuity test help locate the short or open faults in electrical circuits. To perform this test
proceed as follows.

1. Insert the black test lead into "COM" terminal and the red test lead into “V/Ω” terminal.
2. Set the rotary knob to position.
3. Apply test leads to the two points of circuit under test.
4. If the buzzer sounds, the resistance is less than (70±20) Ω i.e. equivalent to short circuit.
5. If the buzzer does not sound than either the resistance offered is greater than 90~100  or there
is open circuit between the points attached to probes.

RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT
To measure the resistance of any element, first it must be isolated from its power source. To
configure DMM as ohmmeter proceed as follows. Refer to Figure-5 below.

Figure – 5
1. Insert the black test lead into "COM" terminal and the red test lead into “V/Ω” terminal.
2. Set the rotary knob to a estimated resistance range, and connect the leads crossly to the
resistance under test.
3. Note that the LCD displays overload symbol "" when the resistance is over the selected range.
The knob should be adjusted to a higher range.
4. Once resistance under test is over 1MΩ, the reading shall be stable in a few seconds, which is
a normal status when measuring high resistance.
25
5. When the input terminal is in open circuit, it displays "" overload.
6. Once measuring in line resistor, be sure that the power is off and all capacitors are completely
isolated.
7. It is absolutely forbidden to input voltage at the range of resistance, though the meter has
voltage protection function to guard against such an eventuality.

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

1. For measuring the temperature a special socket is provided on the DMM, where a temperature
sensing probe is inserted as shown below in Figure-6.

2. Place the Range selector in “Temp” position and touch the surface of test object with sensor.

3. LCD will display the sensed temperature in degree centigrade.

Figure – 6
CONCLUSION
DMM provides, convenience of usage, auto protections and precise digital readouts for the
electrical quantities under test. That is why DMM is the most commonly used test instrument for
beginners and professionals alike.
Task
Write down the merits of acquiring DMM instead of VOAM to justify the additional cost to
the company where you serve. Use simple plain A4 size paper and blue or black ball point only.
Confine the number of per page lines between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end
of the experiment.
Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

26
Experiment – 3 INTRODUCTION AND OPERATION OF OSCILLOSCOPE
PURPOSE:
1. Learn functions and operation of the Oscilloscope.
2. Study measuring technique for time varying voltage using Oscilloscope.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Oscilloscope with user manual and probe.
2. AC Power supply.
3. Signal generator.
4. Connecting Leads.
INTRODUCTION:
Oscilloscope is essentially a voltage sensing electronic instrument, suitable for observing rapid
changes in voltage over time, which can’t be measured ordinarily with a standard multimeter. Prime
purpose of an oscilloscope is to display a visual graph of an electrical signal (voltage) as it varies with
respect to time. Most oscilloscopes produce a two-dimensional graph with time on the horizontal (X)
axis and voltage on the vertical (Y) axis.

Classification of oscilloscopes is quite extensive but the main distinction lies in being an analog
or digital class. However within the digital or analog oscilloscope division there are many subclasses
identifying peculiar functionality or construction. The analog type is the elementary oscilloscope type.
As the name implies it employs analog techniques to create the pattern on the display. Typically they
use a cathode ray tube display and are also referred to as CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscopes).

The concept behind the digital oscilloscope is somewhat different to an analog oscilloscope.
Rather than processing the signals in an analog fashion, digital oscilloscope converts the signal into a
digital format and then processes the signals digitally. Digital signal processing enables the evaluation
of the signals under test in a far more flexible manner. This also enables many additional features to
be included within the oscilloscope. Growing number of oscilloscopes are available commercially that
incorporate a PC to provide the processing power. This considerably reduces the cost of buying a high
performance oscilloscope.

Controls on both digital and analog oscilloscopes function more or less identically. On PC
digital oscilloscopes controls are usually displayed inside a drop down menu on the LCD display,
whereas, physical knobs and push buttons perform equally well on other oscilloscopes. Most
oscilloscopes have at least two input channels and each channel can display a waveform on the screen.
Multiple channels are useful for comparing waveforms.

Common features of all oscilloscopes are described below. In this experiment students will be
introduced to operation of
27
oscilloscope. Its specific features plus panel controls locations and functions will be demonstrated by
the lab engineer.

OSCILLOSCOPE BASICS:

Oscilloscope front panel has a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) display screen and
knobs/connectors/buttons as shown in Figure-1 below. (Different Oscilloscope models may have
varying layout). Display screen has usually 1 cm divisions on both X and Y axes. There are two
separate input connectors to the oscilloscope labeled channel 1 and channel 2. Each input channel has a
volts per division (volts/div) knob which sets the vertical (volts) scale. A single seconds per division
(sec/div) knob sets the horizontal (time) scale. There are also position knobs for adjusting the vertical
and horizontal position of the display.

Figure – 1

Under the volts/div knob is a 3-position switch that reads "AC - ground - DC". In the ground
position, the input to the oscilloscope is grounded (set to 0 volts), and the display becomes a horizontal
line whose position is the zero volts position and which can be adjusted with the vertical position knob.
For example, one could set the middle line of the screen to be 0 volts. Then positions above the middle
line would be positive voltages, and positions below the middle would be negative voltages. When the
switch is in the DC position, the signal is input to the oscilloscope unaltered.
The AC position on oscilloscope centers the signal about its overall DC shift from ground, so
that one can just measure AC fluctuations. There is a small knob in the center of both
the volts/div and sec/div knobs, called the CAL or calibration knob. This should always be in the fully
CW (clockwise) position in order for the volt/div and sec/div scale settings to be correct. Electrical
connections to the oscilloscope are made through a special kind of connector called a BNC connector.
The BNC connector is used with coaxial cables (coax, for short). Coax cables have a central
wire carrying the signal voltage and an outer cylindrical conductor which is usually grounded (0 volts).
The outer conductor on the BNC connector on an oscilloscope is always grounded, and it is important

28
to remember that the outer wire of a coax cable is always at zero volts when it is connected to an
oscilloscope. To connect an oscilloscope to a signal under measurement a probe is needed as shown in
Figure – 2 below.
Probes are single-input devices that route a signal from circuit under test to the oscilloscope.
Probes have a sharp tip which connects to a point on your circuit. The tip can also be equipped with
hooks, tweezers or clips to make latching onto a circuit easier. Every probe also includes a ground clip,
which should be secured safely to a common ground point on the circuit under test. There are a variety
of probe types out there, the most common of which is the passive probe, included with most
oscilloscopes. Most of the “stock” passive probes are attenuated. Attenuating probes have a large
resistance intentionally built-in and shunted by a small capacitor, which helps to minimize the effect
that a long cable might have on loading circuit under test. In series with the input impedance of an
oscilloscope, this attenuated probe will create a voltage divider between signal under test and the
oscilloscope input.

Figure - 2

In addition to the above discussed fundamental features, many oscilloscopes have measurement tools,
which help to quickly quantify frequency, amplitude, and other waveform characteristics. In general
an oscilloscope can measure both time-based and voltage-based characteristics. Typical Timing and
voltage characteristics of ordinarily available oscilloscope are described below.

Voltage characteristics:

o Amplitude – Amplitude is a measure of the magnitude of a signal. There are a variety of


amplitude measurements as shown in Figure-3. This includes peak-to-peak amplitude, which
measures the absolute difference between a high and low voltage point of a signal. Peak
amplitude, on the other hand, only measures how high or low a signal is past 0V.

29
Figure – 3

o Maximum and minimum voltages – The oscilloscope can indicate exactly how high and low
the voltage of signal under test can get.

o Mean and average voltages – Oscilloscopes can calculate the average or mean of signal, under
test and can also ascertain the average of signal’s minimum and maximum voltage.

Timing characteristics:

The oscilloscope is useful tool in a variety of troubleshooting and research situations. To find
information like frequency, noise, amplitude, or any other characteristic that might change over time,
one need an oscilloscope. Oscilloscopes provide means of;

o Determining the frequency and amplitude of a signal, which can be critical in debugging a
circuit’s input, output, or internal systems signifying if a component in circuit has failed.

o Identifying how much noise is present in circuit.

o Identifying the shape of a wave – sine, square, triangle, saw tooth, complex, etc.

o Quantifying phase differences between two different signals.

PROCEDURE:
Consult the manual of the oscilloscope that has been selected for this experiment and write down its
following specifications parameters.

1. Bandwidth – Oscilloscopes are most commonly used to measure waveforms which have a
defined frequency. No oscilloscope is perfect though: they all have limits as to how fast they
can see a signal change. The bandwidth of an oscilloscope specifies the range of frequencies it
can reliably measure. Bandwidth of oscilloscope under experiment has the bandwidth;

30
2. Digital vs. Analog – As with most everything electronic, oscilloscopes can either be analog or
digital. Analog oscilloscopes use an electron beam to directly map the input voltage to a
display. Digital oscilloscopes incorporate microcontrollers, which sample the input signal with
an analog-to-digital converter and map that reading to the display. Identify the type of
oscilloscope that has been used in this experiment?

3. Channel Amount – Many oscilloscopes can read more than one signal at a time, displaying
them all on the screen simultaneously. Each signal read by a oscilloscope is fed into a separate
channel. Two to four channel oscilloscopes are very common. Write down the number of
channels that are supported by the oscilloscope used in this experiment.

4. Sampling Rate – This characteristic is unique to digital oscilloscopes, it defines how many
times per second a signal is read. For oscilloscopes that have more than one channel, this value
may decrease if multiple channels are in use. Describe per channel sampling rate of the
oscilloscope used in this experiment.

5. Rise Time – Specified rise time of an oscilloscope defines the fastest rising pulse it can
measure. Rise time of an oscilloscope is very closely related to the bandwidth. It can be
calculated as Rise Time = 0.35 / Bandwidth. Calculate the oscilloscope rise time.

6. Resolution – The resolution of an oscilloscope represents how precisely it can measure the
input voltage. This value can change as the vertical scale is adjusted. What is the resolution of
oscilloscope demonstrated in this experiment?

31
7. Vertical Sensitivity – This value represents the minimum and maximum values of your
vertical, voltage scale. List vertical sensitivity value of shown oscilloscope in volts per div.

8. Time Base – Time base usually indicates the range of sensitivities on the horizontal, time axis.
Provide the time base of oscilloscope demonstrated in seconds per div.

9. Input Impedance – When signal frequencies get very high, even a small impedance
(resistance, capacitance, or inductance) added to a circuit can affect the signal. Every
oscilloscope will add a certain impedance to a circuit it’s reading, called the input impedance.
Input impedances are generally represented as a large resistive impedance (>1 MΩ) in parallel
(||) with small capacitance (in the pF range). The impact of input impedance is more apparent
when measuring very high frequency signals, and the probe you use may have to help
compensate for it. Note the oscilloscope’s input impedance here?

BASIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES.

The two most basic functions of oscilloscope are voltage and time measurements. Just about
every other measurement is based on one of these two fundamental techniques. Since all measurements
are presented visually, familiarity with screen or display layout is essential to interpret the displayed
results accurately. Take a look at the oscilloscope display shown in Figure – 4. Notice the grid
markings on the screen that create the graticule (grid of vertical and horizontal lines).

32
Figure – 4

Each vertical and horizontal line of graticule constitutes a major division. The graticule is
usually laid out in an 8-by-10 division pattern. Labeling on the oscilloscope controls (such as volts/div
and sec/div) always refers to major divisions. The tick marks on the center horizontal and vertical
graticule lines (Figure - 4) are called minor divisions. Many oscilloscopes display on the screen how
many volts each vertical division represents and how many seconds each horizontal division
represents.

Voltage Measurements; Voltage is always measured between two points in a circuit. Usually one of
these points is kept at ground potential (zero volts) but that is not always true. Voltages can also be
measured from peak-to-peak – from the maximum point of a signal to its minimum point. One must
be careful to specify nature of intended voltage measurement. The oscilloscope is primarily a voltage-
measuring device. Once the voltage has been measured, other quantities are just a calculation away.
For example, Ohm’s law states that voltage between two points in a circuit equals the current times
the resistance (V = IR). Given any two of these quantities, one can calculate the third unknown quantity
using the any one of the Ohm’s law variants (I = V/R or R = V/I).

Another handy formula is the power law: the power of a DC signal equals the voltage times
the current (P = VI). Calculations are more complicated for AC signals, but there too measuring the
voltage is the first step toward calculating other quantities. Figure - 5 below shows the voltage of one
peak (Vp) and the peak-to-peak voltage (Vp-p), which for symmetrical waveforms is always twice Vp.
Use the RMS (root-mean-square) voltage (VRMS) to calculate the power (P = IV) of an AC signal.

33
Figure – 5
The most basic method of taking voltage measurements is to count the number of divisions a
waveform spans on the oscilloscope’s vertical scale. Adjusting the signal to cover most of the screen
vertically, then taking the measurement along the center vertical graticule line having the smaller
divisions makes for the best voltage measurements as shown in Figure - 6.

Figure – 6
More the screen area used, higher is the accuracy of readout from the screen. Many
oscilloscopes have on-screen cursors that help take waveform measurements automatically onscreen,
without having to count graticule marks. A cursor is simply a line that one can move across the screen.
Two horizontal cursor lines can be moved up and down to bracket a waveform’s amplitude for voltage
measurements, and two vertical lines move right and left for time measurements. A readout shows the
voltage or time at the positions of the cursors.

Time and Frequency Measurements; Time measurements are taken using the horizontal scale of the
oscilloscope. Time measurements include measuring the period, pulse width, and timing of pulses.
Frequency is the reciprocal of the period (f = 1/T), so if the period is known, the frequency can be
computed from the period. Like voltage measurements, time measurements are more accurate when
adjusting the portion of the signal to be measured to cover a large area of the screen. Taking time
measurements along the center horizontal graticule line, having smaller divisions, makes for the best
time measurements as shown in Figure – 7.
34
Figure – 7
Pulse and Rise Time Measurements: In many applications, the details of a pulse’s shape are
important. Pulses can become distorted and cause a digital circuit to malfunction, and the timing of
pulses in a pulse train is often significant. Standard pulse measurements are pulse width and pulse rise
time. Rise time is the amount of time a pulse takes to go from the low to high voltage. By convention,
the rise time is measured from 10% to 90% of the full voltage of the pulse. This eliminates any
irregularities at the pulse’s transition corners. This also explains why most oscilloscopes have 10%
and 90% markings on their screen. Pulse width is the amount of time the pulse takes to go from low to
high and back to low again. By convention, the pulse width is measured at 50% of full voltage.

Figure – 8

35
See Figure-8 for these measurement points. Pulse measurements often require fine-tuning the
triggering. To become an expert at capturing pulses, one should learn how to use trigger hold off and
how to set the digitizing oscilloscope to capture pre-trigger data, which will be discussed in other
experiment. Horizontal magnification is another useful feature for measuring pulses, since it allows to
see fine details of a fast pulse.

Phase Shift Measurements: The horizontal control section may have an XY mode that lets display
an input signal rather than the time base on the horizontal axis. This mode of operation opens up a
whole new area of phase shift measurement techniques. The phase of a wave is the amount of time
that passes from the beginning of a cycle to the beginning of the next cycle, measured in degrees. Phase
shift describes the difference in timing between two otherwise identical periodic signals.

One method for measuring phase shift is to use XY mode. This involves connecting one signal
to the vertical system as usual and then another signal to the horizontal system. (This method only
works if both signals are sinusoidal). This set up is called an XY measurement because both the X and
Y axis are tracing voltages. The waveform resulting from this arrangement is called a Lissajous pattern
(pronounced LEE-sa-zhoo). From the shape of the Lissajous pattern, phase difference between the two
signals as well as their frequency ratio can be deduced.

Figure – 9 shows Lissajous patterns for various frequency ratios and phase shifts. The XY
measurement mode originated with analog oscilloscopes. Due to their relatively low sample density,
Digital Storage Oscilloscopes (DSOs) may have difficulty creating real-time XY displays. Some DSOs
create an XY image by accumulating data points over time, then displaying the composite. Digital
Phosphor Oscilloscopes (DPOs), on the other hand, are able to acquire and display a genuine XY mode
image in real-time, using a continuous stream of digitized data. DPOs can also display an XYZ image
with intensified areas.

CONCLUSION
Oscilloscopes are the “print outs” of the electronics world. Without an “oscilloscope” one can
only predict and deduce what’s happening in a circuit, not actually verify (let alone “see”) it. Although
analog oscilloscopes are now deemed to be old technology, they are still used in a number of areas. In
many fault finding scenarios, old analog oscilloscopes may be all that is available to an engineer,
especially as a result of cost restrictions, or for other reasons. However, these older analog instruments
are still able to provide a good account of themselves and they should not be ignored. Often they may
be put to one side in a stock of laboratory equipment. However they can still be used to good effect in
many situations, some people preferring to sue them against more advanced digital oscilloscopes

36
Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

37
Experiment – 4 INTERPRETING VALUES OF PASSIVE CIRCUIT
ELEMENTS
PURPOSE:
1 Interpreting the color/alphanumeric codes printed on resistors, inductors and capacitors to
determine their values.

2 Verification of interpreted resistance, capacitance and inductance values by performing


measurements on appropriate test instruments.

3 Measuring capacitance employing DMM (Digital Multimeter).

4 Use of LCR meter to measure inductance and capacitance.

APPARATUS:

1 Set of resistors, inductors & capacitors having different color and text codes.

2 Digital multi-meter (DMM) and RLC meter.

INTRODUCTION:

With miniaturization of electronics less and less space is available to print essential electrical
parameters over the components. Solution to problem lies in coding the information into a small color
or text codes, which can easily be printed over extremely small areas. EIA (Electronic Industries
Alliance) has already standardized the color and text codes that occupy very less space and yet convey
all the important electrical parameters of the coded device.

Color coding is a common way of labeling resistors but has not achieved equal momentum
for tagging capacitors and inductors. Text codes on the other hands are very common for labeling
capacitors and less frequently for inductors. We will study these codes for the three passive elements,
namely the resistor, inductor and capacitor.

PART-1: RESISTORS

On large resistors, like wire-wound resistor, the value is printed directly on resistor’s body.
Values of smaller resistors, like the carbon resistors, are not written openly, instead they have a so
called “color code” by which they can be identified. The reason for using a color code on a carbon
resistor is that they are small, which makes it difficult to read the printed values over them especially
when they are mounted on PCB.

Color coding system for resistors consists of multiple color bands. In 4-band color code, three
color indicate the resistance value in ohms and a fourth color band is included to indicate the tolerance
38
value of the resistor. Reading the color code in correct order and substituting the correct value of each
corresponding color coded stripe or band, as shown in the Figure-1, can help determine not only the
value but also the tolerance of the resistor.

Figure-1

Some resistors have five bands of color, with four bands expressing the resistance value, while
the fifth band conveys tolerance. Some resistors may even have sixth color band to represent
temperature coefficient, stated in PPM (parts per million), as shown in Figure-2. However such
resistors are not common and we will only study the resistors that come with 4/5 bands of color in this
experiment.

Figure-2

PROCEDURE:

1 To interpret the code the resistor must be read from left to right.

2 If uncertain from which side of the resistor to read the colors, start with the side closest to the
39
color band. The first color band is usually painted very close to the edge of the resistor; the last
band isn't as close to the edge.

3 The color of the first color band indicates the first digit of the resistance value or the first
significant digit.

4 For example: Let's us examine the 4-band color coded resistor shown in Figure-3:-

Figure-3

5 Align the resistor, as described above, and read the color bands from left to right.

6 Look up the color of the first band to determine the value of the first digit.

7 In the example above the first band is red, as shown above, since the color code table shows
that red corresponds to 2, hence first most significant digit is 2.

8 Second color band is blue, looking up the color code table, the second digit is 6.

9 Third or multiplier color band is green; hence the multiplier is 100k.

10 Multiply the two-digit value by the multiplier to determine the resistor's value i.e.26 times 100k
is 2600 k.

11 Therefore our final answer would be 2600 k 5%.

PRACTICE (PART-1)

1. Find the value of provided resistors based on color code they bear and write down their values
in Table -1 below.
2. Also measure their actual value employing DMM and write down the observed value in
appropriate cell of the Table-1.

40
S/N Interpreted Value Resistors (PART-1) Measure Value

Band Color Value

First:

Second :
1.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

Band Color Value

First:

Second :
2.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

Band Color Value

First:

Second :
3.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

Table-1

41
PART-2: INDUCTORS

Base unit Henry (H) is employed to express the value of inductance an inductor can provide. This
value can be expressed equally well either as a text code or color code that will fit nicely on the body
of small size inductor. We will study both the coding techniques for inductor in this experiment.

Text Codes

When the space permits then inductance of inductor together with other essential information may be
printed plainly and directly on its surface. However if the available space is very small than a coded text
(alphanumeric code) may be printed to express essential inductor’s data as shown in Figure-4.

Figure-4
DECODING

Text code printed on inductor can be interpreted in following manner:-


1 When the text code consists of three digits, then first two digits of the code indicate the value
of inductance in μH, while the third digit is the multiplier.
2 For Example: text code 101 = 10*101μH = 100μH.
3 If the middle alphabet is an R, it acts as a decimal point and third digit does not represent
multiplier.
4 For Example: alphanumeric code 4R7 = 4.7 μH .
5 Sometimes the tolerance of the inductor will be marked, using a final letter F, G, J, K, or M,
which indicates precision percentage of the given value as follows:-

6 For example: 8R2K = 8.2μH  10%.

PRACTICE (PART-2)

1 Determine the inductance of inductors provided by identifying their text code and record the
interpreting value it represent in the table below.
2 Measure the value of inductor using and enter value in appropriate cell of the Table-2.

42
S/N Interpreted Value Inductor Text Code (PART-2) Measure Value

Position Character Value

First:

Second :
1.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

First:

Second :

Third:
2.
Fourth:

Final Value:

Table-2

Color Codes
Inductors, especially the axial inductors, are sometimes marked by colored bands as is the case
with resistors. The color codes used for inductors are identical to that of a resistor, the only difference
being that the results from this will be in H, not just H. Each color band represents a value, which
can be interpreted translating inductor color decoding information provided in Figure-5. Note the
similarities between this table and the one we studied for interpreting color codes of resistors.

Figure-5

43
DECODING

1 In a 4-band code, the last band represents tolerance and the band right before it is the
multiplier. Other two color bands on left side represent digit each from 0 ~ 9.
2 Just like we did for the resistor, hold the inductor such that densely located color bands are on
your left and isolated single color band is located on right hand side.
3 For example: Consider the inductor shown in Figure-6 that has the yellow, violet, brown and
silver, four color bands printed on its body.

Figure-6

4 Decoding with information provided in Figure-5, 1st band: yellow = 4, 2nd band: violet = 7, 3rd
band: brown = 10 and 4th band: silver = 10%.
5 Hence the inductor has value = 47 x 10uH 10 % = 470 uH  10 %.
6 Another example of interpreting value of inductor using color code printed on its body is
demonstrated in Figure-7 below.

Figure-7

PRACTICE (PART-2)

1 Determine the inductance of inductors provided by identifying each color band and record the
interpreted value it represent in the Table-3 below.

2 Next measure the value of the inductance of inductor that has been decoded using RLC meter
and enter it in appropriate cell of the Table-3.

44
Note; An LCR meter is a type of electronic measuring instrument meant to measure
the inductance (L), capacitance (C), and resistance (R).

S/N Interpreted Value Inductor Color Code (PART-2) Measure Value

Band Color Value

First:

Second :
1.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

Band Color Value

First:

Second :
2.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

Band Color Value

First:

Second :
3.
Third:

Fourth:

Final Value:

Table-3

45
Important:

Like the resistor, inductors also come with 5 or even 6-band color band codes. However these
are not available commonly and hence will not be practiced in this experiment. Similarly color code
employing dots and bars on body of the inductor are also encountered in industry but will not be
addressed in this practical.

PART-3: CAPACITORS

For some reason, color coding of capacitors is much less widespread than color coding of
resistors and inductors, capacitor producers seems to be moving away from it. The fact may have
something to do with the typical shapes of small capacitors. In any case, exceptions do exist.
Color code when used in capacitors is more or less similar (except for positioning of bars, dots
or bands, as the case may be) to the color codes we studied for interpreting values of resistors and
inductors. Whenever a capacitor is color-coded, its value is expressed in pF (Pico Farads) and not in
F (Farads).
Large capacitors have their value printed plainly on them, such as 10 uF but smaller disk and
plastic film type capacitors often have just two or more numbers printed on them called text code. Here
we will only concentrate on text codes printed on capacitors.
DECODING
Most of capacitors support single to six digit alpha-numeric code as shown in Figure-8 below.

Figure-8

Single digit code on capacitor simply represent value of that capacitor in pF, e.g. code 1 above
represent 1 pF value of the capacitor and no further information is available about this capacitor.

Capacitor with two digit alpha-numeric code is also read directly as value of capacitor in pF
(Pico-Farads) e.g. code 10 shown above is interpreted as 10 pF capacitor. Again no further information
is available about this capacitor. Another example is code 47 which represent 47 pF value.

Three digit text codes on capacitor are somewhat similar to the resistor color codes. The first two digits

46
give the value in Pico-Farads while the third is a multiplier code. Third digit representing multiplier
can be interpreted from the table shown below.

Third Digit Multiplier


0 1
1 10
2 100
3 1,000
4 10,000
5 100,000
6 Not Used

For-example: A capacitor marked 471 will be interpreted to possess 47 x 10 = 470 pF. Similarly code
104 represents 10 x 10, 000 = 100,000pF, which can also be referred to as a 0.1 µF capacitor.

Sometimes a tolerance rating represented by a single letter suffix to otherwise normally used
three digit code is added in the capacitor text codes e.g. 103J etc. Table shown below gives various
tolerance ratings associated with different letters.

Letter Tolerance Letter Tolerance


B +/- 0.10 pF J +/- 5%
C +/- 0.25 pF K +/- 10%
D +/- 0.5 pF M +/- 20%
E +/- 0.5% N +/- 30%
F +/- 1% P +100% ,-0%
G +/- 2% Z +80%, -20%
H +/- 3%

For example; in the code 103J, discussed above, 103 represent 10 x 1000 = 10, 000 pF or 10 nF value
while J reflects  5 % tolerance, Hence final value of capacitor is 10 nF  5 % tolerance. Similarly
code 104K corresponds to capacitor value 0.1 F with +/- 10 % tolerance and code 563K corresponds
to capacitor value 56 nF with +/- 10 % tolerance?
One very important rating of capacitors is "working voltage". This is the maximum DC voltage
at which the capacitor operates without leaking excessively or arcing through. This working voltage is
expressed in terms of DC as it is the maximum DC voltage and NOT the maximum AC voltage. For
example; a capacitor with a DC voltage rating of 100 volts DC cannot be safely subjected to an
alternating voltage of 100 volts. AC voltage that has an RMS value of 100 volts has a peak value of
over 141 volts. This could easily damage the capacitor.

A capacitor which is required to operate at 100 volts AC should have a working voltage of at
least 200 volts. Heating of the dielectric and increasing AC frequency can decrease the working voltage
of capacitor. In practice, a capacitor should be selected so that its working voltage either DC or AC

47
should be at least 50 percent greater than the highest effective voltage to be applied to it. This DC
working voltage may be printed directly e.g. 100 V or in the form of code.

Working voltage is also indicated as two or three digit code which is displayed besides the
standard digit code. For example 472K 2KU code shown in Figure-8 represents working voltage of
2K volts. Most common two digit working voltage codes are shown in Figure-9(a) below.

Figure-9

Figure-9(b) above shows code representation of capacitor value in comparison with similar
values printed directly on body of large capacitor. Now to really complicate things sometimes the
single letter associated with tolerance rating of the capacitor is replaced with a letter-number-letter
code (e.g. Z5U) that gives additional information. Figure-10 below shows how to read these cryptic
codes. For example; a "224 Z5U" would be a 220,000 pF (or .22 uF) capacitor with a low temperature
rating of +10C, a high temperature rating of +85C and a tolerance of +22%,-56%.

48
Figure-10
This experiment will be restricted to the capacitors that carry either 3 or at best 4 digit text codes.

PRACTICE (PART-3)

1. Determine the capacitance of capacitors provided by identifying printed text code and
interpreting value it represent in the table below.
2. Measure the value of capacitor using Digital Multi-meter/RLC meter and enter value in
appropriate cell of the Table-4.

S/N Interpreted Value Capacitor Text Code (PART-3) Measure Value

Digit Text Value

First:

Second :

1. Third:

Fourth:

DCWV:

Final Value:

Digit Text Value

2. First:

Second :

49
Third:

Fourth:

DCWV:

Final Value:

Digit Text Value

First:

Second :

3. Third:

Fourth:

DCWV:

Final Value:

Table-4

CONCLUSION:
Learning how to read an analog VOAM meter is really essential for anyone working in the
Electronics/Electrical field. There may be some minor differences in VOAM meters that you may
come across in your profession and the one you have experimented with today. However the concepts
and processes to take measurements will always remain the same.

Task:
Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

50
Experiment - 5 VERIFICATION OF OHM’S LAW

PURPOSE:
1. Verify the manner in which current, voltage and resistance are related as stated by
Ohm’s law.
2. Controlling amount of current flowing in a circuit.
EQUIPMENT:
1. Experimental panel,
2. Resistors (¼ watt): 1k (R2), 2.2 k (R3), 5.6k (R4)
3. Connecting leads
4. VOAM/DMM
INTRODUCTION:
One single most important relationship between electrical quantities voltage, current and
resistance in linear DC circuit is given by Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s law states that the current passing
through a device is directly proportional to the potential difference applied.

Mathematically, this can be written I=V/R, where I is the current, V is the voltage and R is the
resistance. The formula is also commonly rearranged as V=IR, or R=V/I, thereby allowing its
interpretation in number of ways.

One way to interpret Ohm’s Law is expressed in equation (1) below. It implies that voltage
developed across a resistor is determined by amount of current flowing through it.

V  I R (1)

This relationship can also be expressed as:

V
I  (2)
R

Equation (2) shows that for a given fixed resistance the current that flows through it is directly
proportional to the voltage. This can be also expressed mathematically as:

IαV (3)

Note that symbol α implies “is proportional to”. Conversely, with a given voltage, more
resistance will restrict the current to a lower value, and vice versa. The current is said to be inversely
proportional to the resistance. Mathematically, this can be expressed as:

Iα 1 (4)
R

51
To determine the value of resistance that will limit the current to a required value when a certain
voltage is applied to it, equation (5) below can be employed.

R= V (5)
I

Equation (5) tells us that the resistance required to limit the current to a given value is directly
proportional to the applied voltage. Conversely, for a given applied voltage, the value of resistance
that would limit the current to a certain required value is inversely proportional to that value of current.

PART – 1: HOW CURRENT VARIES WITH VOLTAGE FOR FIXED RESISTANCE


( I  V)

PROCEDURE:

1. Using panel, construct circuit as shown in Figure – 1. If bread boards used to construct the
same circuit, then ensure that resistor selector has same value as shown in the circuit below.

Figure -1

2. Be sure to observe proper polarity on the meter connections. The DC voltage terminals on the
panel are supplied with DC voltage from the power supply. Power off the supply and rotate the
power supply knob fully counterclockwise.

3. Turn on the power supply and rotate the power supply knob until its display reads 10 volts.

4. Read the ammeter/voltmeter and record readouts in appropriate cells of Table-1 below.

5. Compute the expected value of current employing Ohm’s Law (I = V/R) and record it in the
appropriate column of Table-1 below.

52
Applied Voltage as Voltage Current calculated
indicated on power measured across from known value of
supply (V) the resistor (V) resistor (mA)

10

20

5
Table - 1

6. Rotate the power supply knob fully counterclockwise and turn off the power supply.

7. For every successive power supply voltage specified in Table – 1, repeat procedures outlined
in steps 4 through 6 above and record your observed and calculated values in appropriate
columns of the table.

8. For each voltage specified in Table – 1, does the measured current value agree fairly closely
with the current calculated from the nominal value of resistor?

Yes ______ No _______

9. Table – 1 shows that when the voltage applied to a resistor is doubled (from 10 to 20), the
current:

( ) is reduced to one half

( ) is doubled.

10. Table – 1 shows that when voltage applied to a resistor is reduced by half (from 10 to 5), the
current:

( ) is reduced by a factor of 4

( ) is reduced by a factor of 2

( ) is doubled.

11. For the conditions exercised in steps 4 through 7, and the answers provided to questions above
lead to the statement:

( ) current and voltage are independent of each other.

( ) current is inversely proportional to voltage.


53
( ) current is directly proportional to voltage.

( ) current and voltage are related but not in any linear manner.

12. In all the above procedure, the resistance:

( ) varied as the current changed.

( ) remained at a constant value as the voltage was changed.

( ) varied as the voltage was changed.

13. Will the circuit respond differently necessitating modifications in your response to above
questions, if the resistor used in the circuit of Figure – 1 is replaced with any other resistor of
arbitrarily selected value?

Yes ______ No _______

1. With the parts on the panel, connect the circuit shown in the Figure – 1 above, but use 2.2 k
(R3) resistor instead of 1 k (R2) resistor used in part -1.

2. Turn on the power supply; adjust powers supply output to 10 V as indicated in Table – 2.

Resistance Value Voltage Voltage Current Current


of Resistor Used Applied (V) Measured (V) Measured (mA) Calculated (mA)

2.2K R3 10V

5.6K R4 10V

1K R2 10V

Table – 2

3. Measure the voltage across and current through the resistor connected in circuit and record the
values observed in relevant cells of Table – 2.

4. Rotate the power supply knob fully counterclockwise and turn off the power supply.

5. For every resistor listed in Table – 2 repeat steps 1 through 4 of procedure above and record
the observations in appropriate cells of Table – 2.

6. Compute the current values using the nominal values of each resistor listed in Table – 2 and
applied voltage of 10 volts. Write these values in the appropriate places in Table – 2.

54
7. For each resistance used, does the measured current agree closely with calculated current?

Yes _____ No _____

8. Table – 2 shows that, with a constant applied voltage, if the resistance is increased by roughly
2.5 times (form 2.2 k to 5.6 k), the current:

( ) will increase approximately by 2.5 times

( ) will decrease approximately by 2.5 times

( ) will remain constant

9. Table –2 shows that, with constant applied voltage, if the resistance is decreased by 2.2 times
(from 2.2 k to 1 k), the current.

( ) will also increase by 2.2 times

( ) will also decrease by 2.2 times

( ) will remain constant

10. For the conditions present in Table – 2 plus the answers to steps 7 and 8 lead to the statement:

( ) for a constant applied voltage, current is directly proportional to resistance.

( ) for a constant applied voltage, current is inversely proportional to resistance.

( ) for a constant applied voltage, current is not related to resistance.

11. Suppose the voltage source used in the circuit of Figure -1 is replaced with 20 V source. Would
the answers to steps 7 through 9 be still the same with 20 volts source voltage applied to the
circuit instead of the 10 volts?

Yes ____ No _____

1. Using the parts on the panel, connect the circuit shown in the Figure -3; be sure to observe
proper polarity on the meter connections.

2. Turn on the power supply and rotate the power supply knob and adjust supplied DC voltage
until ammeter registers 2 mA current.

55
Figure – 2

NOTE
Use DMM (M1) on Left top of Panel in DC Voltmeter ( V-— - - ) mode & Use DMM (M2) on

Right top of Panel in DC Ammeter ( A —


- - - ) mode & also select appropriate Ranges for both.

3. Measure the voltage developed across 5.6 k resistor as indicated in the voltmeter and record
data in appropriate cell of Table – 3 below.

4. Rotate the power supply knob fully counterclockwise and turn off the power supply.

Current Selected (mA) Voltage Measured across Resistor (V) Voltage Calculated (V)

Table - 3
5. For the current used in step 2, calculate the voltage expected across 5.6 k resistor by
employing Ohm’s Law i.e. V = IR and record it in the appropriate cell of the Table – 3.

6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 of procedure for every current setting specified in the Table – 3 and
record the obtained data in its appropriate cells.
56
7. For each current specified in Table – 3, does the measured voltage agree fairly closely with
the voltage calculated employing V = IR?

Yes ____ No _____

8. Table – 3 shows that if current through resistor is doubled from 2 to 4 mA, the voltage
developed across the resistor:

( ) is increased by a factor of 4.

( ) is doubled

( ) is decreased by a one half.

9. Table – 3 shows that if the current through a resistor is reduced to ½ of its original value from
2 to 1 mA, the voltage developed across the resistor:

( ) is doubled.

( ) is reduced to half the voltage produced by the large current.

( ) is reduced to ¼ the voltage produced by the large current.

10. For the conditions present is step 2, the answers to steps 7 and 8 lead to the statement:

( ) The voltage developed across a resistor in series circuit is inversely proportional to the
current through it.

( ) The voltage developed across a resistor in series circuit is directly proportional to the
current through it.

( ) The voltage developed across a resistor in series circuit is independent of the current
flowing through it.

11. In all of the procedure in step 3, the resistance of R4:

( ) varied as the current was changed

( ) varied as the voltage was changed

( ) remained constant as the current through R3 was changed.

57
1. With the parts on the panel, connect the circuit shown in Figure - 2 but use 2.2 k (R3) instead
of 5.6k (R4) resistor.

2. Adjust power supply until ammeter indicates 4.5 mA.

3. Record the voltage across the connected resistor indicated by voltmeter in the appropriate cell
of the Table – 4.

4. When the voltage has been recorded, rotate the power supply knob fully counterclockwise and
turn off the power supply.

Resistance in Current Voltage Voltage Calculated


Circuit (k) Setting(mA) Measured(V) (V)

2.2 (R3) 4.5

5.6 (R4) 4.5

1 (R2) 4.5

Table – 4

5. For each resistance specified in Table – 4, calculate the voltage required to produce the current
setting specified in Table – 4 employing V = IR.

6. Write these calculated voltages in the appropriate place in Table – 4.

7. Table – 4 shows that, to produce a given current, the voltage applied to a 5.6 k resistor:

( ) must be reduced by 2.55 times form the voltage applied to a 2.2k resistor.

( ) must be increased by 2.55 times the voltage applied to a 2.2k resistor.

( ) is the same as that applied to a 2.2k resistor.

8. Table – 4, shows that, to produce a given current, the voltage applied to a 1k resistor:

( ) is the same as that applied to 2.2k resistor.

( ) must be 2.2 times that applied to a 2.2k resistor.

( ) must be reduced by 2.2 times form that applied to a 2.2k resistor.

58
9. For the conditions set in step 2, the answers to steps 6 and 7 prove that voltage required to pass
a given amount of current through a resistor is;

( ) inversely proportional to the value of the resistor.

( ) independent of the value of the resistor.

( ) directly proportional to that value of the resistor.

CONCLUSION

Ohm’s law provides the relationship between the current that flows through a resistor, the
voltage that develops across it and resistance of the resistor. Resistance can hence be employed
effectively to control the amount of current in the circuit by determining its needed value employing
Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law is also employed effectively as circuit analysis tool to determine unknown
values of current, voltage and resistance in the circuit.

Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

59
Experiment – 6 VERIFICATION OF KIRCHHOFF’S VOLTAGE AND
CURRENT LAWS

PURPOSE:
1. Discover relationship between source voltage and load voltages in a loop circuits.
2. Ascertain relationship between currents entering and leaving a junction or node in parallel
circuits.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Experimental panel,
2. Resistors (¼ watt): 100  (R13), 330  (R15), 470  (R1), 1k (R2)
3. Connecting leads
4. VOAM/DMM

INTRODUCTION:
Current in multiple source and multiple load circuit or network flows through all the circuit
elements satisfying Tellegen’s Theorem. At same time Ohm’s Law is also satisfied for every circuit
element in the network. Simultaneously satisfying all these conditions yield exactly one unique
solution for the network under analysis. Method for writing down equations to arrive at that unique
solution is drawn upon Kirchhoff’s Laws. Kirchhoff’s Laws are the starting point for analysis of any
circuit and are very effective in determining the unknown circuit parameters.

N
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law V  0
j 1
j (1)
(KVL)
N
Kirchhoff’s Current Law I  0
j 1
j (2)
(KCL)

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law or KVL for brief states that “algebraic sum of the voltages around
any loop is zero”. Voltage developed across the load (the resistive parts of the circuit), when current
is flowing though it is referred to as Voltage Drop. Since Voltage Drop is part of the Source Voltage,
hence sum of all voltage drops must equal source voltage in a loop. KVL is applied independently to
each loop in the network. As loop is traversed, while applying KVL, it is important to keep track of
the voltage polarity that satisfy the energy transfer status of elements encountered.

Kirchhoff’s Current Law abbreviated as KCL draws relationship between the currents entering
and leaving a node. A node is a junction point of two or more circuit elements. KCL states that
“algebraic sum of currents entering and leaving any node is always equal”. Essentially what
Kirchhoff’s Current Law says is that all of the currents that flow into a junction (node) must come out
60
of the junction. This means that charge is conserved – none falls out of the circuit or pools in any
location.

PART-1: KIRCHHOFF’S VOLTAGE LAW

PROCEDURE:

1. Construct the circuit on experimental panel as shown in Figure – 1 below.

2. Using a source voltage of 10V, calculate the series current I = V/R that flows through each one
of the four resistors in the loop shown in Figure – 1.

3. Also measure the current flowing indicated in ammeter.

Computed Current (mA) Measured Current (mA)

NOTE
Use DMM (M1) on Left top of Panel in DC Voltmeter ( V-— - - ) mode & Use DMM (M2) on

Right top of Panel in DC Ammeter ( A —


- - - ) mode. Also select appropriate Ranges for both.

Figure – 1

4. Next calculate the voltage (V = IR) that would be dropped across each resistor.

5. Record your calculated results in the first column of Table – 1.

6. For KVL to be satisfied the sum of load voltages must equal selected source voltage.

7. Turn the power supply on and rotate the power supply knob until power supply display
indicates 10 Volts.
61
8. Placing VOAM or DMM across (in parallel), measure the voltage drop across each of the four
resistors, appreciating the polarities shown for each in the circuit.

Action Voltage Drop V1 Voltage Drop V2 Voltage Drop V3 Voltage Drop V4 Total (V)

Measured

Computed

Error (%)

Table – 1

9. Determine the sum of these four measured voltages. You should find that it equal, within  10
%, to the selected source (supply) voltage.

10. Does your source voltage equals sum of load voltages? (Note: KVL holds only when the algebraic sum
of all the voltages around a closed loop is zero)
YES/NO

Task

1. Note that “Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law is satisfied for each loop (mesh) independently”.

2. To verify this KVL statement (paragraph 13) write down KVL equations for the outer loop and
two inner mesh present in the circuits of Figure-2.

3. Compute the load voltages using measured current values recorded in Table-2, which will be
accessible on completion of the Part-2 of the experiment.

4. Put the values in every KVL equation and show if sum of voltages equate to zero value.

5. Do the above three KVL equations verify independent application of KVL in every loop?

YES/NO

PART-2; KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW

PROCEDURE:

1. Construct the circuit on experimental panel as shown in Figure – 2.

2. Using a source voltage of 10 V, calculate the currents flowing through source (IT), using Ohm’
Law i.e. IT = VT/RT, where RT = [{(R17 + R15) || R2} + R1].
62
3. Compute current I2 using current division rule i.e. I2 = IT x {(R17 + R15)  (R2+ R17 + R15)} and
branch current I3 at node-1 and 2 employing Kirchhoff’s Current Law.

4. Record the computed value of currents in the first column of Table – 2 below.
5. Observe that node equation IT = I2 + I3 is valid at both node-1as well as node-2.
6. Turn the power supply on and rotate power supply knob until the display indicates 10 volts.

7. Using VOAM or DMM, measure the all currents at node-1 and node-2.

8. Record your measurements in Table – 2, using the current names assigned in Figure-2.

Figure – 2

NOTE
Use DMM (M2) on Right top of Panel in DC Ammeter ( A —
- - - ) mode & select appropriate ranges.

9. Note that ammeter must be connected in series with branch under test where current is required
to be measured.
10. Compare the measured result with the calculated values and determine percentage error.
11. Percentage Error (%) = [{(Measured Value – Computed Value) / Computed Value} x 100].
12. Does the experimental measurements verify the Kirchhoff’s Current Law statement at nodes-
1 and 2 within an error margin of 10%.
YES/NO
Calculated Value Measured Value % Error
Currents at 10 V Supply Voltage
(mA) (mA)
Total current (IT)
Current in branch-1 (I2)
Current in branch-2 (I3)
Sum of current entering node-1
Sum of currents leaving node-1
Sum of currents entering node-2
Sum of current leaving node-2

Table – 2
63
CONCLUSION:
Kirchhoff’s laws are used extensively in circuit analysis to determine the unknown values of
voltages and currents in electrical circuits. These laws also provide a reliable means of verifying
correctness of the computed values of electrical quantities obtained employing other diverse but
equally valid circuit analysis techniques.

Task:
Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

64
Experiment - 7 TO VERIFY THE THREE POWER EQUATIONS; P=IV, P=V2/R,
& P=I2R

PURPOSE:
1. Demonstrate with power equations that power is dissipated in the form of heat in resistors,
2. Emphasize the importance of power rating of resistors.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Experimental Panel.
2. Resistors: 100 , 5 W (R13) and 100  ¼ W (R23).
3. DMM with test leads and temperature sensor probe.
4. DC Power Supply.

INTRODUCTION:
Power dissipated by a resistor in DC circuit can be determined by employing any one of the
three commonly used variants of power equations, which are,

P = IV, P = V2/R and P = I2R

These equations allow computing power when any two of the three quantities, namely voltage,
current or resistance are known. Power can also be measured directly employing Wattmeter. However,
measured values of voltage, current and resistance with DMM or VOAM meter can also help compute
power using the above equations.

PROCEDURE:

1. Employing DMM meter measure the precisely accurate value of 100 , 5 W (R13) resistor and
record the value here.

Ohms.

2. Repeat above measurement for the 100 , ¼ W resistor (R23) and record it here.

Ohms.

3. Using breadboard or experimental panel, connect a DC source across 100 , 5 W (R13) as


shown in Figure – 1 below.

65
Figure -1

4. Rotate the power supply knob on the power supply fully counter clockwise and turn the power
supply on.

5. Rotate the power supply knob clockwise until voltmeter indicates 8 Volts and
measure the current reflected in ammeter.

NOTE
Use DMM (M1) on Left top of Panel in DC Voltmeter ( V-— - - ) mode & Use DMM (M2) on

Right top of Panel in DC Ammeter ( A —


- - - ) mode. Also select appropriate Ranges for both.

6. The current on ammeter measures as:

_________ mA

7. Using the voltage value set in step 5 and the measured current value recorded above, compute
the power dissipated in the circuit. The power (P=IV) is:

_______ Watts

8. Using the resistance value measured in step 1 and the current value measured in step 6, compute
the power dissipated in the circuit, The power (P = I2R) is:

_______ Watts

9. Do the values of power computed in 7, 8, and 9 agree?

Yes _____ No ______

10. Has the power rating of the resistor exceeded?

Yes _____ No ______

66
11. Record the room temperature employing temperature sensing feature of DMM here.

_______ C

12. Insert DMM meter’s thermocouple sensor to measure the temperature of the 100 , 5 W, (R13)
resistor connected across the power source and record it here.

_______ C

13. From steps 12 & 13 is not obvious that the power in circuit is dissipated in the form of:

LIGHT

HEAT

14. Turnoff the power supply, replace 100 , 5 W (R13) resistor with 100 , ¼ W (R23) resistor
in the circuit of Figure – 1.

15. Rotate the power supply knob on the power supply fully counter clockwise and turn the power
supply on.

16. Rotate the power supply knob clockwise until voltmeter indicates 8 Volts and
measure the current reflected in ammeter.

17. Record the current measured on ammeter here and switch off the power supply.

_________ mA

18. Switch on the power supply. After the circuit has been connected for a few minutes (do not
leave power applied in this step for very long), carefully check the temperature of 100 , ¼ W
resistor employing DMM temperature probe and record it.

_______ C

19. Comparing the temperatures recorded in steps 13 and 18, is the resistor rated at ¼ W seems to
be warmer or cooler than the 5 W resistor when connected across same voltage (8 V)?

Warmer _____ Cooler ______

20. Is the power rating of the ¼ W resistor being exceeded?

Yes _____ No ______


67
IMPORTANT

1. Value of 100  resistors used in experiment should have tolerance no greater than plus or
minus ten percent.

2. In steps 7, 8, 9 and 19, compute the power dissipated by using the variant of power equations
(P=IV, P=V2/R, and P=I2R) appropriate for the known measured values.

3. In each case, the computed power should be about 640 mW plus minus 10%. Because the
resistors rated at 5 W and ¼ W have the same resistance value, both dissipate the same amount
of power (640 mW) when connected across 8 V source.

4. Notice that this dissipated power does not exceed the power rating of the 5 watt resistor but it
does exceed the power rating of ¼ watt resistor.

5. Power in resistor is always dissipated in the form of heat.

6. Five watt resistor (R13) becomes quite warm. However, the resistor is large enough to safely
dissipate the heat.

7. On the contrary same amount of heat is concentrated in a smaller area in 1/4 W (R23) resistor.
Thus, 1/4 W resistor becomes very hot.

8. By forcing the 1/4 watt resistor to dissipate 640 mW, the power rating is exceeded by almost
150 %. This causes the resistor to overheat.

9. If the resistor is operated in this condition for extended periods, its value may change or the
resistor may fail entirely.

CONCLUSION:

Power rating of resistor is very important factor in the performance of any electrical circuit. By
computing power employing power equations, one can assess the likely dissipation of heat and
evaluate its effects on the circuit behavior. Power equations not serve as tools in circuit analysis for
finding the unknown electrical parameters but also help determine the power in a circuit without
employing wattmeter.

A resistor may have positive temperature coefficient, when its resistance increases with rise in
temperature. When the resistance of resistor decreases with increase in temperature, the resistor is said
to possess negative temperature coefficient. Temperature coefficient of a resistor is expressed either
as //C or in PPM/C. Off all the factors that affect the resistance of resistor, temperature is least
significant. However there are applications where affect by temperature merits serious consideration.
68
Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

69
Experiment – 8 INDUCTANCE IN AC (Alternating Current) CIRCUITS
Purpose:

1. To discover current limiting effect of inductive reactance

2. Demonstration of inductive reactance variation with inductance

3. Validation of inductive reactance variation with source frequency

Equipment:

1. Experiment panel
2. Resistors: 560 Ω (R22), 2 x 100 Ω (R18 & R23)
3. Inductors: 7 x 1.5 H (L1 to L7)
4. Signal generator
5. AC power supply
6. Connecting leads

Introduction:

Inductance, represented by symbol “L”; is the electrical property that opposes any change in
the magnitude of current in the circuit. Devices that are used in the circuit to provide the inductance
are called inductors. Inductors are also known as chokes, reactors and coils, each representative of the
way inductance behaves in the circuit. Inductance is result of a voltage being induced in a conductor.
Magnetic field that induces the voltage in the conductor is produced by the current flowing through
the conductor. When the current begins to increase in a conductor, magnetic flux rings start to expand
out from the conductor as shown in Figure - 1.

This expanding flux induces a small voltage in the conductor. Polarity of induced voltage
opposes the source voltage responsible for increasing current in the conductor. This opposition to rising
current in conductor is called inductance. Obviously inductance can’t completely stop the increase in
current because the induced voltage itself is caused by the increasing flux resulting from that very
changing current that it opposes. Inductance can only restrict the rate at which current can increase.

Figure - 1
70
When the current in a conductor starts to decrease, the flux around the conductor starts to
collapse, as shown in Figure – 2. Collapsing flux reverses the polarity of induced voltage from polarity
that it assumed when flux was expanding. Thus voltage induced by decreasing flux aids the source
voltage and tend to keep the current from decreasing. Again this induced voltage can only restrict the
rate at which current is decreasing and by no means can stop this change. The current would thus lag
behind the voltage due to this opposition to changing current or inductance.

Figure - 2

Amount of voltage induced in a single conductor is very small, so small in fact that it has no
practical significance in most low frequency circuits. Inductance of a conductor can be greatly
enhanced by forming the conductor into a coil as shown in Figure – 3. Now the flux produced by one
turn of the coil induces voltage in itself and also in adjacent coil turns as well. Inductance of the coil
is much greater than that of the straight conductor from which it is made.

Inductance can be classified into either as self or mutual inductance. Self-Inductance; is the
inductance of an inductor that it employs to induce the voltage in itself. Self-inductance is caused by
voltage induced in a conductor by its own changing magnetic flux corresponding to current flowing in
it. Mutual Inductance; on the other hand results when the magnetic flux from one conductor induces
voltage in another, electrically isolated, conductor. With mutual inductance, the electrical circuits that
are electrically separated can be coupled together magnetically.

Figure - 3

Inductance controls the AC circuit current without consuming any power. Inductive Reactance;
is the name given to the opposition that inductance presents to AC current in a circuit. Inductance
reactance of the inductor is directly proportional to frequency of the applied AC as well as the amount
71
of inductance.

Mathematically Inductive Reactance XL = 2fL----------------------------- (1)

By Ohm’s Law XL = V/I -------------------------------------------------------- (2)

PART-1: CURRENT LIMITING EFFECT OF INDUCTIVE REACTANCE

Procedure:

1- Connect the circuit on the experimental panel as shown in Figure -4.

Figure -4

NOTE

Use DMM (M1) on left top of panel in AC Voltmeter (V~) mode and DMM (M2) on
right top of panel in AC Ammeter (A~) mode. Also select appropriate ranges for both.

2- Turn on the AC power supply and record below the measurements observed on ammeter as
well as voltmeter.
AC Voltage V

Current mA

3- Switch off the AC power supply once the observations have been made.
4- Addition of opposition to flow of current in the circuit of Figure-4 will result in

( ) reduced circuit current

( ) increased circuit current

( ) no change in current
72
5- Next add a 1.5 H (L1) inductor in series with the 100  resistor in the circuit of Figure – 4 and
place the voltmeter across the added inductor as shown in Figure – 5.

Figure – 5

6- Turn on the AC power supply and record the circuit current flow registered on ammeter and
voltage drop across inductor showed in voltmeter here.

Circuit current mA

Voltage drop across inductor V

7- Switch off the AC power supply once the observations have been made.

8- Did your answer in step-4 and observation recorded in step-6 agree?

Yes NO

9- Compute the reactance presented by 1.5 H inductor using values recorded in steps 6?

XL = VL / I 

10- Compute the amount of Inductive Reactance added to the circuit when 1.5 H inductor is
included. Use formula given in equation – 1.

XL = 2fL 

11- Is there any substantial (more than  10 %) difference between the inductive reactance values
computed in steps 9 and 10?

Yes NO

12- Is there any significant (more than  10 %) difference between the values of voltage drop
developed across the 1.5 H inductor recorded in steps 6 and 12?

Yes NO
73
13- Can it be concluded conclusively that inductor does control (limit) the amount of current that
can flow in the AC circuit?

Yes NO

PART-II: VARIATION OF INDUCTIVE REACTANCE WITH INDUCTANCE

14- From equation – 1, it is observed that inductive reactance is directly proportional to amount of
inductance at fixed AC source frequency.

15- By Ohm’s law, current that flows in the circuit is inversely proportional to the opposition to its
flow (I = V/R) or replacing resistive with reactive opposition I = V/XL.

16- Hence current through inductor is directly proportional to its inductance.

17- To prove XL  L relationship at fixed f, construct a circuit as shown in Figure – 6 below.

Figure - 6

18- Switch on the AC power supply and record the current that reflects the inductive reactance
presented to the source in the space below.

Circuit current mA

19- Compute inductive reactance offered to the AC source using current recorded in step-19.

XL = V/I 

20- Add another 1.5 H inductor in parallel with existing as shown in Figure – 7.

74
Figure - 7

21- Total inductance of parallel inductors in circuit of Figure – 7 is

(L1 x L2) / (L1 + L2) H

22- Inductance in the circuit of Figure – 7 is

( ) less than inductance present in circuit of Figure – 6

( ) more than inductance present in circuit of Figure – 6

23- Based on your response in step-22, will the circuit current in circuit of Figure – 7,

( ) increase

( ) decrease

24- Turn on the AC power source and observe the ammeter reading. Record the current indicated
on ammeter here.

mA.

25- When the observation has been completed, turn off the AC power supply.

26- Does the reading in step-24 confirms that for fixed source frequency, inductive reactance is
directly proportional to inductance?

Yes No

27- Change inductors connectivity from parallel (Figure -7) to series as shown in Figure – 8.

75
Figure – 8

28- Total inductance of series inductors in circuit of Figure – 8 is

(L1 + L2) H

29- Inductance in the circuit of Figure – 8 is

( ) less than inductance present in circuit of Figure – 6

( ) more than inductance present in circuit of Figure – 6

30- Based on your response in step-29, will the current in the circuit of Figure – 8

( ) increase

( ) decrease

31- Turn on the AC power supply and observe the ammeter reading. Record the current indicated
on ammeter here.

mA.

32- When the observation has been completed, turn off the AC power supply.

33- Does the reading in step-31 confirms that for fixed source frequency, inductive reactance is
directly proportional to inductance?

Yes No

34- Does the answers given in steps 18 & 33 prove conclusively that for a fixed source frequency
inductive reactance is directly proportional to inductance?

Yes NO

76
PART-III: VARIATION OF INDUCTIVE REACTANCE WITH FREQU ENCY

35- Inductive reactance is also inversely proportional to AC source frequency.

36- To demonstrate this relationship between inductor and source frequency, replace the AC power
supply in circuit of Figure – 6 with Signal Generator as shown in Figure – 7.

Figure -7

NOTE

Use DMM (M1) on left top of panel in AC Voltmeter (V~) mode and DMM (M2) on right
top of panel in AC Ammeter (A~) and select appropriate range on both.

37- Direct relationship between reactance of the inductor and frequency of AC source it is
connected across will be experimented in the following steps.

38- Choose sine wave frequency randomly in the middle of available range and output voltage on
the signal generator and record it here.

Frequency: Hz

Voltage: V

39- Employing Ohm’s Law compute the amount of inductive reactance from the selected value of
source voltage in step-38 and current measured in step-41.

XL = V/I = 

40- Employing reactance formula compute the inductive reactance at frequency selected in step-
40 and inductance of inductor shown in the circuit of Figure – 7.

XL = 2fL = 
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41- Values of inductive reactance (XL) calculated in step-43 and step-44 should agree fairly closely
(within  10%).

Yes _____ No ______

42- Compute the expected value of current likely to flow in the circuit with source voltage selected
in step-40 and computed value of capacitive reactance in step-44.

Current = V/XL = mA

43- Does the current computed in step-46 agree (within  10%) with its measured value recorded
in step-41?

Yes _____ No ______

44- What will happen to the current in circuit of Figure – 7, once source frequency is increased?

( ) it will be less than the value of current recorded in step-41

( ) it will be greater than the value of current recorded in step-41

45- Next switch on the signal generator, gently increase its output frequency, while retaining its
output voltage as selected in step-40 and observe the change in the current on the ammeter.
Repeat this step as many times as necessary to get firm observation.

46- Turn off the signal generator on the conclusion of the observation.

47- Does your observation in step-49 agree with your prediction made in step-48?

Yes _____ No ______

48- What will happen to current once source frequency is decreased in circuit of Figure - 7?

( ) current will decrease compared the value of current recorded in step-41.

( ) current will increase compared the value of current recorded in step-41.

49- Switch on the signal generator, adjust the frequency and output voltage to same values as
recorded in steps 40 & 41.

50- Gradually decrease the signal generator’s output frequency, while maintaining its output
voltage as selected in step-40 and observe the change in the current on the ammeter. Repeat
this step as many times as necessary to get certain observation.

51- On completion of observation, turn off the signal generator.


78
52- Does your observation in step-54 agree with your prediction made in step-52?

Yes _____ No ______

53- From observations made in step – 49 & 54 can it be concluded beyond any doubt that,

( ) Current in inductive circuit is directly proportional to voltage source frequency?

( ) Inductive reactance is inversely proportional to the voltage source frequency?

Assignment:

1. Repeat step-49, starting with values recorded in steps 41& 42.

2. Proceed by increasing the frequency of signal generator in ten equal steps,

3. Maintain same level of signal generator’s output voltage at every newly selected frequency.

Source Source Circuit Current Inductive Reactance


S/N Voltage Frequency Observed XL= V/I
(V) (Hz) (mA) ()

Table – 1

4. Measure value of current that flows in the circuit for every rise in source frequency and record
your observations in Table – 1.

5. Plot a graph between source frequency, capacitive reactance and current flowing in the circuit
as recorded in Table – 1. Use the graph paper given on next page.

6. Take current and inductive reactance on left and right Y-axis respectively on the graph.

7. Plot frequency on X-axis of the graph paper.


79
8. Ensure to select the scale that results in graphs that cover 2/3rd of graph paper.

9. Use black and blue ball pens to draw two graphs.

10. Do not use pencil or any other ink color.

11. Scale selected should be reflected clearly on the graph paper.

Conclusion:

Inductance can also be explained in terms of energy conversion and storage. When current
flows through inductor, it builds up a magnetic field in the process of building up magnetic field the
inductor converts electrical energy into magnetic energy. When the current increases further, more
electrical energy is converted into magnetic energy and inductor’s magnetic field has now more energy
than it had before the current increased. When current decreases, magnetic field of inductor also
decreases and magnetic energy is reverted back into electrical energy.

Thus an inductor limits the amount of current that can flow in the circuit to value that is
sufficient to induce voltage that has exactly the same instantaneous magnitude as the AC source
voltage but opposite polarity. This opposition to flow of changing current is called inductive reactance.
Inductive reactance increase in direct proportion to source frequency as well amount of the inductance
of the inductor.

Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: _____________

80
81
Experiment – 9 CAPACITORS IN AC (Alternating Current) & DC (Direct Current)
CIRCUITS

PURPOSE:

1. Study the behavior of capacitance in DC circuits

2. Learn the behavior of capacitance in AC circuits

EQUIPMENT:

1. Experimental panel or breadboard with 15 , 470 , 1kΩ resistors and 1µF, 2,2 F3.3 F
and 4.7 µF capacitors

2. Signal generator

3. Connecting leads

PART – I CAPACITORS IN DC CIRCUITS

INTRODUCTION:

Property of a circuit element that permits electrical charge to accumulate as a result of an


applied potential is called capacitance. Such a circuit element is called a capacitor. A capacitor once
connected across a DC voltage source will start charging to source voltage by accumulating charge
until the potential difference between the plates of the capacitor ultimately matches the source voltage.
To understand basic capacitance action, consider the circuit shown in Figure -1. Before the switch is
closed, consider that the capacitor is uncharged.

At the instant the switch is closed, electrons from the negative terminal of battery move through
the connecting lead and pile up on one of the plates. At the same very instant, electrons from the other
plate move through the connecting lead to the positive terminal of the battery. This gradual
accumulation of electrons on one and depletion on other plate makes the current flow from the negative
to positive terminal of the source. So as for the source, current is flowing in the circuit. Note that in
this entire capacitor charging cycle no electron move directly through the dielectric and to other plate.

This electron motion represents a current flow in the circuit, which has a maximum value the
instant switch is closed and then immediately begins to decrease and finally reaches zero level.
Simultaneously, the voltage across the capacitor gradually builds up until it equals the source voltage.
The time required for the current to decrease to zero from its initial maximum value (and conversely
for the voltage across the capacitor to increase from zero to the source voltage level) depends upon the
82
amount of capacitance and resistance in the circuit. Thus, the larger the capacitance and greater the
resistance, the longer is the charging period and vice versa. Once the capacitor is fully charged, a
capacitor behaves like an open circuit and it effectively blocks any further flow of current in the circuit.

Figure -1

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure -2.

2. Turn on the power supply and rotate the power supply knob clockwise until its display indicates
VS = 20 volts.

3. Throw the Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT) switch S7 to the top position, which will
connect the voltage source to capacitor.

Figure -2
83
4. The capacitor begins to charge, hence the current must flow through the circuit.

5. Voltage drop across resistor R12 is directly proportional to the current that flows in the circuit,
which must, of course, pass through it.

6. Hence higher the voltage reading, larger the current in circuit and vice versa.

7. Observe the voltmeter connected across 15 k resistor R12 and note the voltage developed
across it, which is maximum to begin with and then drops to zero as capacitor has charged.

Note: In fact due to leakage current, voltmeter will not be able to show exact zero voltage.

8. Observation made in step 7 shows that initially an uncharged capacitor offers:

( ) high opposition to the flow of DC current

( ) low opposition to the flow of DC current

9. Observation in step 7 further showed that, once capacitor is fully charged, it:

( ) blocked further flow of DC current

( ) still permitted DC current to flow

10. Throw switch S7 in open (middle) position to remove the power supply from the circuit, so that
the charged capacitor now retains its accumulated charge.

11. Next throw back the switch in top position to reconnect the source with capacitor.

12. Repeat the step-10 and 11, several times, to successively reconnect and disconnect capacitor
from the voltage source.

13. Reconnect the voltage source to capacitor by moving the switch S 7 in on (top) position and
watch for any change on the voltmeter?

14. Circuit current will again momentarily flow, from source to capacitor, until voltage on
capacitor also reaches the new value of voltage source set in step-13.

15. With switch S7 placed in off (middle) position, decrease source voltage back to 20 V .

16. Moving switch S7 in on (top) position, reconnect the voltage source back to capacitor and watch
for any deflection on the voltmeter?

17. Circuit current will again momentarily flow, but this time from capacitor to source, until
voltage on capacitor also reduces to new value of voltage source set in step-16.
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18. Repeat step-15 through 17, as many times as necessary to acquire clear understanding of link
between polarity reversal on voltmeter and direction of the current flow in circuit.

19. Investigation carried out in step 18 shows that the charged capacitor when connected to source
of different voltage,

( ) allow the DC current to flow in the circuit

( ) blocks the flow of DC current in the circuit

20. Put the switch S7 in the bottom position to connect 470  resistor across the charged capacitor
and observe the voltmeter for any change in measured voltage and its polarity..

21. With S7 switch in bottom position, the capacitor begins to discharge through resistor R1.

22. When the capacitor is discharged, the direction of flow of current in circuit is reversed, which
is evident from observed reverse polarity of voltmeter readout (Step-21).

23. When the capacitor is charging, current in the circuit,

( ) starts at zero value and gradually rises to its maximum value

( ) starts at maximum value and gradually drops to zero value

( ) is out of phase with voltages developed across the circuit resistors

24. Compute the time constant of the circuit of Figure – 2; T = RC s

Introduction:

In Part-I it was verified that when DC voltage is applied to a capacitor, a current (i.e. transfer
of electrons) momentarily flows in the circuit, from the source to the capacitor, until the capacitor is
charged to the applied voltage. However if the applied voltage is changed, a current will again flow in
the circuit until the voltage on the capacitor becomes equal to the changed magnitude of the applied
voltage.

If the applied voltage is continuously changing, as in case of AC voltage source, then current
will keep flowing in the circuit continuously, always attempting to place sufficient charge on the
capacitor to satisfy the relationship;

Q = C x E ----------------------------------------------------------------- (1)

Q is here charge in coulombs, C is the capacitance in Farads and E is the applied voltage in volts.

85
For a given value of capacitance, only a change in applied voltage E will produce a
corresponding change in charge stored Q (Q  E). Furthermore, since current is, by definition, the rate
at which Q changes (I = Q/t), it follows that the value of current in a circuit with a changing voltage
applied to a capacitor will be directly proportional to the rate at which the voltage is changing. This is
defined by relationship,

d
i C (v). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- (2)
d (t )

Capacitor’s action in “passing” current, when the voltage is changing is illustrated in Figure 3.
It shows the relationship between circuit current and AC voltage source connected across the capacitor.

Figure - 3

Current in the circuit driven by rising source voltage is maximum to start with and more the
current more rapidly the capacitor charges. As the capacitor begins to charge, the circuit current starts
decreasing. At the end of first quarter-cycle (45) when circuit current drops to zero the capacitor
voltage reaches its maximum value. While capacitor voltage has same amplitude as source voltage,
both voltages remain series opposing and that is true at every instant of quarter cycle.

In second quarter-cycle, represented by Figure - 4, decreasing source voltage forces the


capacitor to discharge to match source voltage. To discharge, the capacitor must force electrons
through the source against its voltage, which is reducing the current in the circuit. This decrease in
source voltage causes increase in circuit current but in the opposite direction. When the source voltage
reaches zero at that instant circuit current is maximum as reflected in waveform of Figure - 4.

Figure - 4
86
It can be appreciated that third quarter-cycle proceeds very similar to first quarter-cycle.
Similarly fourth quarter-cycle is also exactly similar to second quarter-cycle. However there is one
exception. Difference lies in the direction of current and voltage polarity, which are opposite in 1st-3rd
and 2nd-4th quarter-cycles. Charge and discharge of capacitor in every half cycle of AC, controls the
amount of AC current that can flow in the circuit.

Capacitor’s opposition to AC current is called Capacitive Reactance and it is denoted as XC.


Reactance is similar to resistance that is also opposition to the flow of current but by the material. Base
unit of reactance is also Ohm (). However it is incorrect to interchange the terms resistance and
reactance even though both are expressed in ohms. Reactance does differ from resistance that it does
NOT convert electrical energy into heat energy. Because there is the phase difference of 90 ()
between the voltage and current, the power dissipated by capacitance is always zero.

P = IV cos  = IV cos 90 = 0 --------------------------------------- (3)

Frequency of the source and the amount of capacitance, both control the capacitance reactance.
Capacitance reactance is inversely proportional to these two, doubling either one of them reduce
reactance by half. Mathematically, Xc can be expressed as;

Xc = 1/2πfC -------------------------------------------------------------- (4)

From equation - 4 it is obvious that reactance offered by capacitor is inversely proportional to


source frequency (f) as well as the capacitance (C) of the capacitor. Reactance, just like the resistance
controls the amount of current that can flow in the circuit. Unlike resistance, reactance can’t be
measured with ohmmeter. However as the current in circuit is controlled by capacitance reactance, the
current in circuit with more the reactance will be less and vice versa. So if we know what happens to
the current we can always deduce what happens to the reactance?

87
RLATIONSHIP BETWEE CAPACITIVE REACTANCE AND CAPACITANCE

Procedure:
1. Inverse relationship between the capacitance of a capacitor and its reactance can be observed
if use AC source that has fixed frequency. This can be demonstrated by constructing the circuit
as shown in Figure - 6.

Figure - 6

NOTE

Use DMM (M1) on left top of panel in AC Voltmeter (V~) mode and DMM (M2) on
right top of panel in AC Ammeter (A~) and select appropriate range on both.

2. A capacitor can retain some charge even when AC voltage to which it is connected is removed.
This happens because it is impossible to switch off the source exactly at point of its cycle when
the instantaneous value of applied voltage is zero. Hence the capacitor will retain the voltage
present at the instant of switching off the circuit.

3. Switch S7 (DPDT) and resistor R1 are included in the circuit of Figure-6 to remove this voltage
retained by the capacitor on switching off Its AC voltage source.

4. To discharge the capacitor, simply throw S7 switch to connect capacitor across the resistor R1
and wait a few seconds. Then return S7 switch to reconnect the capacitor across the AC source.
Circuit is now ready for the next step.

5. Connect the capacitor to AC source by throwing the switch S7 to top position, turn on the
power supply and observe current in ammeter.

Current: ______ mA

88
6. Switch off the AC power supply, repeat step-4 and put switch S7 in OFF (middle) position.

7. Replace 1µF (C3) capacitor and replace it with 2.2µF (C5) NP capacitor.

8. With S7 in top position, turn on the power supply and again observe the current in ammeter.

Current: ______ mA

9. Turn off the power switch of AC power supply and discharge 2.2µF capacitor when the
observation has been completed.

10. Assessing the trend in the current change from the observations made in steps 5 and 8, would
you expect the reactance of 4.7µF capacitor to be:

( ) less than those of 1µF and 2.2µF capacitors

( ) greater than those of 1µF and 2.2µF capacitors

11. Therefore, if 4.7µF capacitor replaces 2.2µF capacitor in the circuit of Figure – 6, ammeter
should show:

( ) less current than it resulted with 1µF and 2.2µF capacitors

( ) more current than it resulted with 1µF and 2.2µF capacitors

12. Replace 2.2µF capacitor with 4.7µF (C7) NP capacitor in the circuit of Figure – 6.

13. With S7 switch in top position, turn on the power supply and observe the current in circuit.

Current: ______ mA

14. Can it be concluded definitely that capacitance reactance is inversely proportional to


capacitance?

Yes _____ No ______

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAPACITANCE AND SOURCE FREQUENCY

15. Capacitance reactance is also inversely proportional to AC source frequency.

16. To establish this relationship, replace the AC power supply in circuit of Figure – 6 with Signal
Generator and use C6 capacitor with 3.3 F capacitance as shown in Figure – 7.

89
17. Select sine wave frequency randomly in the middle of available range and output voltage on
the signal generator and record it here.

Frequency: Hz

Voltage: V

Figure -7

NOTE

Use DMM (M1) on left top of panel in AC Voltmeter (V~) mode and DMM (M2) on right
top of panel in AC Ammeter (A~) and select appropriate range on both. Use only NP capacitor.

18. Switch on the signal generator and record the current indicated on the ammeter at the selected
frequency and voltage.

Current ________ mA

19. Discharge the capacitor and turn off the signal generator.

20. Compute the capacitive reactance from the voltage and current recorded in steps 19 & 20.

Xc = V/I = 
21. Employing reactance formula compute the capacitive reactance at frequency selected in step-
20 and capacitance of capacitor shown in the circuit of Figure – 7.

Xc = 1/2fC = 
22. Values of capacitance reactance (Xc) calculated in step-20 and 21 should agree fairly closely
(within  10%).

90
Yes _____ No ______

23. Compute the expected value of current likely to flow in the circuit with source voltage selected
in step-19 and computed value of capacitive reactance in step-23.

Current = V/Xc = mA

24. Does the current computed in step-25 agree (within  10%) with its measured value recorded
in step-20?

( ) it will be less than the value of current recorded in step-20

( ) it will be greater than the value of current recorded in step-20

25. Reconnect the capacitor to signal generator by throwing the switch S7 in top position.

26. Next switch on the signal generator, gently increase its output frequency, while retaining its
output voltage as selected in step-19 and observe the change in the current on the ammeter.
Repeat this step as many times as necessary to develop firm observation.

27. Discharge the capacitor and turn off the signal generator.

28. Does your observation in step-29 agree with your prediction made in step-27?

Yes _____ No ______

29. What will happen to current once source frequency is decreased in circuit of Figure - 7?

( ) current will decrease compared the value of current recorded in step-19.

( ) current will increase compared the value of current recorded in step-19.

30. Reconnect the capacitor to signal generator by throwing the switch S7 in top position.

31. Switch on the signal generator, adjust the frequency and output voltage to same values as
recorded in steps 19 & 20.

32. Gradually decrease the signal generator’s output frequency, while maintaining its output
voltage as selected in step-19 and observe the change in the current on the ammeter. Repeat
this step as many times as necessary to acquire concrete observation.

33. Discharge the capacitor and turn off the signal generator.

34. Does your observation in step-34agree with your prediction made in step-32?

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Yes _____ No ______

35. From observations made in step – 28 & 34 can it be concluded beyond any doubt that,

( ) Current in capacitive circuit is directly proportional to voltage source frequency?

Assignment:

1. Repeat step-29, starting with values recorded in steps 19 & 20.

2. Proceed by increasing the frequency of signal generator in ten equal steps,

3. Maintain same level of signal generator’s output voltage at every newly selected frequency.

Source Source Circuit Current Capacitive


Voltage Frequency Observed Reactance XC = V/I
S/N
(V) (Hz) (mA) ()

Table – 1

4. Measure value of current that flows in the circuit for every rise in source frequency and record
your observations in Table – 1.

5. Plot a graph between source frequency, capacitive reactance and current flowing in the circuit
as recorded in Table – 1.

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6. Use the graph paper given on next page.

7. Take current and capacitive reactance on left and right Y-axis respectively on the graph.

8. Plot frequency on X-axis of the graph paper.

9. Ensure to select the scale that results in graphs that cover 2/3rd of graph paper.

Conclusion:

Capacitor behaves differently in AC and DC circuits, essentially due to the basic difference in
the nature of AC and DC source characteristics. Capacitor only reacts to the variations in the source
voltage, which are temporary in nature in case of DC and are cyclic in case of AC voltage. That is why
capacitor acts as a “DC Block” and “AC Pass” circuit element or device.

Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ________________

Registered No.:________________

Teacher’s Initials: ________________

Date Performed: ________________

93
94
Experiment -10 IMPEDANCE OF AC CIRCUIT CONSISTING OF RESISTANCE
AND CAPACITANCE IN SERIES (RC Series Circuit)

PURPOSE:
1- To study the nature of impedance in an RC series circuit.
2- To study the phase relationship between the applied AC voltage and voltages developed across
a resistance and capacitance in series.
3- To draw voltage Phasors.

EQUIPMENT/MATERIAL:
1- Experimental panel, or, Resistors470Ω (R1), 2.2KΩ (R3), 1µF (C3 Non- Polar)
2- VOAM/DMM and test leads
3- Connecting leads

INTRODUCTION:
Opposition presented by a capacitance to the flow of an AC current is called capacitive reactance. It
has the symbol Xc, is measured in Ohms () and, can be calculated by formula, i.e.

1
Xc  (1)
2fC

Where Xc is the capacitive reactance in Ohms

f is the frequency in cycles per second or Hz.

C is the capacitance in Farads.

Current can always be computed in a circuit containing only capacitive reactance (negligible
resistance), by employing formula, i.e.

E
I (2)
Xc

Where I is the current in amperes,

E is the applied voltage in volts

Xc is the capacitive reactance in ohms.

Note that the equation 2 is in accordance with the general ohm’s expression for current, i.e.

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Voltage
Current  (3)
Opposition

Figure -1

Now consider the circuit shown in Figure -1, For the purpose of discussion. Xc is assumed to
be pure Xc, with all the resistance in the circuit represented by R. again equation (3) will hold, but the
problem now is to find total opposition. Because the current through a capacitor leads the ac voltage
across it by 90 degrees or ¼ cycle while the current and ac voltage are in phase in a pure resistance,
hence R and Xc cannot simply be added algebraically, even though they are both expressed in ohms.
In other words, we can say that “purely resistive ohms” and “capacitive reactance ohms” act at right
angles to each other and therefore these two forms of opposition must be added vectorially when
connected in series.

Like R and L in series, the total opposition of R and C in series is also called impedance.
Impedance has the symbol Z and is also expressed in ohms. The numerical value of impedance of a
series Rc circuit may be found by:

𝑍 = √𝑅 2 + 𝑋𝑐 2 (4)

The complete statement of impedance includes both the numerical value in ohms as well as the
phase angel. For impedance which contains a capacitive reactance component, the phase angle is
negative.

Impedance can be any combination of R, L and C and may have resistive or reactive
components absent. Thus, as a general term for opposition to ac current flow, impedance can have any
phase angle form – 90 degrees (pure capacitive reactance) to zero degrees (pure resistance) to + 90
degrees (pure inductive reactance). Again, it should be noted that the phase angle of current with
respect to voltage is stated whenever phase relationships are described in terms of these quantities.
Thus, in an RC series circuit, the current leads the total voltage.

96
In the following diagrams, whenever a capacitance is shown it is assumed to be a pure
capacitance and all of the resistance (if any) in the circuit is indicated by R. consider first the circuit
shown in A part of Figure -2.

–A–

–B–

Figure – 2

Graphs of the current through the circuit and the voltage developed across the R and Xc
components of the total impedance are illustrated in part B of Figure -2. It will be observed that the
voltage across the resistor is in phase with the current that flows through it but these are both slightly
leading (by approximate 9.5 degrees the total voltage applied).

It should also be noted that the voltage across the capacitor is a sine wave which lag the current
through it by 90 degrees. Thus, the effect of the capacitor is to cause the current to lead the total voltage
supplied by the source, as indicated by the leftward shift of the graphs of current. Note that in this case
the angel of lead (less than 10 degrees) is relatively small because the resistance is 6 times greater than
the value of capacitive reactance. The impedance is approximately 609 ohms. Only slightly greater
than the value of resistance alone, In this case we would say that the impedance is 609 ohms with a
phase angle of 9.5 degrees. This circuit is said to be predominantly resistive.

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Now let us investigate the voltage and current relationships when the capacitive reactance is
equal numerically to the resistance. This is shown in Figure -3.

–A–

–B–

Figure -3

Graphs of current and voltage are shown in part B of Figure -3. Again the voltage across the
resistor is in phase with current that flows through it. Current and voltage associated with resistance
are both shifted to the left (leading) with respect to the total voltage by, in this case, 45 degrees. Series
current (only one current flows in series circuit) and voltage across the capacitance, as shown, have
usual 90 degree out of phase relationship between them. Thus, as the relative reactance becomes a
larger proportion of the total circuit impedance, the current leads the voltage by a greater number of
electrical degrees (i.e. a larger fraction of a cycle). The impedance of this circuit is 848 ohms with a
phase angle of -45 degrees.

Now if a circuit containing pure capacitance (part A of Figure-4) is considered. We know that
the current will lead the voltage across the capacitor by exact 90 degrees. Furthermore, since there is
no other element in the circuit, the total voltage is applied to the capacitor. Thus in that case, the current
(part B of Figure-4) would lead the total voltage by exact 90 degrees. The impedance would be a pure
capacitive reactance with of course a phase angle of – 90 degrees. If there is slight amount of resistance

98
in the circuit (say 100 ohms), then the current will lead the total voltage by somewhat less than 90
degrees (it would be about 80.5 degrees for an R or 100 ohms and Xc of 600 ohms). The impedance
would be approximately 609 ohms with a phase angle of 80.5 degrees.

–A–

–B–

Figure – 4

Such a circuit is said to be predominantly capacitive. The principles described in the previous
discussion are frequently applied whenever it is desired to obtain a voltage that is leading current (in
time or phase) with respect to another voltage, such as the source voltage. For example, it will be
observed in Figure-2 & 3 that the voltage across the resistance of an RC series combination can be
made to lead, the total voltage by any desired amount up to almost 90 degrees. This leading voltage
can be then applied to other circuit for various purposes.

The “resistance” of a capacitor includes the effect of dielectric losses, plus the resistance of the
leads and that of conductor (fold) of which the plates are made. However, the total series resistance of
a capacitor is so small as compared to with the capacitive reactance that the impedance of a capacitor
is for almost all practical purposes a pure capacitive reactance and will be so consider in the
experiment.

PROCEDURE:
In this procedure the voltage across each element of an RC series circuit is measured and then
the algebraic and vector sums of these voltages are compared with the measured applied voltage. After

99
connecting and checking each circuit turn the power switch to ON, take the required measurement and
then switch to off.

Figure -5

NOTE:
Use DMM (M1) on left top of panel in AC Voltmeter Mode to take voltage readings.

1- Connect the circuit shown in Figure -5. Do not connect 470  resistor at this time.

2- Turn the power switch to ON, and with the DMM measure the total line voltage.

3- When the measurement has been taken, turn the switch of off.

Caution: A capacitor can remain charged when an AC voltage to which it is connected is removed.
This is because it is not possible to switch the voltage off exactly at the zero volts point in the
cycle each time, and the capacitor will retain the voltage present at the instant of switching off.
To discharge this voltage, simply connect 470 resistor across 1 F capacitor for a few seconds
after the switch has been turned to off., as shown by the dotted connections in Figure -5.
Disconnect 470 resistors after discharging 1 F capacitor and before the switch is turned to
on again. Follow this procedure after each application of voltage to the circuit.

1
4- Using the following equation – 1 i.e. Xc  calculate capacitive reactance Xc for the 1µF
2fC
capacitor in Figure -5.
XC = ______ ohms

5- Using equation Z = √R2 + Xc 2 , calculate the total impedance of the circuit of Figure -5. Use
the value of XC calculated in step 3, and the nominal value of resistor shown in the Figure – 5.

Z = _______ ohms

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6- Calculate the phase angle of the impedance employing trigonometric function

. Phase Angle Ө = tan-1Xc/R degrees

7- Voltage across the 2.2 k resistor(ER) can be determined employing Ohm’s Law.

Since series current I = Etotal/Ztotal (4)

Hence voltage across resistor ER = (Etotal /Ztotal) x R (5a)

Voltage across resistor ER = Etotal x R/Ztotal (5b)

Similarly, the voltage across capacitor EC = Etotal x XC/Ztotal (6)

8- Now calculate the voltage across resistor ER using equation 5b


ER (calculated):_______ volts

9- Calculate the voltage across capacitor EC using equation 6.

EC (calculated):_______ volts

10- Turn the power supply on and using DMM (M1), measure ac voltages ER& Ec.

ER (measure): _______ volts

EC (measure): _______ volts

11- Measure line voltage once again to see if it is still the same value as the one measured in step
2. _______ Volts

12- Turn the power switch off and discharge C3 (np), when the measurements have been taken
using R3 as shown in Figure -5.

13- The foregoing results indicated that the voltages calculated in steps 7 and 8 compare favorably
with those actually measured in step 9.

14- Also note that the algebraic sum of the individually measured voltages ER and EC is greater
than the measure total voltage in step-2.

15- This indicates conclusively that phase difference between ER and EC. Therefore, the total
voltage cannot be found by simple addition.

16- Nevertheless, the vector sum of the two voltages can be calculated by Pythagorean Theorem,
i.e

101
Etotal = √Eresistor 2 + Ecapacitor 2 (7)

17- Draw ER and EC Phasors using values obtained in step 9 and add them graphically to determine
Etotal (attach separated sheet). The result should compare favorably with the result of step 13.

CONCLUSION:
Voltages developed across resistor and capacitor elements of RC series circuit can be predicted
from equations 5b & 6 provided that the circuit reactive component does not itself contain appreciable
resistance. The prediction is reasonably accurate since a capacitor contains negligible dc resistance.

Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

102
Experiment -11 IMPEDANCE OF AC CIRCUIT CONSISTING OF RISISTANCE
AND INDUCTANCE IN SERIES.
PURPOSE:

1- To study the nature of impedance in an RL series circuit.

2- To study the phase relationship between the applied ac voltage and the voltage developed
across a resistance and inductance is series

3- To draw Phasor diagram.

EQUIPMENT:

1- Experimental panel or Inductors: 3H, 6H (use Series combination of 1.5H inductors to generate
required Inductor on Panel), Resistor: 2.2KΩ (R3)

2- VOAM/DMM and test leads

3- Connecting leads

INTRODUCTION:

In a circuit containing resistors in series, as shown in Figure -1, the total opposition to current
flow (in this case, pure resistance) is equal to the sum of the individual resistances i.e.

Total Resistance RT = R1+R2 (1)

Figure -1

Since R1 and R2 are in series, hence, same value of current flow through each resistance.

This current can be computed in series circuit by employing Ohm’s Law. Thus,

I = Etotal / (R1+R2) (2)

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The individual voltage drop can be found by:

ER1 = I x R1 (3a)

ER2 = I x R2 (3b)

Opposition presented by an inductance to the flow of ac current is called inductive reactance.

It has the symbol XL, is expressed in ohms () and is calculated by:

XL = 2πfL (4)

Where XL is the inductive reactance in Ohms (),

f is the frequency in cycles per second (Hz) and

L is the inductance in henrys (H).

Now consider the circuit shown in Figure -2. For the purpose of discussion, inductance’s
opposition represented by the inductive reactance XL is assumed to be pure XL with all the resistance
in the circuit represented by R1. Again, equation 6 will hold true.

How to find the total opposition to flow of current in circuit of Figure – 2?

Figure -2

As the current through an inductance lags the voltage across it by 90 degrees or ¼ cycles. R1
and XL cannot simply be added algebraically, even though they are both expressed in ohms (). In
other words, we can say that purely resistive ohms () and inductive reactance ohms () act at right
angles to each other and therefore, must be added employing vector addition. These two forms of
opposition to flow of current, i.e. resistance and reactance, when connected in series must be added as
vectors to obtain the total opposition called impedance.

104
Impedance has the symbol Z and is expressed in ohms (). The numerical value of impedance
of a series RL circuit may be found by:

Z =√𝑅 2 + (𝑋𝐿)2 (7)

The complete statement of impedance includes both the numerical value in ohms () as well
as the phase angle. For impedance which contains an inductive reactance component, the phase angel
is positive.

It should be pointed out that, in practice, engineers refer in general to the total opposition to ac
current flow as impedance even if there is no reactance present. In such a case, the impedance is said
to be a pure resistance with zero phase angle. Likewise, if there is no resistance but only reactance is
present, then the impedance is said to be pure reactance with a 90 degree phase angel (+ or – according
to whether it is pure XL or pure XC respectively).

Also whenever, the phase angle between current and voltage must be referred to, the angle of
the current is stated with respect to the voltage. For example, we say that the current lags the total
voltage by 30 degrees in a circuit containing inductance and resistance. It will be shown in another
experiment that the current leads the total voltage is a circuit containing capacitance and resistance.

Some specific examples will now be presented. In the following diagrams, whenever an
inductance is shown it is assumed to have zero resistance and all of the resistance (if any) in the circuit
is indicated by resistance R.

Consider, the pure resistive circuit shown in part -A of Figure -3.

–A– –B–

Figure -3

105
The circuit consists only of a 600  resistance. Since resistance does not change the time
relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting current, hence the voltage and current in
resistor reach their respective peak values at the same instant of time, as shown in part B of Figure -3.
The voltage and current are then said to be in phase with each other.

In this case, the impedance Z is equal to the 600  resistance (with a phase angle of zero
degrees) now let us see what happens if a relatively small amount of inductive reactance (inductor) is
added to the circuit, as in part A of Figure - 4. Waveforms of current through the circuit and the voltage
developed across the R and XL are drawn in part B of Figure -4.

–A– –B–

Figure -4

It will be observed that the voltage across the resistor is still in phase with the current through
it, but these are both slightly lagging (by approximately 9.5 degrees) the total voltage. It should also
be noted that the voltage across the inductance (EL) is a sine wave which leads the current through it
by 90 degrees. Thus, the effect of the inductance is to cause the current to lag behind the total voltage
supplied by the source, as indicated by the shift toward the right of the current waveform. Note that in
this case the angle of lag (less than 10 degrees) is relatively small because the resistance is 6 time the
value of inductive reactance. The circuit impedance (by equations 7) is approximately 609, which is
only slightly greater than the value of resistance alone. In this case, we would say that the impedance
is 609  with a phase angle of +9.5 degrees. This circuit is said to be predominantly resistive.

Now let us investigate the voltage and current relationships when the inductive reactance is
equal numerically to the resistance. This is shown in Figure -5

106
–A– –B–

Figure -5
Waveforms of current and voltages are shown in part B of the illustration. Again the voltage
across the resistor is in phase with the current through it, and these are both shifted to the right (lagging)
with respect to the total voltage by, in this case, 45 degrees. The usual 90 degrees relationship between
the current through an inductance and the voltage across it is also shown. Thus, as the inductive
reactance becomes a larger proportion of the total circuit impedance, the current lags the total voltage
by a greater number of electrical degrees (i.e. a larger fraction of a ¼ cycle). The impedance of this
circuit (by equation 7) is 848  with a phase angle of +45 degrees.

–A– –B–
Figure -6
Now if a circuit containing a pure inductance (part A in Figure -6) is considered, we know that
the current will lag the voltage across the inductance by 90 degrees. Furthermore, since there is no
other element in the circuit, the total voltage is applied to the inductance. Thus, in this case, the current
lags the total voltage by 90 degrees (part B in Figure -6). The impedance would be a pure inductive
reactance of 600  with, of course, a phase angle of +90 degrees.

107
NOTE: the current waveform shift more to the right (lags by a greater amount) with respect to
the applied voltage, as the circuits have become more inductive.

If there is slight amount of resistance in the circuit (for example 100 ohms), then the current
will lag the total voltage by somewhat less than 90 degrees (it would be 80.5 degrees for an R of 100
 and an XL of 600). The impedance would be approximately 609  with a phase angle of +80.5
degrees. Such a circuit is said to be predominantly inductive. The principles described in the previous
discussion are frequently applied whenever it is desired to obtain a voltage that is lagging (in time or
phase) with respect to another voltage, such as the source voltage.

For example, it will be observed in Figure – 4 and 5 that the voltage across the impedance of
an RL series combination can be made to lag the total voltage by any desired amount up to almost 90
degrees. This lagging voltage can then be applied to other circuits for various purposes.

It should be pointed out here, that every practical inductor contains some resistance (DC
resistance) which, in most cases, is small as compared with the inductive reactance at the frequency
used. Therefore, the total impedance of inductor is, for practical purposes, considered to be equal to
the XL of the inductor, the resistance being neglected.

Procedure:
In the following procedure, the voltage across each element of RL series circuit is measured
and then the algebraic and vector sums are compared with the measured applied voltage. After
connecting and checking each circuit element, turn the ac power ON, take the required measurement
and then turn the switch OFF.

1- Connect the circuit shown in Figure – 7.

2- Measure the circuit current and record it here.

108
NOTE:
Connect L1, L2, L3 and L4 in series to generate 6H (L) inductor.
Use DMM (M2) on right top of panel in AC ammeter mode to take current readings.

Figure – 7
3- Using DMM (M1) in AC Voltmeter Mode, measure the following ac voltages:
a. Voltage across the resistor R3:
ER3: V
b. Voltage across choke L
EL: V
c. Total line (source) voltage:
Etotal: V
Note: The algebraic sum of the individual voltages is greater than the measured total voltage. This
indicated that there is a phase difference between the measured voltages ER3 and EL.

The total value of ER and EL cannot be found by simple addition. For this use vector sum,

Etotal = √(𝐸𝑅)2 + (𝐸𝐿)2 (1)

4- Find the vector sum of the measured voltages employing equation – 1 and record it here.

Calculated Etotal: ___ __ V

5- Is the Etotal computed (step-4) has more or less same (within  10 %) value as its measured
value recorded in step – 3 above?

Yes No

Note: Any discrepancy between calculated and measured total voltages is caused by the fact that the
inductance of the choke (laminated iron core inductor) used in the experiment varies somewhat
over the ac cycle because the choke was intended to be used with a certain amount of dc current
flowing through it. In the present application, the dc current is zero. The inductance variation
alters the waveform of voltage across the choke, thus causing the ac voltmeter to indicate a
109
somewhat different value than it would if the voltage were a pure sine wage. Another factor,
although a relatively small one, is that the dc resistance of the choke has been neglected. Thus,
there is actually a small in phase voltage across the choke which should be added to the
measured in phase voltage across the resistor in order to find the vector sum. This in phase
voltage across the choke is small enough to be neglected without causing serious error.

6- Compute inductive reactance employing relationship; XL = 2fL:

XL: 

7- Compute impedance employing Pythagorean theorem; Z =√𝑅 2 + (𝑋𝐿)2:

Z: 

8- Now compute current flowing in the circuit employing Ohm’s law; I = V/Z:

Itotal: A

9- Is the calculated value of current in the circuit (step – 8), more or less same (within  10 %) as
value of circuit current measured in step – 2.
Yes No
10- Draw voltage Phasors ER and EL taking current as reference, using their measured values
recorded in step- 3, employing scale and add them
graphically to draw Etotal Phasor.

11- From the drawn Phasors, determine the amplitude of Etotal Phasor.

Amplitude of Etotal Phasor V

12- Above result should compare favorably with the results obtained in step – 3?

Yes No

13- Measure the phase angle  between ER and Etotal Phasors:

Phase Angle  degrees

Tan Ѳ = EL/ER (2)

14- Find the phase angle between the current and the total applied voltage using equation – 1,

Phase Angle Ѳ degrees

Note: Equation – 2 neglects the small in phase voltage across the choke, still the computed result
should compare favorably with the results obtained in step – 13.
110
15- Next connect the circuit as shown in Figure -8, switch it on and measure the circuit current and
record it here.

NOTE:
Connect L1, L2in series to make 3H (LA) Inductor while connect L3, L4, L5 and L6 in
series to generate 6H (LB) inductor.
Use DMM (M2) on right top of panel in AC Ammeter Mode to take current readings.

Figure -8

16- Using DMM measure the following ac voltages:

17- Add voltages ELA and ELB algebraically:

ELA+ELB: _______ volts

18- Comparing the measured total line voltage with algebraic sum of ELA and ELB, it can be
concluded that the voltage across two inductances in series should be added algebraically?

Yes No

Note: Some idea of the relative inductive reactance of each coil (as well as inductance values) can be
obtained by comparing the voltage across one coil with the voltage across the other.

19- Compute inductive reactance of LA inductor by employing XLA = 2fL:

XLA= 

20- Compute inductive reactance of LB inductor by employing XLB = 2fL:

XLB= 

111
21- Determine total inductive reactance i.e. XLT = XLA + XLB:

XLA + XLB = 

22- Compute total circuit current Itotal= V/XLT:

Itotal = A

23- Compare the computed value of total current in step – 22 with the measured value of total
current recorded in step – 15 and record your observations blow.

( ) both values are same within  10 %

( ) both values are different by more than  10 %

24- Compute voltage drop across both inductors of Figure – 8 employing voltage division rule.

a. Voltage across ELA=Etotal (LA/LT):

ELA = volts

b. Voltage across ELB: Etotal(XLB/XLT):

ELB = volts

25- Compare the computed values of voltage drops in step – 24 with the measured value of
respective values of measured voltages recorded in step – 16, are these values.

( ) same within  10 %.

( ) different by more than  10 %.

CONCLUSION:
Inductor opposes the flow of ac current in circuit by placing voltage in lead of current by 90
while resistance opposes by dissipating power (converting electrical into heat energy) without
introducing phase difference. When combined in RC circuit the relative amount of resistance and
reactance lowers the actual phase difference that is always less than 90.

Total inductance (also inductive reactance) in series circuits is algebraic sum of individual
inductances (also inductive reactance). Also Kirchhoff’s voltage law applies in ac circuits containing
reactive and resistive components, provided that the phase relationships are observed and vector
addition is performed.

112
Task:

Express in your own words the learning outcomes of the experiment that you carried out today.
Use only plain A4 size paper and either blue or black ball point. Confine the number of per page lines
between 16 to 20 lines. Papers must be stapled to copy at the end of the experiment.

Name: ______________
Reg. no.:______________
Teacher Initials: ______________
Date performed: ______________

113
Experiment – 12 To Study and Investigate I-V (Current-Voltage) Characteristics of a
Semiconductor Diode.

PURPOSE:
1. Explore voltage and current characteristics of diode in ideal and forward/reverse biasing
conditions in closed circuit.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Experimental Panel
2. VOM/DMM and connecting leads.
3. Regulated Power Supply, Diodes.

INTRODUCTION:

When an N-type semiconductor is bounded to a P-type semiconductor, a junction is formed as


shown in Fig.1 (a). This is known as junction diode. The diode has a unique characteristics of the
ability to pass in one direction only. The diode symbol and physical shape are shown in Fig.1(b) and
Fig1 (c) respectively.

Figure 1

THE IDEAL DIODE

We begin our study of circuits by considering models of linear elements, the simplest of these
being the resistor. The volt-ampere (v-i) characteristics of ideal resistor is described by such a simple
relation, (ohm’s law), that we sometimes lose sight of its graphical interpretation. The linear character
of the resistance is evident in Fig2a. The v-i characteristics of the ideal diode shown in Fig2b. The
non-linear character of the diode is clearly evident there.

114
Fig.2a&2b The resistance element
and its V-I characteristics

When the source voltage is positive, id is positive and the diode is a short circuit vd = 0), while
when Vs is negative id is zero and the diode is open circuit (Vd = Vs). The diode can be thought of as
a switch controlled by the polarity of the source voltage. The switch is closed for positive source
voltage and opens for negative source voltage.

Figure 3a&3b. The ideal Diode circuit and its Characteristics curve

Another way to look at this element is to note that the diode conducts current only from p to n,
as shown in Fig.3a&3b, and conduction takes place only when the source voltage is positive. The
diode does not conduct when the source voltage is negative.

Physical diode have inherent characteristics and limitations that cause them to differ from the
ideal. These are to be studied in the following experiment.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.4

Fig.4

2. Set the function and range switch of VOAM to 1.25 Volt DC.

115
3. Rotate the voltage control knobs on the regulated supply to full counter clockwise (ccw) direction,
and turn on the power supply.
4. Adjust the output dc voltage of the regulated power supply by carefully using the coarse and fine
voltage control knobs, until the VOAM reads 0.025 Volt. This is the voltage across diode, Vd.
Record this voltage in the appropriate column in Table 1.1
5. Measure the corresponding value of current indicated on the millimeter. This is the diode current
Id. Record this current also in an appropriate column in Table-1.1. Also record the corresponding
supply voltage in the table.
Caution: The needle of the millimeter should indicate the portion of a scale. Three millimeters of
different sizes are installed on the experiment panel. Use a millimeter of appropriate range always.
6. Perform step 4 and 5 repeatedly. Increase the diode voltage Vd in small increments of an appropriate
size, so as to get a smooth curve v between Vd and Id.

Fig.5
7. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 5

8. Set the function and range switch of VOAM to 50 Volt DC.

9. Rotate the voltage control knobs on the regulated supply to full converter clockwise (ccw) direction,
and turn on the power supply.
10. Adjust the output dc voltage of the regulated power supply by carefully using the coarse and fine
voltage control knobs, until the VOAM reads 1 Volt. This is the voltage across diode, Vd. Record
this voltage in the appropriate column in Table 1.2

116
11. Measure the corresponding value of current indicated on the millimeter. This is the diode current
Id. Record this current also in an appropriate column in Table-1.1. Also record the corresponding
supply voltage in the table.
12. Measure the corresponding value of current indicated on the millimeter. This is the diode current
Id. Record this current also in an appropriate column in Table-1.1. Also record the corresponding
supply voltage in the table.
13. Perform step 11 and 12 repeatedly. Increase the diode voltage Vd in small increments of an
appropriate size, so as to get a smooth curve v between Vd and Id.
14. Set the output voltage of the power supply equal to zero by rotating the voltage control knobs in
fully counter clockwise direction, and turn the power supply off.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION


Diode Diode DC Diode Power Power Power
Voltage Current Supply Forward Dissipated Dissipated Supplied
(Vd) (Id) Voltage Residence in Diode in
(Vs) Resistor

TABLE 1.1

117
Diode Diode DC Supply Diode Power Power Power
Voltage Current Voltage Forward Dissipated Dissipated Supplied
(Vd) (Id) (Vs) Residence in Diode in Resistor

TABLE 1.2

GRAPH

1. Calculate for remaining columns of Table 1.1 and Table 1.2


2. Draw V-I characteristics of the diode under test, using the information collected in Table 1.1 and
Table 1.2 on the same graph paper. Take care of the signs of Vd and Id for forward and reverse bias
conditions of the diode. Use appropriate scales to accommodate the readings in first and third
quadrants. Label each portion of the characteristic properly.
3. From the forward characteristics, what is the value of cut-in-voltage of the diode.
_______ Volt.
4. Repeat the above experiment for the extra diode supplied to you.
5. From the forward characteristics, what is the value of cut in voltage of the second diode.
_______ Volt.

118
CONCLUSION:
1. A separate typed report including the analysis of the results of the experiment must be attached.

Name: ________________

Registered No.:________________

Teacher’s Initials: ________________

Date Performed: ________________

119
120
Experiment – 13a TO DEMONSTRATE THE USE OF A SEMICONDUCTOR
DIODE AS A HALF WAVE & FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
PURPOSE:
1. To discover and see the behavior of diode as positive or negative cycles during Half and Full
wave rectifier circuits.

EQUIPMENT:
1. Experimental Panel
2. DMM – VOAM and connecting leads.
3. Oscilloscope
4. Regulated Power Supply.

THEORY REFRESHER:
One of the principal applications of the diode is in the production of a DC voltage from an AC
supply, a process called rectification. A rectifying circuit converts AC voltage into pulsating DC
voltage. Fig2-1 shows half-wave rectifier circuits using an ideal diode and the resulting half-wave
rectified output voltages developed. When the input AC voltage is positive (-ve to -ve is measured
from top to bottom of the voltage source) for the circuit connection of fig-1a, the polarity of voltage
across the diode will cause the diode to conduct, that is the voltage across the diode is +ve to –ve from
anode to cathode and in the case of ideal diode the forward resistance is zero. The positive half cycle
of the input signal then appears across the resistor as shown in fig2.1.a. When the input voltage is
negative (measured from top to bottom of the voltage source) in fig2.1.a, the diode is reversed biased,
having then infinite resistance and appearing as an open circuit. Since there can be no current flow
during the complete time that the voltage at the input causes the diode to be reverse biased, the voltage
across the resistor is zero.

The resulting output signal across the resistor due to half cycle of diode conduction and the lack of
signal during the half cycle of diode non-conduction is shown in Fig1.a.

Fig1.a Positive Half wave rectifier circuit

121
Fig1.b Positive Half wave rectifier circuit

Notice that although this signal is not steady DC (it is pulsating DC), it nevertheless has an
average positive value 1. If the sinusoidal voltage from the power line were applied to a DC voltmeter
the reading obtained would be zero. With the pulsating DC applied to a DC meter there will be reading
representing the average of the applied signal. For the diode connection of Fig2.1.a, the diode allows
only the positive half cycle to appear at the output. Reversing the diode as shown in Fig2.1.b results in
only the negative half cycles.

HALF-WAVE AVERAGE DC VOLTAGE:

To determine the average value of the rectified signal, we can calculate the area under the curve
of Fig.2 and divide this value by the period of the rectified wave form. To calculate the area under the
half cycle of the rectified signal we must integrate the rectified signal.

Fig.2 Half wave rectified Voltage showing DC value

Doing this process and dividing by the period results in

𝑉𝑑𝑐 = 0.318𝑉𝑚 (half wave)

Where 𝑉𝑑𝑐 =average value of the rectified voltage

𝑉𝑚 = maximum (peak) value of AC voltage.

122
HALF-WAVE PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE (PIV):
An important diode rating is the peak inverse voltage, PIV of the diode (the maximum
voltage across the diode in the direction to block current flow). For the half wave rectifier circuit of
fig2-3 the peak voltage across the diode when the diode is reverse biased is equal to 𝑉𝑚 in the value.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 3 and see that the current indicated on M3 is within the range
of meter. The voltmeter should also read properly.
2. Connect one of the probe of oscilloscope across the output terminals (AC input to the circuit) of
the voltage transformer. Connect the second probe across the load resistor R7.
Caution: Leave the ground lead of one of the probe open.

Fig. 3 Half wave rectifier circuit

3. Turn on the oscilloscope and set the channel selector to “Dual” and type of coupling to “DC” and
view both of the beams simultaneously, with voltage sensitivity set to 5 volts/cm.
4. If one of the beam is displaying half wave rectified output, your circuit is functioning properly,
then go ahead with the rest of the procedure. Otherwise go to step one and recheck your
connections.
5. Set the function and range switch of VOAM at 10 volts AC.
6. Measure the AC voltage Vac across the output terminals of the voltage transfer, using VOAM,
VOAM will read the rms value of the AC input voltage.
Vac(rms) =______________ volt.
7. Calculate the peak value, Vp of the AC input voltage. Also calculate the average (half wave) value
of the ac input voltage.
Vav(input)=______________ volts. Vp(calculated)=___________volts.

8. Measure the peak value of the output voltage Vp with the help of oscilloscope and calculate
Vav(output) thereform.
Vp(measured)=______________ volts. Vp(output)=__________ volts.

123
9. Measure the DC current indicated on the ammeter M3.
Idc= ________________mA.
10. Measure the DC voltage across the load resistor R7 with the help of VOAM.
Vdc= ________________mA.
11. Calculate the peak current Ip through the diode and the load resistor R7.
Ip= ________________mA.
12. Calculate the DC output voltage across the load resistor R7 using𝑉𝑎𝑣 = 𝐼𝑑𝑐 × 𝑅7. Compare this
value with the value of the 𝑉𝑎𝑣 measured in step 8.
Vav=______________ volts
13. Calculate the DC current Iav through the load resistor R7 using𝑉𝑎𝑣 found in step 12 and also check
that this value corresponds with the value of Idc measured in step 9.
Iav=______________ volts
14. From the peak value Vp of the AC input voltage obtained in step 7, calculate the average value of
the input voltage by using the expression.
Vav(input)=______________ volts. Vav(input)=___________ volts.
15. Refer to step 8 for the output voltage developed across R7. Subtract this value from the average
value of the input voltage 𝑉𝑎𝑣 obtained in step 7. The difference of these twovalues is the average
voltage drop across the diode.
Vdiode=______________ volts
16. Refer to the I-V characteristics obtained in experiment 1. Determine the voltage drop across the
diode which corresponds to the DC current through the diode, obtained in step 8.
Vdiode(calculated)=___________ volts
17. While the coupling switch is in DC position. Draw the waveforms displayed on the oscilloscope
in scope chart shown on the next page. Indicate the peak, rms and average values of the half wave
rectified output voltage wave form as well as the input voltage waveform.
Vp=______________ volts. Vp-p=______________ volts.

Vrms=______________ volts. Vavg(input)=_________ volts.

Output voltage waveform:

Vp=______________ volts. Vavg(ouput)=___________ volts

Vrms(input)=______________ volts

124
Fig 4 Scope Chart

18. Connect one probe of the oscilloscope across the diode, (the ground lead at the node between diode
& M3). Remove the second probe. Observe the wave form and measure the peak value. This is the
peak inverse voltage (PIV) across the diode.
CONCLUSION:

Please attach the separate sheet.


1. Define and calculate the efficiency of the half-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig.1 Assume ideal
diodes.
2. Define and calculate the percentage ripple in the half-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig.1.
Assume ideal diodes.
3. What is meant by PIV rating of a diode? What is the value of PIV required in a half-wave
rectifier circuit?
4. Compare all corresponding calculated and measured values obtained in this experiment. Give
explanation of your answers.

5. A separate typed report including the analysis of the results of the experiment must be attached.

Name: ________________

Registered No.:________________

Teacher’s Initials: ________________

Date Performed: ________________


125
Experiment – 13b TO DEMONSTRATE THE USE OF TWO
SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES AS FULL-WAVE

RECTIFICATION

EQUIPMENT:

1. Experimental Panel
2. DMM – VOAM and connecting leads.
3. Oscilloscope
4. Regulated Power Supply.

THEORY REFRESHER:
INTRODUCTION
In the previous experiment we note that although an average voltage is obtained using a half-
wave rectifier, no voltage is develop for the half of the cycle. Using two diodes as shown in Fig1 (a),
it is possible to rectify a sinusoidal signal to obtain one having the same polarity for each of the half
cycles of input signal. This is called full-wave rectification and it provides a signal that has twice the
dc value as compared to the previous half wave rectifier circuit. The full wave rectifier circuit of Fig
1(a) requires a center tapped transformer and two diodes to develop a full wave rectified output
voltage.

Fig. 1 (a) Full Wave Rectification Circuit Fig 1 (b) Equivalent Circuit

126
Fig. 1 (c) Full Wave Rectification Circuit in terms of PIV

The circuit operation can be explained qualitatively if the ideal transformer is eliminated by
redrawing Fig 1(a) as shown in Fig 1(b). In this figure the transformer is seen to reflect the ac source
from the primary into the center tapped secondary circuit. When Vi is positive D1 is a short circuit and
D2 is an open circuit. When Vi is negative, D1 is an open circuit and D2 is a short circuit. In each case
the load current is in the same direction as shown in Fig 1 , and since one or the other of the diodes D1
and D2 is short circuit on each alternate half cycle, the load voltage can be written VL=[vi]. The
currents and the wave forms are given in Fig 2.

127
FULL-WAVE AVERAGE (DC) VOLTAGE
To determine the average value of the rectified signal we can calculate the area under the curve
of Fig3 and divide this value by the period of the rectified waveform. To calculate the area under the
full-cycle curve of the rectified signal we must integrate the rectified signal. Doing the process and
dividing by the period results in

Vdc=2(0.318Vm)=0.636Vm (full wave)

Where Vdc= average value of the rectified voltage and


Vm= maximum (peak) value of ac voltage.

128
Fig.3 Full-wave rectified voltage showing DC voltage

FULL-WAVE PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE

The full-wave rectifier circuit of Fig1 has the advantage of developing a larger dc voltage for
the same peak voltage rating. It has however the disadvantage of requiring a diode rating of twice the
peak inverse voltage, and the center tapped transformer having twice the overall voltage rating.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.4 and see that the current indicated on M3 is within the range of
the meter. The voltmeter should also read properly.
2. Connect one of the probes of the oscilloscope across the output terminals (ac input to the circuit) of
the voltage transformer. Connect the second probe to the load resistor R7. Leave the ground lead one
of the probe open.
3. Turn on the oscilloscope and set the channel selector to “Dual: and the type of coupling to “DC” and
view both of beams simultaneously with voltage sensitivity set to 5 volts/cm.

4. If one the beams is displaying full-wave rectified output, your circuit is functioning properly, then go
ahead with the reset of the procedure. Other go to the step one and recheck your connections.

5. Set the function and range switch of VOAM at 10 volts ac.

Fig-4 Full wave rectifier circuit.

129
6. Use VOAM to measure the ac voltage Vac across the output terminals of the voltage transformer.
VOAM will read the rms value of the ac voltages.
Vac(a-b) = _______________ volts.
Vac(b-c) = _______________ volts.
7. Measure the dc current Idc, indicated on milliammeter M3. This will be equal to the average value
of the full-wave rectified current Iav, through the load resistor R7.
Idc = _________________ mAmp.
8. Measure the dc voltage Vdc, across the load resistor, R7 indicated by the dc voltmeter on the
experiment panel. Also check that this value corresponds with the value of Vav obtained in step 10.
Vdc = __________________ volts.
9. Calculate the peak value, vp of the ac input voltages measured in step 6.
Vp(a-b) = __________________ volts.
Vp(b-c) = __________________ volts.
10. Calculate the peak current Ip, through the load resistor R7, from the current measured in step 7.
Ip = _________________ mAmp.
11. Calculate the average value of the full-wave rectified output voltage across the load resistor R7.
This is given by:
Vav = Idc*R7 = ___________ volts.
12. Calculate the output dc voltage across the load resistor, R7 by using.
Vdc = 0.636*Vp
Vdc = _________________ volts.
Vav = _________________ volts.
13. Refer to the step 8 for the average value of the output dc voltage develop across R7. Subtract this
value from the dc value of the input voltage Vdc obtained in step 12. The difference of these two
values is the average voltage drop across the diode in the forward direction.
Vdiode = ________________ volts.
14. Refer to v-I characteristic obtained in experiment-1. Determine the voltage drop across the diode
which corresponds to the dc current through the diode, obtained in step7. How would you this value
with the value of Vdiode obtained in step 13. See question at the end.
Vdiode(cal) = ________________ volts.
15. While the coupling switch is in DC position. Draw the waveforms displayed on the oscilloscope in
Scope chart shown on the next page. Indicate the peak , rms and the average values of the full-wave
rectified output voltage waveform as well as the input voltage waveform.

130
Input Voltage Waveform:
Vp(a-b) = _____________ volts.
Peak to Peak Voltage Vp-p = _____________ volts.
Vrms = _____________ volts.
Average Voltage Vav = _____________ volts.

Output Voltage Waveform:


Vp = _______________ volts.
Vav = _______________ volts.
Vrms = _____________ volts.
16. Connect probes of the oscilloscope across the diodes, (the ground lead at the node between diodes
and M3). Don’t connect the ground lead of the second probe. Draw the waveforms and measure the
peak values. These are the PIV values across the diodes.
PIV D1 = ________________ volts.
PIV D2 = ________________ volts.

131
CONCLUSION:

Please attach the separate sheet.

1. Define and calculate the efficiency of the full-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig.3.1. Assume ideal
diodes.
2. Define and calculate the percentage ripple in the full-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig.3.1. Assume
ideal diodes.
3. Why is the value of PIV in full-wave rectifier circuit, twice that for the half-wave circuit.
4. Compare the values obtained in step 8, 11, and 12. Explain your answers.

5. A separate typed report including the analysis of the results of the experiment must be attached.

Name: ________________

Registered No.:________________

Teacher’s Initials: ________________

Date Performed: ________________

132
Experiment -14 TO DEMONSTRATE AND VERIFY THE USE OF FOUR
DIODES IN A BRIDGE AS A FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER

PURPOSE: To clarify the concept what is the disadvantage of full wave rectifier in

terms of expensive and occupies large space and introducing new type of rectifier
known as bridge rectifier which does not need center-tapped transformer

EQUIPMENT:

1. Experimental panel

2. Oscilloscope /Signal Generator/ Breadboard

3. Connecting leads and VOAM/DMM

TO STUDY THE USE OF FOUR DIODES IN A BRIDGE AS A FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER


THEORY REFRESHER

Another circuit variation of a full-wave rectifier is the bridge circuit of Fig. 1 This circuit
requires four diodes for full-wave rectification but the transformer used, is not center-tapped and
develops a maximum voltage of only Vm. In addition, the diode PIV rating is also one half of the two-
diode full-wave rectifier circuit.

Fig. 1 Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit and its waveform


In considering how the circuit operates, one must understand how the conduction and
conduction paths are formed during each half of the ac cycle. During the positive half-cycle the voltage
across the transformer secondary (measured from top to bottom) is positive and the conduction path is
through D1 - R - D3. Since these diodes are forward biased, the voltage across each is zero volts and
the peak voltage from the transformer appears across load resistor, R, at this time.

133
At the same time the voltage polarity is such as to reverse bias diodes D2 and D4. Therefore, the non-
conduction path during the positive half-cycle, will be through D2 - R - D4. Load resistor has a voltage
developed across it by the current flowing through the conducting path of the diodes D1 and D3.

SUMMARY
To summarize the operation of the bridge rectifier circuit, the addition of two extra diodes above the
number in the center-tapped full-wave circuit provides improvement in two main factors. First, the
transformer used need not to be center-tapped, requiring a maximum voltage across the transformer of
Vm. Second, the peak inverse voltage (PIV) required of each diode is half that for the center-tapped
full-wave circuit, only Vm. For low values of secondary maximum voltage the center-tapped full wave
circuit will be acceptable, whereas for high values of maximum secondary voltage, the use of the
bridge to reduce the maximum transformer rating and diode PIV rating is usually necessary.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig-2 and see that the current indicated on M3 is within the range
of the meter. The voltmeter should also read properly.

Fig.2 Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit.


2. Connect one of the probes of the oscilloscope across the output terminals (ac input to the circuit)
of the voltage transformer. Connect the second probe across the load resistor R7. Leave the ground
lead of one of the probes open.

3. Turn on the oscilloscope and set the channel selector to “CH2” and type of coupling to “DC” and
view, the beam across R7, with voltage sensitivity set to 5 volts/cm.

4. If the beam is displaying full-wave rectified output, your circuits is functioning properly, and then
go ahead with the rest of the procedure. Otherwise go to step one and recheck your connections.

5. Set the function and range switch of VOAM at 10 volts ac.


134
6. Use VOAM to measure the ac voltage Vac across the output terminals of the voltage transformer.
VOAM will read the rms value of the ac voltages.

Vac = __________ volts.

7. Measure the dc current Idc, indicated on milliammeter M3. This will be equal to the average value
of the full-wave rectified current, Iav, through the load resistor R7.
Idc = __________ mAmps.

8. Measure the dc voltage Vdc, across the load resistor, R7, indicated by the dc voltmeter M4, on the
experiment panel.
Vdc = __________ volts.

9. Calculate the paek value, Vp, of the ac input voltages measured in step 6.
Vp = __________ volts.

10. Calculate the peak current Ip, through the load resistor, R7, from the current measured in step7.
11. Calculate the average value of the full-wave rectified output voltage across the load resistor, R7,
also check that this value corresponds with the value of Vdc obtained in step 8. This is given by
equation given in observation and calculations.
Vav (out) = __________ volts.

12. Calculate the dc value (half-cycle average) of the input voltage from the maximum value of Vp by
equation given in observation and calculations.
Vdc (in) = __________ volts.

13. Refer to step 8 for the average value of the output dc voltage developed across R7. Subtract this
value from the dc value of the input voltage Vdc obtained in step 12.
Vdiff = __________ volts.

14. Refer to the v-I characteristic obtained in Experiment-1. Determine the voltage drop across the
diode which corresponds to the dc current through the diode, obtained in step 7.
Vdiode = __________ volts.

135
15. While the coupling switch is in DC position. Draw the waveforms displayed on the oscilloscope
in Scope Chart shown. Indicate the peak, rms and average values of the full-wave rectified output
voltage waveform as well as the input voltage waveforms on scope chart-1.

Input Voltage Waveform:


Vp = __________ volts. Vp-p = __________ volts.

Vrms = __________ volts. Vav = __________ volts.

Output Voltage Waveform:


Vp = __________ volts. Vav = __________ volts. Vrms = __________ volts.

16. Connect the probes of the oscilloscope at the nodes between D1 & D2 and D3 & D4. Connect the
ground lead of one of the node between D2 & D3. Draw the waveforms and measure the peak values
on scope chart-2. These are the PIV values across the diodes.
PIVD2 = __________ volts.

PIVD3 = __________ volts.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:

Vav = Idc X R7 & Vdc = 0.636 X R7

GRAPH:

Scope Chart-1
136
Scope Chart-2

CONCLUSION:
1. Compare all the rectifier circuits. Discuss merits and demerits of each. Assume ideal diodes.
2. Draw the conduction and non-conduction paths during positive as well as negative half-cycles of
the input ac signals.
3. Why is the value of PIV in a bridge rectifier circuit, half than that of the center-tapped full-wave
circuit? Compare the values obtained instep 8, 11, 12? Explain your answer.

4. A separate typed report including the analysis of the results of the experiment must be attached.

Name: ________________

Registered No.:________________

Teacher’s Initials: ________________

Date Performed: ________________

137
Experiment – 15 TO DEMONSTARTE THE OPERATION OF SIMPLE
CAPACITOR FILTER AND RC FILTER FOR HALF WAVE
AND FULL WAVE RECTIFIERS

PURPOSE:
1. To investigate the voltage behavior across the reactive components in a series resonant
circuit,

EQUIPMENT:
1. Experimental panel

2. Oscilloscope /Signal Generator/ Breadboard

3. Connecting leads and VOAM/DMM

THEORY REFRESHER
A rectifier circuit will convert an ac voltage of zero average value to one that has a non-zero
average. However, the resulting pulsating dc voltage is not pure dc. This pulsating dc source can be
used to charge a battery or to run a dc motor but it cannot be used as a voltage supply circuit for tape
recorder or radio. The pulsating dc will result in a 50 or 100 Hz signal appearing in the output, thereby
making the operation of the overall circuit poor. For these applications, as well as for many more, the
output dc will have to be much “smoother” than that of the pulsating dc obtained directly from half
wave or full wave rectifier circuit.

SIMPLE CAPACITOR FILTER

A popular filter circuit is the simple capacitor filter shown in Figure-1. The capacitor is connected
across the output of the rectifier and the dc output voltage is available across the capacitor.
The purpose of obtaining the dc voltage is to provide this voltage for use by other electronic circuits,
which then constitute a load on the voltage supply. Hence there will always be some load on the filter.

138
Fig. 1 Rectifier circuit block diagram.
Figur 2 (a) shows the rectifier output voltage of a full wave rectifier circuit before the signal is filtered
and Figure 2 (b) shows the resulting waveform after the capacitor is connected across the rectifier
output. The filtered output voltage has a dc level with some ripple voltage riding on it.

Fig. 2 Rectifier circuit with waveforms.


Figure 3 shows the output waveform approximated by straight line charge and discharge.

Fig. 3 Rectifier approximated output waveform.

139
From the analysis of the above voltage waveform the relations given in observations and calculations
column can be obtained.

RC FILTER
It is possible to further reduce the amount of ripple across a filter capacitor while reducing the dc
voltage by using an additional RC filter as shown in Figure 4. The purpose of the added network is to
pass as much of dc component of the voltage across C1 and to attenuate as much of the ac component
of the ripple as possible.

Fig. 4 RC filter.
The operation of RC filter for full wave rectifier circuit as shown in Figure 5. Since the rectifier feeds
directly into the average current drawn from the supply. The voltage developed across capacitor C1 is
then further filtered by the resistor capacitor (R, C2) providing an output voltage having less percentage
of ripple than that across C1.

Fig. 5 RC filter.

140
The load, represented by resistor RL, draws dc current through resistor R with an output dc voltage
across the load being somewhat less than across C1 due to the voltage drop across R.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 6.

Fig. 6 RC filter.

2. Set the VOAM at 10 volts ac range and measure the input ac voltage.
Vac = __________ volts.

3. Measure and record the dc load current as indicated by M3.


Idc = __________ mAmps.

4. Calibrate the oscilloscope, observe the input and output waveforms and draw the waveforms in
graphs-1 (a) & (b).
Vo = __________ volts.

5. Measure the peak to peak ripple voltage as accurately as possible and record.
Vr (p-p) = __________ volts.

6. Calculate the ripple voltage using the formula and compare the result with step-5.
Vr (p-p) = __________ volts.

7. Replace R6 of 1K ohms with R8 of 470 ohms and measure peak to peak ripple.

Vr (p-p) = __________ volts.

141
8. Connect C9 in parallel with C2 and measure peak to peak ripple.

Vr (p-p) = __________ volts.


9. Connect the circuit per Figure 7.

Fig. 7 Rectifier.
10. Repeat procedure steps 5, 7 and 8 for the circuit of figure-7 and record the results in Table 1

11. Connect the circuit per figure-8.

Fig. 8 RC filter with rectifier.

12. Measure and record the dc voltage at point-A and point-B.


A = __________ volts. B = __________ volts.

13. Measure the peak to peak ripple voltage at point-A and point-B with oscilloscope and record.
A = __________ volts. B = __________ volts.

14. Calculate the dc voltage and ripple voltage at point-A and point-B and compare with the measured
voltage and give your comments.

142
OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:
From the analysis of Figure-3 voltage waveform the following relations can be obtained

𝐕r(p−p)
Vdc = Vm -
2

𝑰𝑑𝑐 𝑽𝑑𝑐
Vr(p-p) = =
2𝑓𝐶 2𝑓𝐶𝑹𝐿

Table 1
CIRCUIT Vr (p-p) RIPPLE FREQUENCY
Step 5 Step 7 Step 8
HALF WAVE
FULL WAVE

GRAPH:

143
𝑉𝑜
Scope Chart-1

CONCLUSION:
1. A separate typed report including the analysis of the results of the experiment must be attached.

Name: ________________

Registered No.:________________

Teacher’s Initials: ________________

Date Performed: ________________

144
BEE EXPERIMENTAL PANEL COMPONENTS VALUES TABLE

CAPACITORS
RESISTORS VALUE VALUE
(POLAR)
R1 470  C1 1 f
R2 1k C2 2.2 f
R3 2.2 k C3 3.3 f
R4 5.6 k C4 4.7 f
R5 2.2 k C5 10 f
R6 10 k C6 22 f
R7 6.8 k C7 33 f
CAPACITORS
R8 1 k (NON VALUE
POLAR)
R9 5.6 k C1 0.22 f/ 220 nf
R10 10 k C2 0.47 f/470 nf
R11 1 k C3 1 f
R12 15 k C4 4 f/405 pf
R13 100  C5 2.2 f/225 pf
R14 100  C6 3.3 f/335 pf
R15 330  C7 4.7 f
R16 470  INDUCTORS VALUE
R17 680  L1 to L7 1.5 H
VARIABLE
R18 100  VALUE
RESISTORS
R19 150  VR1 2 k
R20 220  VR2 5 k
R21 270  VR3 10 k
R22 560  VR4 20 k
R23 100  VR5 50 k
R24 2.7 k VR6 100 k
R25 3.3 k VR7 470 k
R26 8.2 k SWITCHES TYPE
SPST
R27 3.9 k S1 to S6
(Single Pole Single Throw)
DPDT
R28 4.7 k S7 to S8
(Double Pole Double Throw)
Digital Wattmeter SPDT
METER M3 S9 to S10
(Center Top) (Single Pole Double Throw)
AC 120 V, 3 A DC POWER 0 to 60 V, 3 A
POWER SUPPLY (Internal) SUPPLY (external)
Digital Multimeter Digital Multimeter
METER M1 METER M2
(Left Top) (Right Top)
CIRCUIT PROTECTION Two Pole Miniature Circuit Breaker

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BEE EXPERIMENTAL PANEL BLOCK DIAGRAM

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