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*“Primarily Confidential”  * No such thing as civ or admin action against 

[PRIOR TO CIVIL SERVICE ACT]  members of judiciary for official acts so long as in 
2 kinds:  good faith, legal, within legal rules; because they 
1) Pres. declares it   cannot be the absolute insurers of the correctness 
2) Nature of the fxns between apptee and apptg  of their own rulings 
authority which insures freedom of intercourse or   
confidential matters of state   *LIABILITY OF MINISTERIAL OFFICERS; kinds 
(PAGCOR v. Salas, 2002)   1) NON-FEASANCE :​​ neglect or refusal to perform 
[NOW]​​ Nature of position determines whether it is  2) MISFEASANCE :​​ failure to use degree of care, 
primarily confidential   skill, and diligence 
  3) MALFEASANCE :​​ no legal right to do; abuse of 
*Pardon​​ does not ipso facto restore a committed  power 
felon to public office; has to undergo the usual   
procedure required for a new appointment.  *Violations of RA 1379 are within the jurisdiction of 
Pardon does not extinguish civil liability.  the Sandiganbayan ​(Garcia v. Sandiganbayan, 
*Retirement benefits​​ are construed liberally in  -proceeding for forfeiture = CIVIL; axn in rem 
favor of the retirees   
  *Unauthorized expenditure if: 
LIABILITIES OF PUB OFCRS  1) Use of gov’t funds/prop 
  2) Violation of law/regulation 
*Doctrine of Official Immunity   3) Ofcr directly responsible 
1) W/in scope of authority    
-note diff. b/n State Immunity   
-Acts claimed to have been performed in   
connection w/ ofcl. Duties but ultra vires/bad faith  *Term ​- period designated which pub ofcr may 
*Doctrine of Non-Suability of the State  Tenure​​ - actually in office/held position 
GR: State cannot be sued w/o its consent   
EXC:   *Holdover capacity ​: office has a fixed term and 
1) Compel pub ofcr to do act required by law  incumbent is holding unto the succeeding term. 
2) Secure judgment that ofcr impleaded must  They remain in office until successors elected and 
satisfy by himself  qualified. (Ratio: Law abhors vacuum in public 
3) State immunity will result in injustice  ofc, so holdover is allowed) 
4) Gov’t violated its own laws   
  *Resignation ​- formal renunciation or 
*CRIM AND CIV CASES ARE DIFF AND INDIE FROM  relinquishment of pub ofc. 
ADMIN CASES.  Elements: 
-Imposition of admin penalty will not bar  1) Clear Intent to relinquish 
conviction under crim law  2) Overt Act of relinquishment 
  + Acceptance of proper authority (until 
*Substantial evid in admin cases  accepted, offer to resign is revocable) 
*CSC not bound by tech. Rules of procedure  *Occupying 2 gov’t ofcs and performing fxns of 
  both is allowed as long as there is no 
*For mems of Cong., privileged from arrest if  incompatibility 
offense is punishable by not more than 6 yrs.   TEST:​​ W/er one ofc is subordinate to the other, in 
-Cannot be held liable for speech/debate in  the sense that the office has the right to interfere 
Cong  w/ the other (​Public Interest Center v. Elma, 2006) 

*Ex officio capacity​​ - act done in an ofcl  -Suspension ​pending appeal​​: Entitled to 
character/consequence of office; w/o any other  compensation for pd. Of suspension 
appt or authority than that conferred by ofc (This  -2 reqts: 
is an exception to the rule on multiple ofcs, the  1) Respondent exonerated 
other being provided by the Consti)  2) Suspension unjustified 
*Axn for ​quo warranto​​ must be within 1 year  *Preventive suspension by OMB​​ immediately 
* Midnight appointment ban​​ only applicable to   
Pres/Acting Pres of PH  *OMB has admin disciplinary authority under Art. 9, 
  Sec. 12 of Consti and RA 6770 (OMB Act) 
-Congress: ⅔ concurrence, not more than 60 days  *Abolition of ofc must be legal and done in good 
-Judiciary: 70 yo; admin sanction  faith 
*Temporary appts​​ have no tenure, bec there is no  *Under the Admin Code, Pres. may reorganize any 
removal  branch/agency of Exec. Dept. 
* Nepotism ​- prohibition in appointments made in  *CESB​​ autonomous, but administratively attached 
favor of a relative up to the 3rd degree of  to CSC. 
consanguinity of the ff:   
> Apptg authority  *Recall​​ - an elective ofcl removed during term by 
> Recommending authority  vote of people at election called for such purpose 
> Chief of bureau/office  (refers to ELECTION ITSELF) 
-> mmediate supervisor of apptee  -May only be done once during term for loss of 
EXC: ​Marriage after appt  confidence 
Exempt:  -Must NOT be within 1y r from date of ofcl’s 
-Confidential EEs, AFP, teachers, physicians  assumption from ofc, nor 1 yr immediately 
  preceding elections 
*In admin investigation of local elective ofcls   
-No investigation within 90 days before election  ELECTION LAW 
-Preventive suspension not beyond 60 days   
-Decision w/in 30 days of investigation  *What is an election? 
-Appeal w/in 30 days of receipt of decision  -A plurality of votes of a valid constituency is 
-Appeal does not stay decision from being final  sufficient to elect 
and executory [execution pending appeal]  -not necessary that a majority of the whole body 
  of voters in the district participated. 
*Decisions exonerating an employee of the Civil   
Service may be appealed by the apptg authority  *COMELEC’s juris in election contests 
who has disciplinary power over the said EE. ​(​CSC  -Orig and exclusive if regional, provincial, or city 
v. Dacoycoy)  ofcls 
  -Appellate if municipal (RTCs) and bgy (MTCs) 
* State U Pres w/ fixed term of offfice is a  ofcls 
NON-Career Civil Service officer  -Appeal of COMELEC decision:  
-but consider acad freedom  >if municipal and bgy ofcr, FINAL and 
  EXECUTORY, cannot appeal 
*90 days max pd. for ​suspension  >if elective regional, provincial, and city 
  ofcls: appealable to ​SC 
*Rules for compensation re: Suspension   
-Suspension pending investigation ​(preventive  *COMELEC decisions in the exercise of its 
suspension)​​: no compensation  QUASI-JUDICIAL FXNS​​ are subject to ​judicial 
review ​(w/in 30 days of receipt of COMELEC 

decision, via R65 certiorari); may punish for   
contempt  *If you ​file your COC​​ as an incumbent ​appointive 
-If COMELEC decision based on its ​admin fxn​​, then  ofcl = deemed resigned, forfeited (Consti Art. 9-B, 
ordinary civl axn only  S. 2.4) ; if ​elective​​ ofcl = NOT resigned (Fair Election 
  Act, S. 14) 
*COMELEC ​decides all questions re: elections  -Distinction justified by Consti against participation 
EXCEPT THE RIGHT TO VOTE,​​ which is exclusively  by civil service EEs in political activities, pursuant to 
decided by the​ COURTS​​ (includes qualifications of  a professional civil service ​(Quinto v. COMELEC, 
voters, right to be registered as a voter, right to  2010)  
cast vote, and who’s included in the registry lists)   
>MTC/MeTCs for inclusion/exclusion of  *You can only ​sub a candidate​​ if s/he dies, 
voters  withdraws, or gets disqualified. Sub must be a 
  person belonging to and certified by same pol 
*Pre-Proclamation Controversies and appeals  party to replace candidate. 
from trial courts must be 1st heard by a COMELEC  -no prescribed duration of membership before 
*Election pd.​​: 90 days before election day and 30  *CANCELLING OF COC 
days after election day.   -verified pet. May be filed by person exclusively on 
  ground of ​false material representation, ​not later 
*​LIST​​ of voters - enumeration of voters in a precinct  than 25 days after filing of COC; decided after 
certified by Election Reg. Board  due notice and hearing 15 days before election 
BOOK​​ of voters - compilation of all registration   
records in a precinct  *DQ CASES BEFORE ELECTION 
  1) BEFORE ELECTION: DQ; if not resolved; refer to 
*Residence req’t for elections  Law Dept of COMELEC to PI 
-aka “domicile or legal residence; place where  2) AFTER ELECTION 
the elector makes his/her true/permanent home  a.After proclamation = dismiss case 
-temp absences will not deprive one of his  b.Before proclamation = dismissed, but referred to 
domicile and right to vote  Law Dept of COMELEC 
-to acquire a new domicile by choice:   
>residence or bodily presence in new place  *2nd placers​​ NOT winning candidate if prior 
>intent to remain (animus manendi)  candidate DQ 
>intent to abandon old domicile (animus non  EXC: 1. DQ highest # of votes + 2. Electorate fully 
revertendi)  aware of DQ but would still vote for ineligible 
*DQ to vote:   
1) Sentenced by final judgment to imprisonment  *Campaign pd 
of >1yr  -Pres/VP/Sen.: 90 days before election day 
2) Crime of being disloyal to govt (rebellion,  -HoR/province/city/municipality: 45 days before 
sedition, anti-subversion and firearms laws, crime  election day 
vs. nat’l security)   
3) Insane or incompetent persons  *Cancellation of partylist reg​​ if did not participate 
  in last 2 elections or failed to get 2% of votes in the 
*1 precinct/200 pax, daughter precinct/spin-off  last 2 elections or did not exist for at least 1 yr 
  *20% seats in HoR for party-list; term of 3 yrs 
*You can’t file COC for more than 1 ofc, but you  -if you change affiliation during term of ofc, forfeit 
can withdraw the other one before the expiration  seat. if 6 mos. Before election, not eligible for 
of pd. For filing COC  nomination as party-list rep in new pol party 
*Need a declared oath to withdraw COC   

*Who party-list represents:   
-proportional representation, marginalized and  *2 grounds under Sec. 243 re: PPC 
underrepresented, lack of well-defined  1) Illegal composition/proceeding of BOC 
constituencies  -as per composition you can challenge if the 
+must factually and truly represent the sector  Board has an IT-capable person (look at his/her 
*Only​ COMELEC en banc​​ has power to  4 grounds under illegal proceedings  
postpone/reset election/declare failure of  1. lack of venue, 2. terrorism, 3. precipitate 
election  canvassing, 4. Lack of notice to BOC mems 
  2) (NOW IRRELEVANT) issues re: preparation, 
*FAILURE OF ELECTION:   transmission, receipt, custody and appropriation 
1. no election, 2. suspended, 3. held but after  of returns, NOT ballots 
voting and during the preparation and   
transmission of returns (force majeure, violence  *COMELEC and BOC cannot look beyond face of 
,terrorism, fraud etc)   election returns 
-3 reqts:    
1) No voting took place  *Electoral protest ad cautelam ok with PPC to 
2) Votes castaffect result of election  preserve ballot boxes’ integrity. Not deemed 
3) Cause is force majeure, violence, terrorism, or  abandoned. PPC only not viable anymore when 
fraud  proclamation based on a ​complete​ canvass. 
*Canvass proceedings are administrative and  (Agbayani v. COMELEC) 
summary in nature   
*If elections = tied, drawing of lots; ”favored by  -suspends running period in w/c to file election 
luck”  protest or quo warranto proceedings (same as 
  DQ or cancelled COC) 
*Failure to assume offic​​e = fails or refuses to take   
oath of ofc w/in 6 mos. of proclamation  *Remedy ​afte​​r winning candidate ​proclaimed​​ : 
-any question/matter affecting the BoC  *ELECTION PROTEST 
proceedings or any matter raised under ​Secs. 233  -contest between defeated and winning 
(election returned delayed, lost, or destroyed), ​234  candidates on ground of fraud/irreg in the casting 
(material defects in returns), ​235 ​(tampered), and  and counting of ballots or in the preparation of 
236​​ (discrepancies in election returns) of OEC in  returns 
re: preparation, transmission, receipt, custody, and  -Who obtained the plurality of legal votes? 
appreciation of election returns  -Rules of CivPro apply suppletorily 
-may be raised by any candidate/pl party etc.   
-​NOT​​ an axn for annulment of election results or  *PET FOR QUO WARRANTO 
declaration of failure of elections  -raises disloyalty or ineligibility of winning 
(ex. Reopening of ballot boxes should be an  candidate; unseats resp. From ofc 
election protest, not a PPC and other questions re:  GR​​: precludes filing of PPC 
appreciation of votes and conduct of balloting);  EXC: 
not a DQ case  1. BOC improperly constituted 
-summary in nature but ​cannot​ be ex parte  2. QW not proper remedy 
-limited to challenges against BOC re: election  3. What was filed was not qw or protest, but pet. 
returns  to annul proclamation (error in preparation of 
-COMELEC has exclusive jurisdiction for local  returns) 
elective ofcls  4. QW made w/o prejudice to PPC or made ad 
EXC: Pres, VP, Sen, HoR (what is allowed is  cautelam 
correction of manifest errors in cert of canvass or  5. Null and void proclamation 
election returns)   

-Local ofcls = COMELEC, if sp. Civ axn, CA or SC   
-Mun/Bgy ofcls = RTC and MTC; COMELEC has   
appellate juris   
-9 mems: 3 SC + 6 Cong; SC if GAD   
-Pres/VP: SC as PET   
-ROC 39, S. 2 may be applied to election contests   
a. Motion by prevailing party w/ notice to adverse   
b.Good reason =public interest, shortness of term,   
length of time pending   
c.Order granting execution must state reasons   
*Effect of ineligibility/death of candie receiving   
maj of votes   
GR:​​ does not entitle 2nd highest winner but makes 
re-election a nullity. Permanent vacancy is 
created, must be filled by succession. 
EXC:​​ ​Labo v. COMELEC, ​where electorate was 
fully aware of candie’s qualification and said to 
have waived validity and efficiency of their votes; 
so 2nd highest candidate deemed elected. 
*Election offenses 
-2 aspects: 
1) Criminal = guilt 
2) Electoral = dq from office 
-Penalty: Imprisonment of 1 yr but not more than 6 
yrs, no probation, DQ to pub ofc, no suffrage; for 
pol party fine of P10k… 
-prescribe in 5 yrs from date of commission; period 
commences on date of judgment where final and 
*Effect of conviction and pardon on eligibility 
-Temp absolute DQ 
>only during term of sentence 
-Perpetual sp. DQ 
-Perpetual/temp special DQ of right to suffrage 
-Plenary pardon granted after election but before 
date fixed by law for assuming ofc = removes DQ 
prescribed by law