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An Exploration of Police Misconduct

Annotations Bibliography

Lincoln Augustin

ENG 102: First Year Composition #82392

Kandice Kardell

September 11, 2018



The amount of mass shootings and lack of education, police in the United States are

rooted in laws enforcement misconduct. I will look to explore the links between these injustices

and lack of quality police training. As kids growing up we have learned that police brutality has

been a major issue in our history. We have also learned from our peers, school teachers and class

rooms that this issue mostly has been against individuals in lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

However, as a society were not aware of everything that was going on. Due to the lack of

resources, it is very hard for us to know what is going on in the outside world. Today we as a

nation have been catch up to the situation, due to the development of technology. Since the

creation of technology, we have been able to capture everything that is going around us. Now

that the media is informing us, and people are recoding everything, we have been able to see, and

hear, a lot about the police shooting and brutalities that are going on here within this country.

This issue has been part of our culture for decades but for whatever reason I think we did not pay

attention until the last five years. The last three to five years have been very hard on the

American people due to all the killing that has been happening. Thankfully the media and

technologies for opening our eyes. However, we as society are still struggling to figure out what

has happened to cause the mass shootings and what has prevented the police officers, who are

supposed to be protecting us, from the bad guys. The goal for this paper is for me see the link

between training and police offers. Furthermore, I will be looking to see how training effects the

officer’s decision. Also, what kind of education/training they are receiving on this matter. As

part of my assignment I have selected 8 articles that I hope to give me the knowledge or material

that I need to write my paper.


Bazley, T. D., Lersch, K. M., and Mieczkowski. (2007) Officer force versus suspect resistance:

A gendered analysis of patrol officers in an urban police department. Journal of Criminal

Justice, 35, 2, 183-192. Doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.01.005.

According to this article, the interaction between police officers and communities is a nightmare.

Police shooting, and brutalism are affecting citizen in the community in many ways,

especially in the black communities. Everyone is becoming afraid of the officer because

they are wondering what the result can be for them. The focus of this article is

community relation and how better training can help officer built a strong relationship

with community they sworn to protect.

Kleider H. M., Parrott D. J., & King T. Z. (2009). Shooting behavior: How working memory and

negative emotionality influence police officer shoot decisions. Applied Cognitive

Psychology, 24, 5, 707-717. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1580.

I have picked this article for my paper because its different for the other articles. I found this

article to do be unique because it took a different part than the others. Instead of focus on

the training the author decided to take other ways by looking at what are some previous

experiences that can cause officers bad behavioral problems. The article gives us a

greater understanding other personal experiences that is affecting officer’s decision when

it come shooting and other misbehavior in the community.

Klinger, D. A. (2012) Police Training as an Instrument of Accountability. Ross-Blakley Law

Library 32 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev.111.

This article has a similar approach to one of the previous articles, but it goes more in-depth about

providing better training and programs for police officers to interact with citizens in the

community. The author believe that public agencies and police officers should be held

accountable for their actions, (Klinger). It also provided me some great information that I

can use when writing my research paper.

Lebrón, M. (2012). Neocolonial Policing in Puerto Rico. NACLA Report on the Americas,45(1),

12-16. doi:10.1080/10714839.2012.11722106.

According to the article, there was a mass unlawful activity going on in Puerto Rico in the year

2004 to 2008. Due to the unlawful misconduct that was going on, the Civil Right

Division of the U.S. Department of Justice decided to do a report/investigation to figure

out why there was so many police officers involved in criminal activities in the island. I

have chosen this article for my research paper because its cover some important

information that we all need to know. Especially about how due to lack of training or

appropriate education is affecting not just us within the Untied States but also other

citizen of other places like Puerto Rico as well.

Mcelvain, J. P., & Kposowa, A. J. (2008). Police Officer Characteristics and the Likelihood of

Using Deadly Force. Criminal Justice and Behavior,35(4), 505-521.


In this article the authors put their focus on examining the officers based on gender, race etc. The

article is also looking to see who are more quickly to shoot between female and male

officers. The fact that this article takes a different stand than the rest of them makes a

great resource for my paper. It will give me the opportunity to looks deeper than just

training and education.


Paoline III, E. A., & Terrill, W. (2007). Police Education, Experience, and the Use of

Force. Criminal Justice and Behavior,34(2), 179-196. doi:10.1177/0093854806290239.

This article focuses more on the different level of education for each officer and how that can

impact their decision making when it come misconduct or unlawful events. The article

also points out how less training officers are quickly to fire at unarmed persons compare

to a more education, experience and training officer are. This article gives me a great deal

of details that will be useful for my paper.

Untied States. Department of Justice, Civil Right Division. (2017)

Investigation of the Chicago Police Department. Washington, D.C.: Department of

Justice.1 online resource (ii, 161 pages). Doi:991048192260403841.

The main goal of this article was to do a deep investigation on the Chicago Police Department to

figure if there was a “pattern or practice of unlawful conduct,” (Department of Justice,

Civil Right Division). To better understand the matter the (CRD) looked at every possible

way that could help them find what is causing the officers to use deadly force against

citizen on the streets. Due to this investigation being in Chicago, it makes it very more

important due to the amount of crimes that happened there. This article provided us with

a great deal of information that will be useful for my paper.

Storey, J. E., Gibas, A. L., Reeves, K. A., & Hart, S. D. (2011). Evaluation of a Violence Risk

(Threat) Assessment Training Program for Police and Other Criminal Justice

Professionals. Criminal Justice Behavior, 38, 554-563. doi:10.1177/0093854811403123.

When looking for a cause or reason of why police officers do what they do, we need to look at

all the possibility. Which is the reason why this article will play key role into my paper.

The article dose not just look at police officers but every profession within the criminal

Justice field to see how lack of train affect them on a personal level.